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I.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Project Title: Quail Layering

Proponent: Jessa N. Moreἠo

Area/ No. of Head: 300 Heads

Location: Brgy. Codcod San Carlos City Negros Occidental

Financing Company: B-MEG

Project Cost: Php 115, 830

II.RATIONALE

Actually the term ‘quail farming’ means, raising quails commercially (like other poultry birds) for
the purpose of profitable eggs and meat production. As far as we have experienced, quail farming
business is very easy, lucrative and entertaining. It’s very easy to maintain a quail farm, because quails
are among the smallest species of poultry birds. The Japanese scientists first tamed the wild quails and
revealed the ways to raise them as domestic birds. Commercial quail farming in Japan has spread
tremendously. Now, people throughout the world performing quail farming business commercially for the
purpose of meat and egg production.

Quail farming is very profitable like other farming ventures, such as chicken, turkey or duck
farming business. Almost all types of weather conditions are suitable for starting quail farming business.
Meat and eggs of quail are very tasty and nutritious. Quail eggs are very nutritious than other poultry
eggs. Because quail eggs contain comparatively more protein, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, B1 and B2.
Quail farming can play a vital role to meet up the demand of food and nutrition. Quail farming business
require small capital and labor. Quails can be raised along with your other poultry birds for meat or eggs
production.

Quail generally survive for 3 to 4 years. An adult quail weights between 150 to 200 grams. Female
quails start laying eggs from their 6 to 7 weeks of age. Each egg weights between 7 to 15 grams. They lay
more than 300 eggs per year. Their eggs are very beautiful. Presence of light increase the egg productive
efficiency of quails. They usually lay eggs at afternoon. It takes about 17 days to hatch their eggs. A
newly born quail chick weights around 6 to 7 grams. Quail never incubate their eggs. For successful
breeding purpose keep one male quail with every five female quails. Quail chicks become very sensitive
and take about two weeks to be strong enough. Eggs of 9 to 11 grams weight with smooth and hard
eggshell are perfect for hatching and producing chicks.
III.MARKET STUDY

A. Eggs

Eggs are the main product of quails. For small scale/backyard quail raising, this can be placed in
a basket and marketed fresh. For bigger operation, it is advisable to pack eggs in carton boxes with
individual dividers to protect the quality of the eggs. Storing eggs in a cool dry place where air circulation
is good can keep the eggs fresh for a period of seven days.

B. Broilers/sewers

The average feed conversion ratio of quail is 3:1. this poor feed conversion efficiency makes a
broiler production uneconomical and therefore any broiler produced should be treated secondary product
in quail raising. The procedure in dressing quail is the same as in chicken. The birds are bled and scaled in
hot water (about 132-135 F) after the feathers are removed. Evisceration follows. The dressed birds are
then chilled and packed by the dozen or in kilos.

C. Prices

Broilers are more tender than stewers (culled layers). As such, the former are sold at a higher
price. The selling price of these should be based on the cost of production from day old to 60 plus the
dressing, storage and related selling cost.
IV.CULTURAL PRACTICES

“Housing and Equipment


Cages can also be made smaller (2 feet x 4 feet x 1 foot) and stacked in four decks, with 3 to 4
inches between the decks. A large number of birds can thus be raised in a very small space. The cage can
be placed under any roof, under an elevated house, or in a garage.
The cages should be rat-proof; rats are the greatest enemy of the birds.

Housing is very important for quail farming. Follow the instructions mentioned below while
making house or cages for your quails.

•Quail can be raised in both litter and cage systems. But quail farming in cage system is more suitable
than raising them in deep litter system. In cage system, management is very easy and diseases or other
problems are less.

•Make a proper ventilation system and ensure proper flow of air and light inside their house.

•You can raise 50 quails in a cage measuring 120 cm length, 60 cm wide and 25 cm height.

•Use wire net for making their cages.

•Measurement of the net would be 5 mm x 5 mm for adult quails.

•Plastic cages are most convenient for quail farming business.

•The house must have to be out of the reach of wild animals. Also prevent all types of predators.

“Quail

“The different Quail breeds found in the Philippines are:


1. Native - Found in the fields and forests; the common “pugo”. This quail is not suitable for commercial
production.

2. Japanese Taiwan - Popularly known as “Chinese Quail”. It has dark brown feathers mixed with white
and gray. The female has a gray underside flecked with darker feathers, while the male has many reddish
feathers on the underside.

3. Japanese Seattle – This is as an American breed similar to the Japanese Taiwan; it has jersey (rust-
maroon) feathers at the base of the heads.

