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UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
MANILA CAMPUS

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR


GASOLINE AND LPG
COMBUSTION ENGINEERING
NME 426-ME 1

Submitted by:
BITANG, MARC LESTER IAN PAUL M.
20130133786

Submitted to:
ENGR. DIOSDADO DOCTOR
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. DEFINITION OF TERMS……………………………………………………………………...3

II. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………….4

III. OBJECTIVE ……………………………………………………………………………………4

IV. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ……………………………………………………….…5-6

V. TRANSITION OF GASOLINE TO LPG…………………………………………………....6-7

VI. LPG AS FUEL………………………………………………………………………………….8

VII. TYPE OF ENGINE CYCLE USED ……………………………………………………….8-9

VIII. SOLUTION …………………………………………………………………………………9-19

IX. ANALYSIS ………………………………………………………………………………20 -21

X. OTHER TOPICS TO CONSIDER

 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS………………………………………………,,…………21-22

 COST ………………………………………………………………………….……22-23

 EMISSION ……………………………………………………………………….…23-24

IX. CONCLUSION…………………………………………..…………………………………….25

X. REFERENCE …………………………………………………………………………………26

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I. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Bore - The inside diameter of the Cylinder is known as the Bore and it is measured in
millimeter (mm).
Stroke - It is the distance traveled by the Piston from one of its dead center position to
the other dead center position.
Dead Center - They corresponds to the positions occupied by the piston at the end of its
Stroke, where the center line of the Connecting Rod and Crank are in the same straight
line.
Camshaft - Rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper time in the engine
cycle, either directly or through mechanical or hydraulic linkage
Carburetor - Venturi flow device which meters the proper amount of fuel into the air flow
by means of a pressure differential. For many decades it was the basic fuel metering
system on all automobile (and other) engines. It is still used on lowcost small engines like
lawn mowers, but isuncommon on new automobiles.
Clearance Volume - It is the Volume included between the Piston and the Cylinder Head
when the Piston is at its Top Dead Centre in Vertical Engines and inner Dead Centre in
Horizontal Engines.
Compression Ratio - It is the ratio of the total Cylinder Volume to the Clearance Volume.
For Petrol Engines the value of Compression Ratio is varied from 5:1 to 9:1 and for Diesel
Engines varies from 14:1 To 22:1.
Fuel injector - A pressurized nozzle that sprays fuel into the incoming air on SI engines
or into the cylinder on CI engines. On SI engines, fuel injectors are located at the intake
valve ports on multipoint port injector systems and upstream at the intake manifold inlet
on throttle body injector systems. In a few SI engines, injectors spray directly into the
combustion chamber.
Piston Speed - It is the distance traveled by the Piston in one minute. The piston
Speed=2LN meter/min. If the R.P.M. of Engine Shaft=N and length of Stroke=L meter.
Gasoline - is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as
a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained
by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Also called
Petrol.
LPG - LPG is cleaner than petrol and diesel because it is composed of predominantly
simple hydrocarbon compounds. Compared with emissions from vehicles on petrol and
diesel, emissions from LPG-driven vehicles contain lower levels of hydrocarbon
compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, air toxics, and particulates.
Piston - The cylindrical-shaped mass that reciprocates back and forth in the cylinder,
transmitting the pressure forces in the combustion chamber to the rotating crankshaft.

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II. INTRODUCTION

Fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it
releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. Fuel is used widely
on factories or plants to produce power on the place. The pollution of our planet is one of
the major problems nowadays. European commission gave warnings to some EU
countries, because they are not able to achieve goals for the greenhouse gas emissions
reduction, to which they were obligated by signing the Kyoto protocol. The data for
Slovenia shows, that the 2010 greenhouse gas emissions in comparison with year 1990
were increased for 4,7% instead of being reduced for 8%. 21% of all greenhouse gas
emissions in EU are produced by traffic (without international air and sea traffic) and its
shear is growing from year to year. Around 12% of emissions are produced by personal
vehicles. EU gives away yearly subventions for the traffic in amount between 270 and
290 billion euros and almost half of that amount is intended for road traffic, which is one
of the less appropriate ways of transport. One of the most appropriate solutions for the
existing technology is conversion of vehicles to run on LPG. This paper presents
comparative emission study of converted Otto engine with the high class LPG system.

Also, fuel is used for other processes like cooking, or for industrial processes,
illumination that comes with combustion and others. But this research focuses on fuel
combustion, specifically LPG and Gasoline. First, Fuel combustion, also known as
burning fuel, is the process by which a fuel is consumed in an exothermic chemical
reaction that releases a great deal of heat and light. Usually, the fuel that is combusted is
a hydrocarbon that reacts with the oxygen in the air, to release energy. A significant
amount of heat energy is required to trigger such a reaction. This research will show you
the comparison and difference of the solved temperatures pressures and efficiencies of
LPG compared to Gasoline, and what can be used to save money for practicality. LPG
has been used as a fuel for vehicles as early as 1912 but only at a limited scale. The fuel
became more popular in the 1970s and the 1980s when territories such as the US and
Canada tried to reduce their dependence on crude oil. In the 1990s, the increased
demand of the fuel is driven by rising environmental concerns.

III. OBJECTIVE

 To determine which of the two (Gasoline vs LPG) is more efficient.

 To know what can be used for low cost manufacturing.

 To determine the advantages of converting gasoline to LPG.

