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1.1 Description
Every year the lives of approximately 1.25 million people are cut short as a result of a road
traffic crash. Between 20 and 50 million more people suffer nonfatal injuries, with many incurring
a disability as a result of their injury. There are few global estimates of the costs of injury, but
research carried out in 2010 suggests that road traffic crashes cost countries approximately 3% of
their gross national product. This figure rises to 5% in some low and middle income countries.
There are many types of distractions that can lead to impaired driving, but recently there has been
a marked increase around the world in the use of mobile phones by drivers that is becoming a
growing concern for road safety. The distraction caused by mobile phones can impair driving
performance. Drivers using mobile phones may have: slower reaction times (notably braking
reaction time, but also reaction to traffic signals), impaired ability to keep in the correct lane, and
shorter following distances. Drivers using a mobile phone are approximately 4 times more likely
to be involved in a crash than when a driver does not use a phone. Hands-free phones are not
much safer than handheld phone sets. The Sustainable Development Goals include a target of 50%
reduction in road traffic deaths and injuries by 2020. The plateau in road traffic deaths, set against
a 4% increase in global population and 16% increase in motorization, suggests that road safety
efforts over the past 3 years have saved lives. So, as to reduce this phenomenon we want to
propose an idea using two sensors and a micro-controller the whole vehicle could be slowed or
stopped whenever required. This project aims to overcome the mistake made by the drivers and at
the time of accidents the system takes control of the vehicle and brings the vehicle to stop before

1.2 Literature Survey

Sr. Year Journal/Research Findings Research Gap/Future

No. Paper Scope
1. 2016 Design & The purpose of the study was to Further, a magnet of
Fabrication of perform a comparative study of higher magnetic flux
Eddy Current theoretical and practical braking density can be used to
Braking System
time and establish a practical air minimize the braking
Oscar gap limit beyond which the time. Also, magnets
Rodrigues, electromagnetic brakes lose their can be positioned at
Omkar Taskar effectiveness. From theoretical different locations
calculations and experimented around the disc in
braking time values, a maximum radial arrangement to
reduction in braking time get better braking
23.97% is found and max air gap torque distribution.
limit of 3 mm is obtained beyond
with electromagnetic brakes are
found to be ineffective.

2. 2012 A laboratory In this paper, we learned about a The experiment can be

activity on the simple and low-cost experimental performed with easily
eddy current setup that can be used to study the obtainable
brake eddy current brake, which materials and uses
By considers the motion of a sliding widely available high-
J.A. Molina- magnet on an inclined conducting tech devices (a high-
Bol´ıvar and A J plane in terms of basic physical speed digital camera
Abella-Palacios principles. and a personal
computer) for data
3. 2011 Eddy current Here, we study eddy current Further, modification in
braking study braking experiment conducted to the dimensions of the
for brake disc of know the behaviour of three brake disc could lead to
Aluminium, different materials to be used as improved results i.e. a
copper and zink brake disc which are aluminium, faster rate of
By copper and zinc. And, we deceleration of the disc
M.Z.Baharom, conclude that aluminium can be achieved.
M.Z.Nuawi. demonstrates the highest
deceleration compared to
the other two materials which are
copper and zink.
4. 2010 The design of In this we study, an experimental The experiment could
eddy-current braking system using constant be performed using
magnet brakes magnetic field is build to different materials
By demonstrate the design procedure. which provide non-
Der-Ming Ma, contact means to
Jaw-Kuen Shiau produce braking forces
required to decelerate
the motion of a moving

5. 2004 Experiments This experiment was performed Here, experiments can

with eddy to understand some qualitative deal with concepts,
currents: and quantitative aspects of eddy instruments and
the eddy current currents. The setup operates measurement
brake like an eddy current brake, a techniques with high
By device commonly used in heavy didactic
Manuel I vehicles to dissipate kinetic value for the students,
Gonz´alez energy by generating eddy regardless of whether
currents. the agreement between
theory and experiments
is good or poor.

