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Useful Formulae in Physics

常用物理公式

(a) Relationships between initial velocity u , uniform acceleration a , final velocity v and
displacement travelled s after time t :
物體以初速 u,勻加速度 a 移動,經過時間 t 後,末速 v 及位移 s 分別為:

v = u + at

1
s = ut + at 2
2

v2 = u 2 + 2as

(b) Potential energy gained by a body of mass m when raised through a height h is mgh .
質量為 m 的物體,提升高度 h,所增勢能為 mgh。

1 2
(c) Kinetic energy of a body of mass m moving with speed v is mv .
2
1
質量為 m 的物體,以速率 v 移動時,其動能為 mv2 。
2

(d) Power = force × velocity


功率 = 力 × 速度

(e) Equivalent resistance of two resistors R1 and R2 :


電阻為 R1 和 R2 的電阻器聯起來的等值電阻為:

(i) in series 串聯時 = R1 + R2

R1 R2
(ii) in parallel 並聯時 =
R1 + R2

(f) Power = potential difference × current


功率 = 電勢差 × 電流

2010-CE-PHY I -1-
Section A (54 marks)
甲部 (54 分)
Answer ALL questions in this section and write your answers in the spaces provided.
所有題目均須作答,答案須填寫於此試題答題簿內所提供的空位上。

Question No.題號 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Marks 分數 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 5 8

1.

A monochromatic light ray is incident into material X from air as shown in the
figure. In the air, the wavelength and speed of the light ray are 5 × 10−7 m and
3 × 108 m s−1 respectively. What are
單色光束由空氣入射物質 X,如圖所示。光束在空氣中的波長和速率分別
是 5 × 10−7 m 和 3 × 108 m s−1。

(a) the refractive index of material X, and (2 marks)


物質 X 的折射率是多少? (2 分 )

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(b) the frequency of the light ray? (2 marks)


光束的頻率是多少? (2 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -2-
2.

Electric water boiler can keep water hot inside the boiler. If the temperature of the
water is 75 oC or below, the heater will start working and it will be stopped until
the temperature raises up to 80 oC again, where the heater is located at the centre of
the base part.
電熱水壺能將水壺內的水保暖。如水的溫度相等於,或低於 75 oC,發熱元
件會開始運作,直至水溫回升至 80 oC 為止。發熱元件位於水壺底部中央。

(a) In order to check the working condition of the boiler, an electrical worker
pours 4 kg water into the boiler and plots a graph showing the variation
of the temperature of the water with time.
一電氣技工想檢查電水壺的操作情況,他將 4 kg 的水注入電熱水壺
內,並繪畫線圖,記錄水溫隨時間的變化。

2010-CE-PHY I -3-
Given the specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J kg-1 oC-1.
What is the power of the electric water boiler? (3 marks)

設水的比熱容量是 4200 J kg-1 oC-1。電熱水壺的功率是多少? (3 分 )

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(b) An engineering student designs a dynamo to generate electricity by


reconstructing a bicycle. When the student rides the bicycle for every
minute, 45000 J heat energy is released from his body. If two third of the
heat is lost by evaporation on his skin, what is the mass of the sweat
(water) evaporated from a 15-minute riding? Given that the specific
latent heat of vaporization of water is 2.25 × 106 J kg−1.
(2 marks)

一工程系學生將單車改裝為發電機來產生電力。這學生每踏單車一
分鐘,他的身體便釋出 45000 J 熱能。如三分之二的熱能是經由他
的皮膚蒸發而耗損的,則該學生踏單車 15 分鐘後,蒸發的汗(水)的
質量是多少?已知水的汽化比潛熱是 2.25 x 106 J kg−1。
(2 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -4-
3. (a) A student claims that “Radioactive decay is a random process”.
Explain what is meant here by the word random. (1 mark)

一學生表示﹕「放射衰變這過程是隨機的。」解釋這裏隨機這詞的
意思。 (1 分 )

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(b) The followings are symbols for nuclei of radium and carbon: 226
88 Ra ;
14
6C .

