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Corazon Aquino aftermath of the 1989 coup attempt, the

Economy Philippine economy remained stagnant. In her

When Corazon Aquino became president, she final year in office, inflation was raging at 17%,
inherited an economy that was bankrupt and and unemployment was slightly over 10%,
debt-ridden as a result of twenty years of higher than the Marcos years.
misrule and mismanagement under the Marcos
regime. As president, Aquino focused her Revolutionary Government
attention and energy to revitalize and Immediately after assuming the presidency,
rejuvenate the sagging economy. President Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3,
which established a revolutionary government.
One of her boldest moves was to dismantle the She abolished the 1973 Constitution that was in
various monopolies that were perpetrated by force during martial law, and instead
Marcos during his stay in power. promulgated the provisional 1986 Freedom
Constitution, pending the ratification of a new
She also moved quickly to tackle the issue of Constitution by the people. This allowed Aquino
the US$26 billion foreign debt incurred by her to exercise both executive and legislative
predecessor. Instead of repudiating it, Aquino powers until the ratification of the new
chose to honor all the debts that were incurred Philippine Constitution and the establishment
previously under different administrations. Her of a new Congress in 1987.[5]
decision proved to be unpopular but Aquino
defended it, saying that it was the most Aquino's new government was met with
practical move and choice to make as it was criticism from Defense Minister Juan Ponce
crucial for the country at that time to regain the Enrile and Vice President Salvador Laurel, as
confidence of investors and the international well as constitutionalist and retired Supreme
community in the Philippine economy.Since Court Justice Cecilia Muñoz-Palma vehemently
1986, the Aquino administration has paid off $4 opposing the move. "To declare her
billion of the country's outstanding debts to government “revolutionary” and abolish the
regain good international credit ratings and Batasan Pambansa was to behave no better
attract the attention of future markets. than Dictator Marcos", Palma said.[6]
Nevertheless, the administration borrowed an Homobono Adaza, who brokered the opposition
additional $9 billion, increasing the national coalition, "when the United Democratic
debt by $6 billion within six years time since the Opposition (UNIDO) decided to support Cory for
ouster of former President Ferdinand Marcos in President, the agreement with Cory was that
1986. the type of government of Marcos would be
continued, with Cory as ceremonial President,
Further, the Aquino administration also sought since everyone knew that Cory had no
to bring back fiscal discipline in order as it knowledge of how to run the country, and Cory
aimed to trim down the government's budget admitted this." [7] Enrile and Laurel
deficit that ballooned during Marcos' term subsequently resigned from Aquino's
through privatization of bad government assets government.
and deregulation of many vital industries. It was
also during Aquino's time that vital economic
laws such as the Built-Operate-Transfer Law,
Foreign Investments Act and the Consumer Landmark legislation
Protection and Welfare Act were enacted. As such, Aquino promulgated two landmark
legal codes, namely, the Family Code of 1987,
The economy posted a positive growth of 3.4% which reformed the civil law on family relations,
during her first year in office. But in the and the Administrative Code of 1987, which
reorganized the structure of the executive legislative agenda. Her family background and
branch of government. Another landmark law social class as a privileged and landed daughter
that was enacted during her tenure was the of a wealthy and landed clan became a lightning
1991 Local Government Code, which devolved rod of criticisms against her land reform
national government powers to local agenda. On February 22, 1987, three weeks
government units (LGUs). The new Code also after the resounding ratification of the 1987
enhanced the power of LGUs to enact local Constitution, agrarian workers and farmers
taxation measures and assured them of a share marched to the historic Mendiola Street near
in the national revenue. Malacañan Palace to demand genuine land
reform from Aquino's administration. The
Likewise, Aquino closed down the Marcos- farmers' march turned bloody and violent when
dominated Batasang Pambansa to prevent the Marine forces fired at farmers who tried to go
new Marcos loyalist opposition from beyond the designated demarcation line set by
undermining her democratic reforms and the police. As a result, 12 farmers were killed
reorganized the membership of the Supreme and 19 were injured in this incident now known
Court to restore its independence. In May 1986, as the Mendiola Massacre. This tragic incident
the reorganized Supreme Court declared the led some prominent members of the Aquino
Aquino government as "not merely a de facto Cabinet like the nationalist and progressive
government but in fact and law a de jure senator Jose W. Diokno to quit from their
government", whose legitimacy had been government posts. Though Aquino did not have
affirmed by the community of nations.[8] This any personal and official involvement with the
Supreme Court decision significantly affirmed drastic actions taken by some police elements,
the status of Aquino as the new, legitimate and her administration has been faulted since then
rightful leader of the Philippines. for failing to solve land disputes in the country.

1986 Constitutional Commission In response to calls for agrarian reform,

To fast-track the restoration of a full President Aquino issued Presidential
constitutional government and the writing of a Proclamation 131 and Executive Order 229 on
new charter, President Aquino appointed 48 July 22, 1987, which outlined her land reform
members of the 1986 Constitutional program, which included sugar lands. In 1988,
Commission (Con-Com), led by retired activist with the backing of Aquino, the new Congress
Supreme Court Associate Justice Cecilia Muñoz- of the Philippines passed Republic Act No. 6657,
Palma. The Con-Com completed its final draft in more popularly known as the Comprehensive
October 1986[9] On February 2, 1987, the new Agrarian Reform Law." The law paved the way
Constitution of the Philippines, which put for the redistribution of agricultural lands to
strong emphasis on civil liberties, human rights tenant-farmers from landowners, who were
and social justice, was overwhelmingly paid in exchange by the government through
approved by the Filipino people. The ratification just compensation but were also allowed to
of the new Constitution was followed by the retain not more than five hectares of land.[10]
election of senators and congress that same Corporate landowners were also allowed under
year and the holding of local elections in 1988. the law to "voluntarily divest a proportion of
their capital stock, equity or participation in
Agrarian reform favor of their workers or other qualified
beneficiaries", in lieu of turning over their land
President Corazon Aquino visits IRRI in 1986. to the government for redistribution.[11]
Upon her ascension into power, President Despite the flaws in the law, the Supreme Court
Aquino envisioned agrarian and land reform as upheld its constitutionality in 1989, declaring
the centerpiece of her administration's social that the implementation of the comprehensive
agrarian reform program (CARP), provided by
the said law, was "a revolutionary kind of Burdened with 296 public sector enterprises,
expropriation."[12] plus 399 other nonperforming assets
transferred to the government by the Philippine
Despite the implementation of CARP, Aquino National Bank and the Development Bank of the
was not spared from the controversies that Philippines, the Aquino administration
eventually centered on Hacienda Luisita, a established the Asset Privatization Trust in 1986
6,453-hectare estate located in the Province of to dispose of government-owned and
Tarlac, which was a shared inheritance among government-controlled properties. By early
the Cojuangco clan.[13] She was scored for 1991, the Asset Privatization Trust had sold 230
allowing Hacienda Luisita, which was now assets with net proceeds of P14.3 billion.
owned by the Tarlac Development Corporation, Another seventy-four public sector enterprises
to opt for stock distribution, instead of land that were created with direct government
redistribution. As such, ownership of investment were put up for sale; fifty-seven
agricultural portions of the hacienda were enterprises were sold wholly or in part for a
transferred to the corporation, which in turn, total of about P6 billion. The government
gave its shares of stocks to farmers.[13] designated that about 30 percent of the original
public sector enterprises be retained and
The arrangement remained in force until 2006, expected to abolish another 20 percent. There
when the Department of Agrarian Reform was widespread controversy over the fairness
revoked the stock distribution scheme adopted of the divestment procedure and its potential to
in Hacienda Luisita, and ordered instead the contribute to an even greater concentration of
redistribution of a large portion of the property economic power in the hands of a few wealthy
to the tenant-farmers.[14] The Department families.[15]
stepped into the controversy when in 2004,
violence erupted over the retrenchment of Another example for President Aquino is the
workers in the Hacienda, eventually leaving sequesterment of its Marcos crony-owned radio
seven people dead.[13] and television stations such as the Banahaw
Broadcasting Corporation, Radio Philippines
Privatization Network and Intercontinental Broadcasting
When Aquino assumed the presidency in 1986, Corporation after the 1986 EDSA Revolution. On
P31 billion, slightly more than 25 percent of the July 16 and September 14, 1986, ABS-CBN
government's budget, was allocated to public resumed its operations after 14 years of their
sector enterprises—government-owned or closure. Since then, its TV station DWWX-TV
government-controlled corporations—in the and two radio stations are opened following a
form of equity infusions, subsidies, and loans. re-opening.
Aquino also found it necessary to write off P130
billion in bad loans granted by the government's Media and culture
two major financial institutions, the Philippine Since 1986, Aquino adopted Original Pilipino
National Bank and the Development Bank of the Music by implementing Executive Order No. 255
Philippines, "to those who held positions of issued on July 25, 1987 which broadcasts hourly
power and conflicting interest under Marcos." OPM songs to all FM radio stations in Metro
The proliferation of inefficient and unprofitable Manila and in the provinces regularly to shape
public sector enterprises and bad loans held by up Filipino culture. Singers like Regine
the Philippine National Bank, the Development Velasquez, Randy Santiago, Ogie Alcasid, Gary
Bank of the Philippines, and other government Valenciano, Manilyn Reynes, Donna Cruz and
entities, was a heavy legacy of the Marcos others are contributed to the President's
years. implementation of Filipino music over the
airwaves. Stations like DZOO-FM, DWLS, etc., The country experienced daily power
are adopted hourly OPMs effectively after the disruptions during a period of her
implementation. administration.[16]