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IV. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Let us consider the use of liquefied natural gas in two types of internal combustion
engines: gasoline and diesel. The focus is only on the basic principles of structural design
and engines running on LPG. Standard fuels for internal combustion engines are petrol
and diesel. The main advantage of the liquefied gas before them is purity, because
liquefied gas is very low on sulfur, no lead, oxides of other metals, aromatics and other
impurities. Especially it concerns lead, which is added to improve the anti-knock
properties as tetraethyl that clogs spark plugs. Sulfur is also a potential atmosphere
poisoner, being released into the atmosphere together with the combustion products.
LPG eases engine start in the cold season, provides a smooth and steady burning inside
the cylinders of the engine workspace. The fact that the combustion of liquefied gas
usually does not pollute and explains greater engines’ durability using liquefied gas
compared to engines running on gasoline or diesel fuel, as in the first case, a much less
soot and carbon deposits are there on the inner surface of the cylinder. Engines running
on LPG have a lower cost. In many countries, LPG is subject to little or no tax, although
overall vehicle fuel is considered as one of the best income tax.
Besides engines, which can be translated into the liquefied gas, engines available
on the market are designed to work only on such gases. Among them should be called
small motors for indoor use where, thanks to their work a less degree of ventilation is
required (forklifts in warehouses or ship holds, cement mixers, equipment for coal mines
and other types of intrashop and underground transport). Various types of tractors and
many other farm machineries are developed to run only on LPG.
Speaking of modifications of internal combustion engines, it is necessary to
emphasize the importance of preserving the possibility of their work where appropriate,
in the original form of fuel. The need to ensure dual fuel rises when the location of
refueling points of liquefied gas is at a considerable distance from each other.
The diesel engine cannot be fully translated into liquefied natural gas, as they are not
able to maintain stable operation of diesel cycle. When diesel fuel is injected into the
compressed air, liquefied gas mixture with air cannot be ignited like the mixture of diesel
fuel and air. Furthermore, when the fuel mixture of liquefied gas exceeds the norm, diesel
engine may begin to detonate. In this connection, launching of the diesel engine should
only be done on diesel. It can then be run on a mixture of diesel fuel with liquefied gas,
the share should not exceed a certain value. When gasoline used in engines as fuel, fuel
mixture formed in the carburetor converts the liquid fuel and air mixture into the steam
coming into the working space of the cylinder. It is important that the air-fuel mixture is
ignited at exactly the specified time. This is achieved because of the ignition spark
supplied from the high voltage power supply for a few degrees to the approach of the
piston to the top dead center at the end of the compression stroke. Avoid late ignition of
the mixture, as it leads to loss of power. Antiknock components, tetraethyl and

5
tetramethyl, are often added to gasoline engines to increase resistance to premature
ignition. When replacing gasoline with LPG, the need of antidetonators is eliminated. A
mixture of liquefied natural gas is a clean gas air, so tetraethyl or tetramethyl lead, which
are liquid, cannot be served in the form of a suspension in the gas stream. Fortunately,
most of the components of liquefied natural gas have increased antiknock qualities. It
should also be noted that the liquefied gas has much higher-octane number than the
gasoline substitutable.

V. Transition of engines from gasoline to LPG.

Transition of engines from gasoline to LPG is relatively simple, although it depends


on the size of the engine and the selected equipment. When transferring from any
gasoline engines to LPG, it is necessary to have three basic devices: fuel tank (cylinder)
for LPG, reducer-evaporator and carburetor. Fuel tank running on LPG car is a pressure
vessel. It is a cylindrical shaped bottle, usually situated in the car luggage.

Source: http://gazeo.com/up-to-date/news/2015/LPG-car-
Figure 1. LPG car

Liquid phase of liquefied gas goes from the fuel tank through a deep dive into her
pipe and valve set on it enters the pipeline, and from it - in the gear-evaporator, which is
usually located in the engine compartment. In the dual-fuel system of a vehicle to ensure
supply of liquefied natural gas line, a switch type of fuel instantly opens or closes the
shutoff valves of gasoline or liquefied gas. Typically, shut-off valve is used for preventing
formation of a vacuum in the manifold fuel collection and entering the fuel into the mixing
chamber before the engine starts. Fuel filter protects gear-evaporator from clogging
impurities.
Liquefied gas begins to evaporate in the central chamber of the evaporator-gear
after the engine start due to accumulated heat of the evaporator. Once it begins to
circulate through the hot water cooling system, liquid, LPG will be vaporized by heating

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in the heat exchange process. The pressure of vaporized liquid gas phase is reduced in
one or two stages at atmospheric pressure but with a conventional diaphragm type
regulator. When the two-stage pressure reduced, valve provides at ince high-pressure
fluid supply into the evaporation chamber at 83.4 kPa. After evaporation of the gas phase,
passing through the low-pressure valve expands and flows into the low pressure line
leading to the carburetor.

Source: http://gazeo.com/up-to-date/news/2015/LPG-car-
Figure 2. Installation of LPG to the car

Converted engine can be powered either with gasoline or LPG, fuel change can
easily be made by using changeover switch. If the LPG system is switched on, priority of
the LPG ECU is operating on LPG. If level in tank drops below the certain point and LPG
pressure drops, gasoline fuel injection system is automatically switched back on. The tank
installed in the back of the car contains liquid phase of LPG. Reducer or vaporizer (it
vaporizes LPG coming from the tank and reduces its pressure) is heated by the engine’s
cooling water. Vaporized phase is supplied trough filter to injectors, which supply LPG to
intake manifold of the engine. Inside the manifold it mixes with air and flows into
combustion chamber. On the intake manifold there is a pressure sensor which measures
manifold pressure and sends signal to LPG ECU. All of the LPG system’s components
are controlled by LPG ECU. It takes the injection data (start and duration of the injection
for each cylinder) directly from the engine’s original ECU, adapts them appropriately and
send them to the LPG injectors. To achieve correct LPG quantities injected in every
working point of the engine, several input data are considered: temperature of the
reducer, temperature and pressure of the LPG, intake manifold pressure and engine’s
RPMs.

