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# Useful Formulae in Physics

(a) Relationships between initial velocity u , uniform acceleration a , final velocity v and
displacement travelled s after time t :

v = u + at

1
s = ut + at 2
2

v2 = u 2 + 2as

(b) Potential energy gained by a body of mass m when raised through a height h is mgh .

1 2
(c) Kinetic energy of a body of mass m moving with speed v is mv .
2
1

2

## (i) in series 串聯時 = R1 + R2

R1 R2
(ii) in parallel 並聯時 =
R1 + R2

## (f) Power = potential difference × current

2010-CE-PHY I -1-
Section A (54 marks)

Question No.題號 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Marks 分數 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 5 8

1.

A monochromatic light ray is incident into material X from air as shown in the
figure. In the air, the wavelength and speed of the light ray are 5 × 10−7 m and
3 × 108 m s−1 respectively. What are

## (a) the refractive index of material X, and (2 marks)

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## (b) the frequency of the light ray? (2 marks)

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2010-CE-PHY I -2-
2.

Electric water boiler can keep water hot inside the boiler. If the temperature of the
water is 75 oC or below, the heater will start working and it will be stopped until
the temperature raises up to 80 oC again, where the heater is located at the centre of
the base part.

(a) In order to check the working condition of the boiler, an electrical worker
pours 4 kg water into the boiler and plots a graph showing the variation
of the temperature of the water with time.

2010-CE-PHY I -3-
Given the specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J kg-1 oC-1.
What is the power of the electric water boiler? (3 marks)

## 設水的比熱容量是 4200 J kg-1 oC-1。電熱水壺的功率是多少? (3 分 )

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## (b) An engineering student designs a dynamo to generate electricity by

reconstructing a bicycle. When the student rides the bicycle for every
minute, 45000 J heat energy is released from his body. If two third of the
heat is lost by evaporation on his skin, what is the mass of the sweat
(water) evaporated from a 15-minute riding? Given that the specific
latent heat of vaporization of water is 2.25 × 106 J kg−1.
(2 marks)

(2 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -4-
3. (a) A student claims that “Radioactive decay is a random process”.
Explain what is meant here by the word random. (1 mark)

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(b) The followings are symbols for nuclei of radium and carbon: 226
88 Ra ;
14
6C .

How many protons and how many neutrons are there in this radium
particle and the carbon-14 nucleus emitting a β particle. Write equations
for the nuclear reactions which occur when these nuclei decay. You may
use the symbols X and Y for the daughter nuclei produced in the
reactions .
(4 marks)

88 Ra ;
14
6C 。鐳原子核中，有

(4 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -5-
4. In an experiment as shown in figure (a), an object is dropped vertically
downwards with a motion sensor and a data−logger being set up to record its
speed during the flight. The data−logger is connected to the software in a
computer, which interprets the data as shown in figure (b).

## Figure (a) Figure (b)

* (a) How is the motion of the object in the period between P and S as shown
in figure (b)? (4 marks)

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2010-CE-PHY I -6-
(b) What is the average acceleration between Q and R as shown in figure (b)?
(2 marks)

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5. (a) Ultrasound and X-rays are two common waves used in medicine. If you
are a doctor, which one will you use in a body check of an unborn baby?
Explain your choice by considering ONE difference between these two
waves. Also explain how this wave can detect body tissue.
(3 marks)

(3 分)

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## (b) Is ultrasound a longitudinal wave or a transverse wave? Explain your

answer with the aid of a diagram.
(3 marks)

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2010-CE-PHY I -7-
6. Wind is a more environmental-friendly method to generate electricity than using
coal. To achieve the purpose, wind turbine are built in a windy area and
connected to an electrical generator. Kinetic energy of the wind is converted to
kinetic energy of the turbine blades, which is finally converted to electrical
energy.

(a) Explain briefly why more energy is produced per unit time when the
speed of wind increases.
(1 mark)

(1 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -8-
(b) When the air travelling at a speed of 12 m s−1 is incident on the blades, it
is found that a volume of 690 000 m3 of air sweeps the blades in one
minute. Let the density of the air be 1.3 kg m−3. Find, in one minute,

## (i) the mass of air that passes through, (2 marks)

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(ii) the initial kinetic energy of the air passing through, (2 marks)

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## (iii) and the maximum input power of the blades. (2 marks)

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2010-CE-PHY I -9-
7. A solar battery is connected with a refrigerator rated at ‘440 W, 220 V’ and two
identical light bulbs X and Y rated at ‘110 W, 220 V’ each in the circuit as
shown in the figure. All the appliances are assumed to be working in their rated
values.