After the revolution, she removed Maharlika Corazon Aquino's decision to mothball the
Broadcasting System, a Marcos-owned TV Bataan Nuclear Plant built during the Marcos
network originally ceased transmitting on administration contributed to the power crisis
February 24, 1986 to replace a new network in the 1990s, as the 620 megawatts capacity of
under the brand name People's Television the plant was enough to cover the shortfall at
Network, Inc. (PTNI / PTV-4) in April 1986. In that time.[16]
March 26, 1992, PTNI made a government
broadcaster for the first time under RA 7306 Fidel Ramos
when it was signed. In 1988, GMA Network Economy
unveils the new transmitter called the Tower of Overview
Power located in Barangay Culiat in Quezon City Ramos embarked on an ambitious development
with a grand opening to mark a nationwide plan dubbed "Philippines 2000". Under the
satellite broadcast and for the preparation of a plan, several industries critical to economic
Rainbow satellite. The network becomes an development were privatized, such as
instrument of democracy during the revolution. electricity, telecommunications, banking,
domestic shipping, and oil. The taxation system
Aquino also encouraged the tourism sector to was reformed, and external debt was brought
boost the national economy. Under her six-year to more manageable levels by debt
term, the Department of Tourism launched a restructuring and sensible fiscal management.
program called The Philippines: Fiesta Islands of By 1996, the country's GNP and GDP were
Asia in 1989, offers tourist visits in the country growing at a rate of 7.2 percent and 5.2 percent
to show their natural wonders, to protect their respectively. The annual inflation rate had
indigenous peoples, to preserve heritage sites dropped to 5.9 percent from its high of 9.1
and to contribute historical importance. percent in 1995. By the late 1990s, the
Philippines' economic growth gained favorable
Sports comparisons with other Asian countries such as
Under her administration, Filipino athletes Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, and Malaysia.
brought home several medals in international
sports events. The 1986 Asian Games in Seoul, The Philippine economy took a sharp downturn
South Korea finished with the Philippines in during the Asian financial crisis of 1997. Its fiscal
sixth with 18 medals. In 1988, the 1988 Summer deficit in 1998 reached P49.981 billion from a
Olympics in Seoul, athlete Leopoldo Serantes surplus of P1.564 billion in 1997. The peso
got the bronze medal in the men's light depreciated (fell in value) to P40.89 per U.S.
flyweight division of boxing. Manila was to dollar from its previous rate of P29.47 to a
become the host city of the 1991 Southeast dollar. The annual growth rate of the GNP fell to
Asian Games and the host country finished 0.1 percent in 1998 from 5.3 percent in 1997.
second place to Indonesia. To ensure the Despite these setbacks, the Philippine economy
standards of its athletes, the Philippine Sports fared better than that of some of its Asian
Commission was established in 1990 as an neighbors, and other nations praised the Ramos
institution to train future athletes in sports and administration for its "good housekeeping."[3]
international events.
Philippines 2000
Energy Main article: Philippines 2000
During his administration, Ramos began Philippines' energy sector. Congress not only
implementing economic reforms intended to created the Department of Energy, but gave the
open up the once-closed national economy, president special emergency powers to resolve
encourage private enterprise, invite more the power crisis. Using those powers, Ramos
foreign and domestic investment, and reduce issued licenses to independent power
widespread corruption. Ramos was also known producers (IPP) to provide additional power
as the most-traveled Philippine President plants within 24 months. Ramos issued supply
compared to his predecessors with numerous contracts that guaranteed the government
foreign trips abroad, generating about US$20 would buy whatever power the IPPs produced
billion worth of foreign investments to the under the contract; the contracted prices were
Philippines. To ensure a positive financial denominated in U.S. dollars to entice foreign
outlook on the Philippines, Ramos led the 4th investment in local power plants. Following the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 1997 Asian Financial Crisis however, this
Leaders' Summit in the Philippines on structure became a problem, as the Philippine
November 1996. He also instituted reforms in peso lost half of its value, and the local price for
the tax system which includes a forced increase the contracted electricity essentially doubled.
on VAT (E-VAT law) from 4% to 10% mandated This resulted in the Philippine price of electricity
by World Bank and the International Monetary becoming the second-highest in Asia, after
Fund.[citation needed] Japan.[citation needed]

