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2015 Fifth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies

The Wireless Technologies for Smart Grid

Communication: A Review
Afshan Mulla∗ , Jaypal Baviskar† , Smith Khare‡ , Faruk Kazi§
∗§ Center of Excellence (CoE),
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai 400019, India
†‡ Department of Electrical Engineering,

Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai 400039, India

∗ afshan.m.mulla@ieee.org, † jaypal.j.baviskar@ieee.org, ‡ smith7khare@gmail.com, § fsk@vjti.org.in

Abstract—Since 2005, Smart Grid technology has revolu- infrastructure for the same and emphasizing on the deployment
tionized the electric power system industry. Researchers have of various communication protocols that support controlling
shown a lot of interest in the opportunities offered by ICT and data transmission in Smart Grid. Moreover, their main aim
(Information and Communication Technologies), to modernize
the operation of electrical networks. This is possible by de- has been to carry out the exchange of this critical information
carbonizing them as well as monitoring and controlling them over the standard protocols, in a very secure manner. The
with sophisticated communication standards. For this purpose, technologies being considered for communication in smart
merging the technologies offered by electrical and telecommu- grid are GSM, PLCC, 3G, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, GPRS, Bluetooth,
nication sector is very crucial. Various wireless communication WiMax etc. Hence, with smooth integration of energy sources
standards viz. WiMAX, ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GSM, GPRS,
UMTS etc. can be exploited to develop Smart Grid Network with modern communication technologies, it is possible to
and extend communication throughout the distributed system. build an efficient method for mitigating the issues discussed.
This paper gives a detailed comparative study of communication Researchers have been studying innovative methods for
protocols that can be implemented in this domain. It focuses establishing a reliable and real-time monitoring and controlling
on various aspects such as network spanning, data rates, power infrastructure for power delivery from smart grid substations
consumption, data security and encryption standards, data access
and spread spectrum techniques, modulation and duplexing to end-user units. Gungor et.al in [2] lists down the challenges
schemes for all the communication standards in Smart Grid. and opportunities of implementing Wireless Sensor Network
Hence by addressing all the critical issues, this paper provides (WSN) in smart grid infrastructure. It presents an inclusive
a contemporary look in the still open research areas in Smart field test study on the statistical depiction of wireless channel
Grid Communication. in different power-system environments. Further, the technical
Keywords:- Smart Grid, ICT, Monitoring and Controlling, points and design principles required for hardware and soft-
Communication Standards, GSM, GPRS, ZigBee, WiMAX, Wi- ware deployment of WSN in smart grid is discussed in [3].
Fi, UMTS, Communication Protocols, Distribution Substation,
Network establishment, power consumption, security. Specifically, radio technologies, energy-harvesting techniques,
and cross-layer design for Industrial WSNs (IWSNs) have
I. I NTRODUCTION been discussed. Whereas, the after steps of installation i.e
The need to revolutionize the existing electrical power grid analyzing and identifying failures are elaborated in [4]. It
in order to meet the growing demand for electricity, began uses Petri net (PN) for capturing the modeling details of
in early 2000. For many years there has been absolutely no the protection system for studying malfunctioning in data
change in the basic structure of the grid. This has led to transmission in smart grid. Local Distribution Companies
deficiencies in automation system and analysis, slow responses (LDCs) are incorporating sophisticated metering and two-way
from switches, absence of sensing and controlling systems, communication, mechanizing technologies to their distribution
equipment failures, energy storage issues, lack of communi- systems [5]. All this implementation requires thorough knowl-
cation in grids, greenhouse gas emission problems etc [1]. To edge of all the available communication protocols.
top it all there has been serious concern pertaining to network In this paper, the comparative study of various wireless
congestions leading to blackouts, by more than 40 years. technologies is illustrated in detail. All the important factors
Hence, with a view to suggest a solution to these problems for comparison are incorporated in the study. The paper is
a new concept of Smart Grid has emerged. organized as follows; Section II gives a brief overview of the
In the field of electrical power systems, Smart grid is defined wireless technologies available for Smart Grid communication
as an intelligent infrastructure integrating power generation, along with their pros and cons. It proposes the basic grid
power distribution, and modernizing interconnection between infrastructure. Section III presents a comparative analysis of
power substations to consumer-end systems, by secure means. various communication standards being considered in smart
Several researchers all over the world have been analyz- grid. Whereas, Section IV emphasize on the layered archi-
ing industrial and commercial consumer demand curve for tecture of smart grid . Section V concludes the paper by
electricity, providing real-time billing information, installing summarizing the overall study.