On thorough study of “Design and Fabrication of Eddy Current Brakes” published in

“International Research Journal of Engineering and technology (IRJET)”. We have obtained
relationship between eddy current and braking torque and its dependency on disc material,
thickness and characteristics of electromagnet and its placement. This gives us basic idea of the
overall construction of electromagnets and material selection.[1]

From the journal paper, “A laboratory activity on the eddy current brake” By J.A. Molina-Bol´ıvar
and A J Abella-Palacios, we learned about a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be
used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined
conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles.[2]

From the research paper “Eddy Current Braking Study for Brake Disc Of Aluminium, Copper And
Zink” by M.Z.Baharom, M.Z.Nuawi, G.Priyandoko1, S.M.Harris, L.M. Siow. We have concluded
that aluminium is the best material compared to copper and zinc to be used as the disc brake for
eddy current braking using electromagnetic. Based on the research, we have selected Aluminium
6061 for disc material.[3]

In the paper, “The design of eddy-current magnet brakes” By Der-Ming Ma, Jaw-Kuen Shiau, an
experimental braking system using constant magnetic field is build to demonstrate the design
procedure. The experiment could be performed using different materials which provide non-contact
means to produce braking forces required to decelerate the motion of a moving object. [4]

1.3 Problem Statement

It is estimated that after every 4 minutes, there is a death due to road accident in India.
There is an exceptional growth in road accidents in the coming years in our country. Accidents are
resulting in loss of invaluable lives, materials and money. So far the accident preventing systems
are not very efficient and the loss of lives is continuing. There are many systems like air bags,
GPS, robot driven cars, tracked cars etc. which can avert accidents to some extent. So, as to reduce
this phenomenon we want to propose an idea using two sensors and a micro-controller the whole
vehicle could be slowed or stopped whenever required. This project aims to overcome the mistake
made by the drivers and at the time of accidents the system takes control of the vehicle and brings
the vehicle to stop before colliding.

There could be many reasons for road accidents. Some of the common reasons are:

● Drunken driving

● Dream driving
● Ignoring traffic rules
● Mechanical failures in the vehicle

● Mistakes of the drivers

In all these cases the basic reason cited is failure to apply the brakes at the right time. In all the
above cases if the brakes are applied at the right time the accidents can be averted. If a system is
developed, which applies the brakes at the time of accidents automatically will avert accidents,
which are caused by all the above reasons.

1.4 Motivation

This was a sudden idea which struck us when one of our group members witnessed this
occasion of bringing this system into reality. He was walking his way home back from college; he
had to pass by the highway where many vehicles were going around. He saw something which
was unexpected. A dog was trying to cross the highway since long time, but couldn’t, as the speed
of the vehicles was very fast. He tried to make an attempt when there was considerate gap between
two vehicles but couldn’t judge the speed of the vehicle and landed up exactly in front of it. The
driver of the vehicle was kind enough to stop the car by applying brakes to save the dog. As the
brakes were applied suddenly, without any indications the tempo following the vehicle couldn’t
retard its speed and in few seconds the collision occurred.

The car which stopped seeing the dog, was expensive and had Anti-lock Braking System
(ABS) and other safety features. But the tempo following this car couldn’t stop immediately
because it didn’t have such good features, resulting to the collision. So the thought behind this
incidence was that if the tempo was equipped enough with liable collision systems the tempo
would have stopped seeing the car which would have not let the accident take place.

The idea which we want to emphasize is the eddy brakes with anti collision systems which
would be a better and cheaper solution against the conventional braking system, in which there
might be failure due to leakage of the brake fluids or other liable mechanical failures. The
conventional system would also be costlier and high in maintenance. The current system is also
harmful as the material used for the brake pads is asbestos which may cause respiratory diseases.

Our attempt is to make a cheaper system with protective features which would help the
vehicle retard its speed sensing the obstacle in its path and avoid it from accidents or collisions.

