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INTRODUCTION TO PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING
UNIT 1

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Petroleum engineering refers to the subsurface engineering activities related


to the production of hydrocarbons which can be either crude oil or natural
gas.

Lead-in

Fill in the spidergram with the words associated with Petroleum


engineering.

Petroleum
Engineering

Explain your associations.

Terms and Vocabulary

upstream pазведка и добыча /


Блок Разведки и Добычи
(Апстрим)
downstream переработка и сбыт /
Блок Переработки и Сбыта
(Даунстрим)
supply поставка, снабжение
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well completion заканчивание скважины


depletion истощение, выработка
implement внедрять, вводить в действие
artificial lift механизированная добыча
downhole flow control регулирование дебита скважины
workover капитальный ремонт (КРС)
waterflooding Заводнение
vendor Поставщик
reserves экономические запасы
lease контракт на аренду нефтеносного участка
bit program программа использования буровых долот
probability analysis анализ вероятности
enhanced oil recovery добыча нефти с искусственным
поддержанием энергии пласта
(well) placement размещение (скважин)
interface поверхность раздела (двух фаз или слоёв
жидкости)
regulatory body контролирующий орган
hydrocarbon recovery добыча, отбор (нефти, газа из коллектора);
отдача (коллектора)
осмотр; обследование; технический
surveillance надзор;
контроль
material balance материальный баланс
(modeling)
inflow\outflow приток\выход
simulation modeling (имитационное) моделирование
offset (v) уравновешивать, нивелировать, сводить на
нет
layout план, схема
(hydrocarbon) release Выделение
formation breakdown разрыв пласта
via посредством чего-л.
toolbox инструментарий
layoff приостановка
be savvy in быть осведомленным, разбираться (в к.-л.
вопросах)
involve вовлекать, быть связанным
refer to относиться, отсылать; обращаться
hоld (held) to a high предъявлять высокие требования
standard
compare to сравнивать; сопоставлять
contend with бороться; справляться, противостоять
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become commonplace in стать привычным делом, обычным


явлениям
be concerned with иметь дело, рассматривать, иметь
отношение
be of particular interest to представлять особый интерес для к.-л.
play a (central) role in играть, выполнять роль
specialize in Специализироваться
be in charge of (N) быть ответственным за, отвечать
измерять,
measure (v) замерять
in conjunction with в соединении; в связи; вместе
cover a wide range of охватывать широкий диапазон (круг)

1. Read and learn the pronunciation.

[i:] complete, completion, deplete, depletion, increasingly, recent, scheme,


machine, upstream, downstream, continuous
[e] bury, estimate, vendor
[o:] wellbore, forecast, audit, hydraulics, support
[ə:] survey, reserves, concerned, refer, subsurface, curve, thermodynamics
[ju:] consumer, computer, accurate, numerical, value
[ai] provide, supply, decline, design, divide, specify, high, type, optimize,
maximize
[aiə] require, acquire, environment, via
[k]mechanics, chemistry, scheme, technique
2.Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

′reservoir tech′nique
proba′bility ′regulatory
en′hanced sur′veillance
′drastically ′discipline
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3. Read the text, do the exercises.

Petroleum engineering
Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production
activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. Upstream
refers to the process of finding and extracting oil, which is usually buried
deep beneath the earth's surface, to provide a continuous supply to
consumers "downstream". Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of
topics, including economics, geology, geochemistry, geomechanics,
geophysics, oil drilling, geopolitics, knowledge management, seismology,
tectonics, thermodynamics, well logging, well completion, oil and gas
production, reservoir development, and pipelines.

Petroleum engineering has become a technical profession that involves


extracting oil in increasingly difficult situations as the "low hanging fruit" of
the world's oil fields are found and depleted. Improvements in computer
modeling, materials and the application of statistics, probability analysis,
and new technologies like horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery,
have drastically improved the toolbox of the petroleum engineer in recent
decades.