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VI. LPG as a fuel for engines

Compression ignition diesel engine differs from a spark ignition in engine carburetor
is that fresh air therein is compressed to form a mixture of air and fuel vapors. The fuel is
injected in liquid form is strictly dosed in portions over a few degrees of crankshaft angle
to top dead center of the engine piston in a cycle of compression. Meaning, before it is
carried away by the flow of air to combustion. Diesel fuel ignites by reacting with highly
heated and compressed air and then combusted uniformly throughout the entire cycle of
expansion during the return stroke of the piston. To provide instantaneous ignition of
injected fuel is very important as it must then have the necessary characteristics of
ignition, usually expressed cetane number. Unfortunately, the cetane number of the
liquefied gas components are extremely low, so pure liquefied gas will not ignite when
injected instead of diesel fuel into cylinders of the diesel engine. This engine can only
work under the condition that the primary fuel is diesel and liquefied petroleum gas plays
a supporting role. The relationship between them will be determined by technical and
economic reasons.

VII. TYPE OF ENGINE CYCLE IN THE PROBLEM


 STANDARD OTTO CYCLE

Source: www.engineering-fundamentals-of-the-internal-combustion-engine-
Figure 3. ideal standard otto cycle

The cycle of a four-stroke, SI, naturally aspirated engine at WOT is shown in Fig.
2. This is the cycle of most automobile engines and other four-stroke SI engines. For
analysis, this cycle is approximated by the air-standard cycle shown in the figure. This
ideal air-standard cycle is called an Otto cycle, named after one of the early developers
of this type of engine. The intake stroke of the Otto cycle starts with the piston at TDC
and is a constant-pressure process at an inlet pressure of one atmosphere. This is a

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good approximation to the inlet process of a real engine at WOT, which will actually be
at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric due to pressure losses in the inlet air flow.
The temperature of the air during the inlet stroke is increased as the air passes through
the hot intake manifold. The temperature at point 1will generally be on the order of 25°to
35°Chotter than the surrounding air temperature. The second stroke of the cycle is the
compression stroke, which in the Otto cycle is an isentropic compression from BDC to
TDC (process 1-2). This is a good approximation to compression in a real engine, except
for the very beginning and the very end of the stroke. In a real engine, the beginning of
the stroke is affected by the intake valve not being fully closed until slightly after BDC.
The end of compression is affected by the firing of the spark plug before TDC. Not only
is there an increase in pressure during the compression stroke, but the temperature
within the cylinder is increased substantially due to compressive heating.

VIII. SOLUTION

PROBLEM 1
source: file:///C:/Users/Mark/Documents/combustion/engineering-fundamentals-of-the-internal-
combustion-engine-2k9meduettaxila-wordpress-com.pdf

A four cylinder, 2.5 liters, SI automobile engine operates at WOT on a four-stroke


air standard Otto cycle at 3000 rpm. The engine has a compression ratio of 8.6:1, a
mechanical efficiency of 86%, and a stroke to bore ratio S/B = 1.025. Fuel is gasoline with
AF = 14.6, a heating value of 44,300 kJ/kg, and combustion efficiency η c = 100%. At the
start of the compression stroke, conditions in the cylinder combustion chamber are 100
kPa and 60 °C. It can be assumed that there is a 4% exhaust residual left over from the
previous cycle. Do a complete thermodynamic analysis of this engine.

Given:

Four cylinders AF = 14.6

Fuel – Gasoline QHV = 44,300 kJ/kg

V = 2.5 L ηc = 100%

n = 3000 rpm t1 = 60 °C

rc = 8.6:1 P1 = 100 kPa

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ηm = 86% mex = 4%

S = 1.025B k = 1.35

Solution:

 For displacement volume, Vd

2.5 𝐿
𝑉𝑑 = = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟐𝟓 𝑳 = 𝟔. 𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑
4

 For clearance volume, Vc

𝑉 𝑉𝑐 +𝑉𝑑 𝑉𝑐 +0.000625 𝑚3
𝑟𝑐 = 𝑉1 = ; 8.6 = ; 𝑉𝑐 = 𝟖. 𝟐𝟐𝟑𝟕𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑
2 𝑉𝑐 𝑉𝑐

 For bore and stroke, S & B

𝜋 𝜋
𝑉𝑑 = ( 4 ) (𝐵 2 𝑆) ; 6.25𝑥10−4 𝑚3 = (4 ) [(𝐵 2 )(1.025𝐵)] ; 𝐵 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟗𝟏𝟗 𝒎

𝑆 = 1.025𝐵 = 1.025(0.0919) = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟗𝟒𝟐 𝒎

State 1:

𝑃1 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝒌𝑷𝒂

𝑇1 = 60 ℃ + 273 = 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝑲

𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 6.25𝑥10−4 𝑚3 + 8.22𝑥10−5 𝑚3 = 𝟕. 𝟎𝟕𝟐𝟒𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑

Mass of gas mixture in cylinder can be calculated at state 1. The mass within the
cylinder will then remain the same for the entire cycle.

