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# Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics

Unit I

1. Similarity - Velocity
2. Similarity - Pressure Drop
3. U - tube Manometer
4. Manometer Connected between Two pipes

Unit II

5. Flow Direction
6. Siphon
7. Capillary Tube Viscosity Measurements
8. Frictional Losses
9. Frictional Losses - with fittings

Unit III

## 10. Venturi - Power required

11. Venturi - Coefficient
12. Orifice Size
13. Pitot tube
14. Rotameter
15. Rectangular Weir

Unit IV

## 16. Frictional Losses through a Packed Column

17. Air flow through packed bed
18. Regenerative Heater packed with cubes
20. Pressure drop through catalyst tower

Similarity - Velocity

Water at 20oC (viscosity = 1 cp) flows through a smooth straight pipe A of inside
diameter 4 cm at an average velocity of 50 cm/sec. Oil flows through another pipe B
of inside diameter 10 cm. Assuming similarities, calculate the velocity of oil through
pipe B. Specific gravity of oil is 0.8 and its viscosity is 2 cp.

Data:
A:
Diameter of A = 4 cm
Velocity of fluid in A = 50 cm/sec
Density of fluid in A = 1 g/cc

1
Viscosity of fluid in A = 1 cp
B:
Diameter of B = 10 cm
Density of fluid in B = 0.8 g/cc
Viscosity of fluid in A = 2 cp
Formulae:

## i.e. NReA = NReB

Calculations:
NReA = NReB
Therefore,
4 x 50 x 1 / 1 = 10 x VB x 0.8 / 2
200 = 4 VB
VB = 200/4 = 50 cm/sec

## Similarity - Pressure Drop

A geometrically similar model of an air duct is built 1:30 scale and tested with water
which is 50 times more viscous and 800 times denser than air. When tested under
dynamically similar conditions, the pressure drop is 2.25 atm in the model. Find the
corresponding pressure drop in the full-scale prototype.

Data:
Dimensions of the model = 1/30 times the dimensions of prototype
Viscosity of fluid in the model = 50 times the viscosity of fluid in prototype
Density of fluid in the model = 800 times the density of the fluid in prototype
Formulae:

## Inertial forcem / Inertial forcep = Pressure forcem / Pressure focep

= Viscous forcem / Viscous forcep -------------(1)
Pressure force = (2fLv2 / D)D2 (i.e. = frictional pressure drop x area) ---------(2)

From 1,
NRem = NRep

Calculations:
NRem = NRep
1 x vm x 800 / 50 = 30 x vp x 1 / 1
vm = 1.875 vp

## Pressure force ratio = (2fm x 800 x 1 x vm2 / 1) x 12 / ((2fp x 1 x 30 x (vm / 1.875)2 /

30) x 302)
= 1600fmvm2 / 512fpvm2
=3.125fm/fp

2
f = 0.079 (Dv/)-0.25
fm/fp = (1 x vm x 800 / 50)-0.25 / (30 x (vm/1.875) x 1 / 1)-0.25 = 16-0.25/16-0.25 =
1

## Pressure ratio = 3.125 x 302 / 12 = 2812.5 (i.e. pressure = pressure force/area)

Pressure drop of the prototype = 2.25/2812.5 atm = 0.0008 atm = 81.06 N/m2

U-tube Manometer

## A U-tube manometer filled with mercury is connected between two points in a

pipeline. If the manometer reading is 26 mm of Hg, calculate the pressure difference
between the points when (a) water is flowing through the pipe (b) air at
atmospheric pressure and 20oC is flowing in the pipe. Density of mercury = 13.6
gm/cc Density of water = 1 gm/cc Molecular weight of air = 28.8

Data:
Manometer reading (h) = 26 mm Hg = 0.026 m Hg
Density of mercury (m) = 13.6 gm/cc
Density of water = 1 gm/cc
Molecular weight of air (MW) = 28.8
Temperature of air = 20 o C = 293 K
R = 8314 J/(kmol.K)
Formulae:

## For simple U - tube manometer,

P1 - P2 = p = (m - )gh.

