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BLOOD BANKING LECTURE: FINALS Minor Blood Groups

Scianna Blood Group (ISBT 013)

- Sc system is composed of the Sc1, Sc2, Sc3 antigens

Minor Blood Group

o

Sm: former name of Sc1

- Affects minority of the population

o

Bu a : former name of Sc2

o

Radin: additional antigen

- Studies about this blood group are still insufficient

- Sc1 and Sc3: high incidence antigen

- Sc2 and Radin: low incidence antigen

Diego Blood Group System (ISBT 010)

- Anti-Sc3

is

characterized

as

IgG,

red

cell

- First discovered in a Venezuelan baby with HDN

stimulated, and reactive in IAT

 

- Di a ag has served as a useful tool in

 

o

It is IgG, but it will NOT cause HDN

 

anthropologic studies of Mongolian ancestry

o

It will cause mild HTR

 

o

Genghis Khan founder of Mongol

empire and colonizer of other continents

IAT

detects

possibility

of

HTR

which

is

- Antigens: o Di a / Di b

o

Wr a / Wr b

o

Di a and Wr a : low incidence (<1% of the population

Di

incidence

b

and

Wr b :

high

(>90% of the population) Wu / DISK

- 17 low incidence antigens

- There is no phenotype known as Di(a-b-)

- Di a ag is not well developed at birth, but becomes strongly immunogenic during adulthood

- Di b ag is well developed at birth, but becomes

less immunogenic during adulthood

CARTwright Blood Group (ISBT 011)

- Yt antigens have been located on RBC acetylcholinesterase which is an enzyme involved in neurotransmission

- AchE present in erythroid and nerve cells

- Antigens:

o

o

Yt

Yt

a

b

- There is no phenotype known as Yt(a-b-)

- No reported HDN on the antibodies of Yt, whereas anti-Yt a is associated with HTR

XG Blood Group (ISBT 012)

- Gene that encodes for the Xg allele is located on the short arm of the X chromosome

- Common in females (XX), but may also affect males (XY)

- The first patient to have antibody against Xg antigen was treated in Grand Rapids, Michigan

- Difference in the frequency of the Xg a ag is noted between sexes

caused by IgG warm antibodies and Du variant

Dombrock Blood Group (ISBT 014)

- Antigens:

o

o

o

o

o

a

Da Do Gregory (Gy a ) Holley (Hy) Joseph (Jo a )

b

- Names of the antigens are based on the first

antibody marker produced

- Most common phenotype: Do(a+b+)

are described as IgG, red

cell stimulated antibody, and reacts primarily in IAT with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or enzyme enhancement

- Anti-Gy a , anti-Hy, anti-Jo a are described as IgG, red cell stimulated antibody, and IAT reactive

- Anti-Do a and anti-Do

b

- No cases of HDN reported, but may probably cause HTR

Colton Blood Group (ISBT 015)

- Co antigens have been located in the transport protein known as Channel-Forming Integral Protein (CHIP), which forms the primary

erythrocyte water channel and is responsible for water permeability

o Aquaporin 1: other name for CHIP

- Antigens:

o

o

o

Co a : high incidence

Co b

Co ab : new name is Co3

- Most common phenotype is Co(a+b-)

Chido-Rodgers (ISBT 017)

- Has 9 antigens

o

89%: females

- Common antigens of Ch/Rg system:

o

66%: males

o

Chido: Ch1, Ch2, Ch3

- Antigens:

o

Rg: Rg1, Rg2

o

Xg a or XG1: most common

o

WH: newly added antigen

- It will neither cause HDN nor HTR

- CH/RG antigens are associated with HLA system (HLA is found on the surface of cells and

regulates the immune system)

© Revivis Notes 2018

- Alleles of CH/RG have been located on 2 closely linked genes known as C4A and C4B on

chromosome 6

- Anti-Ch/Rg were collectively grouped as high titer (1:64 dilution), low avidity (HTLA), along with other antibody sharing common serologic properties

o Antibodies of this blood group will never exceed +1 even at high dilutions

Gerbich Blood Group (ISBT 020)

- Named after the first antibody marker: Mrs. Gerbich

- GE antigens are inherited on chromosome 2 and are expressed on glycophorin C (GPC) and/or glycophorin D (GPD)

- Antigens:

o Ge2, Ge3, Ge4: high incidence antigens

- It will cause HTR, but never HDN

- There is no phenotype known as Ge(a-b-)

Cromer Blood Group (ISBT 021)

- Named after the first antibody marker: Mrs. Cromer

- Antigens are carried by Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF) which is involved with the regulation of complement activation by accelerating the decay of the C3 and C5 convertase

- Antigen:

o Cr a : high incidence antigen

- It will not cause HDN, but will cause mild HTR

o In b : high incidence antigen

- Anti-In b will cause HTR, but no reports of HDN

Antigen

+

antibody

+

complement

hemolysis

Hemolysin: lysed RBC

o

Colorless

o

Serrated edges

o

With hemoglobin remnants

Knops Blood Group (ISBT 022)

- Named after the first antibody marker: Mrs. Knops

- Alleles for the KN blood group have been located on chromosome 1, with the antigen residing on Complement Receptor-1 (CR1)

- Antigens:

o

o

Kn

Kn

a

b

- No cases reported of HDN and HTR

Indian Blood Group

- First antibody marker: Indian people

- IN antigens are carried on the hematopoietic isoform of the CD44 marker, known for its immune adhesion properties

- Antigens:

o In a

© Revivis Notes 2018