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DRILLING, REAMING & TAPPING

In each of these operations we are producing one or the other kind of hole either blind or
through. Drilling Reaming or Tapping isn’t a really tricky operation, but there are certainly some
precautions you need to take. The first step in any venture lies in knowing exactly what you need
to do. Drilling Reaming or Tapping metal requires the right drill bit, the right measurements and
the right amount of patience.

Layout-Very first step will be laying out the positions of these holes.

Producing centre marks. The process is called centre punching. Centre punching will produce a
small indentation at the given position. The mark will help to start the drill hole at a certain
position.


 
Drilling,
A drill bit enters the workpiece axially and cuts a blind hole or a through hole with a diameter
equal to that of the tool. A drill bit is a multi-point tool and typically has a pointed end. A twist
drill is the most commonly used, but other types of drill bits, such as a center drill, spot drill, or
tap drill can be used to start a hole that will be completed by another operation.

 Secure the piece that you want to drill with a vise or a clamp so it can’t slip. You’ll need
both of your hands to keep the drill steady as well, since you’ll be drilling slowly.
 Use good-quality drill bits that are clearly labeled "high speed steel"
o that are sharp
o a golden titanium nitride finish on the bits are better.
 Use cutting oil.
 A pilot hole is a good idea for larger holes.
 Drill straight down into the metal, at a 90-degree angle when drilling with hand-drill.
o If you drill at an angle, you are more likely to break your drill bit - especially with
the smaller sizes.
 Use firm downward pressure.
o Too little pressure and you will just spin around without cutting.
 If the metal or drill-bit starts to discolor, it is overheating - Stop!
 If it takes too long, it's probably not working - Stop!
 Ease up on downward pressure when drill is about to go through, when drilling through
holes.
 When drilling deep holes, you need to bring the drill out of the hole more often to
evacuate chips.

If you are just not making progress, the metal might be too hard. Worse, your continued efforts
to drill the metal might be making it harder! (This is called "work-hardening”).


 
Feed & Speed for Drilling,

It is best to start with a moderate speed and feed, increasing either one, or both, after observing
the action and condition of the drill.

Recommended feeds of various diameter drills (HSS)


Diameter of Drill - Inches Feed Inches per Revolution
Under 1/8 .001 to .003
1/8 to 1/4 .002 to .006
1/4 to 1/2 .004 to .010
1/2 to 1 inch .007 to .015
1 inch and over .015 to .025

RPM Chart for HSS drills

Online Feed & Speed calculator.


http://www.custompartnet.com/calculator/drilling-speed-and-feed

Concept of calculation of feed and speed is exactly the same as Lathe machine of Milling
machine.


 
Drill Geometry,

Drill Kinds,

Straight Shank

Stepdown Shank

Tapered Shank & Sleeves

Note! Extra-long drills are also available in all kinds and designs.


 
Drill Sizes (Diameteer),

SAE (Staandard Amerrican Equivaalent) drill siizes have thrree series.

 Number
N sizess #80 to #1
 Letter
L sizes “AA” to “Z”
 Fractional sizzes 1/64 to 31/32

Metric drrill sizes are defined by its


i diameter in decimal nnumbers. Moost commonn sizes starts from
0.5mm too 25mm. Chart on the fo ollowing pag
ge covers all SAE and M
Metric sizes & shows decimal
equivalen
nts in inchess of all these sizes.

Centre Drilling-
D Traaditional twist drill bits may
m tend to w wander wheen started onn an unpreparred
surface. Once
O a bit wanders
w off-ccourse it is difficult
d to brring it back oon center. A center drill bit
frequentlly provides a reasonable starting poin nt as it is shoort and thereefore has a reeduced tenddency
to wandeer when drilling is started d. Center driill bits are ussed in metallworking to pprovide a staarting
hole for a larger-sized drill bit orr to make a conical
c indenntation in a wworkpiece.

Centre drrill bits are classified


c by # sizes. Tab
ble below rellative dimennsions of most commonlyy
used centter drills.