4. Negro – Black or grayish black.

5. Tuxedo – Black with a white spot on the breast.

6. Silver – White with black eyes; from the Canaan Valley, Egypt.

7. Brown Cross No. 1 and No. 2


The Japanese Taiwan breed is commonly raised in the Philippines. However, its eggs are small
compared to those of improved breeds, and egg production is lower. It has also been found to be
susceptible to respiratory diseases. The six other breeds listed are all good. They are heavy egg producers
and are resistant to diseases.

For beginners, the Japanese Seattle is recommended as it is a heavy egg producer and the male can
be easily recognized by the color of its feathers as early as 30 days of age. This means a saving on feeds,
as the male can be culled and sold as broilers.

To insure success, select a good breed and buy stock from a reliable breeder. Good chicks will cost about
P 8.50 day old. Some selected breeders may cost as much as P 35.00 each.
Quail are easy to raise and the housing required is not as complicated as for chickens. A 4 feet x 8
feet x 1foot high cage can house 250-300 layers. The flooring and all sides are made of 1/2-inch mesh
welded wire while the top or cover should be of lawanit to prevent the birds from flying. The quail has a
tendency to fly upwards if the top of the cage is made of mesh wire, and this may cause head injuries.

“Raising quail chick”

Quails never incubate their eggs. So, you can produce chicks by hatching their eggs through
chickens or artificially through using incubators. Incubation period for quail egg is about 16 to 18 days.
For maximum egg production, 16 hours of lighting period is required daily inside the quail house. Keep
newly born quail chicks in a brooder house. Chicks need artificial heat and temperature management
system for 14 to 21 days from their birth. Quail chick become very sensitive. They can be raised in both
litter and battery system. Keep in mind the following factors while raising quail chicks.

•Adequate temperature

•Sufficient light

•Proper air movement

•Density of quail chicks

•Supply of food and water

•Hygienic rearing rules


“Feeds and Feeding

Quail can be fed with any available chicken feed at the rate of one kilo for every 50 quail layers per
day. Add finely ground shell (limestone) to produce stronger and thicker egg shells. Best results were
found when chicken broiler starter mash (22% protein) was fed to both layers and broilers.

A 1/2-inch mash welded wire should be cut to fit the feed trough and laid directly on the feed to
prevent the birds from scratching out the feeds. Another one inch mesh welded wire should be used to
cover the trough to prevent the birds from dusting themselves with the feeds.

Keep feed in the troughs all the time, as feeding should be continuous 24 hours every day to get
higher egg production. Light should be provided so the birds will continue to eat at night. If this is done,
some birds may lay two eggs in 24 hours.
For keeping your quails healthy proper growing and highly productive, provide them balance feed
regularly. An adult quail consume about 20-25 grams of food daily. Chick feed contains 27% and adult
feed 22-24% of protein.
The major cause of failure in quail rising is the faulty feeding practice employed by the raiser.
Most of our quail raisers today feed commercial chicken feeds to quails. This is an erroneous practice and
it should be corrected. The protein requirements of chicken and quails are different and as such the use of
chicken feeds in quail rising is not advisable. Below is a comparison of the crude protein requirement of
chicken and quail.

Quail / Chicken:

Chick stage, 28% / 21%

Grower stage, 24% / 16%

Layer stage, 26% / 15%

From the above information, we can clearly see the mark difference in the Primary requirement
of both birds. Quail cannot survive on chicken feeds for a long time. If ever they will survive, the
mortality rate will be very high sometimes reaching up to 70% from day old to 45 days. Moreover, the
growth of the birds is very uneven and the survivors will not be efficient layers. The productive laying
period for quails fed with chicken feed does not go beyond six months.

“Water

like any other bird, quail needs a lot of fresh and clean water. Whenever possible, flowing water
should be maintained except when there is supply problem in which case water should be replaced daily
and the watering trough must be cleaned everyday.
“Culling

For large scale operation, it is advisable that massive culling be done regularly, preferably on a
quarterly basis or even once every 4 months. Birds that have physical defects should be removed
including those which have grown fat, or are sickly and are not laying eggs. This later condition is
manifested by the size of the vent and the conformation of the abdominal parts.

“Removal of Waste

Because of the high protein content of the quail feeds, quail manure has high ammonia content
which will cause discomfort for the birds if not removed daily. Removal of the manure can be facilitated
by placing a manure receptacle or receiver under the cage.

“Light

Laying quails may be given extra light up to midnight. This will allow the birds to consume the
feed in the trough. Furthermore, the weaker birds in the group will have enough time to eat after the
dominant ones have eaten their share.