Under his administration, the Philippines The country was already considered risky by
enjoyed economic growth and stability. His investors due to previous coup attempts by
visions of 'Philippines 2000' led the country into military adventurists led by Gregorio Honasan,
a newly industrialized country in the world and during the term of President Aquino; the almost
the "Tiger Cub Economy in Asia".[4] daily brownouts lasting 4–12 hours also
developed then. The perceived political
Philippines 2000 Five-Point Program: instability and the reduced power supply
severely limited investments and modernization
Peace and Stability in the country. During Ramos' term, the
Economic Growth and Sustainable Development Philippines became a pioneer in the use of
Energy and Power Generation Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) schemes to spur
Environmental Protection development, where, with limited government
Streamlined Bureaucracy financial capability to do such, private investors
Power crisis are invited to build certain government projects
When Ramos was elected in May 1992, the (i.e. tollways, power plants, railways, etc.),
Philippines had been experiencing widespread operate them for a set period of time, and then
rotating power outages, known as "brownouts", transfer ownership to the government. There
for nearly a year; this happened suddenly when was little literature or previous experience with
growing customer demand exceeded the such schemes at the time; with the later
reliable supply of electricity, which was mostly unfavorable changes in the exchange rates and
provided by the government-owned Napocor. It the business environment, some charge that
had been caused by the age and condition of these contracts put a large and undue amount
the existing power plants, as well as the long- of risk on the government and
term lack of continuing investment in the consumers.[citation needed]
energy sector. During his State of the Nation
address on July 27, 1992, he requested that the Death penalty
Congress enact a law that would create an Main article: Capital punishment in the
Energy Department to plan and manage the Philippines
While campaigning for the presidency, Fidel strengthen inter-agency cooperation, and
Ramos declared his support for reinstating the mobilize implementation partners, like the non-
death penalty. Capital punishment was government organizations, local governments,
abolished for all crimes in 1987, making the and the business community.[7] In 1992, the
Philippines the first Asian country to do so. In government acquired and distributed 382
1996 Ramos signed a bill that returned capital hectares of land with nearly a quarter of a
punishment with the electric chair (method million farmer-beneficiaries. This constituted
used from 1923 to 1976, making Philippines the 41% of all land titles distributed by the
only country to do so outside U.S.) "until the gas Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) during
chamber could be installed".[5] However, no the last thirty years. But by the end of 1996, the
one was electrocuted nor gassed, because the DAR had distributed only 58.25% of the total
previously-used chair was destroyed earlier and area it was supposed to cover. From January to
the Philippines adopted the lethal injection. December 1997, the DAR distributed 206,612
Some people were put to death by this means, hectares. That year, since 1987, the DAR had
until the death penalty was reabolished again in distributed a total of 2.66 million hectares
2006. which benefited almost 1.8 million tenant-
Peace with separatists
Ramos, a military general himself, made peace One major problem that the Ramos
with the rebel panels. He was instrumental in administration faced was the lack of funds to
the signing of the final peace agreement support and implement the program.[7] The
between the government and the Moro Php50 million, allotted by R.A. No. 6657 to
National Liberation Front (MNLF) led by Nur finance the CARP from 1988 to 1998, was no
Misuari in 1996. He also ordered the longer sufficient to support the program. To
resumption of peace negotiations with the address this problem, Ramos signed R.A. No.
Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) led by 8532 to amend the Comprehensive Agrarian
Salamat Hashim and the Communist Party of Reform Law (CARL) which further strengthened
the Philippines-National Democratic Front, the CARP by extending the program to another
which operates the New People's Army, led by ten years.[7] Ramos signed this law on February
Jose Maria Sison.[citation needed] 23, 1998 - a few months before the end of
Ramos' term.[7]
Although he battled Communist rebels as a
young lieutenant in the 1950s, Ramos made a Charter change
bold move when he signed into law Republic Among the proposed changes in the
Act 7636, which repealed the Anti-Subversion constitution included a shift to a parliamentary
Law. With its repeal, membership in the once- system and the lifting of term limits of public
outlawed Communist Party of the Philippines officials. Ramos argued that the changes will
became legal.[6] bring more accountability, continuity and
responsibility to the "gridlock" prone Philippine
Agrarian reform version of presidential bicameral system. Some
See also: Land reform in the Philippines politically active religious groups, opposition
The Ramos administration speeded the politicians, business tycoons and left wing
implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian organizations opposed the Charter change
Reform Program (CARP) of former President process that was supposed to lead to a national
Corazon Aquino in order to meet the ten-year referendum. Critics argued that the proposed
time frame. However, there were constraints constitutional changes for one would benefit
such as the need to firm up the database and the incumbent which during that time was
geographic focus, generate funding support, Ramos. On September 21, 1997, a church
organized rally brought in an estimated half a of −0.5 percent in 1998. Debt reached P2.1
million people to Rizal Park.[8] trillion in 1999. Domestic debt amounted to
P986.7 billion while foreign debt stood at
Furthermore, on September 23, 1997, charter US$52.2 billion.[11]
change advocates suffered a setback when the
Supreme Court, under Chief Justice Andres Masa format on radio
Narvasa, narrowly dismissed a petition filed by During his term, Estrada ordered to the
the People's Initiative for Reform, National Telecommunications Commission by
Modernization and Action (PIRMA) that sought the adoption of Filipino language-based radio
to amend the Constitution through a signature format known as masa. Named for his icon
campaign or "People's Initiative". The Supreme Masa (or Masses), all radio stations adopted the
Court dismissed the petition on the grounds masa format effective since 1998, as DJ's
that the People's Initiative mode does not have wanted to replace English language-based
enough enabling law for the proposed revisions stations immediately to air OPM songs and
or amendments in the 1987 constitution. Had requests. After his term in 2001, several FM
the petition been successful, a national stations adopted the masa format nationwide
plebiscite would have been held for proposed until this day.
Saguisag Commission
Estrada With the purpose of investigating the alleged
Economy anomalies of the Ramos administration,
President Joseph Ejercito Estrada created the
President Joseph Ejercito Estrada (7th person "Saguisag Commission" headed by former
from right) during the APEC summit in 2000. Senator Rene Saguisag.[12] Ramos, however,
In 1998, Joseph Estrada was elected president. refused to appear before the commission for he
Even with its strong economic team, the Estrada argued that the jurisdiction lies in the court.[12]
administration failed to capitalize on the gains
of the previous administration. His In the so-called Centennial Expo scam, Mr.
administration was severely criticized for Ramos claimed the Senate committee that
cronyism, incompetence, and corruption, conducted the probe "never closed the case"
causing it to lose the confidence of foreign because it did not issue any final report.
investors. Foreign investors' confidence was Instead, he rued, former President Estrada
further damaged when, in his second year, created an administrative fact-finding
Estrada was accused of exerting influence in an commission headed by former Senator Rene
investigation of a friend's involvement in stock Saguisag. But six former government officials
market manipulation. Social unrest brought during his administration who were implicated
about by numerous bombing threats, actual in the Centennial Expo scam were subsequently
bombings, kidnappings, and other criminal "exonerated" by the Ombudsman in October
activities contributed to the economy's 1998. Former Vice President Salvador Laurel,
troubles. Economic performance was also hurt who chaired the Centennial Expo and was
by climatic disturbance that caused extremes of among the principal accused in this case,
dry and wet weather.[9] Toward the end of however, died before he could be exonerated,
Estrada's administration, the fiscal deficit had Mr. Ramos rued.[12]
doubled to more than P100 billion from a low of
P49 billion in 1998.[10] Despite such setbacks, In the Smokey Mountain case, he said, he
the rate of GNP in 1999 increased to 3.6 appeared in 2000 before the public hearing of
percent from 0.1 percent in 1998, and the GDP the House committee on good government
posted a 3.2 percent growth rate, up from a low chaired by then Rep. Ed Lara whose panel
cleared the project as valid and legal. In 1998, by virtue of Executive Order No.8,
Subsequently, he said, the Supreme Court ruled President Estrada created the Presidential Anti-
13-0, with 2 abstentions, in favor of the project. Organized Crime Task Force (PAOCTF) with the
The SC also upheld the legality and objective of minimizing, if not totally
constitutionality of the project and dismissed eradicating, car theft and worsening[17]
the petition filed against it by Sen. Miriam kidnapping cases in the country.[17] With the
Defensor Santiago.[12] help of this task force, the Philippine National
Police for the first time in history achieved a
In the questioned Masinloc power project, he record-high trust rating of +53 percent.[11]
said, the Joint Congressional Oversight Panfilo Lacson was its first head. He also
Committee looked into the privilege speech of created the Philippine Center on Transnational
then Sen. Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. on Ramos' Crime (PCTC) in 1999, with the objective of
alleged influence that this power plant be sold formulating and implementing a concerted of
to a consortium connected with former action of all law enforcement, intelligence and
Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir other government agencies for the prevention
Muhammad.[12] and control of transnational crime.[18]