 
Decimal Equivalents of SAE and Metric sizes

Englis Metri Decim Englis Metri Decim Englis Metri Deci Englis Metric Deci
h c al h c al h c mal h mal

.. .1 .0039 45 2.08 .0820 5 5.22 .2055 7/16 11.11 .4375


.2 .0079 44 2.18 .0860 4 5.31 .2090 29/64 11.51 .4531
.. .3 .0118 43 2.26 .0890 3 5.41 .2130 15/32 11.91 .4687
80 .34 .0135 42 2.37 .0935 7/32 5.56 .2187 .. 12.0 .4724
79 .37 .0145 3/32 2.38 .0937 2 5.61 .2210 31/64 12.30 .4844
1/64 .40 .0156 41 2.44 .0960 1 5.79 .2280 1/2 12.70 .5000
.. . .0157 40 2.50 .0980 A 5.94 .2340 .. 13. .5118
78 .41 .0160 39 2.53 .0995 15/64 5.95 .2344 33/64 13.10 .5156
77 .46 .0180 38 2.58 .1015 .. 6.0 .2362 17/32 13.49 .5312
. .5 .0197 37 2.64 .1040 B 6.05 .2380 35/64 13.89 .5469
76 .51 .0200 36 2.71 .1065 C 6.15 .2420 .. 14.0 .5512
75 .53 .0210 7/64 2.78 .1094 D 6.25 .2460 9/16 14.29 .5625
74 .0225 35 2.79 .1100 1/4 6.35 .2500 37/64 14.68 .5781
. . .0236 34 2.82 .1110 F 6.53 .2570 .. 15.0 .5906
73 .61 .0240 33 2.87 .1130 G 6.63 .2610 19/32 15.08 .5937
72 .64 .0250 32 2.95 .1160 17/64 6.75 .2656 39/64 15.48 .6094
71 .66 .0260 .. 3.0 .1181 H 6.76 .2660 5/8 15.88 .6250
.. .7 .0276 31 3.05 .1200 I 6.91 .2720 .. 16.0 .6299
70 .71 .0280 1/8 3.18 .1250 .. 7.0 .2756 41/64 16.27 .6406
69 .74 .0292 30 3.26 .1285 J 7.04 .2770 21/32 16.67 .6562
68 .79 .0310 29 3.45 .1360 K 7.14 .2810 .. 17.0 .6693
1/32 .79 .0312 28 3.57 .1405 9/32 7.14 .2812 43/64 17.07 .6719
.. .8 .0315 9/64 3.57 .1406 L 7.37 .2900 11/16 17.46 .6875
67 .81 .0320 27 3.66 .1440 M 7.49 .2950 45/64 17.86 .7031
66 .84 .0330 26 3.73 .1470 19/64 7.54 .2969 .. 18.0 .7087
65 .89 .0350 25 3.80 .1495 N 7.67 .3020 23/32 18.26 .7187
. .9 .0354 24 3.86 .1520 5/16 7.94 .3125 47/64 18.65 .7344
64 .91 .0360 23 3.91 .1540 .. 8.0 .3150 .. 19.0 .7480
63 .94 .0370 5/32 3.97 .1562 O 8.03 .3160 3/4 19.05 .7500
62 .97 .0380 22 3.99 .1570 P 8.20 .3230 49/64 19.45 .7656
61 .99 .0390 .. 4.0 .1575 21/64 8.33 .3281 25/32 19.84 .7812
.. 1. .0394 21 4.04 .1590 Q 8.43 .3320 .. 20.0 .7874
60 1.02 .0400 20 4.09 .1610 R 8.61 .3390 51/64 20.24 .7969
59 1.04 .0410 19 4.22 .1660 11/32 8.73 .3437 13/16 20.64 .8125
58 1.07 .0420 18 4.31 .1695 S 8.84 .3480 .. 21.0 .8268
57 1.09 .0430 11/64 4.37 .1719 .. 9.0 .3543 53/64 21.03 .8281
56 1.18 .0465 17 4.39 .1730 T 9.09 .3580 27/32 21.43 .8437
3/64 1.19 .0469 16 4.50 .1770 23/64 9.13 .3594 55/64 21.84 .8594
55 1.32 .0520 15 4.57 .1800 U 9.35 .3680 .. 22.0 .8661
54 1.40 .0550 14 4.62 .1820 3/8 9.53 .3750 7/8 22.23 .8750
53 1.51 .0595 13 4.70 .1850 V 9.56 .3770 57/64 22.62 .8906
1/16 1.59 .0625 3/16 4.76 .1875 W 9.80 .3860 .. 23.0 .9055
52 1.61 .0635 12 4.80 .1890 25/64 9.92 .3906 29/32 23.02 .9062
51 1.70 .0670 11 4.85 .1910 .. 10.0 .3937 59/64 23.42 .9219
50 1.78 .0700 10 4.91 .1935 X 10.08 .3970 15/16 23.81 .9375
49 1.85 .0730 9 4.98 .1960 Y 10.26 .4040 .. 24.0 .9449
48 1.93 .0760 .. 5.0 .1968 13/32 10.32 .4062 61/64 24.21 .9531
5/64 1.98 .0781 8 5.05 .1990 Z 10.49 .4130 31/32 24.61 .9687
47 1.99 .0785 7 5.11 .2010 27/64 10.72 .4219 .. 25.0 .9842
.. 2. .0787 13/64 5.16 .2031 .. 11.0 .4331 63/64 25.0 .9844
46 2.06 .0810 6 5.18 .2040 1 25.40 1.000