## Ideal Gas law

PV = n RT
Molal density
n/V = P/(RT)
Mass density(R) = Molecular weight x molal density

Calculations:

##  = 28.8x 101325/(8314 x 293) = 1.2 kg/m3

p = (m - )gh = (13600 - 1.2) x 9.812 x 0.026 = 3469.2 N/m2

## A U - tube differential mercury manometer is connected between two pipes X and Y.

Pipe X contains carbon tetra chloride (Sp.gr. 1.59) under a pressure of 103 kN/m 2
and pipe Y contains oil (Sp.gr. 0.8) under a pressure of 172 kN/m 2. Pipe X is 2.5 m
above pipe Y. Mercury level in the limb connected to pipe X is 1.5 m below the

3
centerline of pipe Y. Find the manometer reading as shown by a centimeter scale
attached to it.

Data:

## Fluid in pipe X = carbon tetra chloride

Density of Carbon tetra chloride = 1.59 x 1000 kg/m3
Px = 103 kN/m2
Fluid in pipe Y= oil
Density of Carbon tetra chloride = 0.8 x 1000 kg/m3
Py = 172 kN/m2

Formula:
P = gh
Principle:
Pressure at the same level in a continuous body of static fluid is equal.

Calculations:
Equating the pressure at the two legs of the manometer at OO':

## For the left hand leg pressure at O = Po

= Px + (2.5 + 1.5) x 1590 x 9.812 + a x 13600 x 9.812
N/m2

For the right hand leg pressure at O' = Po' = Py + (1.5 + a) x 800 x 9.812 N/m2
Px + (2.5 + 1.5) x 1590 x 9.812 + a x 13600 x 9.812 = Py + (1.5 + a) x 800 x
9.812

## 103000 + 62404.32 + 133443.2 x a = 172000 + 7849.6 x a + 11774.4 -18370.08

= - 125593.6 x a
a = 0.146 m = 14.6 cm

## Manometer Reading = 14.6 cm of Hg

4
Flow Direction - Determination

The pressures at two sections of a horizontal pipe are 0.3 kgf/cm 2 and 0.6 kgf/cm2
and the diameters are 7.5 cm, and 15 cm respectively. Determine the direction of
flow if water flows at a rate of 8.5 kg/sec. State your assumptions.

Data:
P1 = 0.3 kgf/cm2
P2 = 0.6 kgf/cm2
D1 = 7.5 cm
D2 = 15 cm
Mass flow rate = 8.5 kg/sec
Formulae:

 Equation of continuity 
1A1v1 = 2A2v2

 Bernoulli's equation
For the flow direction from 1 to 2,

2 2
p v p v
1  1  z  2  2  z h w  q
ρ g 2g 1 ρ g 2g 2
1 2

Calculations:

## Volumetric flow rate = 8.5/1000 = 8.5 x 10-3 m3/sec

V1 = 8.5 x 10-3/(D12/4) = 8.5 x 10-3/( x 0.0752/4)
= 8.5 x 10-3/0.00441= 1.924 m/sec

## V2 = 8.5 x 10-3/(D22/4) = 8.5 x 10-3/( x 0.152/4) = 8.5 x 10-3/0.01767

= 0.481 m/sec
P1 = 0.3 kgf/cm2 = 0.3 x 9.812 N/cm2 = 2.9436 x 104 N/m2
P2 = 0.6 kgf/cm2 = 0.6 x 9.812 N/cm2 = 5.8872 x 104 N/m2
Assuming the flow direction is from 1 to 2:

## 2.9436 x 104/1000 + 1.9242/2 = 5.8872 x 104/1000 + 0.4812/2 + h + w -q

29.436 + 1.851 = 58.872 + 0.116 + h + w -q
In the given problem work done by fluid (w) and pump work on fluid (q) are zero.

So to balance the above equation, the quantity h has to have negative values. This
is not possible.