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𝑃1 𝑉1 (100 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(0.000707𝑚3 )
𝑚𝑚 = = = 𝟕. 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟐𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈
𝑅𝑇1 𝑘𝐽
(0.287 ) (333𝐾)
𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic.

𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (100 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(8.6)1.35 = 𝟏, 𝟖𝟐𝟔. 𝟑𝟎𝟑𝟑 𝒌𝑷𝒂

𝑇𝟐 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(8.6)0.35 = 𝟕𝟎𝟕. 𝟏𝟔𝟏𝟔 𝑲

𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅𝑇2 (7.4002𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔) (0.287 ) (707.1616𝐾)
𝑘𝑔. 𝐾
𝑉2 = = = 𝟖. 𝟐𝟐𝟑𝟕𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑 = 𝑽𝒄
𝑃2 (1826.3033 𝑘𝑃𝑎)

The mass of gas mixture mm in the cylinder is made up of air m a, fuel mf, and
exhaust residual mex.
14.6
mass of air 𝑚𝑎 = (15.6) (0.96)(7.4002𝑥10−4 ) = 𝟔. 𝟔𝟒𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈

1
mass of fuel 𝑚𝑓 = (15.6) (0.96)(7.4002𝑥10−4 ) = 𝟒. 𝟓𝟓𝟒𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒌𝒈

mass of exhaust 𝑚𝑒𝑥 = (0.04)(7.4002𝑥10−4 ) = 𝟐. 𝟗𝟔𝟎𝟏𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒌𝒈

Total 𝒎𝒎 = 𝟕. 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟐𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈

State 3:For heat added during one cycle

𝑄𝑖𝑛 = 𝑚𝑓 𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝜂𝑐 = 𝑚𝑚 𝐶𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 )

𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
(4.554𝑥10−5 𝑘𝑔) (43,000 ) (1.00) = (7.4002𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔) (0.821 𝑘𝑔.𝐾) (𝑇3 − 707.1616)𝐾
𝑘𝑔.𝐾

𝑇3 = 𝟑, 𝟗𝟑𝟎. 𝟐𝟔𝟗𝟕 𝑲 = 𝑻𝒎𝒂𝒙

𝑇 3,930.2607 𝐾
𝑃3 = 𝑃2 (𝑇3 ) = (1826.3033 𝑘𝑃𝑎) ( ) = 𝟏𝟎, 𝟏𝟓𝟎. 𝟐𝟒𝟔𝟓 𝒌𝑷𝒂 = 𝑷𝒎𝒂𝒙
2 707.1616 𝐾

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State 4: Power stroke 3-4 isentropic.

1 𝑘−1 1 0.35
𝑇4 = 𝑇3 (𝑟 ) = (3,930.26097 𝐾) (8.6) = 𝟏, 𝟖𝟓𝟎. 𝟕𝟓𝟎𝟔𝑲
𝑐

1 𝑘 1 1.35
𝑃4 = 𝑃3 (𝑟 ) = (10,150.2465 𝑘𝑃𝑎) (8.6) = 𝟓𝟓𝟓. 𝟕𝟖𝟏 𝒌𝑷𝒂
𝑐

𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅𝑇4 (7.4002𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔)(0.287 )(1,850.7506 𝐾)
𝑘𝑔.𝐾
𝑉4 = = (555.581 𝑘𝑃𝑎)
= 𝟕. 𝟎𝟕𝟐𝟒𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑 = 𝑽𝟏
𝑃4

 Work produce in isentropic power stroke for one cylinder during one cycle:

−4 𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅(𝑇4 − 𝑇3 ) (7.4002𝑥10 ) (0.287 𝑘𝑔. 𝑘) (1,850.7506 − 3,930.2697)𝐾
𝑊𝟑−𝟒 = =
(1 − 𝑘) (1 − 1.35)

𝑾𝟑−𝟒 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟔𝟏𝟗 𝒌𝑱

 Work absorbed during isentropic compression stroke for one cylinder during one

cycle:

−4 𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) (7.4002𝑥10 ) (0.287 𝑘𝑔. 𝑘) (707.1616 − 333)𝐾
𝑊1−2 = =
(1 − 𝑘) (1 − 1.35)

𝑾𝟏−𝟐 = −𝟎. 𝟐𝟐𝟕 𝒌𝑱

 Net indicated work for one cylinder during one cycle:

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊1−2 + 𝑊3−4 = 1.2619 + (−0.227) = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟑𝟒𝟗 𝒌𝑱

 For heat added for one cylinder during one cyle

𝑘𝐽
𝑄𝑖𝑛 = 𝑚𝑓 𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝜂𝑐 = (4.554𝑥10−5 ) (43,000 ) (1.00) = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟓𝟖𝟐 𝒌𝑱
𝑘𝑔
12
 For indicated thermal efficiency

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 1.0349 𝑘𝐽
𝜂𝑡 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 𝟓𝟐. 𝟖𝟓%
𝑄𝑖𝑛 1.9582 𝑘𝐽

 Indicated power at 3000 RPM

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑁 1.0349𝑘𝐽 3000


𝑊𝑖 = = [(𝑐𝑦𝑙−𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒)( 𝑟𝑒𝑣/𝑠𝑒𝑐)/(2rev/cycle)] x (4 cyl) = 103.49 kw or 138.727 Hp
𝑛 60