 
Deburrring & Chamfering,,
When a hole
h is drilled into a worrk piece, usuually a roughh edge will apppear aroundd the top of the
hole. Cou untersink or deburring g tool can remove these rough edgess and put a chamfer betw ween
the hole and
a the surfaace into which the hole was
w drilled. Sometimes tthis is a safeety measure other
times it is needed. Deeburring can
n be dne by a hand deburrring-tool orr by counterssink-tools onn the
machine..

Hand deb
burring toolss

Chamfer is a small anngled surfacce added to an


a edge of a w workpiece. A chamfer rremoves the
sharp edg
ge and helpss eliminate burrs. Chamffer has certaiin dimensionn. Usually coountersink toools
are used for chamferiing. Chamfeering tools co
omes in variiety of differrent sizes andd kinds theyy all
have 45 degrees
d anglle.


 
Countersinking,
Another use of these tools is to make countersink on a hole for fastening countersink type
screws. In this case chamfer (which is called countersink here) should be deep enough to seat the
screw-head properly, so that head sits below the surface when tightened. Countersinks are
available in different angles. Most common ones are 90 and 60 degrees included angle.

Counterboring,
A flat-bottomed cylindrical enlargement of the mouth of a hole, usually of slight depth, as for
receiving a cylindrical screw head.
Counterbores are made with standard dimensions for a certain size of screw. The tip of the
counterbore has a reduced diameter section referred to as the pilot, a feature essential to assuring
concentricity between the counterbore and the hole being counterbored. Counterbores matched to
specific screw sizes generally have integral pilots that fit the clearance hole diameter associated
with a particular screw size (e.g., 0.191 inches for a number 10 machine screw).


 
 

Guide at the front of a counterboring tool is normaly two fractional sizes bigger than the given screw 
size, for example if we are counterboring for a 1/4 screw the guide diameter will be 9/32 (0.281), so it is 
very imprtant that the drilled hole is right size otherwise the counterboring tool will jam and break. 

Tapping,
A tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal threads into an existing hole. The existing
hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. The
tap is selected based on the major diameter and pitch of the threaded hole. Threads may be cut to
a specified depth inside the hole (bottom tap) or the complete depth of a through hole (through
tap).

Let us look at the three main component of a thread (1) Major Dia (2) Minor Dia, (3) Pitch

For tapping or internal threads we should drill a hole equal or slightly bigger than minor diameter
of a given thread size bofore comencing for tapping. For external or mail threads we will
premachine a boss or rod equal or slightle smaller than given thread size and then run a
“Threading Die” to machine threads.