1.5 Proposed Solution

Figure: 1.4.1 Proposed Solution

This system consists of Eddy Brakes coupled with Microcontroller to provide Anti-
Collision Braking System. The Ultrasonic Sensor acts as a Input for microcontroller by sensing
the obstacle in the path of the vehicle. The Microcontroller uses data input from Ultrasonic Sensor
and Brake Pedal Position to determine the braking effect required and take the necessary action

General Procedure:

1. Ultrasonic Sensor detects obstacle and determine the distance from the vehicle.
2. Microcontroller uses the data from Ultrasonic Sensor to determine if braking is required.
3. Brake Pedal Sensor detects any input from the driver.
4. Microcontroller computes the necessary action required.
5. Microcontroller actuates relay which in turn actuates the electromagnets.
6. These electromagnets produces magnetic field which induces eddy current on the disc.
7. Induced eddy current produces magnetic field which in turn retards the disc.
8. This produces the required braking effort.

1.6 Scope of the project

Anti-collision System using Eddy Brake aims at sensing the obstacles in the path of the car and
avoiding collision by actuation the eddy brakes. The ultrasonic sensor senses the object or the
obstacle and gives the following input to the arduino circuit. Then the arduino triggers the relay
and let the power supply pass to the brakes to stop the collision. The ultrasonic sensor can sense
any object or even a human entity when applied to a real car model, we are trying to make a
prototype that demonstrates the same and would help to lessen the cost of the vehicle which would
not need any expensive safety mechanism. Also it can work efficiently for purpose of learning
various other liable advantages and disadvantages of eddy brakes before placing the mechanism in
actual cars.


System Analysis

2.1 Functional Requirements

2.1.1 Pre-processing

The ultrasonic sensor constantly keeps measuring the distance between the front vehicles while

driving and sends this information to the microcontroller to take the necessary action.

2.1.2 Obstacle Detection

The ultrasonic sensor detects any obstacle; it could be a person, vehicle, or any type of obstruction

occurring in the range of the vehicle. The minimum distance is set and feed to the microcontroller

for further processing.

2.1.3 Processing

After sensing a certain obstacle in the minimum range, the microcontroller is intimated or is

informed by the sensor to take the necessary action. The microcontroller, then observing the speed

of the vehicle, decides whether to stop or slow the vehicle’s speed.

2.1.4 Brake Actuation

Once the obstacle is detected in the minimum distance, the microcontroller switches the relays

which are used to trigger the electromagnets. When the electromagnets are triggered or switched

ON, high rate current flows through them which reduces and eventually stops the rotating disc

mounted on the driving axle. And in this way the brakes are actuated and the vehicle is prevented

from any sudden collision.

2.1.5 Vehicle Speed Retardation or Stoppage

There is a delay of 0.5 second during the brakes actuation i.e. it totally depends on how close the

other vehicle or the obstacle is, for example; if the other vehicle is sensed in the minimum

distance, immediately the brakes are actuated to reduce the speed of our vehicle and after a delay

of 0.5 second the distance is again calculated and even if the other vehicle is still getting closer,

again there is braking and eventually our vehicle stops.

2.2 Non-functional Requirements

2.2.1 Ultra-sonic distance sensor

This senses the distance of the obstacles from its location and it gives an equivalent analogy
output for the distance sensed. It has a range of 100m and the minimum distance between our
vehicle and the obstacle could be easily set and controlled. Ultrasonic waves of 40 KHz frequency
will be sent from the transmitter of the sensor. This ultrasonic wave will be reflected back from
the obstacle. An ultrasonic receiver present in the same sensor receives these waves after

The time difference between transmission and receiving is calculated and the distance is estimated
by program.

2.2.2 Microcontroller (ATMEGA328)

A microcontroller is a computer-on-a-chip. It is responsible for the whole system control. It is a

type of microprocessor emphasizing self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness. It is a powerful
microcomputer providing highly flexible and cost effective solution too many embedded control

2.2.3 Mechanical components

• Aluminium 6061 Disc - It is an important part of the braking system. It is mounted on the driving
axle of the vehicle, so that there is a direct effect of the braking on the vehicle.

• Electromagnet - There are four electromagnets used, two of them have 250 turns each and the
other two have 600 turns each.
A copper wire of 21 gauge is been used as the winding for the electromagnets.

• Chain and Sprocket Mechanism - As the Eddy Brakes have better effect at high rpm, in order to
multiply the rotating speed of the disc we have increased its speed by four times by using different
sprocket teeth ratios.