Agrarian reform However, in November 2000, during the

The Estrada administration widened the Juetenggate scandal of President Estrada, high
coverage of the Comprehensive Agrarian officials of the PAOCTF – Cesar Mancao,
Reform Program (CARP) to the landless Michael Ray Aquino, Glen Dumlao, and PAOCTF
peasants in the country side.[13] The latter's chief Panfilo Lacson - were implicated in the
administration distributed more than 266,000 murder of publicist Salvador Dacer and his
hectares of land to 175,000 landless farmers, driver Emmanuel Corbito at the Cavite
including land owned by the traditional rural province.[17] Dacer at that time was accused to
elite. (Total of 523,000 hectares to 305,000 be behind a black propaganda against President
farmers during his 2nd year as President).[14] Estrada[17] – a charge Dacer denied.[17]
On September 1999, he issued Executive Order
(EO) 151, also known as Farmer's Trust Fund, Death penalty
which allows the voluntary consolidation of
small farm operation into medium and large Estrada administering the oath to Florentino
scale integrated enterprise that can access long- Floro.
term capital. President Estrada launched the The death penalty law in the Philippines was
Magkabalikat Para sa Kaunlarang Agraryo or reinforced during the incumbency of Estrada's
MAGKASAKA. The DAR forged into joint predecessor, Fidel Ramos. This law provided the
ventures with private investors into agrarian use of the electric chair until the gas chamber
sector to make FBs competitive.[15] In 1999 a (method chosen by government to replace
huge fund was allocated to agricultural electrocution) could be installed. However, the
programs.[16] One of which is the electric chair was destroyed some time prior
"Agrikulturang Maka Masa", through which it due to a typhoon, leaving only a blackened
achieved an output growth of 6 percent, a scorch mark. Some sources have said it had
record high at the time,[11] thereby lowering burnt out the last time it had been used.
the inflation rate from 11 percent in January
1999 to just a little over 3 percent by November However, the first execution by injection took
of the same year.[11] place under Estrada's administration. On
February 5, 1999, Leo Echegaray, a house
Anti-crime Task Forces painter, was executed for repeatedly raping his
stepdaughter. He was the first convict to be
executed since the re-imposition of death
penalty in 1995.[19] As of December 31, 1999, based on the
statistics compiled by the Episcopal Commission
His execution sparked once again a heated on Prisoner Welfare of the Catholic Bishops
debate between the anti and the pro-death Conference of the Philippines, there were a
penalty forces in the Philippines with a huge total of 936 convicts interned at the National
majority of people calling for the execution of Bilibid Prisons and another 23 detained at the
Echegaray. That there was a strong clamor for Correctional Institute for Women. Of these
the imposition of the death penalty should be figures, six are minors and 12 are foreigners.
viewed from the point of view of a citizen who
is desperately seeking ways to stop criminality. Because the Philippines is predominantly
Catholic, Estrada called a moratorium in 2000 to
The Estrada administration peddled the death honor the bimillenial anniversary of Jesus' birth.
penalty as the antidote to crime. The reasoning Executions were resumed a year later.[19]
was that if the criminals will be afraid to commit
crimes if they see that the government is Sovereign guarantees
determined to execute them.[19] The President Estrada immediately ordered the
opposition maintained that the death penalty is removal of all sovereign guarantees on
not a deterrent and that there have been contracts for public projects which would
studies already debunking the deterrence require the sovereign Filipino people to assume
theory. Legislators and politicians refused to the financial losses of private companies doing
heed the recommendation of the Supreme business with the government. Records will
Court for Congress to review the death penalty show that until January 20, 2001, he did not
riding on the popularity of the pro-death sign a single government contract with a
penalty sentiment. sovereign guarantee.[20]

Six years after its re imposition, more than Banknotes

1,200 individuals have been sentenced to death During the Estrada Administration, the practice
and seven convicts have been executed through in use since the Commonwealth, of reproducing
lethal injection. Yet today, there are no signs the signature of the President of the Philippines
that criminality has gone down. over the legend "President of the Philippines"
was abandoned in favor of explicitly stating the
From February 6, 1999, a day after Leo president's name.
Echegaray was executed, to May 31, 1999 two
leading newspapers reported a total of 163 Charter change
crimes which could be punishable by death Main article: Philippines charter change
penalty. But perhaps the best indicator that this Under President Joseph Ejercito Estrada, there
law is not a deterrent to criminality is the ever- was a similar attempt to change the 1987
increasing number of death convicts.[19] constitution. The process is termed as
CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for
From 1994 to 1995 the number of persons on Development. Unlike Charter change under
death row increased from 12 to 104. From 1995 Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal,
to 1996 it increased to 182. In 1997 the total according to its proponents, would only amend
death convicts was at 520 and in 1998 the the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the
inmates in death row was at 781. As of constitution that is considered as impeding the
November 1999 there are a total of 956 death entry of more foreign investments in the
convicts at the National Bilibid Prisons and at Philippines.
the Correctional Institute for Women.
There were once again objections from under controlled by the government. The MILF
opposition politicians, religious sects and left leader Salamat Hashim fled the country and
wing organizations based on diverse arguments went to Malaysia. The MILF later declared a
such as national patrimony and the proposed Jihad on the government. On July 10 of the
constitutional changes would be self-serving. same year, the President went to Minadanao
Like his predecessor, Estrada's government was and raised the Philippine flag symbolizing
accused of pushing Charter change for their victory. After the war the President said, "... will
own vested interests. speed up government efforts to bring genuine
and lasting peace and development in
War against the MILF Mindanao". In the middle of July the president
Overview ordered the military to arrest top MILF
A MILF soldier trains with an M60 machine gun.
During the Ramos administration a cessation of In his state of the nation address, the President
hostilities agreement was signed between the highlighted his vision for Mindanao:
Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic
Liberation Front (MILF) in July 1997. This was The first is to restore and maintain peace in
continued by a series of peace talks and Mindanao—because without peace, there can
negotiations in Estrada administration.[4] be no development.
However the Moro Islamic Liberation Front The second is to develop Mindanao—because
(MILF), an Islamic group formed in 1977, seeks without development, there can be no peace.
to be an independent Islamic State from the The third is to continue seeking peace talks with
Philippines, despite the agreements, a sequence the MILF within the framework of the
of terrorist attacks with the Philippine military Constitution—because a peace agreed upon in
and the civilians still continued.[4] Such of those good faith is preferable to a peace enforced by
attack are 277 violations committed, kidnapping force of arms.
a foreign priest, namely Father Luciano And the fourth is to continue with the
Benedetti, the occupying and setting on fire of implementation of the peace agreement
the municipal hall of Talayan, Maguindanao; the between the government and the Moro
takeover of the Kauswagan Municipal Hall; the National Liberation Front, or MNLF—because
bombing of the Lady of Mediatrix boat at that is our commitment to our countrymen and
Ozamiz City; and the takeover of the Narciso to the international community.
Ramos Highway. By doing so, they inflicted In addition to this the president said his
severe damage on the country's image abroad, administration can move with more speed in
and scared much-needed investments away. In transforming Mindanao into a progressive
addition to this, the Philippine government economic center.[22] High on the list of
learned that the MILF has links with Al- priorities was the plight of MILF guerrillas who
Qaeda.[21] Because of this, on March 21, 2000, were tired of fighting and had no camps left to
President Joseph Ejercito Estrada declared an report to. On October 5, 2000 the first massive
"all-out-war" against the MILF. During the war surrender of 669 MILF mujahideen led by the
the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the renegade vice mayor of Marugong, Lanao del
Philippines (CBCP) asked Estrada to have a Sur Malupandi Cosandi Sarip and seven other
cease-fire with MILF, but Estrada opposed the battalion commanders, surrendered to
idea arguing that a cease-fire would cause more President Joseph Ejercito Estrada at the 4th ID
terrorist attacks. For the next three months of headquarters in Camp Edilberto Evangelista,
the war, Camp Abubakar, headquarters of the Bgy. Patag, Cagayan de Oro City. They were
MILF, fell along with other 13 major camps and followed shortly by a second batch of 855
43 minor camps, and then all of which became
surrenderees led by MILF Commander Sayben
Ampaso on Dec. 29, 2000.[23] On March 21, 2000, then Philippine President
Joseph Ejercito Estrada personally visited
However, the war with the MILF was severely Kauswagan and declared an "all-out war"
criticized by foreign and media observers. In against the MILF. Estrada tasked Cimatu to carry
fact Agriculture Secretary Edgardo Angara out the offensive against the MILF in the Lanao
bridled at the high cost of Mindanao specifically area.
the diversion of resources from military
operations that eat away from the agriculture From March 16 to June 12, 2000, the 4th
modernization program. Angara was quoted as Division captured 15 major MILF camps, 49
saying "What General Reyes asks, he gets". satellite camps, a training base and control
Moreover, the fighting in Mindanao even tower at a cost of 38 soldiers killed and 196
destroyed more than P135 million worth of wounded. MILF casualties totaled 589 killed and
crops and 12,000 hectares of rice and corn 916 wounded.
Cimatu outlined five major operations against
Chronology the enemy. The first of these was Oplan
Main article: 2000 Philippine campaign against SOVEREIGN which called for Task Force
the Moro Islamic Liberation Front Diamond III under Col. Felipe Berroya to attack
On March 15, a combat patrol of the Phil. camps and staging areas of the MILF 303rd
Army's 26th Infantry Battalion stumbled upon Brigade (Camp Jhon-Mack) checkpoint near the
MILF guerrillas in Bgy. Inudaran, Lanao del highway.
Norte, killing two of the rebels. The following
day, 700 rebels of the MILF 303rd Brigade Camp "I did not want the MILF to have time to
Jhon-Mack) led by Abdullah Macapaar, alias regroup themselves", Cimatu said. "Time was
Commander Bravo, swooped down on nine very essential."
Army detachments in Linamon, Bacolod,
Kauswagan and Maigo towns. Marines overran the MILF 303rd Brigade (Camp
Jhon-Mack) outpost check point in Bgy.
On March 17, the rebels occupied the Inudaran on March 19 and Camp John Mack,
Kauswagan town hall, taking more than 400 headquarters of the MILF 303rd Brigade at Bgy.
residents hostage. Delabayen, Kauswagan on March 20.