## i.e. 58.872 + 0.116 = 29.436 + 1.851 + h

Therefore the flow direction is from the end at which pressure is 0.6 kgf/cm2 and
diameter is 15 mm to the end at which pressure is 0.3 kgf/cm 2 and diameter is 7.5
mm.

5
Flow Rate of Water through Ion-Exchange Column
Figure shows a water softener in which water trickles by gravity over a bed of
spherical ion-exchange resin particles, each 0.05 inch in diameter. The bed has a
porosity of 0.33. Calculate the volumetric flow rate of water.

Calculations:

Data:
 = 1 cp = 1 x 6.72x10-4 lb/(ft.sec)
 = 0.33
 = 62.3 lb/ft3
x = 1 ft
g = 32.2 ft/sec2
Formula:

Applying Bernoulli's equation from the top surface of the fluid to the outlet of the
packed bed and ignoring the kinetic-energy term and the pressure drop through the
support screen, which are both small, we find

g(z) = hf
hf = p/

## For laminar flow, (Blake-Kozeny Equation)

2
Δp Vsμ1  ε  Δx
 150
ρ 2 3
Dp ε ρ

Calculations:

Therefore,
Vs = 32.2 x 1.25 x (0.05/12)2 x 0.333 x 62.3 / ( 150 x (1 x 6.72x10-4) x (1 - 0.33)2
x 1)
= 0.035 ft/sec = 0.011 m/sec.

## Q = AVs = (2/12)2 x (/4) x 0.035 = 0.00075 ft3/sec = 21 cm3/sec.

Before accepting this as the correct solution, we check the NRem.

6
NRem = (0.05/12) x 0.035 x 62.3 / (1 x 6.72x10-4 x (1 - 0.33) ) = 20.2

This is slightly above the value of 10 (up to which the Blake-Kozeny Equation can be
used), for which we can safely use without appreciable error.

Flow in Siphon

A siphon consisting of a 3 cm diameter tube is used to drain water from a tank. The
outlet end of the tube is 2 m below the water surface in the tank. Neglecting
friction, calculate the discharge. If the peak point of the siphon is 1.4 m above the
water surface in the tank, estimate the pressure of fluid at the point of siphon.

Data:
Diameter of tube = 3 cm = 0.03 m

Formula:

2
p v
  z  constant
ρg 2g

## Discharge (Q) = cross sectional area x velocity

Calculations:

Applying Bernoulli's equation for the points 1 and 3, (i.e. comparing the energy
levels for the fluid in the tank surface and at the discharge point of tube)

p1 = 0 N/m2(g)
p3 = 0 N/m2(g)
z1 = 0 m
z3 = -2 m
Since the rate of fall of liquid level in the tank is almost negligible,

v1 = 0 m/sec.
Therefore,

0 + 0 + 0 = 0 + (v32 / 2g) - 2

7
v3 = (2 x 2g)0.5 = 6.265 m/sec
Q = (/4)D2 v = (/4) x 0.032 x 6.265 = 0.00443 m3/sec = 15.94 m3/hr

Applying Bernoulli's equation for the points 1 and 2, (i.e. comparing the energy
levels for the fluid at the tank surface to the peak point of siphon)

p1 = 0 N/m2(g)
z2 = 1.4 m

v2 = v3 = 6.265 m/sec (since the cross sectional area of sections 2 and 3 are the
same)
0 + 0 + 0 = p2 / (g) + 6.2652 / (2g) + 1.4
p2 / (g) = -3.4 m
p2 = -3.4 x 1000 x 9.812 N/m2(g) = -33360.8 N/m2(g)

## Capillary Tube Viscosity Measurements

A capillary tube 0.2 cm in diameter and 10 cm long discharge one liter of a liquid in
ten minutes under a pressure difference of 5 cm mercury. Find the viscosity of the
liquid using the following data:

Data:

## Diameter of tube(D) = 0.2 cm = 0.002 m

Length of pipe (L) = 10 cm = 0.1 m
Density of mercury = 13600 kg/m3
Density of oil () = 850 kg/m3
Pressure drop (p) = 5 cm Hg = 0.05 x 13600 x 9.812 N/m2 = 6672.16 N/m2
Flow rate (Q) = 1 litre/10 min = 0.001/(10 x 60) = 1.667 x 10-6 m3/sec
Formula:

Hagen-Poiseuille law (pressure drop for laminar flow is related to the flow
parameters)

4
ΔpD
Q
128μ L

Calculations:

conditions.