978-1-4799-1797-6/15 $31.00 © 2015 IEEE 442

DOI 10.1109/CSNT.2015.146
II. W IRELESS T ECHNOLOGIES FOR S MART G RID Alliance in 2002, specifically designed for control and sensor
C OMMUNICATION networks. It restricts the data rate to 250 kbps in the global 2.4-
Unlike the conventional power systems, contemporary sys- GHz Industrial, Scientific, Medical (ISM) band. ZigBee pro-
tems are more advanced and enriched with various features vides self-organized, multi-hop, and reliable mesh networking,
which allows ease of operation.Smart grid is one such area along with long battery life. Hence it facilitates low complexity
where efforts have been initiated since a decade ago to and low cost of deployment. It is thus suitable for automation
modernize the conventional power grid and to facilitate the and control applications, as its primary aim includes energy
seamless operation of the electricity delivery system even in and power monitoring, building and home automation, home
harsh environment, reducing the probability of failures. The area network, smart lightning control and remote meter reading
typical implementation of Smart Grid infrastructure is depicted etc. The U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology
in Fig.1. (NIST) [7] [10] has described ZigBee Standard and ZigBee
Smart Energy Profile (SEP) [2], [12] as the most suitable
communication standards for smart grid residential network
domain. In ZigBee implemented integrated smart meters,
Smart Home Automation System (HAS), Home Area Network
(HAN) [11] or in any automation system, ZigBee Coordinator
manages network configuration, exchange of information and
packet routing. ZigBee SEP facilitates reliable communication
and enables user to control and monitor the real-time energy
1) Advantages: ZigBee is operated in ISM band of 2.4
GHz, having 16 no. of channels each with 5MHz of bandwidth.
Ultra low power consumption upto 0dBm (1mW) extends
the battery life over a year. Also data rates (40-250Kbps)
and range (1 to 100m) provided are suitable for control
and automation purpose. This makes ZigBee a indispensable
Fig. 1. Smart Grid Communication Infrastructure technology for smart grid implementations. This technology
supports low complexity, mobility, low cost of deployment,
The task of converting power grid to smart grid is not robustness, low bandwidth requirements [12], self organizing
possible without the incorporation of suitable wired or wireless capability, operation within an unlicensed spectrum, easy
technology for enabling communication across the grid. One network implementation and configuration. Moreover, ZigBee
of the report released by National Institute of Standard and standard is more immune to attacks, since it has inbuilt 128 bit
Technology (NIST) presents framework for smart grid interop- AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) algorithm and it uses of
erability standards [7] and provides generalized view of several Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) as multiple access
wired and wireless communication technologies, that can be technique.
implemented for smart grid. 2) Disadvantages: As ZigBee is operated in unlicensed
Initially, when the wireless technologies were relatively new, ISM band network, coexistence is the main issue. It coexists
they had slow rate of acceptance in electrical and power with other technologies such as IEEE 802.11 wireless local
industries. It was because of the following issues; [6] area networks (WLANs), WiFi, Bluetooth [9]. It was found
• Primarily, practical data rates were low that Wi-Fi has the most significant effect on ZigBee through-
• Unavailability of well defined and standard interface put. Statistically, it causes 10% reduction in throughput of
• Protocols were vulnerable to various attacks ZigBee. But, it has been claimed that ZigBee interference has
• Interference related issues an insignificant effect on Wi-Fi throughput [10] [9]. Also,
• Threat to security being compromised devices such as microwave ovens and cordless telephones
• Limited product availability can cause interference with ZigBee. Hence along with low
Several amendments have carried out in existing standards processing capabilities and small memory size; interference
and all these issues were solved at certain level, for estab- lays constraint on ZigBee for practical implementations. But,
lishing a trusted standard for reliable communication. Now-a- with suitable energy efficient routing strategy, interference
days, wireless technologies are proving their dominance over detection and avoidance schemes; ZigBee technology can
wired ones, due to their remarkable pros [8] [9]. Hence we coexist with minimum interference and can provide reliable
are confining our discussion to the implementation of suitable communication with long battery life.
wireless technology for Smart Grid.
B. Bluetooth over IEEE 802.15.1
A. ZigBee over IEEE 802.15.4 Bluetooth is a standard designed for short-range wireless
ZigBee is a low data rate and ultra low power consump- radio systems to be configured as Wireless Personal Area
tion wireless communication technology developed by ZigBee Network (WPAN). It can be used to replace cables for