## 太陽能電池組與額定值為「 440 W, 220 V 」的電冰箱及兩個額定值為

「110 W, 220 V」的相同電燈泡連接，如電路圖中所示。假設所有電器都

(a) The solar battery collects the sunlight during the daytime. What is the
final form of energy released by the solar battery? (1 mark)

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(b) Fuse A is introduced to the circuit in the position as shown in the figure.
Calculate the rated current flowing through and choose the correct fuse
from table (1). (3 marks)

(3 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -10-
Fuse Fuse rating / A

P 2
Q 4
R 10
Table (1)

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(c) The solar battery consists of a number of solar cells. There are labels on
the refrigerator and each solar cell as shown.

## Powerful solar cell

(for one single cell)
(每一個獨立的電池)

## Maximum Output Power:

12.0 W (in bright light)

12.0 W (太陽光下)

## Effective time for charging

in a normal day: 5.0 hours
(in bright light)

(一般情況)﹕
5.0 小時(太陽光下)

2010-CE-PHY I -11-
(i) What is the energy consumed by the refrigerator in normal use for
24 hours per day? (2 marks)

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(ii) What is the energy supplied by one solar cell in a normal day?
(1 mark)

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(iii) Hence find the minimum number of single solar cells required to
operate the refrigerator. (1 mark)

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2010-CE-PHY I -12-

## The planet having a fever

The temperature of the earth is getting higher and higher. Scientists found that the
average temperature of the earth has increased 0.6 °C. They also discovered that
some ice shelves in Arctic have melted and raised the sea level. If the temperature
continues rising, lowlands will be flooded. In the worst situation, the climate will
change significantly and disturb the ecosystem.

The high frequency radiations from the sun enter the earth and warm the ground
and the sea. The earth absorbs the outerspace radiations and re-emits as long
wavelength radiations, such as infrared, towards the space. In the atmosphere,
some gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and water vapour absorb the
long wavelength radiations and re-radiate them back to the earth surface. These
natural occurred gases keeping the earth warm are called greenhouse gases
(GHGs). In the past, this system runs very well and makes the earth warm enough
for us to live. However, with more and more GHGs accumulate in the atmosphere
nowadays, more heat is trapped, and the earth temperature increases undesirably.
This is called ‘global warming’ or ‘greenhouse effect’.

Carbon dioxide is the major GHG contributing to the global warming. With the
industrialization in the modern world, generation of electricity from fossil fuel is
the major source of CO2 emission. Besides, vehicle emission and deforestation
also contribute to the greenhouse effect.

## Promoting energy conservation, improving energy efficiency and developing new

energy can reduce greenhouse effect. In addition, forestation can also help to
reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.

2010-CE-PHY I -13-

## 地球的溫度不斷上升，科學家發現地球的平均溫度已上升 0.6 oC。科學

(GHGs) 。過去，這系統運作良好，保持地球溫暖，適合人類居住。但

2010-CE-PHY I -14-
(a) Describe the formation of global warming by considering the
energy cycle of radiation on the earth. (3 marks)

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(b) How can the problem of greenhouse effect be reduced? Explain briefly.
(2 marks)

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2010-CE-PHY I -15-
9.

A Form Five student designs a simplified domestic circuit diagram for his
homework as shown in the figure above. His diagram shows a lighting circuit and
some sockets connect to a ring circuit.The rating of light bulb A is “220 V, 80 W”
and the ratings of light bulbs B, C, D and E are all equal to “110 V, 80 W”.

C、D 和 E 的額定值為「110 V, 80 W」。

## (a) What are wires X, Y and Z? (1 mark)

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(b) What are the advantages of using ring circuit? Give one reason. (1 mark)

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2010-CE-PHY I -16-
(c) What is the working resistance of light bulb A? (1 mark)

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(d) If all the bulbs are turned on for 36 hours, what will be the total cost of
electricity? Given that the electricity charged at \$0.8 per kW h.
(2 marks)

(2 分)

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(3 marks)

## 該學生建議將一 15 A 保險絲連接於保險絲 f2 處，已足以保護整個

(3 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -17-
Section B (36 marks)

Question No. 題號 10 11 12 13
Marks 分數 5 8 11 12

10. A basketball is dropped freely, then it is falling vertically downwards. The mass
of the basketball is 0.75 kg. At time t, the upward force due to air resistance
acting on the basketball is 5 N.