##  = ( x 6672.16 x 0.0024)/(1.667 x 10-6 x 128 x 0.1) =0.01572 kg/(m.sec)

= 15.72 cp

8
Frictional Losses in Pipelines

2.16 m3/h water at 320 K is pumped through a 40 mm I.D. pipe through a length of
150 m in a horizontal direction and up through a vertical height of 12 m. In the pipe
there are fittings equivalent to 260 pipe diameters. What power must be supplied to
the pump if it is 60% efficient? Take the value of fanning friction factor as 0.008.
Water viscosity is 0.65 cp, and density = 1 gm/cc.

Data:
Flow rate (Q) = 2.16 m3/h = 2.16/3600 m3/sec = 0.0006 m3/sec
Diameter of pipe (D) = 40 mm = 0.04 m
Length of pipe in horizontal direction = 150 m
Length of pipe in vertical direction (z) = 12 m
Equivalent length of fittings = 260 pipe diameters
Friction factor (f) = 0.008
Efficiency of pump () = 0.6
Viscosity of fluid () = 0.65 cp = 0.00065 kg/(m.sec)
Density of fluid () = 1 gm/cc = 1000 kg/m3
Formulae:

1. Bernoulli's equation
p1 v12 p 2 v 22
  z1    z2  h  w q
ρ1g 2g ρ 2 g 2g

## 2. Frictional losses per unit mass of flowing fluid

2fLv 2
hf 
D

3. Power required for pumping = (mass flow rate x head developed by pump)/
= (volumetric flow rate x pressure developed by pump)/

Calculations:
Length of pipe with fittings = 150 + 12 + 260 x 0.04 m = 172.4 m
Velocity = volumetric flow rate/flow cross sectional area
= 0.0006/((/4) x 0.042) = 0.477 m/sec

## Frictional losses per unit weight of fluid (h) = hf / g

= 15.69/9.812 = 1.6 m
Pump head(q) = z + h = 12 + 1.6 = 13.6 m
Pressure developed by pump = 13.6 x 1000 x 9.812
= 133443.2 N/m2

## Power required for pumping = 0.0006 x 133443.2 / 0.6 = 133.4 watt

= 133.4/736 HP = 0.181 HP

9
Equivalent Length of Fittings

Water is pumped from a reservoir to a height of 1000 m from the reservoir level,
through a pipe of 15 cm I.D. at an average velocity of 4 m/s. If the pipeline along
with the fittings is equivalent to 2000 m long and the overall efficiency is 70%, what
is the energy required for pumping? Friction factor f = 0.046 Re-0.2.

Data:
Diameter of pipe (D) = 15 cm
Average Velocity (v) = 4 m/s
Equivalent Length of pipe with fittings = 2000 m
Efficiency of pump () = 0.7

Formula:
 Bernoulli equation:
2 2
p v p v
1  1  z  2  2  z h w  q
ρ g 2g 1 ρ g 2g 2
1 2

 Frictional losses:
2
2fLv
h 
f D

f = 0.046 Re-0.2

Calculations:

## Re = Dv/= 0.15 x 4 x 1000/0.001 = 600,000

f = 0.046 x (600000)-0.2 = 0.003215
hf = 2 x 0.003215 x 2000 x 42/0.15 = 1371.73 m2/sec2

## Frictional losses per unit weight (h)= hf/g = 1371.73/9.812 = 139.8 m

Power required for pumping = mass flow rate x g x h / efficiency of pump

## Mass flow rate = volumetric flow rate x density

= velocity x cross sectional area x density
= 4 x (D2/4) x
= x 0.152 x 1000 = 70.686 kg/sec
Power required = 70.686 x 9.812 x 139.8/0.7 = 96961 watt = 138515.7 watt = 138.5
KW

## A horizontal venturi meter having a throat diameter of 4 cm is set in a 10 cm I.D.

pipeline. Water flows through the system and the pressure differential across the
venturi meter is measured by means of a simple U-tube manometer filled with
mercury. Estimate the flow rate when the manometer reading is 30 cm. Assume C v
= 0.98. If 10% of the pressure differential is permanently lost, calculate the power
consumption of the meter.