computer peripherals such as mouse, keyboards, joysticks and Strength (RSS) is low. [14] Hence today’s WiMAX technology
printer.There are two connectivity topologies defined i.e. the has various advantages viz. seamless communications, low cost
piconet and scatternet. Piconet is a type of connection that is of deployment, well developed security protocols, appropriate
formed between two or more Bluetooth-enabled devices such bandwidth, high data rates, long network span and scalability.
as modern cell phones or PDAs. Whereas, scatternet is the 2) Disadvantages: The primary disadvantage of WiMAX
number of interconnected piconets that support communica- is the expense of dedicated hardware required for WiMAX
tion between more than 8 devices. All these features enables frequencies, which make it too costly to implement for small
bluetooth to be implemented in smart grid application like scale deployment. WiMAX frequencies above 10 GHz can
home area network and home automation. not penetrate through the obstacles, [6] and hence for AMI
1) Advantages: It uses FHSS as an access technique and application it cannot be implemented in urban areas. Since
has in-built RC-4 algorithm. Hence, it provides a reliable and the lower frequencies and unlicensed ISM band are already
secure communication. Though the bluetooth provides less crowded, leasing it from third party remains the only solution.
network span, its major advantage is that it operates on low But eventually, it will also add up to the cost of deployment.
power. Moreover, no dedicated transmitter is required as it is
embedded in cellular phones and facilitates easier exchange of D. WLAN over IEEE 802.11
data. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) over IEEE 802.11
2) Disadvantages: Network span provided by bluetooth is provides uninterrupted communication to user at higher data
confined to 100m. Though the coverage can be increased by rates. It allows multiple user to access the service [6] without
using scatternet configuration, but there exists limitation on interfering much with the coexisting technologies; the use of
number of nodes that can be served by the scatternet. Hence, spread spectrum technologies such as Direct Sequence Spread
increasing the coverage area is a challenging task in bluetooth. Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
(FHSS) and access technique viz. Carrier Sense Multiple
C. WiMAX over IEEE 802.16 Access- Collision Avoidance (CSMA-CA) have made it pos-
Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access sible. IEEE 802.11a was the first standard in WLAN. In 1999
(WiMAX) technology is one of the major wireless broadband further amendments were carried out by Wireless Ethernet
technology. It is mainly intended for Wireless Metropolitan Compatibility Alliance (WECA) to bring interoperability [18]
Area Network (WMAN) . It is part of IEEE 802.16 series, amongst IEEE 802.11 products of various vendors. The efforts
started with an aim to achieve worldwide interoperability have resulted into formation of ubiquitous Wireless-Fidelity
for microwave access. The long distance coverage and standard over 802.11b, that became famous with acronym Wi-
very high data rates are main objectives of WiMAX. Fi. Under WLAN project many standards have been developed
Basically, it provides data rate of 70Mbps and coverage of as depicted in Table IV. [13], [18] Though IEEE 802.11a
50Km[13]. The range is different for Line Of Sight (LOS) provides data rates up to 54Mbps but is operated on 5.8GHz
and Non LOS application. Mobile WiMax makes use of licensed frequency band. Wi-Fi operates on 2.4GHz ISM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) frequency band with DSSS modulation, yielding maximum
air interface to increase the performance in the Non Line data rate of 11Mbps. Further the use of Orthogonal Fre-
of Sight environment. [13] The bands which are dedicated quency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) [18] in packet based
for fixed and mobile communication are; 3.5 and 5.8GHz communication has enhanced data rates up to 54 Mbps on
for fixed and 2.3,2.5 and 3.5GHz for mobile communication. ISM band. This formed the base for enhanced Wi-Fi over
It has bandwidth of 1.25-20MHz and 128,256 channels 802.11g. Further, Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
respectively. WiMax systems provide broadband access technology is introduced to form IEEE 802.11n standard
services efficiently at longer distance and hence known as to achieve data rates up to 600 Mbps. IEEE 802.11i was
’Last Mile’ technology. WiMAX technology is therefore developed as a more secure standard. Though coverage area
an alternative to wired technologies such as cable modem, provided by WLAN is just 100m but it is suitable in medium
Digital Subscriber Link ( DSL) and T1/E1 links. range smart grid applications like remote monitoring, Home
1) Advantages: The long distance coverage and sufficiently Area Network (HAN), distribution protection systems and
high data rate formulates WiMAX suitable in Automatic Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI).
Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for [6] wireless meter reading. 1) Advantages: WLAN operates in two modes viz. Ad-Hoc
WiMAX network can be used to build real-time pricing mode and Infrastructure mode which provides great flexibility
models based on real-time energy consumption without human for application specific deployment. The key advantage of
intervention. Moreover, a reliable two-way communication can WLAN is load balancing of the network [6] which optimizes
be established using WiMAX for fast outage detection and the network performance. Moreover, it provides enhanced data
restoration which will result in improvement of power supply rates from 54-600Mbps with use of Multiple Input Multiple
reliability. Another crucial feature of WiMAX is the use of Output (MIMO) technology. The security specific standard
adaptive modulation technique for optimizing the performance viz IEEE 802.11i is developed using Advanced Encryption
at desired Signal to Noise ratio (SNR). It facilitates efficient Standard (AES) to enhance the security [6] in wireless LANs.
operation even in harsh environment where Received Signal Ability to operate in mesh networking mode and use of multi-