It is not advisable to mix male birds in the laying cage except when fertile eggs are to be
produced. If there is an intention of producing fertile eggs for future replacement, the male should be kept
in separate cage and should only be mixed with the layers at the time fertile eggs are to be produced at a
ratio of 1:6 and 1:3 for the Japanese and American breed, respectively.

“Care and Management


Quail, unlike some other fowl, are not delicate birds. They can be raised in any suitable and
comfortable place in the house. The birds do not easily contract fowl diseases common to poultry,
especially chickens.

Vaccination is not needed and the drugs usually given to chickens do not have to be added to quail
feed or drinking water. However, should any disease outbreak occur, the drugs used for chicken can be
used. Deworming of the breeders is done at least every four months or three times a year. Use the same de
wormers as for chickens, but follow the direction on the package for smaller birds.

“Incubator
Normally”pugo” will hatch their own eggs, but the imported breeds mentioned will not brood to
incubate their eggs; an incubator must therefore be used. For a table-type electric-operated incubator, a
temperature of 101o – 103o F should be maintained during the incubation period. For the forced-draft
incubators, the temperature should be kept at 98-100o F. Further instructions on operating an electric
incubator will be found at the end of this pamphlet.
Candling is done on the 11th day of incubation. From setting, quail eggs will hatch on the 18th day.
“Egg Tray

These 50-cell egg trays are built for Chukar eggs and are made from 100% recycled newspaper. They are
completely recyclable and compostable.

“Harvesting

How to harvest quail is about processing for the purpose of meat. Some folks shop for meat at
the grocery store where others raise or hunt their own. We do all three in our home and growing up it was
very similar. My dad was a fisherman and hunter so it was normal to walk in the shed and see him
processing fish, crab, ducks, and so on.

The smell was always less than desirable but it never offended because it was natural and he did
an amazing job processing protein for my mom to turn into a healthy meal.

Last week I was contacted by a reader asking how to mentally get ready to process quail. This
was a fantastic question because I will say if you have a heart it can be difficult. Here’s the thing, I do
have a big heart and this task isn’t easy. Over the years I’ve discovered it’s much easier to cull something
you didn’t raise.

From the beginning of raising our quail I decided to be the processor, knowing this ahead of time
really helps. We have a theme on our farm; all animals have a fantastic life and one bad day. I guess the
bad day is either when they’re sold to leave or harvesting arrives.

“Brooding
The brooder should be a closed compartment, 2 ft. x 4 ft. x 6 inches. The flooring, top and three
of the sides should be made of lawanit or boards while the front side should be made of 1/4-inch mesh
welded wire for ventilation. This is adequate for 500 chicks. A bigger brooder may be made to fit the
raiser’s requirements.
A 50-watt bulb should be placed a little away from the middle of the brooder to allow room for
the chicks to stay away from the heat source in case there is over-heating in the brooder.

“Brooding procedures are similar to those for day-old chicks:

1. Prepare the brooder; lay old newspapers on the floor of the brooder, covering it entirely.

2. Prepare a drinking trough; you can improvise with plastic glasses and plastic covers, or lids large
enough to overlap 1/4 of an inch around the glass rims. Bore a hole in the top rim of the plastic glass to
allow water to flow out when inverted over the plastic cover. This makes a good drinking trough for the
chicks. Commercial waterers for chickens with their deep, wide edges are not advisable for pugo because
they might drown in them.

3. Spread feeds for the chicks over the newspapers and place the waterers away from the light bulb. Leave
the space under the bulb free for the chicks to lay down or crowd together. Do not place feeds in that area
as the chicks will lay down and blind themselves while under the heat of the bulb.
4. See to it that there is always plenty of water. Replace feeds and water as they are consumed.

5. Observe the chicks – if they crowed under the bulb, there is insufficient heat; if they move away from
the bulb, there is too much heat. Remedy the situation by changing the bulb, as required, using a lower
watt bulb for less heat.

6. On the sixth or seventh day, move the chicks to another compartment but with the short sides
open (screened with wire mesh). The chicks now need more space; only 250 to 300 will fit in a 2 feet x 4
feet x 6 inches cage.

7. When the birds are 15 days old, transfer them to growing cages. By this time they are fully feathered.

“Sexing
On the 30th day, males of the Japanese seattle breed can already be recognized by their feathers, so
they can be segregated and sold as broilers. Males of the other breeds can be recognized by their throaty
hoarse cry and the protruding upper vent with a cream-like substance coming out of the vent when it is
pressed upwards.

“Breeding

The early laying birds may be segregated for use as breeders, while late layers are raised for table
egg production.