The Phil. Army's 4th Infantry "Diamond" The following day, Task Force Diamond III
Division under the command of Brig. Gen. Roy captured Famous Camp Bilal, the largest MILF
Cimatu (now Phil. Ambassador to the Middle camp in Lanao del Norte, located in the
East) immediately launched a counterattack. municipality of Munai.

Cimatu mobilized Task Force Inudaran from the Meantime, the Army's 402nd Brigade under Col.
Army 402nd Infantry Brigade and the 1st Samuel Bagasin successfully cleared Bgy.
Marine Brigade under Brig. Gen. Emmanuel Pacalundo after a day of fierce fighting. Apo Hill,
Teodosio which recaptured Kauswagan on the major MILF communications center in the
March 18. The task force also cleared the Iligan- outskirts of Baloi led by Comammder Mike,
Dipolog highway where rebels had set up finally fell to Task Force Diamond III after a
several roadblocks, and set up covering forces month of heavy air and artillery attack on April
to protect vulnerable town centers while far- 26.
flung detachments were forced to hold their
own against the enemy attacks.
Following the success of Oplan SOVEREIGN, While the 1st Marine Brigade secured Camp
Cimatu next moved on to Operation FREEWAY Bushra and re-established government control
designed to clear the Narciso Ramos Highway of in Butig, Cimatu ordered Task Force Diamond,
rebels. The 1st Marine Brigade moved on to the 302nd and 802nd Brigades to clear the
Pualas, Lanao del Sur while Task Force Diamond municipality of Masiu and eastern side of Lake
moved up to Marawi city. In a classic pincer Lanao. This phase of the operation successfully
movement, Task Force Diamond was ordered to defeated the rebels capability to wage in
clear the hilly portions of the highway, the 1st sustained a low-intensity conventional warfare
Marine Brigade the immediate vicinity of the in Northern and Central Mindanao.
highway while the 6th Infantry Division moved
up from the opposite direction in Matanog Up next was Operation SUMMIT, which aimed
town. to destroy all MILF camps north and west of
Camp Abubakar. The 1st Marine Brigade and
As the northern end of the pincer closed in, the 302nd Infantry Brigade launched the attack on
Army's 302nd Infantry Brigade under Col. Allan Camp Abubakar from the north while the 6th
Cabalquinto arrived on May 10 to secure the Infantry Division attacked from the south and
rear areas cleared by Task Force Diamond. On west, with Task Force Diamond in reserve.
May 15, the Narciso Ramos highway was finally
cleared of MILF rebels, in spite of stiff resistance On July 12, 2000, the late MILF chairman
encountered by the 6th Division from rebels Salamat Hashim called for a jihad against all
entrenched in bunkers and trenches along the government forces and installation but few of
highway. the Bangsamoro heeded his call. As the rebels
forces broke up into smaller, disorganized units,
Next on the schedule was Operation SUPREME, MILF guerrillas went on a rampage against
aimed at capturing Camp Bushra in Butig, Lanao helpless civilians, killing 21 farmers in Bgy.
del Sur, the second largest camp and training Sumugot, Bumbaran, Lanao del Sur on July 16,
center of the MILF. It is also the home of the 2001 and another 13 workers of the Maranao
Lanao Area Command headquarters under MILF Plantation, Inc. in Matling, less than a week
Vice Chair Aleem Abdul Azziz Mimbantas and later.
headquarters of the Bangsamoro Islamic Armed
Forces 3rd Field Division. With the fall of Camp Abubakar, the
conventional warfare against the MILF came to
Task Force Diamond initially made a feint an end and the process of reconstructing and
against MILF camps in Marogong, then moved rehabilitating the war-torn areas began.
right abreast of the 1st Marine Brigade which
had moved overland from Balabagan. The High on the list of priorities was the plight of
302nd Infantry Brigade and the newly arrived MILF guerrillas who were tired of fighting and
802nd Infantry Brigade under Col. Nagamora had no camps left to report to. On October 5,
Lomodag followed the two attacking brigades. 2000 the first massive surrender of 669 MILF
On May 28, Camp Bushra finally fell to the mujahideen led by the renegade vice mayor of
combined air-artillery and infantry attacks of Marugong, Lanao del Sur Malupandi Cosandi
the four brigades. Sarip and seven other battalion commanders,
surrendered to former President Joseph Ejercito
This set the stage for Operation SWEEPER, Estrada at the 4th ID headquarters in Camp
aimed at reducing the MILF sphere of influence Edilberto Evangelista, Bgy. Patag, Cagayan de
in Lanao del Sur, particularly in the Basak area Oro city.
around the eastern portion of Lake Lanao.
They were followed shortly by a second batch instead of improving, poverty levels. A
of 855 surrenderees led by MILF Commander comparative 2008 UN report shows that the
Sayben Ampaso on Dec. 29, 2000. Philippines lags behind its Asian neighbors,
Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and China, in
The latest and biggest batch of surrenderees terms of poverty amelioration. The study
formally surrendered to President Gloria reveals that from 2003 up to 2006, the number
Macapagal-Arroyo in Tamparan, Lanao del Sur of poor Filipinos increased by 3.8 million, with
on March 14, 2001, one day to the date from poverty incidence being approximately three
the start of the Mindanao war last March 15, times higher in agricultural communities.[40]
2000 in Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte. With regards the problem of hunger, quarterly
studies by the social polling research firm Social
The 931 surrenderees were led by Macabagol Weather Stations show that the number of
Paudak, brigade commander of the MILF Filipino households suffering from hunger has
Striking Force, 308th MILF Brigade, who also significantly increased during Arroyo's
formally turned over some 506 firearms, plus 20 presidency. Her administration first set the
RPGs, three .50-cal. machineguns, three 60mm record for hunger levels in March 2001, and
mortars and two pump boats. beginning June 2004, broke the record again
seven times. December 2008 figures saw the
Aroyo new record high of 23.7%, or approximately 4.3
Economy million households, of Filipino families
experiencing involuntary hunger.[41]
President Arroyo, President Bush and other
state leaders at the 2004 APEC Trade Summit A controversial expanded value added tax (e-
Arroyo, a practicing economist, made the VAT) law, considered the centerpiece of the
economy the focus of her presidency. Based on Arroyo administration's economic reform
official (National Economic and Development agenda,[42] was implemented in November
Authority) figures, economic growth in terms of 2005, aiming to complement revenue-raising
gross domestic product has averaged 5.0% efforts that could plug the country's large
during the Arroyo presidency from 2001 up to budget deficit. The country aims to balance the
the first quarter of 2008.[36] This is higher than national budget by 2010. The tax measure