How many protons and how many neutrons are there in this radium
nucleus? Both nuclei are radioactive, the radium nucleus emitting an α
particle and the carbon-14 nucleus emitting a β particle. Write equations
for the nuclear reactions which occur when these nuclei decay. You may
use the symbols X and Y for the daughter nuclei produced in the
reactions .
(4 marks)

以下是鐳原子核和碳原子核的符號﹕ 226
88 Ra ;
14
6C 。鐳原子核中,有
多少質子和中子 ? 兩個原子核都是放射性的,鐳原子核釋放一粒 α
粒子,而碳-14 原子核則釋放一粒 β 粒子。寫出這兩原子核衰變時
的核幅射的方程。可用 X 和 Y 代表在反應中所產生的子核。
(4 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -5-
4. In an experiment as shown in figure (a), an object is dropped vertically
downwards with a motion sensor and a data−logger being set up to record its
speed during the flight. The data−logger is connected to the software in a
computer, which interprets the data as shown in figure (b).

在圖(a)的實驗中,一物體鉛垂向下墜至運動感應器,數據記錄器記錄這物
體在下墜過程中的速率。這數據記錄器連接至電腦的軟件,這軟件將所得
數據分析,如圖(b)所示。

Figure (a) Figure (b)


圖 (a) 圖(b)

* (a) How is the motion of the object in the period between P and S as shown
in figure (b)? (4 marks)

在圖(b)所示的 PS 段中,物體的運動如何? (4 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -6-
(b) What is the average acceleration between Q and R as shown in figure (b)?
(2 marks)
在圖(b) 所示的 QR 段中,物體的平均加速度是多少? (2 分)

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5. (a) Ultrasound and X-rays are two common waves used in medicine. If you
are a doctor, which one will you use in a body check of an unborn baby?
Explain your choice by considering ONE difference between these two
waves. Also explain how this wave can detect body tissue.
(3 marks)

超聲波和 X-射線是兩種較常用於醫學上的波。假設你是醫生,你
會選擇哪一種來檢查人體內未出生的嬰兒?考慮兩種波的一種
一種分
一種
別,扼要解釋你的選擇。同時解釋這波如何探測到人體組織。
(3 分)

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(b) Is ultrasound a longitudinal wave or a transverse wave? Explain your


answer with the aid of a diagram.
(3 marks)
超聲波是縱波,還是橫波?以圖輔助,扼要解釋你的答案。 (3 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -7-
6. Wind is a more environmental-friendly method to generate electricity than using
coal. To achieve the purpose, wind turbine are built in a windy area and
connected to an electrical generator. Kinetic energy of the wind is converted to
kinetic energy of the turbine blades, which is finally converted to electrical
energy.

與燃煤發電相比,風力發電是一種較保護環境的發電方法。要風力發電,
先要在大風的地區築起風力發電渦輪,再將渦輪連接發電器。風的動力轉
化為渦輪扇葉的動力,最終轉化為電力。

(a) Explain briefly why more energy is produced per unit time when the
speed of wind increases.
(1 mark)
當風速增大時,每單位時間所產生的能量亦會增多。扼要解釋。
(1 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -8-
(b) When the air travelling at a speed of 12 m s−1 is incident on the blades, it
is found that a volume of 690 000 m3 of air sweeps the blades in one
minute. Let the density of the air be 1.3 kg m−3. Find, in one minute,

當速率為 12 m s−1 的空氣吹向扇葉時,吹向扇葉的空氣體積每分鐘


便有 690 000 m3。設空氣的密度是 1.3 kg m−3。求於一分鐘內,

(i) the mass of air that passes through, (2 marks)


流過的空氣的質量, (2 分 )

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(ii) the initial kinetic energy of the air passing through, (2 marks)
流過的空氣的初始動能,及 (2 分 )

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(iii) and the maximum input power of the blades. (2 marks)


扇葉的最大輸入功率。 (2 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -9-
7. A solar battery is connected with a refrigerator rated at ‘440 W, 220 V’ and two
identical light bulbs X and Y rated at ‘110 W, 220 V’ each in the circuit as
shown in the figure. All the appliances are assumed to be working in their rated
values.

