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the King College

2nd Semester, School Year 2017-2018

EDUCATION 208 – Principles and Theories of Educational Management

Chapter 1 - Foundations of Modern Management hapter 2 - Managing in the 21st Century


1. Evaluate the concept of management as “getting things done through other people”.

The concept of management as getting things done through other people means that
an organization, corporation, or institution select their people efficiently with the right
abilities for the job so that the end point or the goals of that institution is visualized. They
hire competent as well as eligible people so as to make the institution more competent and

2. Give a comprehensive definition of management and discuss its meaning. How does your
own definition differ from this?

Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and

through people and other organizational resources. Management being a process need
series of continuing and related activities that involves and concentrates on reaching
organizational goals and reaches these goals by working with and through people and other
organizational resources.

3. Is management a science or an art?

Management is both an art and a science. Management combines features of both

science as well as art. It is considered as a science because it has an organized body of
knowledge which contains certain universal truth. It is called an art because managing
requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the
knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills.

4. What is scientific management? What factors brought about its proposal and practice?

Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes

workflows. Its main objective is improving economic efficiency, especially labor
productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of
processes and to management.

5. What was Henri Fayol’s major contribution to the management movement?

6. How do Taylor’s and Fayol’s approaches to the management process differ and how do they
compare similarly?
7. Some management practitioners consider Taylor’s Scientific Management as inhuman. What
factors do you believe may have contributed to this perception?
Are you of the same perception? Why?

8. Management has often been described as a universal process, meaning that the basics of
management are transferable and applicable in almost any environment. Comment on this

9. Theory X held that most people dislike work and responsibility and prefer to be directed; that
they are motivated not by the desire to do a good job, but simply by financial incentives; and
that therefore, most people must be closely supervised, controlled, and coerced into
achieving organizational objectives.
- In an educational setting (school), what could you possibly do to ease the situation among
if this kind of attitude is observable among your teachers?

10. Technology, globalization, deregulation, changing political systems are among a few factors
that are putting organizations under tremendous pressure to respond faster and to be ever
more cost-effective and competitive.
What does this mean for how these organizations (including academic institutions) are