10
Data:

## Diameter of pipe (Da) = 10 cm = 0.1 m

Diameter of throat (Db) = 4 cm = 0.04 m
Manometer reading (hm) = 30 cm of Hg
Venturi coefficient (Cv) = 0.98
Permanent pressure loss = 10 % of the pressure differential measured
by the manometer.
m = 13.6 g/cc = 13.6 x 10-3 kg/m3
 = 1 g/cc = 1000 kg/m3
Formulae:

## Velocity at the throat

Cv 2(Pa  P )
b
V 
b 4 ρ
1β

Where
 = Db / Da
The pressure difference measured by the manometer
Pa - Pb = (m - )ghm
Power consumption of the meter = volumetric flow rate x permanent pressure loss

Calculations:

## Pa - Pb = (13600 - 1000) x 9.812 x 0.3 = 37089.4 N/m2

 = 0.04/0.1 = 0.4
Vb = (0.98/(1-0.44)0.5) x (2 x 37089.4 / 1000)0.5 = 0.993 x 8.613 = 8.553 m/sec

## Cross sectional area of throat = Db2/4 = x 0.042 / 4 = 0.00126 m2

Volumetric flow rate = 8.553 x 0.00126 = 0.01078 m3/sec = 10.78 lit/sec
Permanent pressure loss = 0.1 x 37089.4 = 3708.94 N/m2
Power consumption of the meter = 0.01078 x 3708.94 = 40 watt

## Coefficient of Discharge of Venturi Meter

The rate of flow of water in a 150 mm diameter pipe is measured with a venturi
meter of 50 mm diameter throat. When the pressure drop over the converging
section is 100 mm of water, the flow rate is 2.7 kg/sec. What is the coefficient of the
meter?

Data:

## Diameter of pipe (Da) = 150 mm = 0.15 m

Diameter of throat (Db) = 50 mm = 0.05 m
Pressure drop (Pa - Pb) = 100 mm of water = (0.1/10.33) x 101325 N/m2
= 980.9 N/m2
Mass flow rate = 2.7 kg/sec

11
Formulae:

## Velocity at the throat

Cv 2(P  P )
a b
V 
b 4 ρ
1β

Where  = Db/Da

Calculations:

Volumetric flow rate = mass flow rate / density = 2.7 / 1000 = 0.0027 m 3/sec

Velocity at the throat = Volumetric flow rate / cross sectional area of throat
= 0.0027 / (Db2/4) = 0.0027 / ( x 0.052/4) = 1.375 m/sec

Therefore,

Orifice Sizing

## Brine of specific gravity 1.2 is flowing through a 10 cm I.D. pipeline at a maximum

flow rate of 1200 liters/min. A sharp edged orifice connected to a simple U-tube
mercury manometer is to be installed for the purpose of measurements. The
maximum reading of the manometer is limited to 40 cm. Assuming the orifice
coefficient to be 0.62, calculate the size of the orifice required.

Data:
Density of brine () = 1.2 x 1000 kg/m3 = 1200 kg/m3
Diameter of pipe (Da) = 10 cm = 0.1 m
Maximum flow rate (Q) = 1200 liters/min = 1.2 m3/min = 0.02 m3/sec
Maximum manometer reading (hm) = 40 cm = 0.4 m of Hg
Density of manometric fluid (m) = 13600 kg/m3
Orifice coefficient (Co) = 0.62
Formulae:

## Velocity at the orifice

Co 2(Pa  P )
b
V 
b 4 ρ
1β

Where

 = Db/Da
Db = diameter of orifice
Da = diameter of pipe
For the U-tube manometer,
Pa - Pb = (m - )ghm