太陽能電池組與額定值為「 440 W, 220 V 」的電冰箱及兩個額定值為


「110 W, 220 V」的相同電燈泡連接,如電路圖中所示。假設所有電器都
以額定值操作。

(a) The solar battery collects the sunlight during the daytime. What is the
final form of energy released by the solar battery? (1 mark)

太陽能電池組在日間儲存陽光。太陽能電池組內,最終釋出何種能
量? (1 分 )

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(b) Fuse A is introduced to the circuit in the position as shown in the figure.
Calculate the rated current flowing through and choose the correct fuse
from table (1). (3 marks)

現打算將保險絲 A 連接於圖中所示位置。計算流過的額定電流,並
從表(1)中選出合適的保險絲。
(3 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -10-
Fuse Fuse rating / A
保險絲 保險絲額定值/ A
P 2
Q 4
R 10
Table (1)
表 (1)

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(c) The solar battery consists of a number of solar cells. There are labels on
the refrigerator and each solar cell as shown.

太陽能電池組內有數個太陽能電池。電冰箱和每個電池上都有標
籤,如下圖所示。

Powerful solar cell


強勁太陽能電池
(for one single cell)
(每一個獨立的電池)

Maximum Output Power:


12.0 W (in bright light)
最大輸出功率:
12.0 W (太陽光下)

Effective time for charging


in a normal day: 5.0 hours
(in bright light)
一日有效充電時間
(一般情況)﹕
5.0 小時(太陽光下)

2010-CE-PHY I -11-
(i) What is the energy consumed by the refrigerator in normal use for
24 hours per day? (2 marks)

若電冰箱每日操作 24 小時,所需能量是多少? (2 分)

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(ii) What is the energy supplied by one solar cell in a normal day?
(1 mark)
一般情況下,每一電池每天能提供多少能量? (1 分)

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(iii) Hence find the minimum number of single solar cells required to
operate the refrigerator. (1 mark)

從而求操作電冰箱,最少需要多少粒太陽能電池? (1 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -12-
8. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
細閱以下文章,再回答有關問題﹕

The planet having a fever

The temperature of the earth is getting higher and higher. Scientists found that the
average temperature of the earth has increased 0.6 °C. They also discovered that
some ice shelves in Arctic have melted and raised the sea level. If the temperature
continues rising, lowlands will be flooded. In the worst situation, the climate will
change significantly and disturb the ecosystem.

The high frequency radiations from the sun enter the earth and warm the ground
and the sea. The earth absorbs the outerspace radiations and re-emits as long
wavelength radiations, such as infrared, towards the space. In the atmosphere,
some gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and water vapour absorb the
long wavelength radiations and re-radiate them back to the earth surface. These
natural occurred gases keeping the earth warm are called greenhouse gases
(GHGs). In the past, this system runs very well and makes the earth warm enough
for us to live. However, with more and more GHGs accumulate in the atmosphere
nowadays, more heat is trapped, and the earth temperature increases undesirably.
This is called ‘global warming’ or ‘greenhouse effect’.

Carbon dioxide is the major GHG contributing to the global warming. With the
industrialization in the modern world, generation of electricity from fossil fuel is
the major source of CO2 emission. Besides, vehicle emission and deforestation
also contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Promoting energy conservation, improving energy efficiency and developing new


energy can reduce greenhouse effect. In addition, forestation can also help to
reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.

2010-CE-PHY I -13-
發熱的星球

地球的溫度不斷上升,科學家發現地球的平均溫度已上升 0.6 oC。科學


家同時亦發現,北極圈的部分冰山已熔化,使海平面升高。如溫度持續
上升,低地會被淹沒。情況最壞時,氣候會顯著改變,亦令生態環境受
影響。

太陽的高頻率輻射進入地球,並將地面和海洋暖化。地球吸收外太空的
輻射後,再將波長較長的輻射,如紅外線,反射回太空。大氣層中,二
氧化碳 (CO2),甲烷,水蒸氣等氣體吸收波長較長的輻射,並將之反射
回地面。這種天然存在的氣體,能幫助地球恆溫,稱為溫室氣體
(GHGs) 。過去,這系統運作良好,保持地球溫暖,適合人類居住。但
現在,大氣層內積聚越來越多的溫室氣體,將較多的熱困著,令地球溫
度不理想地上升。這就稱為「全球暖化」或「溫室效應」。