As mistakes may be measured in millions of dollars, petroleum engineers are


held to a high standard. Deepwater operations can be compared to space
travel in terms of technical challenges. Arctic conditions and conditions of
extreme heat have to be contended with. High Temperature and High
Pressure (HTHP) environments that have become increasingly commonplace
in today's operations require the petroleum engineer to be savvy in topics as
wide ranging as thermohydraulics, geomechanics, and intelligent systems.
Petroleum engineers must implement high technology plans with the use of
manpower, highly coordinated and often in dangerous conditions. The
drilling rig crew and machines they use becomes the remote partner of the
petroleum engineer in implementing every drilling program. Petroleum
engineering has historically been one of the highest paid engineering
disciplines; this is offset by a tendency for mass layoffs when oil prices
decline. According to a survey published in Dec 2006 the average income
was $116,834. Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types:
•Reservoir engineers work to optimize production of oil and gas via proper well
placement, production levels, and enhanced oil recovery techniques.
•Drilling engineers manage the technical aspects of drilling both production and
injection wells.
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•Production engineers (also known as completion or subsurface engineers)
manage the interface between the reservoir and the well, including
perforations, sand control, artificial lift, downhole flow control, and
downhole monitoring equipment.
Reservoir engineering is a branch of petroleum engineering, typically
concerned with maximizing the economic recovery of hydrocarbons from the
subsurface.
Of particular interest to reservoir engineers is generating accurate reserves
estimates for use in financial reporting to the SEC and other regulatory
bodies. Other job responsibilities include numerical reservoir modeling,
production forecasting, well testing, well drilling and work over planning,
economic modeling, and PVT analysis of reservoir fluids.
Reservoir engineers also play a central role in field development planning,
recommending appropriate and cost effective reservoir depletion schemes
such as water flooding or gas injection to maximize hydrocarbon recovery.
Reservoir engineers often specialize in two areas:
•Surveillance (or production) engineering, i.e. monitoring of existing fields and
optimization of production and injection rates. Surveillance engineers
typically use analytical and empirical techniques to perform their work,
including decline curve analysis, material balance modeling, and
inflow/outflow analysis.
•Simulation modeling, i.e. the conduct of reservoir simulation studies to
determine optimal development plans for oil and gas reservoirs.

Drilling engineering is a subset of petroleum engineering, involved in the


design and drilling of production and injection wells. The planning phases of
drilling an oil well typically involve estimating the value of sought reserves,
estimating the costs to access reserves, acquiring property by a
mineral lease, a geologic survey, a wellbore plan, and a layout of the type of
equipment depth of the well.
Drilling engineers are engineers in charge of the process of planning and
drilling oil wells. Their responsibilities include:
•Designing casing strings in conjunction with drilling fluid plans to prevent
blowouts (uncontrolled hydrocarbon release) and formation breakdown.
•Designing or contributing to the design of drill strings, cement plans, directional
plans, and bit programs.
•Specifying equipment, material and ratings and grades to be used in the drilling
process.
•Providing technical support and audit during the drilling process.
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•Performing cost estimates and analysis.
•Developing contracts with vendors.
It is their responsibility to ensure that the well is drilled in a safe, cost
effective and effective manner.

4. Match the English terms in column «A» with their Russian equivalents
in column «B».
A B
1. depleted А.буровая бригада
2. enhanced oil recovery B. заканчивание скважины
3. exploration C. каротаж
4. production D. добыча нефти
усовершенствованным методом
5. drilling rig crew E. нагнетательная скважина
6. reservoir development F. добыча
7. well completion G. истощённый (о запасах)
8. well logging H. разработка пласта
9. injection well I. трубопровод
10. pipeline J. разведка

5. Find the synonyms to the following words in the text.


To deal with, to put into operation, simulation, to improve, to exhaust, to
finish, evaluating, observation, to be responsible for.

6.Find the antonyms to the following words in the text.

Outflow, above, downstream, to minimize, beginning.

7.Decipher the following abbreviations used in the text.

SEC, PVT, HTHP.

8.Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions.

1. Easily accessible oil can be compared_____ low hanging fruits. 2.


Petroleum engineers are _____charge of implementing high technology
plans with the use of manpower. 3. Drilling engineering is concerned
____designing and drilling oil wells. 4. The profession of petroleum
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engineering is involved______ exploration and extraction of oil.


5.Designing casing a string is performed in conjunction ______ drilling fluid
plans. 6. Reservoir engineers optimize production of oil and gas
________proper well placement and enhanced oil recovery.

9.Give English equivalents to Russian words.