12
Calculations:

Therefore,

## Vb = 0.62 x ( 2 x 48667.5 / 1200 )0.5 = 5.584 m/sec

Cross sectional area of orifice = volumetric flow rate / velocity at the orifice
= 0.02 / 5.584 = 0.00358 m2

## Pitot Tube for Flow Measurement

A Newtonian fluid having a viscosity of 1.23 poise, and a density of 0.893 gm/cm3,
is flowing through a straight, circular pipe having an inside diameter of 5 cm. A pitot
tube is installed on the pipeline with its impact tube located at the center of the pipe
cross section. At a certain flow rate, the pitot tube indicates a reading of 8 cm of
mercury. Determine the volumetric flow rate of the fluid.

Data:
Viscosity of fluid () = 1.23 poise = 0.123 kg/(m.sec)
Density of fluid () = 0.893 gm/cm3 = 893 kg/m3
Diameter of pipe (D) = 5 cm = 0.05 m
Manometer reading (hm) = 8 cm of Hg = 0.08 m of Hg
Formulae:

## Velocity at the center of pipe

Vo = ( 2 x (Ps - Po ) /  )0.5 = ( 2 x hm x (m - ) x g /  )0.5

Calculations:

## Vo = ( 2 x 0.08 x (13.6 - 0.893) x 9.812 / 0.893 )0.5 = 4.73 m/sec

NRe = D x Vo x /  = 0.05 x 4.73 x 893 / 0.123 = 1717

Since the flow is laminar (NRe < 2100), the average velocity is given by

Vavg = Vo / 2 = 4.73 / 2
= 2.365 m/sec (velocity at the centerline is the maximum velocity)

## Volumetric flow rate = Vavg x  x D2 / 4 = 2.365 x  x 0.052 / 4

= 0.00464 m3/sec = 4.64 lit/sec

## Flow Measurement - Rectangular Weir

A rectangular weir 0.75 m high and 1.5 m long is to be used for discharging water
from a tank under a head of 0.5 m. Estimate the discharge (i) when it is used as a
suppressed weir (ii) when it is used as a contract weir. Use Rehbock equation for
estimating Cd in both cases.

13
Data:
Weir height (P) = 0.75 m
Width of weir (B) = 1.5 m
Formulae:

Rehbock equation:
1 0.08H
C  0.605  
d 1000H P

## where H and P in meter

Suppressed weir:
2 3
QC B 2gH 2
d3
Contracted weir:
2 3
QC
d3
B  0.1nH  2gH 2

## Where: n = number of contractions

Q = flow rate
Calculations:

i. Suppressed weir:

## Cd = 0.605 + 1 / (1000 x 0.5) + 0.08 x 0.5 / 0.75 = 0.66

Q = 0.66 x (2/3) x 1.5 x (2 x 9.812)0.5 x 0.53/2 = 1.034 m3/sec
ii. Contracted weir
Q = 0.66 x (2/3) x (1.5 - 0.1 x 2 x 0.5) x (2 x 9.812)0.5 x 0.53/2
= 0.965 m3/sec

## Flow Measurement by Rotameter

A rotameter calibrated for metering has a scale ranging from 0.014 m 3/min to 0.14
m3/min. It is intended to use this meter for metering a gas of density 1.3 kg/m3
with in a flow range of 0.028 m3/min to 0.28 m3/min. What should be the density of
the new float if the original one has a density of 1900 kg/m 3? Both the floats can be
assumed to have the same volume and shape.