二氧化碳是主要的溫室氣體,引致全球暖化。工業化的出現,令燃煤發
電成為主要放出二氧化碳的來源。另外,汽車排放的廢氣和砍伐森林亦
加劇溫室效應。

溫室效應可透過鼓勵節約能源,增加能源效益及開發新種類的能量來減
少溫室效應。此外,培植森林亦能減少大氣層中二氧化碳的含量。

2010-CE-PHY I -14-
(a) Describe the formation of global warming by considering the
energy cycle of radiation on the earth. (3 marks)
考慮地球內輻射的能量循環,描述全球暖化的形成。 (3 分 )

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(b) How can the problem of greenhouse effect be reduced? Explain briefly.
(2 marks)
如何減少溫室效應的問題?扼要解釋。 (2 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -15-
9.

A Form Five student designs a simplified domestic circuit diagram for his
homework as shown in the figure above. His diagram shows a lighting circuit and
some sockets connect to a ring circuit.The rating of light bulb A is “220 V, 80 W”
and the ratings of light bulbs B, C, D and E are all equal to “110 V, 80 W”.

一中五學生繪一簡化家居電路圖,如上圖所示。他的圖中顯示一照明電路及
數個與環形電路連接的插座。燈泡 A 的額定值為「220 V, 80 W」,燈泡 B、
C、D 和 E 的額定值為「110 V, 80 W」。

(a) What are wires X, Y and Z? (1 mark)


導線 X,Y 和 Z 是什麼? (1 分 )

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(b) What are the advantages of using ring circuit? Give one reason. (1 mark)
環形電路有何優點?舉一理由支持。 (1 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -16-
(c) What is the working resistance of light bulb A? (1 mark)
燈泡 A 的操作電阻是多少? (1 分)

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(d) If all the bulbs are turned on for 36 hours, what will be the total cost of
electricity? Given that the electricity charged at $0.8 per kW h.
(2 marks)

如將所有燈泡亮著 36 小時,須付電費多少?已知電費為每 kW h 收
取$0.8。
(2 分)

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(e) The student suggests that a 15 A fuse is suitable to be used in fuse f2 to


protect the lighting system. Do you agree? Briefly explain your answer.
(3 marks)

該學生建議將一 15 A 保險絲連接於保險絲 f2 處,已足以保護整個


照明系統。你是否同意?扼要解釋。
(3 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -17-
Section B (36 marks)
乙部 (36 分)

Answer ALL questions in this section and write your answer in the spaces provided.
此部所有題目均須作答,答案須填寫於此試題答題簿內所提供的空位上。

Question No. 題號 10 11 12 13
Marks 分數 5 8 11 12

10. A basketball is dropped freely, then it is falling vertically downwards. The mass
of the basketball is 0.75 kg. At time t, the upward force due to air resistance
acting on the basketball is 5 N.

一籃球被釋放,自由鉛垂下墜。籃球的質量是 0.75 kg。時間 t 時,作用於


籃球的向上空氣阻力為 5 N。

(a) What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the basketball at time t ?


(2 marks)
時間 t 時,籃球的加速度的量值是多少? (2 分 )

(b) Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces experienced by the
basketball. (2 marks)
繪畫一落體受力圖,顯示所有作用於籃球的力。 (2 分 )

(c) Suggest a factor that affects the air resistance experienced by the
basketball. (1 mark)
建議一項會影響籃球所受的空氣阻力的因素。 (1 分 )

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2010-CE-PHY I -18-
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2010-CE-PHY I -19-
11. (a)

A student is going to measure the relation between the current (I) and the
length (x) of a resistance wire in an experiment. The resistance wire is
connected to a 5.0 V battery and an ammeter as shown. Contact X is
fixed while contact Y is free to move along the wire, and the value of I
measured by the ammeter varies with the length x. The results are
recorded as shown in table (1).