 Mean piston speed

𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑠 0.0942𝑚 3000 𝑟𝑒𝑣


𝑈𝑝 = 2𝑆𝑁 = (2 )( )( ) = 𝟗. 𝟒𝟐 𝒎⁄𝒔𝒆𝒄
𝑟𝑒𝑣 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐

 Brake work for one cylinder during one cycle:

𝑊𝑏 = 𝑛𝑚 𝑊𝑖 = (0.86)(1.0349𝑘𝐽) = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟗 𝒌𝑱

 Brake power at 3000 RPM

3000𝑟𝑒𝑣 0.89𝑘𝐽
𝑊𝑏 = ( )(0.5 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑒/𝑟𝑒𝑣)(𝑐𝑦𝑙−𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒)(4𝑐𝑦𝑙) = 89 kw or 119.303 hp
60 𝑠𝑒𝑐

 Rate of flow into the engine

𝑚𝑎 6.6488𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔
𝑚𝑓 = = = 𝟒. 𝟓𝟓𝟒𝑿𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒌𝒈 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒
𝐴𝐹 14.6

𝑘𝑔 3000𝑟𝑒𝑣 1 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝒌𝒈
𝑚𝑓 ′ = (0.00004554 ) (4𝑐𝑦𝑙) ( )( ) = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟓𝟓𝟒
𝑐𝑦𝑙 − 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝑟𝑒𝑣 𝒔𝒆𝒄

 Brake specific fuel consumption

𝑚𝑓 ′ 0.004554 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝒌𝒈
𝑏𝑠𝑓𝑐 = = = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟓𝟏𝟐
𝑊𝑏 89 𝑘𝑊 𝑲𝒘 − 𝒔𝒆𝒄

13
PROBLEM 2
source: file:///C:/Users/Mark/Documents/combustion/engineering-fundamentals-of-the-internal-
combustion-engine-2k9meduettaxila-wordpress-com.pdf

A four cylinder, 2.5 liters, SI automobile engine operates at WOT on a four-stroke


air standard Otto cycle at 3000 rpm. The engine has a compression ratio of 8.6:1, a
mechanical efficiency of 86%, and a stroke to bore ratio S/B = 1.025. Fuel is LPG with AF
= 15.5, a heating value of 46,122 kJ/kg, and combustion efficiency ηc = 100%. At the start
of the compression stroke, conditions in the cylinder combustion chamber are 100 kPa
and 60 °C. It can be assumed that there is a 4% exhaust residual left over from the
previous cycle. Do a complete thermodynamic analysis of this engine.

Given:

Four cylinders AF = 15.5

Fuel – LPG QHV = 46,122 kJ/kg

V = 2.5 L ηc = 100%

n = 3000 rpm t1 = 60 °C

rc = 8.6:1 P1 = 100 kPa

ηm = 86% mex = 4%

S = 1.025B k = 1.35

Solution:

 For displacement volume, Vd

2.5 𝐿
𝑉𝑑 = = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟐𝟓 𝑳 = 𝟔. 𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑
4

14
 For clearance volume, Vc

𝑉 𝑉𝑐 +𝑉𝑑 𝑉𝑐 +0.000625 𝑚3
𝑟𝑐 = 𝑉1 = ; 8.6 = ; 𝑉𝑐 = 𝟖. 𝟐𝟐𝟑𝟕𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑
2 𝑉𝑐 𝑉𝑐

 For bore and stroke, S & B

𝜋 𝜋
𝑉𝑑 = ( 4 ) (𝐵 2 𝑆) ; 6.25𝑥10−4 𝑚3 = (4 ) [(𝐵 2 )(1.025𝐵)] ; 𝐵 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟗𝟏𝟗 𝒎

𝑆 = 1.025𝐵 = 1.025(0.0919) = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟗𝟒𝟐 𝒎

State 1:

𝑃1 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝒌𝑷𝒂

𝑇1 = 60 ℃ + 273 = 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝑲

𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 6.25𝑥10−4 𝑚3 + 8.22𝑥10−5 𝑚3 = 𝟕. 𝟎𝟕𝟐𝟒𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑

Mass of gas mixture in cylinder can be calculated at state 1. The mass within the

cylinder will then remain the same for the entire cycle.

𝑃1 𝑉1 (100 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(0.000707𝑚3 )
𝑚𝑚 = = = 𝟕. 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟐𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈
𝑅𝑇1 𝑘𝐽
(0.287 ) (333𝐾)
𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic.

𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (100 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(8.6)1.35 = 𝟏, 𝟖𝟐𝟔. 𝟑𝟎𝟑𝟑 𝒌𝑷𝒂

𝑇𝟐 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(8.6)0.35 = 𝟕𝟎𝟕. 𝟏𝟔𝟏𝟔 𝑲

15
𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅𝑇2 (7.4002𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔) (0.287 ) (707.1616𝐾)
𝑘𝑔. 𝐾
𝑉2 = = = 𝟖. 𝟐𝟐𝟑𝟕𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑 = 𝑽𝒄
𝑃2 (1826.3033 𝑘𝑃𝑎)

The mass of gas mixture mm in the cylinder is made up of air m a, fuel mf, and

exhaust residual mex.