Experience has shown that if female quail do not answer the throaty cry of the male they are not
happy. The right proportion of males in the flock is necessary for a high percentage of hatchability. The
usual ratio is 70 females to 30 males. Too many males in the flock is indicated when females have bare
backs with the feathers worn off, while an inadequate number of males causes fighting among the
females.

However, females will not fight if there is no male at all among them, as proved when table egg
layers are kept separately with no males.

“Marketing

The demand for quail eggs and meat is so great that marketing is no problem. This is a project
where buyers come to you, especially for the eggs. In streets, stores, restaurants, hotels and bars, quail
eggs and meat are in great demand.

Quail eggs can be sold fresh, boiled, salted, pickled or as balut. Quail meat can be served
barbecued, fried, as adobo, guinataan, or in any way chicken is cooked.

Some reputable bakeries use quail eggs for baking and for making leche flan.

Hard-boiled eggs are sold by hawking vendors in plastic bags. The popular nido soup in restaurants
comes to your table garnished with quail eggs.
VI.SOCIO ECONOMIC STUDY

A socio-economic and technical characterization was conducted between April and September
2010 on 50 quail farms in the Department of Mfoundi, of the Central Region of Cameroon. The aim was
to study the socio-economic characteristics of quail breeders to evaluate the technical performance of
farms in order to identify key areas for improvement. For this purpose surveys were conducted in 50
farms holding a total of 29.929 quails. The result shows that: quail farmers, aged 45 and over (66%) were
men (58%) married (94%), with mostly (68%) 5 and 10 children at charge. The respondents are mainly
employees 56%, and all literate (100 %). However, the level of experience in breeding quails remains
very low (2-3 years). This breeding is practiced in 44% of cases for profit. The average herd size is 599 ±
628 by farmer, the sex ratio varies between ½ and ¼, while the sexing criteria is dominated by the
presence of the foam gland (94%). . The dominant type of farming is farming on litter (88%). Very few
respondents (20 %) have a prophylaxic program. The age of sexual maturity is 60 ± 15 days and the
average laying rate of 65 % while the average peak is of 75% recorded at 12 weeks of age. During
incubation, the temperature is 38.5°C, the turning of eggs is done twice a day and the mean hatching rate
is 50 %. The labor use is mainly family (80%). The sale of products is done mainly on farms (80%). After
production the most asked product are eggs (94%). Marketing is the main constraint (54%). The proposed
major perspectives are creating outlets (56%) and the sensitization of public on this farm product (34%).
More studies have to be done to establish a better technical route suitable for quail farming.

Socio-economic and technical characteristics of Quail farming in the central region of Cameroon
(PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274898720_Socio-
economic_and_technical_characteristics_of_Quail_farming_in_the_central_region_of_Cameroon
[accessed Mar 04 2018].

VII. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY

In a previous study, we showed that bisphenol A (BPA) had oestrogen-like effects in bird
embryos, causing malformations of the oviducts in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and feminisation of
the left testis in chicken (Gallus domesticus). In this study, uptake and distribution of BPA and
tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in embryos and laying quail were examined as well as variables related
to reproduction in adult quail following administration of the compounds into the yolk of embryonated
eggs. The uptake of radiolabelled BPA, TBBPA and the reference compound diethylstilboestrol (DES)
was studied in the embryos using -spectrometry. Autoradiography was employed to examine distribution
in egg and embryo after yolk sac injection of BPA or TBBPA and in laying birds, following intravenous
and oral administration. Following embryonic exposure to BPA or TBBPA, sexually mature male birds
were examined for reproductive behaviour and testis morphology, and females were examined for egg
laying and oviduct morphology. Neither BPA (200 g/g egg) nor TBBPA (15 g/g egg) caused any
significant oestrogen-like effects on the variables studied, although effects on the female oviducts after
BPA exposure were indicated. Embryonic exposure to DES is known to cause profound effects on male
sexual behaviour and female oviduct morphology at doses 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than the BPA
and TBBPA doses used in the present study. The proportions of BPA and TBBPA taken up by the
embryos after yolk sac injection were similar to the proportion of DES taken up. Differences in
bioavailability, therefore do not account for any major part of the potency differences between DES and
the two bisphenol A compounds. The concentration of radioactivity in the embryo, as revealed by
autoradiography, was low compared with that in the yolk at all stages studied (days 6, 10 and 15).
Pronounced labelling of the bile and the allantoic fluid was observed, however, indicating that both
compounds were readily metabolised and excreted. Radiolabelled BPA and TBBPA administered to
laying quail were largely excreted via the bile and 9 days after oral dosing, only small amounts of the
labelled compound remained within the body. Maternal transfer of labelled BPA and TBBPA to the egg
was low.