• Vehicle Chassis - All the brake components and mechanisms are supported over the chassis and it
completes the working model.

• Power Source - The microcontroller is been powered by a 9V dry cell, even the relays which are
used for switching of the electromagnets use two 9V dry cells. The high rate current required by
the electromagnets is provided by a 12V, 35Ah liquid acid battery.

Analysis Modelling
3.1 Solidworks Design

3.1.1 Chassis:

Figure: 3.1.1. Solidworks model of Chassis

3.1.2 Disc:

Figure: 3.1.2. Solidworks model of Disc

3.1.3 Upper Disc Shaft:

Figure: 3.1.3. Solidworks model of Upper Disc Shaft

3.1.4 Electromagnet:

Figure: 3.1.4. Solidworks model of Electromagnet

3.1.5 Wheels:

Figure: 3.1.5. Solidworks model of Wheel

3.1.6 Rear Shaft:

Figure: 3.1.6. Solidworks model of Rear Shaft

3.1.7 Mount plate:

Figure: 3.1.7. Solidworks model of Mount Plate

3.2 Functional Modelling

3.2.1 Chassis

Length – 800mm

Width – 600mm

Cross section – L-angle

The chassis is built to support all the components of the system i.e. the disc and shaft assembly,
electromagnets, microcontroller and relay circuit and, the chain and sprocket mechanism.

3.2.2 Disc:

Diameter – 12 inches = 305mm

Thickness – 10mm

The rotating disc which is of Aluminium material is used as an brake component. It is rotating
along the driving shaft so the brakes are directly acted upon the vehicle.

3.2.3 Upper Disc Shaft:

Diameter – 24mm

1st step diameter – 22mm

2nd step diameter – 15mm

It is made up of Mild steel material having its use as an mounting for the rotating disc.

3.2.4 Electromagnet:

No. of Electromagnets – 4

Total no. of turns of winding – 1700

Copper Wire gauge - 21

3.2.5 Wheels

The wheels are used to take a total weight of 50kg i.e. each wheel is taking upto 12.5kg of the total

3.2.6 Main Shaft

Material – Mild Steel

Diameter – 22mm

Steps at both end – 18mm

3.2.7 Mount Plate

Height – 300mm

Width – 150mm

It is used as a supporting element for the disc shaft.

3.3 Gantt [Timeline] Chart:

Figure: 3.3.1. Gantt [TimeLine] Chart



4.1 Architectural Design

As from the below diagram, we get an idea of the connections of the components of the electro-
mechanical system. Individual battery power source is provided for the different components. A
lead-acid battery of 12V, 35Ah rating is used to power the electromagnets; whereas 9V dry cell
battery is powering the microcontroller and another one to the relay 6V.There are four
electromagnets used, two of them are of 250 turns each and the other two have 600 turns each.

Figure: 4.1.1. Architectural Design

4.2 Circuit Design

Figure: 4.2.1 Circuit Diagram

4.2.2 Arduino control Relay Circuit

Figure: 4.2.2 Arduino control Relay Circuit

The above figure shows an Arduino control Relay Circuit basically used for controlling
of the electromagnets i.e. switching. As we can see the microcontroller is being powered at pins 8
and Vin through a 9V battery. A transistor is used, its base is connected to pin 2 of
microcontroller, the emitter is given ground and the collector is connected to relay (6V). A LED is
provided to take up the excess load to prevent relay from getting overloaded. The other end of the
relay is given power supply i.e. +Vcc , through a 9V dry cell battery. The relay is given the load
connections i.e. the electromagnets for the actuation of the brakes. Electromagnets are provided
with a power supply from a 12V, 35Ah lead-acid battery.