To make life easier charts are avilible to find out the right drill size for a given tap. First let us
look at thread-pitch series. (What is Right hand & Left hand threads) no no not our topic here.


 
National Course threads (UNC or NC)- Coarse threads are those with larger pitch (fewer
threads per axial distance like 1/4-20 or 1/2 -13. This is most commonly used series.

National Fine threads (UNF or NF)- Fine threads are those with smaller on finer pitch (more
threads per axial distance like 1/4-28 or 1/2 -20

Hand Taps Machine Tap

National Pipe threads (NPT)- NPT is US standard for tapered threads used on threaded pipes
and fittings. The taper rate for all NPT threads is 1⁄16 (3⁄4 inch per foot) measured by the change of
diameter (of the pipe thread) over distance. The angle between the taper and the center axis of
the pipe is 1° 47’. Threaded pipes can provide an effective seal for pipes transporting liquids,
gases, steam, and hydraulic fluid. These threads are now used in materials other than steel and
brass, including PVC, nylon, bronze and cast iron. The taper on NPT threads allows them to
form a seal when torqued as the flanks of the threads compress against each other.

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Tap identification- If a tap label reads 1/4-20 or M10 x 1.5 what does it mean?

First number 1/4 or M10 always represents major diameter of the thread, second part indicated
the pitch, in SAE it is thread per inch and in metric it is distance between two threads. Sometime
we see NC or NF mentioned in the label as well. NC or NF are available in Metric taps as well.
In NPT threads are identified by fractional size but this size do not relate to any of the
dimensions on the actual threads, 1/8 NPT threads will have 0.405 major diameter and 27 threads
per inch. NPT threads do not have coarse and fine series.

Tapping Steps,

 Identified right size drill for the tap


 Machine a hole
 Machine a chamfer at the opening of the hole. Chamfer should be slightly bigger than
nominal size of the tap i.e. 1/4 or 10mm. Chamfer will help the tap to align and guide.
 Run “Tapper” then “Plug” and then “Bottoming” taps, if available. Lot of time on Plug-
tap is used.
 Make sure tap is perpendicular to the surface, Care is needed specially at the start.

Note! Extreme care is needed when tapping. Taps are extremely hard and brittle and can snap
very easily. Use cutting fluid and run tap progressively.

Tap Handles

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Tap Drill Chart SAE
NC (National Coarse)

Tap size Screw Tap drill size clearance drill


major dia. for 75% .dia
#0-80 0.060 3/64 (.0469) 50 (.0700)
#1-64 0.073 53 (.0595) 46 (.0810)
#2-56 0.086 50 (.0700) 41 (.0960)
#3-48 0.099 47 (.0785) 35 (.1100)
#4-40 0.112 43 (.0890) 30 (.1285)
#5-40 0.125 38 (.1015) 29 (.1360)
#6-32 0.138 36 (.1065) 25 (.1495)
#8-32 0.164 29 (.1360) 16 (.1770)
#10-24 0.190 25 (.1495) 7 (.2010)
#12-24 0.216 16 (.1770) 1 (.2280)
1/4-20 .2500 7 (.2010) H (.2660)
5/16-18 .3125 F (.2570) Q (.3320)
3/8-16 .3750 5/16 (.3125) X (.3970)
7/16-14 .4375 U (.3680) 15/32 (.4687)
1/2-13 .5000 27/64 (.4219) 17/32 (.5312)
9/16-12 .5625 31/64 (.4844) 19/32 (.5938)
5/8-11 .6250 17/32 (.5312) 21/32 (.6562)
3/4-10 .7500 21/32 (.6562) 25/32 (.7812)
7/8-9 .8750 49/64 (.7656) 29/32 (.9062)
1"-8 1.000 7/8 (.8750) 1-1/32 (1.0313)
1 1/8-7 1.1250 63/64 (.9844) 1-5/32 (1.1562)
 

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Tap Drill Chart SAE
NF (National Fine)