in the administration of the previous recent boosted confidence in the government's fiscal
presidents: 3.8% average of Aquino, 3.7% capacity and helped to strengthen the
average of Ramos, and 3.7%[37] average of the Philippine peso, making it East Asia's best
Joseph Estrada administration. The Philippine performing currency in 2005-06.[43] The peso
economy grew at its fastest pace in three strengthened by nearly 20% in 2007, making it
decades in 2007, with real GDP growth by far Asia's best performing currency for the
exceeding 7%.[38] Arroyo's handling of the year, a fact attributed to a combination of
economy has earned praise from former increased remittances from overseas Filipino
"friend" and classmate in Georgetown, ex-US workers and a strong domestic economy.[44]
President Bill Clinton, who cited her "tough
decisions" that put the Philippine economy back Annual inflation reached the 17-year high of
in shape.[39] 12.5 percent in August 2008, up from a record
low of 2.8 percent registered in 2007. It eased
Whether the official economic figures are to 8.8 percent in December 2008 as fuel and
accurate, or how they translate to improving energy prices went down.[45]
lives of the citizens, however, is debatable.
Studies made by the United Nations (UN) and
local survey research firms show worsening,
The managing director of the World Bank, Juan Force Usig, a special police unit tasked to probe
Jose Daboub, criticized the administration for reported extra-judicial killings, by state run
not doing enough to curb corruption.[46][47] death squads counts 115 murders and says
most of these are the result of an internal purge
Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a by communist rebels.[54] Human rights groups
controversial policy of holiday economics, put the number as high as 830.
adjusting holidays to form longer weekends
with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism These violations were alleged to have been
and allowing Filipinos more time with their committed against left-leaning organizations
families.[48] and party-list groups including BAYAN, Bayan
Muna and Anakpawis. These organizations
Charter change accuse the Philippine National Police and
In 2005, Arroyo initiated a movement for an Armed Forces of the Philippines for the deaths
overhaul of the constitution to transform the of these political opponents. Arroyo has
present presidential-bicameral republic into a condemned political killings "in the harshest
federal parliamentary-unicameral form of possible terms" and urged witnesses to come
government.[49] At her 2005 State of the forward. "The report, which Melo submitted to
Nation Address, she claimed "The system Arroyo last month, reportedly linked state
clearly needs fundamental change, and the security forces to the murder of militants and
sooner the better. It's time to start the great recommended that military officials, notably
debate on Charter Change".[50] retired major general Jovito Palparan, be held
liable under the principle of command
In late 2006, the House of Representatives responsibility for killings in their areas of
shelved a plan to revise the constitution assignment."[55][56] [57] [58] [59]
through constituent assembly.[51]
General Palparan who retired September 11,
Executive Order No. 464 and calibrated 2006 has been appointed by President Arroyo
preemptive response to be part of the Security Council. This has
In late September 2005, Arroyo issued an alarmed left-leaning political parties about the
executive order stating that demonstrations potential for human rights violations.[60]
without permits would be pre-emptively
stopped. Then members of the military testified An independent commission was assembled in
in Congressional hearings that they were August 2006 to investigate the killings. Headed
defying a direct order not to testify about their by former Supreme Court Justice Jose Melo, the
knowledge of the election scandal. There is the group known as the Melo Commission
issuance of Executive Order No. 464 forbidding concluded that most of the killings were
government officials under the executive instigated by the Armed Forces of the
department from appearing in congressional Philippines, but found no proof linking the
inquiries without President Arroyo's prior murder of activists to a "national policy" as
consent.[52] These measures were challenged claimed by the left-wing groups. On the other
before the Supreme Court, which apparently hand, the report "linked state security forces to
declared some sections as unconstitutional. the murder of militants and recommended that
military officials, notably retired major general
Human rights Jovito Palparan, be held liable under the
A May 2006 Amnesty International report principle of command responsibility for killings
expressed concern over the sharp rise in in their areas of assignment."[54] Stricter anti-
vigilante killings of militant activists and terror laws have also caused some concern in
community workers in the Philippines.[53] Task recent years.
pursuit of political beliefs." The National
Under Arroyo's government, the Philippines has Committee on Social Integration (NCSI) will
become second only to Iraq as the world's issue a Certificate of Amnesty to qualified
riskiest place to report the news, with 23 applicants. Implementing rules and regulations
journalists killed since 2003[61] are being drafted and the decree will be
submitted to the Senate of the Philippines and
In her July 23, 2007 State of the Nation Address, the House of Representatives for their
Arroyo has set out her agenda for her last three concurrence. The proclamation becomes
years in office, and called for legislation to deal effective only after Congress has concurred.[65]
with a spate of political killings that have
brought international criticism to her No ‘wang-wang’ policy
presidency. She promised to bring peace to the During the inaugural address, Aquino created
troubled south, and also defended a the no ‘wang-wang’ policy, strengthening the
controversial new anti-terrorism legislation. implementation of Presidential Decree No.
Arroyo told the joint session of Congress that "I 96.[20][21] The term ‘wang-wang’ is a street
would rather be right than popular."[62] lingo for blaring sirens.[22] Presidential Decree
Lawmakers and lawyers, however, were No. 96 was issued on January 13, 1973 by
dismayed by the SONA's failure to highlight and former President Ferdinand Marcos, regulating
address this major hindrance to human rights. the use of sirens, bells, whistles, horns and
Specifically, the Alternative Law Groups (ALG) other similar devices only to motor vehicles
echoed the lawmakers’ position that Mrs designated for the use of the President, Vice
Arroyo failed to take responsibility for the President, Senate President, House Speaker,
problem.[63] Chief Justice, Philippine National Police, Armed
Forces of the Philippines, National Bureau of
In 2007, incidences of extrajudicial killings Investigation, Land Transportation Office,