5.1 Principle
The ultrasonic sensor keeps on sensing the distance between the vehicle and front obstacle and
sending these distances to the microcontroller. As soon the obstacle is detected in the minimum
range, immediately the information is sent to microcontroller, the microcontroller which is
controlling the electromagnets through a relay circuit, switches the relay to turn on the

5.2 Eddy Brake

An eddy brake, like a conventional friction brake, is a device used to slow a moving object by
dissipating its kinetic energy as heat. However, unlike electro-mechanical brakes, in which the drag
force used to stop the moving object is provided by friction between two surfaces pressed together,
the drag force in an eddy current brake is an electromagnetic force between a magnet and a nearby
conductive object in relative motion, due to eddy currents induced in the conductor through
electromagnetic induction.[6]

Figure: 5.2 Eddy Brake Principle [6]

A disk eddy current brake consists of a conductive non-ferromagnetic metal disc (rotor)
attached to the axle of the vehicle's wheel, with an electromagnet located with its poles on each
side of the disk, so the magnetic field passes through the disk. The electromagnet allows the
braking force to be varied. When no current is passed through the electromagnet's winding, there
is no braking force. When the driver steps on the brake pedal, current is passed through the
electromagnet windings, creating a magnetic field, The larger the current in the winding, the larger
the eddy currents and the stronger the braking force.[4]

Obstacle Detection

Sensor signals Microcontroller

Microcontroller switches Relay

Relay turns Electromagnet ‘ON’

Brake Actuation

Retardation of Disc and Drive Axle


6.1 Testing

As mentioned before, testing happens at various stages of the development. Some testing
takes place at various intermediate stages to test the functionality of various components
individually, and after the project is developed, the last step is to test the entire project using
various test cases.
For our project, the first stage of testing came when we prepared a temporary
electromagnet of 200 turns in order to check its magnetic power but, since it was a hollow iron
tube it was not that effective. Through this we concluded that a solid iron core would be more
effective than a hollow one. Once the chassis was prepared after considering all the loading effect
of the components on it, along with the shafts, the braking disc was mounted on the rear axle
which is considered as the driving axle of the model. After which we prepared two electromagnets
of 250 turns each having a solid iron core. Then the two electromagnets were placed at a gap of
1.5mm facing the side of the disc where it would be more effective. Then we tested these brakes
without the load of the chassis the other components and it was successful, i.e. the driving shaft
was retarded within one to two second, but when we tested it by loading it with the chassis load, it
was suppose to stop the whole model, the braking torque was not enough to stop the whole model
i.e. the vehicle itself. Therefore, we decided to increase the number of electromagnets in order to
increase the braking torque.
Having changes in the size and dimensions of the iron core again we made two
electromagnets of 650 turns each, so as to get the required braking torque. Now, there were four
electromagnets two on each side of the disc producing enough braking torque to stop the whole
vehicle. The electromagnets were connected in parallel with the power source.


Result and Discussion

According to Schieber’s Equation the braking torque generated in rotating disc under the influence
of electromagnetic field is given by,

σ = electrical conductivity of the rotating disk
δ = sheet thickness rotating disk
ω = initial angular velocity
r = radius of electromagnet
m = distance of disk axis from pole-face centre
Bz = magnetic flux density
a = disk radius

Figure: 8.1. Results from calculator

This is the calculator which we have made for automation of the braking torque, for calculation
purpose. Changing the numeric values will eventually result to change in the results. The formula
is based on the result of the literature review we studied.

The output of this application would reduce accidental cases and more improved control over the
vehicle. It will be the most significant feature, when it comes to vehicle safety. After going
through the calculations and increasing the electromagnet power, we achieved a faster retardation
rate and quick actuation of the brakes. Even, the result is that it takes around ______seconds and
_______cm to stop thoroughly. As we know, from the earlier discussions that eddy current
braking is directly proportional to the speed (rpm) of the vehicle, the braking time improves

Conclusion and Future Scope

The Anti collision system, which uses Eddy brakes senses the obstacle on its path and stops
applying brakes to avoid the accidents or collision. An ultrasonic sensor is mounted at front of the
car to senses the obstacle which comes across the way, which may be human or any moving entity
like a car. The sensor’s signals acts as an input to the Microcontroller (ATMEGA328) which
triggers the relay and helps the vehicle to retard its speed, actuating the brakes. This system
involves two stages, (a) the setup which is done when the system is mounted. In this all the
necessary parameters are adjusted. The second stage is (b) the running stage. Here no parameters
are changed and the system works by using the ground surface as an interface on its own sensing
the obstacles. Also, magnets can be positioned at different locations around the disc in radial
arrangement to get better braking torque distribution.