15.5
mass of air 𝑚𝑎 = (16.5) (0.96)(7.4002𝑥10−4 ) = 𝟔. 𝟔𝟕𝟑𝟔𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈

1
mass of fuel 𝑚𝑓 = (16.5) (0.96)(7.4002𝑥10−4 ) = 𝟒. 𝟑𝟎𝟓𝟔𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒌𝒈

mass of exhaust 𝑚𝑒𝑥 = (0.04)(7.4002𝑥10−4 ) = 𝟐. 𝟗𝟔𝟎𝟏𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒌𝒈

Total 𝒎𝒎 = 𝟕. 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟐𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈

State 3:

 For heat added during one cycle

𝑄𝑖𝑛 = 𝑚𝑓 𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝜂𝑐 = 𝑚𝑚 𝐶𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 )

𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
(4.3056𝑥10−5 𝑘𝑔) (46,122 ) (1.00) = (7.4002𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔) (0.821 𝑘𝑔.𝐾) (𝑇3 − 707.1616)𝐾
𝑘𝑔.𝐾

𝑇3 = 𝟑, 𝟗𝟕𝟓. 𝟕𝟏𝟐𝟏 𝑲 = 𝑻𝒎𝒂𝒙

𝑇 3,975.7121 𝐾
𝑃3 = 𝑃2 (𝑇3 ) = (1826.3033 𝑘𝑃𝑎) ( ) = 𝟏𝟎, 𝟐𝟔𝟕. 𝟔𝟎𝟓𝟐 𝒌𝑷𝒂 = 𝑷𝒎𝒂𝒙
2 707.1616 𝐾

State 4: Power stroke 3-4 isentropic.

1 𝑘−1 1 0.35
𝑇4 = 𝑇3 (𝑟 ) = (3,975.7121 𝐾) (8.6) = 𝟏, 𝟖𝟕𝟐. 𝟏𝟒𝟗𝟑 𝑲
𝑐

16
1 𝑘 1 1.35
𝑃4 = 𝑃3 (𝑟 ) = (10,267.6052 𝑘𝑃𝑎) (8.6) = 𝟓𝟔𝟐. 𝟐𝟎𝟕 𝒌𝑷𝒂
𝑐

𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅𝑇4 (7.4002𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔)(0.287 )(1,872.1493 𝐾)
𝑘𝑔.𝐾
𝑉4 = = (562.207 𝑘𝑃𝑎)
= 𝟕. 𝟎𝟕𝟐𝟒𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑 = 𝑽𝟏
𝑃4

 Work produce in isentropic power stroke for one cylinder during one cycle:

−4 𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅(𝑇4 − 𝑇3 ) (7.4002𝑥10 ) (0.287 𝑘𝑔. 𝑘) (1,872.1493 − 3,975.7121)𝐾
𝑊𝟑−𝟒 = =
(1 − 𝑘) (1 − 1.35)

𝑾𝟑−𝟒 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟕𝟔𝟓 𝒌𝑱

 Work absorbed during isentropic compression stroke for one cylinder during one

cycle:

−4 𝑘𝐽
𝑚𝑅(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) (7.4002𝑥10 ) (0.287 𝑘𝑔. 𝑘) (707.1616 − 333)𝐾
𝑊1−2 = =
(1 − 𝑘) (1 − 1.35)

𝑾𝟏−𝟐 = −𝟎. 𝟐𝟐𝟕 𝒌𝑱

 Net indicated work for one cylinder during one cycle:

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊1−2 + 𝑊3−4 = 1.2765 + (−0.227) = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟒𝟗𝟓 𝒌𝑱

 For heat added for one cylinder during one cycle

𝑘𝐽
𝑄𝑖𝑛 = 𝑚𝑓 𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝜂𝑐 = (4.554𝑥10−4 ) (43,000 ) (1.00) = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟖𝟓𝟖 𝒌𝑱
𝑘𝑔

 For indicated thermal efficiency

17
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 1.0495 𝑘𝐽
𝜂𝑡 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 𝟓𝟐. 𝟖𝟓%
𝑄𝑖𝑛 1.9858 𝑘𝐽

 Indicated power at 3000 RPM

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑁 1.0495𝑘𝐽 3000


𝑊𝑖 = = [(𝑐𝑦𝑙−𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒)( 𝑟𝑒𝑣/𝑠𝑒𝑐)/(2rev/cycle)] x (4 cyl) = 104.95 kw or 140.684 Hp
𝑛 60

 Mean piston speed

𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑠 0.0942𝑚 3000 𝑟𝑒𝑣


𝑈𝑝 = 2𝑆𝑁 = (2 )( )( ) = 𝟗. 𝟒𝟐 𝒎⁄𝒔𝒆𝒄
𝑟𝑒𝑣 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐

 Brake work for one cylinder during one cycle:

𝑊𝑏 = 𝑛𝑚 𝑊𝑖 = (0.86)(1.0495𝑘𝐽) = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟎𝟐𝟔 𝒌𝑱

 Brake power at 3000 RPM

3000𝑟𝑒𝑣 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑒 0.9026𝑘𝐽


𝑊𝑏 = ( ) (0.5 )( ) (4𝑐𝑦𝑙) = 𝟗𝟎. 𝟐𝟔 𝒌𝑾 𝒐𝒓 𝟏𝟐𝟎. 𝟗𝟖𝟖 𝑯𝒑
60 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑟𝑒𝑣 𝑐𝑦𝑙 − 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒

 Rate of flow into the engine

𝑚𝑎 6.6736𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔
𝑚𝑓 = = = 𝟒. 𝟑𝟎𝟓𝟔𝑿𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒌𝒈 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒
𝐴𝐹 15.5

𝑘𝑔 3000𝑟𝑒𝑣 1 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝒌𝒈
𝑚𝑓 ′ = (0.000043056 ) (4𝑐𝑦𝑙) ( )( ) = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟑𝟎𝟓𝟔
𝑐𝑦𝑙 − 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝑟𝑒𝑣 𝒔𝒆𝒄