1.Petroleum engineers (предъявляются) to a high standard as mistakes may


cost too much. 2. High Temperature and High Pressure conditions have
become(обычное явление) in today’s oil recovery. 3. Petroleum
engineering(охватывает широкий диапазон) of topics, including
geology, geophysics, and geochemistry. 4. Generating accurate reserves
estimates is (представлять особый интерес) to reservoir engineer. 5.
Petroleum engineer should be(разбираться, быть осведомленным) in
topics as wide ranging as thermohydraulics and geomechanics. 6. The remote
partner of the petroleum engineer is(буровая бригада) in implementing
drilling program.

10. Find the meaning of the words in the box in a dictionary. Match the
terms with the definitions.

petroleum engineer upstream


reservoir oil well
hydrocarbons crude oil

downstream petroleum
casing
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1.Petroleum engineer A. Compounds which contain only carbon and


hydrogen. Petroleum consists of them.
2.Reservoir B. A fuel found in mineral deposits under the
ground. It comes from the Greek words for
«rock» and «oil». Therefore, rock oil or oil
found in rock.
3.Hydrocarbons C. Pipes run in a hole and cemented during
drilling in order to consolidate well bore walls
and prevent their collapse.
4.Downstream D. A professional trained in the drilling,
completion and production of oil and gas.
Types of these specialists include drilling,
completion and reservoir engineers.
5.Upstream E. A porous and permeable formation
containing an individual and separate natural
accumulation of producible hydrocarbons. It is
confined by impermeable rock or water
barriers and is characterized by a single natural
pressure system.
6.Oil well F. Exploration, drilling and production
operations for crude oil and natural gas.
7.Crude oil G. A well completed for the production of
crude oil from at least one oil zone or
reservoir.
8.Petroleum H. Transportation and pipe lining, refining and
marketing operations for crude oil and natural
gas.
9.Casing I. A mixture of hydrocarbons that existed in a
liquid phase in natural phase in natural
underground reservoirs and remains liquid at
atmospheric pressure after passing through
surface separating facilities.

11. Classify the responsibilities of a reservoir engineer and a drilling


engineer into two groups.
Estimation of cost to access reserves, maximization of economic recovery of
hydrocarbons from the subsurface, numerical reservoir modeling, geologic
survey, well drilling and workover planning, estimation of the sought

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reserves value, development of contacts with vendor, PVT analysis,


wellbore plan, production forecasting.

12. Complete the sentences, using the information from the text.

1.According to the survey published in December 2006 ………


2.Deepwater operations can be compared to …………………….
3.Such modern technologies as ……………… have improved the toolbox of
the petroleum engineer.
4.Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of topics including …..
5.Petroleum engineers can be divided into several types: …………..
6.Two areas in which reservoir engineers usually specialize are ……
13.State whether the sentences are true or false according to the text. If true, add
the information on the statement. If false, correct the sentence.
1.Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of disciplines.
2.Operation in HTHP environment is a rare case for a petroleum engineer today.
3.Petroleum engineers are usually well paid.
4.Petroleum engineers deal with oil field close to the Earth’s surface.
5.Petroleum engineers are subdivided into two types.
6.Reservoir engineering is concerned with reservoir modelling.
7.Drilling engineers have to perform PVT analysis of the well.

14.
PART 1. Read the following information, then listen to the tape and
match the dates with the stages of petroleum engineering development.
1. The 1910’s A. It was recognized that the characteristics of the oil
reservoir had to be taken into consideration.
2. The 1920’s B. Consolidation and integration of four elements took
place in petroleum engineering.
3. The 1930’s C. Petroleum industry research developed. It was
directed toward the principles, processes and methods
for improvement of oil recovery.
4. The 1950’s D. Petroleum engineering was recognized as a new
field of practice.
5. The 1990’s E. Petroleum engineering centered on the drilling,
completing and producing activities associated with
individual wells.
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PART 2. Listen to the second part of the text once more; give the
examples on the methods of each element.

Elements Examples of methods


1.Extending the capabilities
2.Development of methods for detailed study of subsurface formations and
surroundings
3.Recovering a greater portion of the oil within reservoir
4.Development of technological management and its introduction into
business decision making

15. Answer the following questions.

1.What topics does PE cover?


2.How has the toolbox of the petroleum engineer been drastically improved?
3.Can you say that petroleum engineers are held to a high standard? Prove it.
4.Why is petroleum engineering considered to be the highest paid discipline?
6.What are the types of petroleum engineers?
7.What PE branches do you know?
8.What do reservoir engineers specialize in?
9.What fields are drilling engineers involved in?
10.What processes are drilling engineers responsible for?