一學生準備在一實驗中計算電流(I)和電阻線的長度(x)的關係。電阻
線與 5.0 V 電池組和一安培計連接,如圖所示。接觸 X 是固定的,
而接觸 Y 則可自由沿電阻線移動, 而安培計 I 的值隨長度 x 而改
變。所得結果如表(1)所示。

x / cm I / mA
5.0 42
10.0 22
15.0 14
20.0 10
Table (1)
表 (1)

(i) Plot the current (I) against the length (x) graph using the given
graph paper according to the data given.
(2 marks)

根據所提供的數據,在繪圖紙上繪畫電流(I)和長度(x)的關係
線圖。 (2 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -20-
(ii) Now the student sets the contact Y to be 12 cm from the contact
X. What is the corresponding resistance (R)?
(1 mark)

該學生現將接觸 X 和接觸 Y 的距離設為 12 cm,相應的電阻


(R)是多少? (1 分 )

(iii) The student replaces the original resistance wire with another
resistance wire of the same material. The new wire is 12 cm long
and has five times the cross−sectional area of the original
resistance wire. Assume the settings are unchanged, what is the
resistance of the new wire?
(1 mark)

該學生用另一相同物料的電阻線取代原來的電阻線。新的電
阻線長 12 cm,橫截面積是原來的五倍。設所有設定保持不
變,新電阻線的電阻是多少?
(1 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -21-
(b) Solid waste is a serious environmental problem in Hong Kong. To
minimize the amount of waste, an environmental organization has
invented a special device to collect useful objects from the waste for
recycling. Figure (a) shows the essential features of the device used to
remove magnetic objects from the rubbish on a conveyor belt. Switch K
is closed during collection ; the movable metal arm is then swung over to
a container and the switch is opened to deposit the collected magnetic
objects.

固體廢物是香港一個嚴重的環境問題。為了減少廢物量,一個環保
組織發明了一個特別的裝置,收集廢物內的有用物料,循環再用。
圖 (a) 顯示這裝置的主要組件,用以將輸送帶上的垃圾中的磁性
物質移走。收集過程中,開關 K 是閉合的;可移動金屬臂移向容器
時,開關斷開,收集的磁性物料墜入容器中。

with insulating handle


銅棒(配以絕緣手柄)

switch , K hinge soft iron core


開關 鉸鏈 軟鐵心

d. c. power supply +
直流電源供應
-
metal arm
金屬臂

conveyor belt
R
輸送帶

Figure (a)
圖 (a)

(i) Suggest a reason for the inclusion of the variable resistor R in the
circuit. (2 marks)

電路中為何包括一可變電阻器 R?試建議一個原因。
(2 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -22-
(ii) Explain briefly why each of the following modifications would
result in the device not working satisfactorily:
扼要解釋,為何以下的改裝會導致裝置不能完善運作。

(I) a copper core in place of the soft-iron core.


以銅心取代軟鐵心。

(II) a hard steel core instead of the soft-iron core.


以硬鋼心取代軟鐵心。
(2 marks)
(2 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -23-
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2010-CE-PHY I -24-
12. A student performs two experiments to investigate the properties of radiations.
一學生進行兩個實驗來研究輻射的性質。

Experiment 1: Radiation is formed when a beam of fast moving electrons is


hitting onto a heavy metal target. The student finds that a
photographic film is blackened by this radiation.

實驗 1: 當一束高速移動的電子射向一重金屬目標時,產生輻射。這
學生發現照相底片受輻射影響,變黑了。

Experiment 2: In Figure (a), a radioactive source is placed inside a lead box with
a narrow slit open on a side of the box. A GM counter is moved
in front of the opening of the box to detect the radiation from
point A to point B through the point M, which is the mid-point of
AB. Figure (b) shows the reading on the GM counter, when the
switch K is open and closed respectively.