dropped 87%, with the decline attributed to the Bureau of Fire Protection and
creation of a special task force to handle the ambulances.[20][21] However, despite having
killings.[64] the privilege of using ‘wang-wang’, Aquino
maintained he would set the example for his no
‘wang-wang’ policy, not to use ‘wang-wang’,
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo visited by United even if it means being stuck in traffic and being
States Marines late every now and then.[23][24] Aquino also
Amnesty proclamation traded the official black presidential Mercedes
On September 5, 2007, President Gloria Benz S-Guard limousine for a white Toyota Land
Macapagal-Arroyo signed Amnesty Cruiser 200.[23] After the inaugural address, the
Proclamation 1377 for members of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
Communist Party of the Philippines and its began to enforce Aquino's no ‘wang-wang’
armed wing, the New People's Army; other policy, confiscating ‘wang-wang’ from public
communist rebel groups; and their umbrella officials and private motorists who illegally used
organization, the National Democratic Front. them.[21]
The amnesty will cover the crime of rebellion
and all other crimes "in pursuit of political Formation of a truth commission
beliefs," but not including crimes against On June 29, 2010, Aquino announced the
chastity, rape, torture, kidnapping for ransom, formation of a truth commission that will
use and trafficking of illegal drugs and other investigate various issues including corruption
crimes for personal ends and violations of allegations against outgoing President Gloria
international law or convention and protocols Macapagal-Arroyo. Aquino named former Chief
"even if alleged to have been committed in Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. to head the truth
commission.[25] However, the Supreme Court On September 1, 2010, Aquino implemented
struck down the said commission because it Executive Order No. 5, signed on August 25,
"violates the equal protection clause of the 2010, an executive order amending Executive
constitution". Order No. 594, signed by former President
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on December 20,
Executive orders 2006, stating the rules governing the
On July 30, 2010, Aquino signed Executive appointment or designation and conduct of
Order No. 1, creating the Truth special envoys.[32] Executive Order No. 5
Commission.[26] The commission is tasked to prevents special envoys from using the title
investigate various anomalies and issues "ambassador".[32]
including graft and corruption allegations
against the past administration, government On September 2, 2010, Aquino signed Executive
officials and their accomplices in the private Order No. 6, extending the duration of the
sector during the last nine years.[26] The operations of the Presidential Middle East
commission has until December 31, 2012 to Preparedness Committee (PMEPC) to December
complete its mission.[26] Chief Justice Hilario 30, 2010.[33]
Davide, Jr. will head the commission.[26]
On September 8, 2010, Aquino signed Executive
On August 4, 2010, Aquino implemented Order No. 7, ordering the suspension of all
Executive Order No. 2, signed on July 30, 2010, allowances, bonuses and incentives of board
ordering the immediate removal of all midnight members of government-owned and-controlled
appointments made by the previous corporations (GOCCs) and government financial
administration for violating the 60-day institutions (GFIs) until December 31, 2010.[34]
constitutional ban on presidential appointments
before a national election.[27] On September 9, 2010, Aquino signed Executive
Order No. 8, reorganizing and renaming the
On August 6, 2010, Aquino implemented Build-Operate and Transfer Center (BOT) to the
Executive Order No. 3, signed on July 30, 2010, Public-Private Partnership Center (PPP) and
an executive order revoking Executive Order transferring its attachment from the
No. 883, signed by former President Gloria Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to the
Macapagal-Arroyo on May 28, 2010, that National Economic and Development Authority
automatically promoted lawyers in government (NEDA).[35]
executive service to the rank of Career
Executive Service Officer III (CESO III).[28] On October 1, 2010, Aquino signed Executive
Order No. 9, amending Section 1 of Executive
On August 9, 2010, Aquino implemented Order No. 67, signed by former President Gloria
Executive Order No. 4, signed on July 30, 2010, Macapagal-Arroyo on January 22, 2002, and
reorganizing and renaming the Office of the reorganizing the Presidential Commission on
Press Secretary as the Presidential the Visiting Forces Agreement created under
Communications Operations Office Executive Order No. 199, signed by former
(PCOO),[29][30] and creating the Presidential President Joseph Estrada on January 17, 2000.
Communications Development and Strategic
Planning Office (PCDSPO).[29][30] Aquino On October 2, 2010, Aquino signed Executive
appointed former ABS-CBN News Channel Order No. 10, declaring October 2, 2010 as the
(ANC) anchor Ricky Carandang and Herminio Nationwide Philhealth Registration Day (NPRD)
Coloma as secretaries of the new media and directing the Department of Health (DOH)
communications group.[30][31] to lead concerned government agencies to
facilitate the nationwide Philhealth registration.
the SOCCSKSARGEN Area Development Office
On November 8, 2010, Aquino signed Executive (ADPO) from January 2010 to December 2016.
Order No. 11, transferring the National
Commission on Indigenous Peoples from the On December 22, 2010, Aquino signed
Department of Environment and Natural Executive Order No. 17, forming the EDSA
Resources (DENR) to the Office of the President. People Power Commission, designated to
organize the nationwide celebrations
On November 9, 2010, Aquino signed Executive commemorating the 25th anniversary of the
Order No. 12, delegating to the Executive 1986 People Power Revolution.
Secretary the power to approve compromises
or releases of any interest, penalty or civil On December 30, 2010, Aquino signed
liability to the Social Security System (SSS) Executive Order No. 19, extending the
pursuant to Section 4(6) of Republic Act No. suspension of the grant of allowances and other
8282, otherwise known as the Social Security incentives to members of the Board of
Act of 1997. Directors/Trustees of Government-Owned and
Controlled Corporations (GOCCs) and
On November 15, 2010, Aquino signed Government Financial Institutions (GFIs).
Executive Order No. 13, abolishing the
Presidential Anti-Graft Commission (PAGC) and On January 6, 2011, Aquino signed Executive
transferring its investigative, adjudicatory and Order No. 20, extending the duration of
recommendatory functions to the Office of the operation of the Presidential Middle East
Deputy Executive Secretary for Legal Affairs and Preparedness Committee (PMECC), led by
the Office of the President. Special Envoy Roy Cimatu, to June 30, 2011.