Data:
Old:
Density of float (f)= 1900 kg/m3
Density of gas () = 1.3 kg/m3
Qmin = 0.014 m3/min

New:
Density of gas () = 1.3 kg/m3
Qmin = 0.028 m3/min

14
Formula:

2V (ρ  ρ)g
QC A f f
D 2  A 2

ρA 1   2  
f
  A1  
 

Where
Q = volumetric flow rate
A2 = area of annulus (area between the pipe and the float)
A1 = area of pipe
Af = area of float
Vf = volume of float
CD = rotameter coefficient
Calculations:

From the equation, for the same float area and float volume and the pipe geometry,
Q = k (f - )0.5

## where k is a proportionality constant

Qnew / Qold = ( ( fnew - ) / (fold - ) )0.5
i.e.
0.028 / 0 .014 = ( (fnew - 1.3) / (1900 - 1.3) )0.5
2 = (fnew - 1.3)0.5 / 43.574
(fnew - 1.3)0.5 = 87.15
(fnew - 1.3) = 7595.1
fnew = 7596 kg/m3

## Pressure Drop for Flow of Air through Packed Bed

Calculate the pressure drop of air flowing at 30 oC and 1 atm pressure through a bed
of 1.25 cm diameter spheres, at a rate of 60 kg/min. The bed is 125 cm diameter
and 250 cm height. The porosity of the bed is 0.38. The viscosity of air is 0.0182 cP
and the density is 0.001156 gm/cc.

Data:
Mass flow rate of Air = 60 kg/min = 1 kg/sec
Density of Air () = 0.001156 gm/cc = 1.156 kg/m3
Viscosity of Air () = 0.0182 cP = 0.0182 x 10-3 kg/(m.sec)

## Bed porosity () = 0.38

Diameter of bed (D)= 125 cm = 1.25 m
Length of bed (L) = 250 cm = 2.5 m
Diameter of particles (Dp)= 1.25 cm = 0.0125 m
Sphericity (s) = 1 (sphere)
Formulae:

NRePM = DpVo/((1 - ) )

For laminar flow (i.e. NRePM < 10) pressure drop is given by Blake-Kozeny equation:

15
2 2 3
ΔpΦ s Dp ε
 150
2
LV0μ(1  ε)

For turbulent flow (i.e. NRePM > 1000) pressure drop is given by Burke-Plummer
equation:

3
ΔpΦ s D p ε
 1.75
2
Lρ Vo (1  ε)

## For intermediate flows pressure drop is given by Ergun equation:

3
ΔpΦ sDp ε 150(1  ε)
  1.75
2 Φ sDp Voρ/μ
Lρ V (1  ε)
o

## Superficial velocity Vo = Volumetric flow rate/ cross-sectional area of bed

Calculations:

Volumetric flow rate = mass flow rate / density = 1 / 1.156 = 0.865 m 3/sec

## We shall use Ergun equation to find the pressure drop.

i.e. p x 0.0125 x 0.383 / ( 2.5 x 1.156 x 0.7052 x ( 1 - 0.38 ) ) = 150 / 903 + 1.75

## 7000 kg/hr of air, at a pressure of 7 atm abs and a temperature of 127 oC is to be

passed through a cylindrical tower packed with 2.5 cm Berl saddles. The height of
the bed is 6 m. What minimum tower diameter is required, if the pressure drop
through the bed is not to exceed 500 mm of mercury?

##  p = (1.65 x 105 Z Vs1.82 1.85 )/Dp1.4

where p is the pressure drop in kgf/cm2, Z is the bed height in meter,  is the
density in g/cc, Dp is nominal diameter of Berl saddles in cm, V s is the superficial
linear velocity in m/sec.

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Data:

## Mass flow rate = 7000 kg/hr = 1.944 kg/sec

Height of bed (Z) = 6 m
Dp = 2.5 cm
760 mm Hg = 1 kgf/cm2 = 1 atm
p = 500 mm Hg = (500/760) x 1 kgf/cm2 = 0.65 kgf/cm2

Formula:
Ideal gas law:
PV = nRT

Formula given,

## p = (1.65 x 105 Z Vs1.82 1.85 )/Dp1.4

Calculations:

 = Mn/V = MP/(RT)
= 29 x 7 x 1.01325 x 105 / (8314 x (273 + 127) )
= 6.185 kg/m3
= 6.185 x 10-3 g/cc