實驗 2: 在圖(a)中,一放射性源置於鉛盒內,鉛盒的一面有一細小狹
縫。蓋革-彌勒計數器置於鉛盒的狹縫前,沿 A 點經過 M 點
至 B 點探測放射性的輻射,其中 M 為 AB 的中點。圖(b)顯
示當開關 K 斷開及閉合時,蓋革-彌勒計數器的讀數。

2010-CE-PHY I -25-
Figure (b)
圖(b)

(a) What kind of radiation is formed in experiment 1 and what is the nature
of this radiation? (2 marks)

實驗 1 中產生的是哪種輻射?這輻射有什麼性質? (2 分 )

(b) What kind of radiation is formed in experiment 2? Give one reason to


support your answer. (2 marks)

實驗 2 中產生的是哪種輻射?舉一理由支持你的答案。 (2 分 )

(c) Give one common property possessed by the radiations emitted in


experiment 1 and experiment 2. (1 mark)

指出一項實驗 1 和實驗 2 中所釋出的輻射的相同之處。 (1 分)

(d) If the GM counter is placed at M, the reading on the counter is recorded


every 15 minutes. The result is shown in figure (c).

如蓋革-彌勒計數器置於 M 點,計數器每 15 分鐘錄取讀數一次。下


圖顯示所得的結果。

2010-CE-PHY I -26-
Figure (c)
圖 (c)

Find out the half-life of the radioactive source from the graph. (1 mark)
根據線圖,求放射源的半衰期。 (1 分 )

* (e) A senior student says that α-radiation may be present in the radioactive
source, do you agree? And why? (4 marks)

一高年級學生指出這放射源內 或會 存在α-輻射,你是否同意 ? 為什
麼? (4 分)

(f) Suggest an experiment that can be used to determinate what kind of


radiation(s) present(s) in the source. (1 mark)

建議一項實驗,可用以探測放射源的輻射類別。 (1 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -28-
13.

Figure (a)
圖 (a)

Figure (b)
圖 (b)

In an experiment, a student, Peter, connects a circuit as shown in Figure (a) to form


a d.c. motor. Once the switch K is closed, the coil rotates.

實驗中,學生彼得如圖(a)所示般接駁電路,組成直流電動機。當開關 K 閉合
後,線圈便開始轉動。

2010-CE-PHY I -29-
(a) If the current is flowing from A to B through the coil, what is the
direction of rotation of the coil when Peter is viewing at point P?
(1 mark)

如電流由 A 流至 B 經過線圈,則彼得在 P 點觀察到的線圈轉動方向


是怎樣? (1 分 )

(b) Name the components X, Y and Z in the circuit. (3 marks)

寫出電路中元件 X、Y 和 Z 的名稱。 (3 分)

(c) If Peter wants to alter the rotating speed of the coil, which of the
components above (X, Y and Z) can be adjusted accordingly to achieve
the goal? (1 mark)

如彼得想改變線圈的轉動速率,應調較 X、Y 和 Z 哪一個元件?


(1 分)

(d) Another student, Paul, believes that his circuit can also work as a d.c.
motor without using permanent magnet as shown in Figure (b). Which
component(s) in Figure (b) works as the same function as that of a
magnet? And state the polarity of your answer.
(2 marks)

另一學生保羅相信即使沒有永久磁鐵,這電路仍可作為直流電動
機,如圖(b)所示。圖(b)中哪些元件的作用如磁鐵的一樣? 並指出你
的答案中元件的極性。
(2 分)

(e) Is the magnetic field produced in Figure (b) uniform? If not, what can be
done to ensure that a uniform magnetic field is formed?
(2 marks)

圖(b)中產生的磁場是否均勻?如否,怎樣可確保磁場是均勻的?
(2 分)

2010-CE-PHY I -30-
(f) In Figure (b), when switch Q is closed, it is found that the coil OPRS
oscillates and finally becomes at rest when the coil OPRS is in the
vertical position. What modification can be done to make the coil rotate
continuously? (3 marks)

圖(b)中,當開關 Q 閉合時,線圈 OPRS 轉動,轉至鉛垂方向時,線


圈前後振動,並最終停了下來。如何改裝電路,可令線圈持續轉動?
(3 分)

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2010-CE-PHY I -31-
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END OF PAPER
試卷完

2010-CE-PHY I -32-