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Conversion Factors
DIMENSION METRIC METRIC/ENGLISH

Acceleration 1 m/s2  100 cm/s2 1 m/s2  3.2808 ft/s2


1 ft/s2  0.3048* m/s2
Area 1 m2  104 cm2  106 mm2 1 m2  1550 in2  10.764 ft2
 106 km2 1 ft2  144 in2  0.09290304* m2
Density 1 g/cm3  1 kg/L  1000 kg/m3 1 g/cm3  62.428 lbm/ft3  0.036127 lbm/in3
1 lbm/in3  1728 lbm/ft3
1 kg/m3  0.062428 lbm/ft3
Energy, heat, work, 1 kJ  1000 J  1000 Nm  1 kPa · m3 1 kJ  0.94782 Btu
internal energy, 1 kJ/kg  1000 m2/s2 1 Btu  1.055056 kJ
enthalpy 1 kWh  3600 kJ  5.40395 psia · ft3  778.169 lbf · ft
1 cal†  4.184 J 1 Btu/lbm  25,037 ft2/s2  2.326* kJ/kg
1 IT cal†  4.1868 J 1 kJ/kg  0.430 Btu/lbm
1 Cal†  4.1868 kJ 1 kWh  3412.14 Btu
1 therm  105 Btu  1.055  105 kJ
(natural gas)
Force 1 N  1 kg · m/s2  105 dyne 1 N  0.22481 lbf
1 kgf  9.80665 N 1 lbf  32.174 lbm · ft/s2  4.44822 N
Heat flux 1 W/cm2  104 W/m2 1 W/m2  0.3171 Btu/h · ft2
Heat generation rate 1 W/cm3  106 W/m3 1 W/m3  0.09665 Btu/h · ft3
Heat transfer 1 W/m · °C  1 W/m · K
2 2
1 W/m2 · °C  0.17612 Btu/h · ft2 · °F
coefficient
Length 1 m  100 cm  1000 mm 1 m  39.370 in  3.2808 ft  1.0926 yd
1 km  1000 m 1 ft  12 in  0.3048* m
1 mile  5280 ft  1.6093 km
1 in  2.54* cm
Mass 1 kg  1000 g 1 kg  2.2046226 lbm
1 metric ton  1000 kg 1 lbm  0.45359237* kg
1 ounce  28.3495 g
1 slug  32.174 lbm  14.5939 kg
1 short ton  2000 lbm  907.1847 kg
Power, 1 W  1 J/s 1 kW  3412.14 Btu/h
heat transfer rate 1 kW  1000 W  1.341 hp  737.56 lbf · ft/s
1 hp‡  745.7 W 1 hp  550 lbf · ft/s  0.7068 Btu/s
 42.41 Btu/min  2544.5 Btu/h
 0.74570 kW
1 boiler hp  33,475 Btu/h
1 Btu/h  1.055056 kJ/h
1 ton of refrigeration  200 Btu/min
Pressure 1 Pa  1 N/m2 1 Pa  1.4504  104 psia
1 kPa  103 Pa  103 MPa  0.020886 lbf/ft2
1 atm  101.325 kPa  1.01325 bars 1 psia  144 lbf/ft2  6.894757 kPa
 760 mm Hg at 0°C 1 atm  14.696 psia  29.92 in Hg at 30°F
 1.03323 kgf/cm2 1 in Hg  3.387 kPa
1 mm Hg  0.1333 kPa
Specific heat 1 kJ/kg · °C  1 kJ/kg · K  1 J/g · °C 1 Btu/lbm · °F  4.1868 kJ/kg · °C
1 Btu/lbmol · R  4.1868 kJ/kmol · K
1 kJ/kg · °C  0.23885 Btu/lbm · °F
 0.23885 Btu/lbm · R

*Exact conversion factor between metric and English units.