## (a) What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the basketball at time t ?

(2 marks)

(b) Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces experienced by the

(c) Suggest a factor that affects the air resistance experienced by the

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2010-CE-PHY I -18-
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2010-CE-PHY I -19-
11. (a)

A student is going to measure the relation between the current (I) and the
length (x) of a resistance wire in an experiment. The resistance wire is
connected to a 5.0 V battery and an ammeter as shown. Contact X is
fixed while contact Y is free to move along the wire, and the value of I
measured by the ammeter varies with the length x. The results are
recorded as shown in table (1).

x / cm I / mA
5.0 42
10.0 22
15.0 14
20.0 10
Table (1)

(i) Plot the current (I) against the length (x) graph using the given
graph paper according to the data given.
(2 marks)

2010-CE-PHY I -20-
(ii) Now the student sets the contact Y to be 12 cm from the contact
X. What is the corresponding resistance (R)?
(1 mark)

## 該學生現將接觸 X 和接觸 Y 的距離設為 12 cm，相應的電阻

(R)是多少? (1 分 )

(iii) The student replaces the original resistance wire with another
resistance wire of the same material. The new wire is 12 cm long
and has five times the cross−sectional area of the original
resistance wire. Assume the settings are unchanged, what is the
resistance of the new wire?
(1 mark)

(1 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -21-
(b) Solid waste is a serious environmental problem in Hong Kong. To
minimize the amount of waste, an environmental organization has
invented a special device to collect useful objects from the waste for
recycling. Figure (a) shows the essential features of the device used to
remove magnetic objects from the rubbish on a conveyor belt. Switch K
is closed during collection ; the movable metal arm is then swung over to
a container and the switch is opened to deposit the collected magnetic
objects.

## switch , K hinge soft iron core

d. c. power supply +

-
metal arm

conveyor belt
R

Figure (a)

(i) Suggest a reason for the inclusion of the variable resistor R in the
circuit. (2 marks)

(2 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -22-
(ii) Explain briefly why each of the following modifications would
result in the device not working satisfactorily:

## (II) a hard steel core instead of the soft-iron core.

(2 marks)
(2 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -23-
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2010-CE-PHY I -24-
12. A student performs two experiments to investigate the properties of radiations.

## Experiment 1: Radiation is formed when a beam of fast moving electrons is

hitting onto a heavy metal target. The student finds that a
photographic film is blackened by this radiation.

Experiment 2: In Figure (a), a radioactive source is placed inside a lead box with
a narrow slit open on a side of the box. A GM counter is moved
in front of the opening of the box to detect the radiation from
point A to point B through the point M, which is the mid-point of
AB. Figure (b) shows the reading on the GM counter, when the
switch K is open and closed respectively.

2010-CE-PHY I -25-
Figure (b)

(a) What kind of radiation is formed in experiment 1 and what is the nature

## (c) Give one common property possessed by the radiations emitted in

experiment 1 and experiment 2. (1 mark)

## (d) If the GM counter is placed at M, the reading on the counter is recorded

every 15 minutes. The result is shown in figure (c).

## 如蓋革-彌勒計數器置於 M 點，計數器每 15 分鐘錄取讀數一次。下

2010-CE-PHY I -26-
Figure (c)

Find out the half-life of the radioactive source from the graph. (1 mark)

* (e) A senior student says that α-radiation may be present in the radioactive
source, do you agree? And why? (4 marks)

## (f) Suggest an experiment that can be used to determinate what kind of

radiation(s) present(s) in the source. (1 mark)

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2010-CE-PHY I -27-
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2010-CE-PHY I -28-
13.

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

## In an experiment, a student, Peter, connects a circuit as shown in Figure (a) to form

a d.c. motor. Once the switch K is closed, the coil rotates.

2010-CE-PHY I -29-
(a) If the current is flowing from A to B through the coil, what is the
direction of rotation of the coil when Peter is viewing at point P?
(1 mark)

## 寫出電路中元件 X、Y 和 Z 的名稱。 (3 分)

(c) If Peter wants to alter the rotating speed of the coil, which of the
components above (X, Y and Z) can be adjusted accordingly to achieve
the goal? (1 mark)

## 如彼得想改變線圈的轉動速率，應調較 X、Y 和 Z 哪一個元件?

(1 分)

(d) Another student, Paul, believes that his circuit can also work as a d.c.
motor without using permanent magnet as shown in Figure (b). Which
component(s) in Figure (b) works as the same function as that of a
(2 marks)

(2 分)

(e) Is the magnetic field produced in Figure (b) uniform? If not, what can be
done to ensure that a uniform magnetic field is formed?
(2 marks)

(2 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -30-
(f) In Figure (b), when switch Q is closed, it is found that the coil OPRS
oscillates and finally becomes at rest when the coil OPRS is in the
vertical position. What modification can be done to make the coil rotate
continuously? (3 marks)

## 圖(b)中，當開關 Q 閉合時，線圈 OPRS 轉動，轉至鉛垂方向時，線

(3 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -31-
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END OF PAPER

2010-CE-PHY I -32-