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Ship’s linear dimensions

Course no. 3
Ship’s linear dimensions (1)

A ship is a three dimensional structure having length, width and

depth. A ship’s linear dimensions are expressed in meters.

A ship’s Length Overall [LOA] is the dimension from the extreme

forward end of the bow to the extreme aft end of the stern.
Ship’s linear dimensions (2)

• A ship’s Length Between Perpendiculars [LBP] is the horizontal

dimension measured from the forward surface of the stem, or main
bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or
main stern perpendicular member.

• A ship’s Length on Load Waterline [LWL] is an important dimension

because length at the waterline is a key factor in the complex problem
of speed, resistance, and friction.
Ship’s linear dimensions (3)

A ship’s Extreme Breadth, commonly called Beam is measured in

meters from the most outboard point on one side to the most
outboard point on the other side at the widest point on the

The beam that is considered in the mathematical expression, is the

ship’s beam measured in amidships at the load waterline.
Ship’s linear dimensions (5)

• The vessel’s Depth is measured vertically from the lowest point

of the hull, ordinarily from the upper side of the keel, to the main
deck amidships.

• The term "depth" is used where the measurement is taken from

the bottom, from the keel upward. Ordinarily, if such a
measurement were being made in a room of a building, taken
from the floor to the ceiling, it would be called “height”.
Ship’s linear dimensions (6)

The Freeboard [F] is the vertical distance, measurement taken at

the medium distance between perpendiculars, from the main
deck to the waterline. F=H-T where T represents the Draft.

The load waterline is different in many situations and depends on

the navigation area and on the season.
Plimsoll Mark

• These load
waterlines for
different seasons
and water types are
expressed by
Plimsoll Mark
situated at mid ship
on both sides.
Plimsoll Mark

LTF - Lumber, Tropical Fresh

LF - Lumber, Fresh
LT - Lumber, Tropical Salt
LS - Lumber, Summer Salt
LW - Lumber, Winter Salt
LWNA - Lumber, Winter, North Atlantic Salt
Plimsoll Mark

• LR - Lloyds Register –Classification Society

• Other possible abbreviations:
BV - Bureau Veritas,
GL - Germanischer Lloyd,
AB - American Bureau of Shipping.
1" =
1 inch
= 2,54 cm
Ship’s linear dimensions (7)

The Draught [T] of the ship is the vertical distance measured from
the base line amidships to the waterline.

The waterline is the water-level line on the hull when afloat. The
waterline, the draught, and the freeboard will change with the
weight of the cargo and the provisions carried by the ship.
Draught scale
• The draught of the ship is measured in meters. Numbered
scales are painted on the side of the ship at the bow and stern.

• When the draught is measured at the ship’s bow, it is called

forward draught, when it is measured at the ship’s stern it is
called aft draught and the medium draught will be calculated
with the formula Tm = (Tdf + Taf)/2.
• If the aft draft is bigger • If the forward draft is
than forward draft the bigger than aft draft we
ship is aft heavy say that the ship is bow
(trimmed by the stern or (trimmed by the bow or
down by the stern). down by the head) and
Ship’s dimensions