In the near future, we plan to enhance the sensor detection, enabling it to detect objects when
they are in front of the car from various angles. Thus, increasing the range and radius of the
ultrasonic sensor, safety could be improved prominently. The size and dimensions could be
improved by reducing its material thus, reducing its overall weight. Reduction in the overall
weight of the system would result in less braking torque required and more effective results. Since,
high rate current powers the electromagnets, high amount of heat is produced which will require
some suitable type of cooling system or some changes in the aerodynamic design would be useful,
so there is a direct effect of air getting in contact with the electromagnets. According to the
required braking torque number of electromagnets could be increased or some changes in their
dimensions could be very effective.

[1] Oscar Rodrigues, Omkar Taskar (2016) “DESIGN & FABRICATION OF EDDY

CURRENT BRAKING SYSTEM” Department of Mechanical Engineering, FCRIT, India.

[2] J.A. Molina-Bol´ıvar and A J Abella-Palacios (2012) “A LABORATORY ACTIVITY ON

THE EDDY CURRENT BRAKE” Departamento de F´ısica Aplicada II, Universidad de M´alaga,


[3] M.Z. Baharom, M.Z. Nuawi (2011) “EDDY CURRENT BRAKING STUDY FOR

BRAKE DISC OF ALUMINIUM, COPPER AND ZINK” Department of Mechanical and

Material Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

[4] Der-Ming Ma, Jaw-Kuen Shiau (2010) “THE DESIGN OF EDDY-CURRENT MAGNET

BRAKES” Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tamkang University, Republic of China.

[5] Manuel I Gonz´alez (2004) “EXPERIMENTS WITH EDDY CURRENTS:

THE EDDY CURRENT BRAKE” Departamento de F´ısica, Universidad de Burgos, 09006

Burgos, Spain.

[6] G. Priyandoko, M.Z. Baharom, (2003), ‘PARAMETER ANALYSIS OF


Article · January 2013 DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.663.193


BRAKES”, Department of Theoretical Electricity. Technical University Budapest

[8] Marshall S V and Skitek G G (1989) “ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTS AND

APPLICATIONS” 3rd edn (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall) pp 298–9


This project consumed huge amount of work, research and dedication. Still,
implementation would not have been possible if we did not have a support of our college and
teachers. We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to all of them. We are highly indebted to
our project guide Prof. Shishirkumar Kadam for his guidance and constant supervision as well as
for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for his support in completing the
We would also like to express our gratitude towards our Principal Dr. Chelpa Lingam and
our Head of Department, Prof. Vijay Dhadke for providing us with all the facilities to complete
our project. Lastly, we would like to thank our family and friends for supporting us in our project.

APPENDIX 1: Program for Arduino

#define trigPin 13
#define echoPin 12
#define brake 7
#define pedal 4

void setup() {
Serial.begin (9600);
pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);
pinMode(brake, OUTPUT);
pinMode(pedal, INPUT);

void loop()
long duration, distance;
digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);
digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
distance = (duration/2) / 29.1;
int pedalpos = analogRead(pedal);
if(distance<150 || pedalpos>=2)

digitalWrite(brake, HIGH);
digitalWrite(brake, LOW);

APPENDIX 2: Total Cost

Items Quantity Cost (in Rs.)

Ultrasonic Sensor 1 200

Breadboard 2 120

Arduino 1 500

Aluminium 6061 1 1000

Turning (Machining) 1 100

L-Angle 1 340
Shaft 1 292
Fasteners and Bolts 150

Sprockets 3 860
Pedestal Bearing 4 680

Wheels 4 800
Wire Clips 4 60
Welding 100
Relay Switch 4 160
Copper Wire 1.1kg 690
Electric Tape 5 50
Chain 1 30

Chain Clips 3 60
Mount plates 2 80
Iron Core 4kg 160
Battery (9V) 4 120
Battery (12V) rent 5 250
Arduino wires 20 80
Switches and Buttons 30
Total 6912