18
 Brake specific fuel consumption

𝑚𝑓 ′ 0.0043056 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝒌𝒈
𝑏𝑠𝑓𝑐 = = = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟕𝟕
𝑊𝑏 90.26 𝑘𝑊 𝑲𝒘 − 𝒔𝒆𝒄

19
X. ANALYSIS

Gasoline LPG
P1 100 kPa 100 kPa
P2 1 826.3033 kPa 1 826.3033 kPa
P3 10 150.2465 kPa 10 267.6052 kPa
P4 555.781 kPa 562.207 kPa
T1 333 K 333 K
T2 707.1616 K 707.1616 K
T3 3 930.2697 K 3 975.7121 K
T4 1 850.7506 K 1 872.1493 K

mm 7.4002x10-4 kg 7.4002x10-4 kg
V2 8.2237x10-5 m3 8.2237x10-5 m3
V4 7.0724x10-4 m3 7.0724x10-4 m3
mair 6.6488x10-4 kg 6.6736x10-4 kg
mfuel 4.554x10-5 kg 4.3056x10-5 kg
mexhaust 2.9601x10-5 kg 2.90601x10-5 kg
W3-4 1.2619 kJ 1.2765 kJ
W1-2 -0.227 kJ -0.227 kJ
Wnet 1.0349 kJ 1.0495 kJ
Qin 1.9582 kJ 1.9858 kJ
𝜂𝑡 52.85% 52.85%
Wi 103.49 kW 104.95 kW
Up 9.42 m/sec 9.42 m/sec
Wb 0.89 kJ 0.9026 kJ
Wbp 89 kW 90.26 kW
mf’ 0.004554 kg/sec 0.0043056 kg/sec
bsfc 5.12x10-5 kg/kW-S 4.77x10-5 kg/kW-s

Table 1 Comparison of Results of Gasoline vs LPG

20
In this table, it shows that most of the results are identical with each other. If they
differ from one another, they only just differ slightly. The data that was in the problem can
be used to convert gasoline to LPG. Because with the efficiency of both gasoline and
LPG are close with one another. We can say that there will be no big discrepancy on the
converting procedure. We can also see above the economic analysis. It says, based on
the computed values that we can save up to 21 pesos when using LPG to our engine
compared to gasoline. So if we seek for practicality we should use LPG on our vehicles.
If we predict, that 12% of all emissions are produced by personal vehicles, we can easily
calculate reduction of all emissions, if LPG was used as the primary derivate for driving.
Based on the emission results it can be said, that the LPG represents a good fuel
alternative for gasoline and therefore it must be taken into consideration in the future of
personal transport. Initially it was thought that special varieties of liquefied natural gas
required for using it in vehicles, other than varieties available at the commercial market.
However, experience has shown that the standard liquefied gas for household use (GOST
20448 - 90) is suitable for this purpose, as the main parameter - octane - complies with
all regulations and standards imposed on motor fuel.

XI. OTHER TOPICS TO CONSIDER

1. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

LPG = 26.13 𝑝ℎ𝑝 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝐿𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟

Gasoline = 47.07𝑝ℎ𝑝 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝐿𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟

Savings = 20.94 php

Economically speaking, LPG powered car are ideal. Since almost 21 PHP per liter
can be saved. However, the conversion cost can be costly. The conversion of gasoline to
LPG can cost up to 200, 000 PHP depending on the system to be used. This conversion
needed thorough research since we are in a 3rd World country. LPG based car are
introduced in countries like Netherlands, Italy and USA in 1950’s, they all use these
converted cars for public uses and services. They are commonly attached to light Trucks,
taxis and buses. Countries like USA conducted their research about LPG cars to lessen
their dependence in gasoline since gasoline are on its dropping percentage over the past
years. Also, LPG can be more efficient in its performance than gasoline type and they are
off course environment friendly. LPG is used as a fuel in nearly 30 territories for more
than 4 million vehicles. These territories together consume about 10 million metric tonnes

21
of automotive LPG annually. As shown in Table 1, Italy was the country with the largest
number of LPG vehicles in 1994 while Japan consumed the largest volume of automotive
LPG in a year. Vehicles converted to use LPG can be dual-fuel or flexi-fuel. Dual-fuel
vehicles have two separate fuel systems, with only one fuel being used at a time. In
contrast, flexi-fuel vehicles have one fuel system operating on a mixture of fuels. Dual
fuel vehicles and flexi-fuel vehicles allow LPG to be used in parallel with other fuels. They
are common in Australia, the US, the Netherlands and Canada. However, the number of
these dual-fuel and flexi-fuel vehicles is not available. Details of dual-fuel and flexi-fuel
vehicles are being awaited.

2. Cost
For converting your gasoline to LPG it can cost you a lot. But according to articles, even if it
cost you a lot, it can give you benefits along you go. It can save up and make your travel distance
farther than using gasoline. trouble-free driving, according to a study in Europe he saved up to
£650 on running costs. Would I spend my own money on an LPG conversion? Yes, I would. But
I would probably go for one of the cheaper systems that have since come on the market.

Source: http://gazeo.com/up-to-date/news/2015/LPG-car-
Figure 4. comparison of LPG cost

Over the last year and 16,000 miles you can saved £800 in lower petrol bills – £650
after other costs are deducted – which means that over three years the £2,040 top-end
"Prins" system (an LPG system) installed on a Toyota Avensis 1.8 petrol estate would
have roughly paid for itself. As we can see, it benefited him a lot even if it cost him £2,000
approximately in Php it is 120k.