Tap size Screw Tap drill size Clearance drill


(major dia. -
threads / inch)
major for 75% .dia
dia.
#1-72 0.073 53 (.0595) 46 (.0810)
#2-64 0.086 50 (.0700) 41 (.0960)
#3-56 0.099 45 (.0820) 35 (.1100)
#4-48 0.112 42 (.0935) 30 (.1285)
#5-44 0.125 37 (.1040) 29 (.1360)
#6-40 0.138 33 (.1130) 25 (.1495)
#8-36 0.164 29 (.1360) 16 (.1770)
#10-32 0.190 21 (.1590) 7 (.2010)
#12-28 0.216 14 (.1820) 1 (.2280)
1/4-28 .2500 3 (.2130) H (.2660)
5/16-24 .3125 I (.2720) Q (.3320)
3/8-24 .3750 Q (.3320) X (.3970)
7/16-20 .4375 25/64 (.3906) 15/32 (.4687)
1/2-20 .5000 29/64 (.4531) 17/32 (.5312)
9/16-18 .5625 33/64 (.5156) 19/32 (.5938)
5/8-18 .6250 37/64 (.5781) 21/32 (.6562)
3/4-16 .7500 11/16 (.6875) 25/32 (.7812)
7/8-14 .8750 13/16 (.8125) 29/32 (.9062)
1"-12 1.000 15/16 (.9375) 1-1/32 (1.0313)
1 1/8-12 1.1250 1-3/64 (1.0469) 1-5/32 (1.1562)

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Tap Drill Chart Metric
NC (National Coarse)

Tap size Major dia. Tap Tap Cleara Cleara


mm (inch) drill drill nce nce
mm inch mm inch
M1.6x0.35 1.6 (.0630) 1.25 #55 1.8 #49
M2x0.4 2.0 (.0787) 1.60 #52 2.4 #41
M2.5x0.45 2.5 (.0984) 2.05 #46 2.9 #32
M3x.05 3.0 (.1181) 2.50 #39 3.4 #29
M3.5x0.6 3.5 (.1378) 2.90 #32 3.9 #23
M4x0.7 4.0 (.1575) 3.30 #30 4.5 #16
M5x0.8 5.0 (.1969) 4.20 #19 5.5 7/32
M6x1 6.0 (.2362) 5.0 #8 6.6 G
M8x1 8.0 (.3150) 6.8 J 9.0 T
M10x1.5 10.0 (.3937) 8.5 11/32 12.0 31/64
M12x1.75 12.0 (.4724) 10.2 27/64 14.0 35/64
M14x2.0 14.0 (.5512) 12.0 1/2 16.0 5/8
M16x2.0 16.0 (.6299) 14.0 37/64 18.0 45/64
M18x2.5 18.0 (.7087) 15.5 21/32 20.0 51/64
M20x2.5 20.0 (.7874) 17.5 47/64 22.0 7/8
M22x2.5 22.0 (.8661) 19.5 13/16 25.0 1
M24x3 24.0 (.9449) 21.0 7/8 27.0 1-5/64
M27x3 27.0 (1.063) 24.0 1 30.0 1-3/16

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NPT & NPS - Pipe Treads
TAP TAPER NPT STRAIGHT NPS
SIZE
DRILL * DEC. Threa Normal DRILL DEC.
SIZE EQUIV. d OD ngageme SIZE EQUIV.
(MAX) nt
1/16-27 C .242 .3125 .2611 1/4 .2500
1/8-27 Q .332 .405 .2639 S .3480
1/4-18 7/16 .438 .540 .4018 29/64 .4531
3/8-18 9/16 .562 .675 .4078 19/32 .5938
1/2-14 45/64 .703 .840 .5337 47/64 .7344
3/4-14 29/32 .906 1.050 .5457 15/16 .9375
1-11 1/2 1-9/64 1.141 1.315 .6828 1-3/16 1.187
* Drill sizes given permit direct tapping without reaming the hole, but only give a full
ead for the first two or three threads.