On November 19, 2010, Aquino signed On January 14, 2011, Aquino signed Executive
Executive Order No. 14, transferring the control Orders No. 21 and 22, reducing the rate of
and supervision of the Philippine Charity import duty on milling wheat, cement and
Sweepstakes Office (PCSO) from the cement clinker to zero under Section 104 of the
Department of Health (DOH) to the Office of the Presidential Decree No. 1464, otherwise as the
President. Tariff and Customs Code of 1978.[36]

On December 9, 2010, Aquino signed Executive On February 1, 2011, Aquino signed Executive
Order No. 18, abolishing agencies under the Order No. 23, declaring a moratorium on the
Office of the President such as the Presidential cutting and harvesting of timber in the natural
Anti-Smuggling Group (PASG) and the Office of and residual forests and creating the Anti-Illegal
the Presidential Adviser on Global Warming and Logging Task Force.
Climate Change.
On February 10, 2011, Aquino signed Executive
On December 20, 2010, Aquino signed Order No. 24, which prescribed rules to govern
Executive Order No. 15, granting combat the compensation of members of the Board of
allowance to uniformed members of the Armed Directors/Trustees in Government-Owned
Forces of the Philippines (AFP) who are directly Controlled Corporations (GOCCs) and
involved in combat operations against members Government Financial Institutions (GFIs).
of National Security Threat Groups.
On February 24, 2011, Aquino signed Executive
On December 21, 2010, Aquino signed Order No. 26, declaring the implementation of a
Executive Order No. 16, extending the term of National Greening Program (NGP). The NGP will
plant some 1.5 billion trees covering about 1.5
million hectares for a period of six years, from Aquino and the people, getting feedback from
2011 to 2016. the people, telling Aquino their woes and
On February 28, 2011, Aquino signed Executive
Order No. 27, implementing the reduction of PAGASA ‘Reorientation’
real property taxes and interest/penalties On July 14, 2010, the National Disaster
assessed on the power generation facilities of Coordinating Council (NDCC) called an
independent power producers under build- emergency meeting in Camp Aguinaldo to
operate transfer contracts with Government- assess the damage caused by Typhoon
Owned and Controlled Corporations in Quezon. Basyang.[39] Aquino attended the meeting to
obtain information on the damage caused by
On March 14, 2011, Aquino signed Executive Typhoon Basyang and to personally monitor the
Order No. 28, reorganizing the Single repair and recovery work in the aftermath of
Negotiating Panel into the Philippine Air the typhoon.[39] In the meeting, Aquino
Negotiating Panel and the Philippine Air criticized the Philippine Atmospheric,
Consultation Panel, mandated by the Philippine Geophysical and Astronomical Services
government's Domestic and International Civil Administration (PAGASA) for failing to predict
Aviation Liberalization Policy. and to warn the residents of Metro Manila that
Typhoon Basyang would ravage Metropolitan
On March 14, 2011, Aquino signed Executive Manila.[39][40]
Order No. 29, authorizing the Civil Aeronautics
Board and the Philippine Air Panels to "pursue On August 6, 2010, Aquino announced the
more aggressively" the International Civil removal of Prisco Nilo as administrator of
Aviation Liberalization Policy. PAGASA.[41] PAGASA was directly under
Department of Science and Technology (DOST)
On March 14, 2011, Aquino also signed Undersecretary for Research and Development
Executive Order No. 30, transferring the Land (R&D) Graciano Yumul.[41] A special order from
Registration Authority (LRA) from the DOST Secretary Mario Montejo, dated August 5,
Department of Environment and Natural 2010, designated Yumul as PAGASA
Resources (DENR) to the Department of Justice administrator, replacing Nilo.[41] On August 7,
(DOJ). 2010, Malacañang announced that Yumul will
be heading PAGASA temporarily, for only three
Hourly broadcast of original Filipino musical months, as PAGASA will undergo a
compositions on radio "reorientation" to improve its services.[42]
On August 14, 2010, Aquino directed the Aquino has yet to name the new administrator
Department of Transportation and who will permanently head PAGASA.[42]
Communications (DOTC) and the National
Telecommunications Commission (NTC) to fully Education reform
implement Executive Order No. 255, issued on During Aquino's first State of the Nation
July 25, 1987 by former President Corazon Address (SONA), Aquino announced his
Aquino, requiring all radio stations to broadcast intention to reform the education system in the
a minimum of four original Filipino musical Philippines by shifting to K–12 education, a 12-
compositions every hour.[37] year basic education cycle.[43] K–12 education
is used in the United States, Canada, and
Launch of official presidential website Australia.
On August 16, 2010, Aquino launches his official
presidential website. The presidential website's Reproductive health
aim is to create communication between
On September 30, 2010, Bishop Nereo Duterte Nomics
Odchimar of Tandag, head of the Catholic Background
Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP), Finance secretary Carlos Dominguez has said
said that Aquino might face excommunication that the government required what he
from the Catholic Church for supporting the describes as an "audacious" economic strategy
Reproductive Health Bill, the plan to distribute in order for the Philippines to "catch up with its
and give Filipino couples the choice to use more vibrant neighbors" by 2022 and help it
contraceptives for artificial birth control.[44] achieve high-income economy status within a
However, despite the possibility of generation. The term DuterteNomics was
excommunication, Aquino said that he is not coined to describe the economic policy of the
changing his position on contraceptive use.[44] Duterte administration. The term also refers to
In January 2013, Aquino signed legislation the series of forums where Duterte's economic
which funds contraceptives for poor individuals; team pitches the administration's plan to help
the law has been challenged in the Philippine the country become a high-middle-income
Supreme Court.[45] economy by 2022.[2]

Duterte The policy was unveiled on April 18, 2017, by

Domestic policies the Department of Finance and the Presidential
Communications Operations Office (PCOO), in
This section is in a list format that may be better cooperation with the Center for Strategy,
presented using prose. You can help by Enterprise and Intelligence (CenSEI) in a forum
converting this section to prose, if appropriate. held at Conrad Manila in Pasay. A second forum
Editing help is available. (December 2017) was held on April 25, 2017.[2]
Political positions of Rodrigo Duterte
Philippine Drug War - War on Illegal Drugs DuterteNomics was also pitched abroad,
Proclamation No. 55 - Declaring a "State of particularly at the 2017 World Economic Forum
Lawless Violence" in Mindanao after the 2016 on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in
Davao City bombing Cambodia and at the sidelines of the 2017 One
Proclamation No. 216- Declaring Martial Law in Belt One Road Forum for International
Mindanao Cooperation in Beijing, China.[2]
List of executive orders by Rodrigo Duterte
DuterteNomics - socioeconomic policies of Ten-point agenda
President Rodrigo Duterte, includes the The economics team of then President-elect
development of infrastructure (The Build Build Rodrigo Duterte presented the following points
Build Program) and industries. of Duterte's socioeconomic policy in a business
Pushing for Federalism in the Philippines forum in Davao on June 2016.[3]
Maintaining Economic Growth by 6.9% in 2017. DuterteNomics is anchored on these ten
Bangsamoro peace process principles.[2]
Declaring Communist Party of the Philippines
and the New People's Army as Terrorist Continue and maintain current macroeconomic
Organizations policies, including fiscal, monetary, and trade
Firing/Sacking Government Officials for policies.
Alleged/Supposed Corruption Institute progressive tax reform and more
Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion effective tax collection, indexing taxes to
(TRAIN) [42] inflation.
Burial of Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng Increase competitiveness and the ease of doing
mga Bayani business.
Accelerate annual infrastructure spending to
account for 5% of GDP, with Public-Private
Partnerships playing a key role.
Promote rural and value chain development
toward increasing agricultural and rural
enterprise productivity and rural tourism.
Ensure security of land tenure to encourage
investments, and address bottlenecks in land
management and titling agencies.
Invest in human capital development, including
health and education systems, and match skills
and training.
Promote science, technology, and the creative
arts to enhance innovation and creative
Improve social protection programs, including
the government's Conditional Cash Transfer
Strengthen implementation of the Responsible
Parenthood and Reproductive Health Law.
Build! Build! Build! Infrastructure Plan
Part of DuterteNomics is the Build! Build! Build!
Infrastructure Plan which according to the
administration will usher in the "Golden Age of
Infrastructure". The goals of the program are to
reduce poverty, encourage economic growth
and reduce congestion in Metro Manila.[4]

Associated projects
Transportation related projects
Metro Manila Subway[5]
Binondo-Intramuros Bridge[6]
Estrella-Pantaleon Bridges[6]
Phase 1 of Mindanao Railway (Tagum-Davao-
Digus Segment)[7]
Clark International Airport expansion[8]
Extension of Malolos-Clark Railway[9]
South East Metro Manila Expressway[10]
Non-transportation related projects
Kaliwa Dam[9]
Cavite Industrial Area Flood Risk