22
3. Emissions

Vehicle emission is a major source of air pollution especially in the urban area. To
reduce pollution, many governments would encourage the use of cleaner alternative fuel.
LPG is one of the leading alternative fuels.The advantage of LPG in terms of
environmental impact over other fuels is getting smaller because of technological
progress. The introduction of three-way catalytic convertors results in much lower levels
of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon compounds (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)
emissions from petrol-driven vehicles. The introduction of reformulated petrol and
reformulated diesel also reduce the impact of the two fuels on the environment. There
are 2 types of emissions they are emissions from petrol, diesel vehicles. First, emissions
from petrol cars. They have been dramatically reduced by the introduction of catalytic
converters, which oxidise pollutants such as CO to less harmful gases such as CO 2.
When compared to petrol cars without catalysts, catalyst cars have much lower CO, HC
and NOx emissions, at the expense of CO2 emissions, which increase due to the
oxidation of carbon monoxide to CO2.

Source: http://gazeo.com/up-to-date/news/2015/LPG-car-
Figure 5. EMISSION COMPARISON of LPG and Petrol (gasoline)

Analyzer simultaneously and continuously measures emissions of three pollutants,


CO, HC and NOx or CO2, directly from vehicle exhaust. This system incorporates three
specified NDIR analyzers and packaged sample handling system. These infrared
analyzers perform micro controlled computer operations, signal processing and quadratic

23
equation/least square linearization method for more precise data. It has a solid filter.
Automatic calibration function is used in order to avoid otherwise very complicated
calibration process. It has linear output for direct digital readout and large LED display.
Inactive time of measurements is reduced to less than two seconds. Emissions were
measured while the vehicle was on the chassis dynamometer.
LPG is cleaner than gasoline because it is composed of predominantly simple
hydrocarbon compounds. LPG is free of lead and most additives and contains very little
sulphur. Compared with emissions from vehicles on petrol and diesel, emissions from
LPG-driven vehicles contain lower levels of hydrocarbon compounds (HC), nitrogen
oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides, air toxics, and particulates in the table below.

Source: http://gazeo.com/up-to-date/news/2015/LPG-car-
Figure 6. EMISSION COMPARISON of LPG and Petrol (gasoline) and dies

24
IX. CONCLUSION

From the computations provided and the table comparing LPG to gasoline car we can
answer our listed objectives.

Now to answer our first objective, what is more efficient, we can say that base on our
computations LPG vs Gasoline type cars are almost identical in efficiency and
performance. They are similar or identical in terms of power output and torque. Therefore,
LPG cars should have similar performance to gasoline cars in climbing slopes and
travelling in mountainous areas. These 2 types of engine have lower compression ratio
which measures the extent to which the air-fuel mixture can be compressed in the cylinder
of a car engine. Usually, the higher the compression ratio, the higher is the efficiency of
the engine.

For our second objective of what can be used in low cost manufacturing between LPG
and gasoline, I would say that as of now, LPG conversion can cost us a lot. The latest
system use is in the conversion is EFI system which was developed in US. The
conversion needed cautious procedure and latest technologies for mass production. For
the EFI system it costs an additional 206,000 PHP. Also, the availability of LPG is to be
considered. LPG is a by-product of petroleum and natural gas. It can be obtained from
two sources, the refining of petroleum and the extraction of natural gas. LPG obtained
from the refining of petroleum amounts to 10% to 15% of the quantity of petroleum while
LPG obtained from the extraction of natural gas amounts to 3% of the quantity of natural
gas. The availability of LPG is more limited than gasoline, though LPG is much more
better than gasoline for its environmental advantage.

For our third objective of what has more advantage, LPG or gasoline, based from my
research, LPG has the upper hand not only in monthly to yearly cost for motorists. Since
21 PHP or more can be saved. As of now when the price of gasoline is spiking, LPG
conversion can be of tremendous help in making the country less dependent on it. But
we must be very cautious and conduct more research on it since LPG has also its
disadvantages. LPG tends to be more inflammable than both petrol and diesel because
it has a wider flammability limit. LPG is dangerous when it can accumulate in enclosed
areas such as garages. LPG is denser than air and tends to sink and accumulate. It
evaporates quickly and expands 270 times its volume in liquid state. But of course, the
use of LPG focuses its advantage in the environment. This advantage is a major help in
our planet since global warming is our main problem now. Emissions from LPG powered
cars were determined to be in an acceptable range with regard to the protection of the
environment against global warming.

25
X. REFERENCE

http://www.air-quality.org.uk/26.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel

http://www.innovateus.net/science/what-fuel-combustion

http://waset.org/publications/4297/comparative-emission-analysis-of-gasoline-lpg-
automotive-bifuel-engine

https://www.theguardian.com/money/2012/jul/13/petrol-lpg-fuel-cost-savings

http://www.glpautogas.info/documentos/11GASOLINE%20AND%20LPG%20comparison.p
df

https://www.whichcar.com.au/car-advice/petrol-vs-diesel-vs-lpg-which-fuel-is-best

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544211003549

http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr97-98/english/sec/library/967rp05.pdf

file:///C:/Users/Mark/Documents/combustion/engineering-fundamentals-of-the-internal-
combustion-engine-2k9meduettaxila-wordpress-com.pdf

http://www.ritchiewiki.com/wiki/index.php/Gasoline_Engine

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