hop routing can significantly increase the coverage in urban viz. GPRS by integrating it’s electricity meter with it. Verizon
and rural areas. WLAN provides secure and reliable commu- and SmartSynch smart grid solutions are exploiting 3GCDMA
nication over a network facilitating high data rates, mobility network, whereas Telenor with Cinclus technology is exploit-
of devices, easy installation and cost effective deployment. ing the use of UMTS [16] for smart grid communication.
2) Disadvantages: Though the network span of WLAN 1) Advantages: Exploitation of cellular communication for
can be increased using mesh topology, it adds up to routing smart grid has an inherent advantage of availability of well de-
complexity. As the packets have to pass through each node; veloped communication infrastructure. Therefore, users don’t
an extra overhead is required which causes reduction in have to incur extra cost infrastructure framework required for
bandwidth utilization. Moreover, in smart grid applications smart grid. Also on-air privacy and security would not be
such as Home Area Network (HAN) or Advanced Metering compromised as cellular technologies have in-built security
Infrastructure (AMI) the crucial metering information has to algorithms [13] viz (A3, A5, A8) algorithms in GSM, Token
be passed through every access point. This requires strong based security in UMTS, SSD in CDMA. Cellular networks
encryption techniques for data security. Hence, widespread have sufficient bandwidth for handling huge amount of data
coverage area like cellular technologies is a challenging task generated by smart grid application. Also data rates provided
in WLAN, especially in urban areas. Also, if mesh network by different standards viz 9.6 Kbps in GSM, 115 Kbps in
is implemented then network capacity, fading and trade- GPRS and 0.384-2 Mbps in UMTS, is sufficient for various
off between reliable and flexible routing will be the major smart grid applications such as HAN, Smart Metering etc.
challenges faced, [6] along with the interference and network Moreover, cellular technologies have 100% penetration in rural
coexistence. and urban areas; hence widespread coverage is guaranteed. It
also facilitates low cost of deployment, better data security
E. Cellular Network Communication and authentication and appropriate data rates.
The explosive growth in cellular communication can be 2) Disadvantages: Limitations of cellular technologies are
seen from past few decades. Spearheaded by Global System exploited when some critical application needs continuous
for Mobile (GSM) system, the cellular technology has been availability of communications. As cellular network perfor-
improving in terms of data rates and coverage and leaning mance is user dependent in densely populated area, it is not
towards the upcoming 4G and 5G standards. After 1G, GSM desirable to use the network for other applications. Since,
had formed concrete base for cellular communication by the cellular network is shared by many users;in peak hours
providing real time voice and SMS service over a circuit probability of network congestion increases. This results in
switch network[15]. degradation of performance in smart grid end application.
Further, the GPRS standard had built on top of GSM for Sometimes in real-time applications, hard deadlines can be
providing data access feature to user, yielding data rate of missed resulting into catastrophic events. Unlike private net-
115 Kbps. To satisfy the never ending demands of user, under work and emerging WSN standards, availability of the network
3GPPP program 3G standards viz. UMTS (WCDMA) and is not guaranteed in harsh environmental conditions and nat-
CDMA2000 were developed; yielding data rates up to 2Mbps ural calamities. Hence, reliability of cellular communication
with maximum throughputs. Now, 4G technology is on the becomes questionable in such situations.
verge of occupying the market and soon will revolutionize the
already existing systems by transferring voice and data over III. C OMPARATIVE S TUDY OF VARIOUS W IRELESS
Inter Protocol (IP). It promises data rates more than 100Mbps. T ECHNOLOGIES FOR S MART G RID C OMMUNICATION
Since, cellular technologies posses already existing well The different wireless technologies are mainly characterized
developed infrastructure, they can be efficiently used for by the range of operation, maximum data rate and other per-
Smart Grid communication without adding up to the cost of formance metrics such as power consumption, on-air privacy,
deployment. Hence 2G, 2.5G, 3G, and Long Term Evolution security in data communication, network node acquisition
(LTE) can be used for smart metering deployments over a wide time etc. Table I [12] below illustrates performance metrics
coverage. Mostly power stations are situated far away and need of wireless technologies and provides detailed comparison
to be communicated. They generate large amount of data viz. among, short range viz. ZigBee, Bluetooth; Medium range
electrical parameters, meter readings etc. In order to process viz. Wi-Fi; Long range viz. WiMAX and cellular technolo-
such huge amount of data, high data rates are required along gies (GSM,GPRS,UMTS). The key differences between these
with large network span. In such situations cellular technology wireless technologies are listed.
serves as the backbone for smart grid communication. In fact,
commercially such ventures have already been started. IV. I MPLEMENTATION OF W IRELESS TECHNOLOGIES IN
Vehbi C. Gungor et. al [12] have provided detailed survey S MART G RID L AYERED A RCHITECTURE
of various companies who are using GSM, GPRS, CDMA, In Smart grid communication, the coverage area and end
WCDMA and UMTS technologies for smart grid communi- application are the crucial factors which decide the wireless
cation. Telenor, Telecom Italia, China Mobile, Vodafone are technology to be implemented along with other supportive
on the way to use their GSM network for smart metering technologies. On the basis of coverage area, the communi-
communications. Itron SENITEL has exploited the use of 2.5G cation infrastructure can be divided into Home Area Network