16. Work in pairs.

You are going to explore a new oil field. Student A – a reservoir engineer
andStudent B – a drilling engineer. Discuss the distribution of your
responsibilities and order of operations. Use as many expressions under study
as possible.

17. Discuss the following issues.

1.The significance of petroleum engineering nowadays.


2.The reasons for high payment for petroleum engineering job.
3.The main types of petroleum engineers.
4.Reservoir engineers (their responsibilities, areas of specialization).
5.Drilling engineers (their responsibilities, areas of specialization).
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18. Role Play the following situation.

Imagine that one of you is a TV/Radio Presenter with an oil industry


background and the rest are the representatives of an oil company and you
are having 5 min talk show regarding the company you work for, your roles
and responsibilities and current energy sector state.

19. Prepare a poster-presentation«My specialty, its prospects and future».


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UNIT 2

OIL COMPANIES

Oil company is an industry that produces and delivers oil and oil products.
Lead-in
Name all the Western and Russian oil companies you know. What company
would you like to work in? Why?
What position would you like to occupy?

Terms and Vocabulary

Midstream Мидстрим
refining Переработка
refinery нефтеперерабатывающий завод
crude oil сырая нефть
natural gas природный газ
retail outlets предприятия розничной торговли
commodities изделия, товары
natural gas liquids (NLG) сжиженный газ
headquarters/head office/central центральный офис
office
revenue годовая прибыль
procurement материально-техническое
обеспечение
listing Номенклатура
processing Переработка
subsidiary дочернее предприятие
core business основной вид деятельности
trading Продажа
shipping Перевозка
high gravity высокий удельный вес
оpen joint stock company открытое акционерное общество
(ОАО)
Russian Trading System (RTS) Российская торговая система
New-YorkStock Exchange (NYSE) Нью-Йоркскаяфондовая биржа
London Stock Exchange (LSE) Лондонская фондовая биржа
market value рыночная стоимость
Health, Safety and Environment охрана труда, окружающей среды и
(HSE) техника безопасности
seismic acquisition сейсмические исследования
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seismic processing обработка сейсмических данных


formation evaluation определение параметров пласта
well testing испытание скважины
directional drilling наклонно-направленноебурение
report to smb.(v) подчиняться кому-либо
Asset Based Organisation (ABO) организационная структура на базе
активов
asset Актив
functional approach функциональный подход
распределять бюджетные
allocate budget средства
set targets устанавливать цели/плановые
показатели
Human Resources (HR) отдел кадров
General Director (GD) генеральный директор
Chief Engineer (CE) главный инженер
Chief Geologist (CG) главный геолог
Chief Financial Officer (CFO) финансовый директор
Chief Executive Officer (CEO) главный исполнительный директор
Executive Vice-President(EVP) исполнительный вице президент

1. Read the words, learn the pronunciation.

[a:] advantage, plant, demand


[ə:] search, fertilizer, refer, entrepreneur [u:] crude, include, lubricant
[ju:] pharmaceutical, consumer, fuel, butane [ou] own, negotiate, solely
[e] head, head office, headquarters, immense, synthetic
[∫ ] negotiate, initial

2.Read the following word formations and learn their pronunciation. Pay
special attention to the stress.
Market – marketer – marketing
Refine – refinery – refinement
Explore – exploration – exploratory
Produce – producer – production
Dominate – dominated – dominance