## p = (1.65 x 105 Z Vs1.82 1.85 )/Dp1.4

0.65 = (1.65 x 105 x 6 x Vs1.82 x (6.185 x 10-3 )1.85 ) / 2.51.4
Vs1.82 = 4.603 x 10-5
Vs = 0.029 m/sec.
Volumetric flow rate = mass flow rate/density = 1.944/6.185 = 0.3144 m 3/sec

## Pressure Drop in Regenerative Heater

A regenerative heater is packed with a bed of 6 mm cubes. The cubes are poured
into the cylindrical shell of the regenerator to a depth of 3.5 m such that the bed
porosity was 0.44. If air flows through this bed entering at 25 oC and 7 atm abs and
leaving at 200oC, calculate the pressure drop across the bed when the flow rate is
500 kg/hr per square meter of empty bed cross section. Assume average viscosity
as 0.025 cP and density as 6.8 kg/m3.

Data:

Mass flow rate of Air / unit area = 500 kg/(hr.m2) = 0.139 kg/(sec.m2)
Density of Air () = 6.8 kg/m3
Viscosity of Air ()= 0.025 cP = 0.025 x 10-3 kg/(m.sec)
Bed porosity () = 0.44
Length of bed (L) = 3.5 m
Diameter of particles (Dp)= 6 mm = 0.006 m

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Formulae:

Sphericity ( s) = 6 Vp / (DpSp)
Vp = volume of particle = Dp3 (for cube)
Sp = surface area of particle = 6 x Dp2 (for cube)
NRePM = DpVo/( (1 - ) )

For laminar flow (i.e. NRePM < 10) pressure drop is given by Blake-Kozeny equation:

2 2 3
ΔpΦ s Dp ε
 150
2
LV0μ(1  ε)

For turbulent flow (i.e. NRePM > 1000) pressure drop is given by Burke-Plummer
equation:

3
ΔpΦ s D p ε
 1.75
2
Lρ Vo (1  ε)

## For intermediate flows pressure drop is given by Ergun equation

3
ΔpΦ sDp ε 150(1  ε)
  1.75
2 Φ sDp Voρ/μ
Lρ V (1  ε)
o

Calculations:

## We shall use Ergun equation to find the pressure drop.

i.e. p x 0.006 x 0.443 / ( 3.5 x 6.8 x 0.02042 x ( 1 - 0.44 ) ) = 150 / 59.45 + 1.75

p x 0.0712= 4.273

## A catalyst tower 50 ft high and 20 ft in diameter is packed with 1-in. diameter

spheres. Gas enters the top of the bed at a temperature of 500 oF and leaves at the

18
same temperature. The pressure at the bottom of the bed is 30 lb f/in.2 abs. The bed
porosity is 0.40. If the gas has average properties similar to propane and the time
of contact (based on superficial velocity of gas) between the gas and the catalyst is
10 s, what is the inlet pressure?

Data:
Diameter of tower (D) = 20 ft = 20 x 0.3038 m = 6.096 m
Height of tower (L) = 50 ft = 15.24 m
Diameter of packing (Dp) = 1 inch = 2.54 cm = 0.0254 m
Temperature of gas (T) = 500oF = (500 - 32) x 5/9 oC = 260oC
= (273 + 260) K = 533 K
Pressure at the bottom = 30 lbf/in.2 abs = 30/14.7 atm(a) = 2.04
atm(a) = 206785.7 N/m2(a)
Bed porosity () = 0.4
Time of contact = 10 sec
Molecular weight of gas = 44 (molecular weight of propane (C3H8) )
Formulae:

Density of gas
 = PM/(RT)
Ergun equation:

Calculations:

## NRePM = 0.0254 x 1.524 x 2.053 / ( (1 - 0.4) x 0.025 x 10-3 ) = 5298

For these NRePM Burke-Plummer equation can be used.(i.e. Turbulent part of the
Ergun's equation)

## p x 0.0254 x 0.43 / ( 15.24 x 2.053 x 1.5242 x (1-0.4) ) = 1.75

p = 46937.5 N/m2

Pressure at the inlet of the column = 206785.7 + 46937.5 = 253723.2 N/m 2(a) =
36.81 lbf/in2(a)

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