(HAN), Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area influence the application area in Smart Grid. This paper
Network (WAN).These architectures [11], [19] when imple- illustrates the various wireless technologies such as WiMAX,
mented together are known as three layer architecture. The ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GSM, GPRS and UMTS along with
implementation of wireless technology in such communication their pros and cons with respect to smart grid. Further, it
network scenario along with supportive topologies is elabo- illustrates the layered architecture for smart grid communi-
rated in this section (refer Fig.8). cation, where diverse technologies can be deployed for better
performance. Hence, this paper provides a better understanding
for implementation of any particular wireless technology as
per the application spectrum in smart grid.
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Standard WiMAX ZigBee Bluetooth WiFi GSM GPRS UMTS

Application Lsat Mile Monitoring Cable Web, Email, Audio Call, Data Service Video calls
Focus Broadband and Replace- Video SMS on GSM mobile
Access Control ment Internet
Smart Grid Wireless Automation, Automation Distribution AMI,HAN AMI,HAN Monitoring for
Potential Automatic Remote HAS Protection Demand Demand Remote
Application Meter Reading Load Automation Response Response[12] Distribution
(WMAR)[6] Control HAN,HAS AMI,HAN [12] [6]
IEEE 802.16 802.15.4 802.15.1 802.11 GSM1900 Virtual Circuit Composite
Standard a/b/g Packet Switch CDMA,TDMA
Technology/ Broadband LR-WPAN WPAN WLAN 2nd 2.5 3rd
Generation (MAN) Generation Generation Generation
Range Long distance Short Range Short Range Middle Range Long Range Long Range Long Range
Categorized Technology Technology Technology Technology Technology Technology Technology
Frequency 10-66GHz* 868/915 MHz; 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz; 900- 900- 1.92-1.98GHz
Band 2-11GHz** 2.4 GHz 5GHz 1800MHz 1800MHz 2.11-2.17GHz
Number of 128,256 1/10 ;16 79 14 125 125; 12
Channels 512;1024 (2.4GHz) (900MHz) 1000!!
Technique Scheme (Centralized)
Technique FDD
Technique 16-QAM CCK; DSSS,
64-QAM [13] CCK,OFDM [13]
Encryption 128-bit AES, 40-bit RC4 128-bit AES, 128-bit RC4, A5 and A8 Token based, Token based
3-DES, EAP block cipher block cipher stream cipher Algorithm WAP,IPSec Security
Maximum 30 Mb/s- 250 Kb/s 1 Mb/s 54 Mb/s 9.6 Kb/s- 115.2 Kb/s 0.384Mb/s-
Data Rate 50 Mb/s 14.4 Kb/s 02 Mb/s
Nominal 10-50Km; 10 - 100 m 10 - 100m 100 m 0.5-35Km 0.5-35Km 0.1-10Km
Range 1-5Km
Channel 1.25-20 MHz 0.3/0.6 MHz; 1 MHz 22 MHz 200KHz 200KHz 5MHz