3. Read the text and do the exercises.


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Оil Industry Sectors
The entire oil industry is often divided into three major sectors: upstream,
midstream and downstream.
Downstream (oil industry)
The downstream oil sector is a term commonly used to refer to
therefining ofcrude oil, and the selling and distribution ofnatural gas and
products derived fromcrude oil. The downstream sector
includesoil refineries,petrochemical plants, petroleum product
distribution,retail outlets and natural gas distribution companies. The
downstream industry touches consumers through thousands of products such
as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel,heating oil, asphalt, lubricants,synthetic rubber,
plastics, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas and
propane.
Upstream (oil industry)
The upstream oil sector is a term commonly used to refer to the searching
for and the drilling andproduction ofcrude oil and petroleumnatural gas. The
upstream oil sector is also known as the exploration and production (E&P)
sector. The upstream sector includes the searching for potential underground
or underwater oil and gas fields, drilling of exploratory wells, and
subsequently operating the wells that recover and bring thecrude oil and/or
rawnatural gas to the surface.
Midstream (oil industry)
However, midstream operations are usually simply included in the
downstream category. The midstream sector processes, stores, markets and
transportscommodities such as crude oil, natural gas andnatural gas liquids
(NLG) such asethane, propane andbutane.
The process of oil production, transportation, refinery and sale is managed
by oil companies (producers), but there are also service companies that work
as contractors to the oil companies. They are deeply involved in the oil
business providing services that help oil companies to carry out their
operations.
(www. Wikipedia.ed)
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4. State whether the sentences are true or false. If true, add the
information on the statement. If false, correct the sentence.
1. Oil industry is divided into three sectors. T F
Downstream begins from refinery to product
2. distribution. T F
3. Upstream sector includes only drilling and exploration. T F
4. Midstream is part of the upstream sector. T F
5. Midstream transports such products as crude oil, natural T F
gas and NGL.
6. Service companies help oil companies in different T F
operations.
7. Oil companies can also be contractors. T F

5. Read the texts about three different oil companies and do the exercises.

The Seven Sisters of thepetroleum industry is a term coined by an Italian


entrepreneur,Enrico Mattei, that refers to seven oil companies that
dominatedmid-20th century oil production, refinement, and distribution.
These companies were the following:
1.Standard Oil of New Jersey (Esso), which merged withMobil to
formExxonMobil.
2.Royal Dutch Shell Anglo-Dutch.
3.British Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC), which later becameBP.
4.Standard Oil of New York (Socony). This later became Mobil, which merged
with Exxon to formExxonMobil.
5.Standard Oil of California (Socal), now Chevron.
6.Gulf Oil. Most of this became part of Chevron.
7.Texaco. Merged with Chevron in 2001. Texaco remains as a Chevron brand
name.

ROYAL DUTCH SHELL Type: public


Founded: 1907
Headquarters: The Hague, the Netherlands Industry: oil and gas
Products: oil, natural gas, petrochemicals
Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company («oilmajor») ofBritish
andDutch origins. It is one of the largestprivate sector energy corporations in
the world and one of the six«supermajors» (vertically integrated private
sector oil exploration, natural gas, andpetroleum product
24
marketing companies). The company's head offices (also known as the
«central offices») are in The Hague andLondon (Shell Centre). The
company's main business is the exploration for and the
production,processing, transportation and marketing ofhydrocarbons (oil
and gas). Shell also has a significantpetrochemical business(Shell
Chemicals). Shell is incorporated in the UK with its
corporateheadquarters inThe Hague, itstax residence is in theNetherlands,
and its primarylistings on theLondon Stock Exchange. Shell'srevenues of
$318.8 billion in 2006 made it thesecond-largestcorporation in the world by
revenues behind onlyExxonMobil. Its 2006 gross profits of $26 billion made
it the world's second most profitable company, after ExxonMobil and
beforeBP. Forbes Global 2000 in 2007 ranked Shell the eighth largest
company in the world. It operates in over 140 countries. In theUnited States,
itsShell Oil Company subsidiary, headquartered inHouston, Texas, is one of
Shell's largest businesses. One of the originalSeven Sisters, Royal
Dutch/Shell is the world'ssecond-largestprivate sector oil company by
revenue, Europe's largest energy group and a major player in the
petrochemical industry. Shell has fivecore businesses: Exploration and
Production("Upstream"), Gas and Power, Refining and Marketing,
Chemicals("Downstream"), and
Trading/Shipping.

ROSNEFT Type: public Founded: 1993


Headquarters: Moscow Industry: oil and gas
Products: natural gas, petroleum
OJSC Rosneft Oil Company is aRussian integrated oil company. Rosneft
conducts oil and gas exploration and production activities onSakhalin island,
inSiberia, in theTiman-Pechora province, and in southernRussia, including
Chechnya. It also owns and operates two refineries. Its plant inTuapse, on
theBlack Sea, focuses on refininghigh-gravity oil from western Siberia.
Another plant located inKomsomolsk-on-Amur is the easternmost oil
refinery in Russia. Rosneft operates shipping companies,pipeline companies
and marketing companies. Although the company is anopen joint stock
company, according to its website, it seems to be completely owned by the
Russian Federation, as represented by the Federal Property Management
Agency.
Market value of the company on the 29th of December was valued at
$83.908 billion.

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