Fine pitch – Metric


Tap size Major dia. Tap Tap Clearance Clearance inch
mm (inch) drill drill (mm) (dec.)
(mm) (inch)
M8x1.0 7.0 (0.275) 6.8 H 9.0 T
M10x1.0 9.0 (0.354) 8.5 R 12.0 31/64
M12x1.5 10.5 (0.413) 10.2 13/32 14.0 35/64
M14x1.5 12.5 (0.492) 12.0 15/32 16.0 5/8
M16x1.5 14.5 (0.570) 14.0 35/64 18.0 45/64
M18x2.0 16.0 (0.629) 15.5 39/64 20.0 51/64
M20x2.0 18.0 (0.708) 17.5 11/16 22.0 7/8
M22x2.0 20.0 (0.787) 19.5 49/64 25.0 1
 

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Reamin
ng,
The geom metry of a ho ole drilled in
n metal by a twist drill mmay not be acccurate enouugh (close
enough to o a true cylinnder of a cerrtain precise diameter) anand may not have the reqquired smootth
surface finish
fi for cerrtain engineeering applicaations. Althoough modernn twist drills can perform m
excellenttly in many cases—usua
c ally producin ng sufficientlly accurate hholes for most applicatioons—
sometimees the stringency of the requirement
r s for the holle's geometryy and finish necessitate ttwo
operation ns: a drilling
g to slightly undersize,
u fo
ollowed by rreaming withh a reamer. T The planned
differencce between th he drill diam
meter and thee reamer diam meter is called an allowaance. (It alloows
for the reemoval of a certain
c small amount of material.) T The allowancce should be < 0.2 mm (..008
in) for so
oft materials and < 0.13 mm m (.005 in n) for hard mmaterials. Larrger allowannces can dam mage
the reameer. The drilleed hole shou uld not be en nlarged by mmore than 5% % of the drilleed diameter..
Drilling followed
f by reaming gen nerally produ uces hole geeometry and finish that is as close to
theoretical perfection n as possiblee.

A reamerr enters the workpiece


w axxially and ennlarges an exxisting hole to the diameeter of the toool. A
reamer iss a multi-poiint tool that has
h many flu utes, which m may be straigght or in a hhelix. Reaminng
removes a minimal amount
a of maaterial and iss often perfoormed after ddrilling to obbtain both a more
accurate diameter and a smoother internal fin nish.

Reamers are availablle in wide raange of sizes and designss such as Hannd reamer, M
Machine ream
mer,
Tapper Reamer
R and Expandable
E reamer.

Followin
ng table gives approximaate stock a reeamer shouldd remove. Inn other wordds drilled holle
should bee this much smaller for a certain sizee reamer.

RPM- Ap pproximately
y reamer sho
ould run at half
h or even llittle bit slow
wer than the speed of a ssame
size HSS
S drill.

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Trouble Shooting

Symptom Solution
Drill produces a very high pitch
squeal
Drill is running too fast
Drill Bit becomes very hot
Drill bit dulls very quickly
Lubrication is required
Drill bit becomes very hot
Damaged Drill bit
Drill bit Wobbles
Ensure the Bit is correctly
positioned in the chuck
Centre punch is too small
Drill Bit skates across the metal
surface
Smaller pilot hole is needed
Too much Pressure
Drill Bit grabs as it breaks
through
Drill is running too fast

Drill Press Safety

1. Operate only with the instructor's permission and after you have received proper instruction.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing and confine long hair.

3. Make sure all guards are in place and operating properly.

4. Always use proper eye protection.

5. Hold material securely with a vice or clamps.

6. Be sure the chuck key is removed from the chuck before starting the machine.

7. Select a properly sharpened bit. For metal, center punch when a hole is to be drilled.

8. Turn off the power if the work piece becomes caught in the drill. Do not stop the chuck
rotation by hand.

9. Adjust the table or depth stop to avoid drilling into the table. 10. Select the correct speed:
Normally, slower for drilling metal, faster for wood. The larger the bit, the slower the speed.

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