Bandwidth 2 MHz
Data AES CMAC 16-bit CRC 16-bit CRC 32-bit CRC 3-bit CRC 3-bit CRC ANSI-41,SS7
Protection MD-5 with 1/2 with 1/2
HMAC Convolution Convolution
Max Number 1 more than 8 32 7cells/cluster 7cells/cluster 1-7cells
of Cell Nodes 65000 9,12,13!* 9,12,13!*
Node Acqui- 100ms 30ms 3s 2s Depends On Depends On Depends On
sition Time GOS GOS GOS
Node Wake- 100ms 15ms 3s 1s NA NA NA
up Time
Network Point to Star, Star, Star multipoint to multipoint to multipoint to
Topology Multipoint; Mesh, Piconet, Topology multipoint multipoint multipoint
multipoint to cluster-tree Scatter-net
Power High Power Low Power Low Power Medium Power High Power High Power High Power
Categorized Technology Technology Technology Technology Technology Technology Technology
Power 100mW-10W 3.16μW 1-10mW 31.6-100mW 0.5-2W 0.5-2W 600mW
Consumption 20-40dBm -1mW 0-10dBm 15-20dBm 27-33dBm 27-33 dBm 27.78dBm
[17] -25 to 0dBm

HAS: Home Automation System, HAN: Home Area Network, AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure, CDMA: Code-Division
Multiple Access, TDMA: Time-Division Multiple Access, MAN: Metropolitan Area Network, LR-WPAN: Low-Rate Wireless Personal
Area Network, WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network, CSMA-CA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access-Collision Avoidance, OFDMA:
Orthogonal Frequency Devision Multiple Access, SOFDMA: Scalable-OFDMA, DSSS: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
FHSS: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum, TDD: Time-Division Duplexing, FDD: Frequency-Division Duplexing, AMC: Adaptive
Modulation Coding, QPSK: Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying, QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation,O-QPSK: Offset-Quadrature
Phase Shift Keying, GFSK: Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying, CCK: Complementary Code Keying,GMSK: Gaussian Mask-Shift Keying
AES: Advanced Encryption Standard, DES: Data Encryption Standard, EAP: Extensible Authentication Protocol,RC4: Rivest Cipher4
WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy, WAP: Wireless Application Protocol, IPSec: Internet Protocol Security,CMAC: Cipher Based Medium
Access Control, MD-5: Message Digest-5 Algorithm, HMAC: Hash Message Authentication Code, CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check
ANSI-41: IS-41 Cellular Communication Protocol, SS7: Signaling System no.7, GOS: Grade Of Service
Asterics: *Line of Sight (LOS),**Non Line of Sight(NLOS),!!Logical Channels, !*Standard Number of cells in Cluster