Calorie is originally defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C, but it varies with temperature. The international steam
table (IT) calorie (generally preferred by engineers) is exactly 4.1868 J by definition and corresponds to the specific heat of water at 15°C. The thermochemical
calorie (generally preferred by physicists) is exactly 4.184 J by definition and corresponds to the specific heat of water at room temperature. The difference
between the two is about 0.06 percent, which is negligible. The capitalized Calorie used by nutritionists is actually a kilocalorie (1000 IT calories).
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DIMENSION METRIC METRIC/ENGLISH

Specific volume 1 m3/kg  1000 L/kg  1000 cm3/g 1 m3/kg  16.02 ft3/lbm
1 ft3/lbm  0.062428 m3/kg
Temperature T(K)  T(°C)  273.15 T(R)  T(°F)  459.67  1.8T(K)
T(K)  T(°C) T(°F)  1.8 T(°C)  32
T(°F)  T(R)  1.8 T(K)
Thermal 1 W/m · °C  1 W/m · K 1 W/m · °C  0.57782 Btu/h · ft · °F
conductivity
Thermal resistance 1°C/W  1 K/W 1 K/W  0.52750°F/h · Btu
Velocity 1 m/s  3.60 km/h 1 m/s  3.2808 ft/s  2.237 mi/h
1 mi/h  1.46667 ft/s
1 mi/h  1.609 km/h
Viscosity, dynamic 1 kg/m · s  1 N · s/m2  1 Pa · s  10 poise 1 kg/m · s  2419.1 lbm/ft · h
 0.020886 lbf · s/ft2
 0.67197 lbm/ft · s
Viscosity, kinematic 1 m2/s  104 cm2/s 1 m2/s  10.764 ft2/s  3.875  104 ft2/h
1 stoke  1 cm2/s  104 m2/s 1 m2/s  10.764 ft2/s
Volume 1 m3  1000 L  106 cm3 (cc) 1 m3  6.1024  104 in3  35.315 ft3
 264.17 gal (U.S.)
1 U.S. gallon  231 in3  3.7854 L
1 fl ounce  29.5735 cm3  0.0295735 L
1 U.S. gallon  128 fl ounces
Volume flow rate 1 m3/s  60,000 L/min  106 cm3/s 1 m3/s  15,850 gal/min (gpm)  35.315 ft3/s
 2118.9 ft 3/min (cfm)


Mechanical horsepower. The electrical horsepower is taken to be exactly 746 W.

Some Physical Constants


Universal gas constant Ru  8.31447 kJ/kmol · K
 8.31447 kPa · m3/kmol · K
 0.0831447 bar · m3/kmol · K
 82.05 L · atm/kmol · K
 1.9858 Btu/lbmol · R
 1545.35 ft · lbf/lbmol · R
 10.73 psia · ft3/lbmol · R
Standard acceleration of gravity g  9.80665 m/s2
 32.174 ft/s2
Standard atmospheric pressure 1 atm  101.325 kPa
 1.01325 bar
 14.696 psia
 760 mm Hg (0°C)
 29.9213 in Hg (32°F)
 10.3323 m H2O (4°C)
Stefan–Boltzmann constant s  5.670  108 W/m2 · K4
 0.1714  108 Btu/h · ft2 · R4
Boltzmann’s constant k  1.380650  1023 J/K
Speed of light in vacuum c  2.9979  108 m/s
 9.836  108 ft/s
Speed of sound in dry air at 0°C and 1 atm c  331.36 m/s
 1089 ft/s
Heat of fusion of water at 1 atm hif  333.7 kJ/kg
 143.5 Btu/lbm
Enthalpy of vaporization of water at 1 atm hfg  2256.5 kJ/kg
 970.12 Btu/lbm
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N O M E N C L AT U R E

As Surface area, m 2 m· Mass flow rate, kg/s


Ac Cross-sectional area, m 2 M Molar mass, kg/kmol
Bi Biot number N Number of moles, kmol
C Molar concentration rate, kmol/m 3 NTU Number of transfer units
c Specific heat, kJ/kg  K Nu Nusselt number
Cc, Ch Heat capacity rate, W/K p Perimeter, m
CD Drag coefficient P Pressure, kPa
Cf Friction coefficient Pv Vapor pressure, kPa
cp Constant pressure specific heat, kJ/kg  K Pr Prandtl number
cv Constant volume specific heat, kJ/kg  K q̇ Heat flux, W/m 2
COP Coefficient of performance Q Total heat transfer, kJ
·
d, D Diameter, m Q Heat transfer rate, kW
DAB Diffusion coefficient rcr Critical radius of insulation
Dh Hydraulic diameter, m R Gas constant, kJ/kg  K
e Specific total energy, kJ/kg R, ro Radius, m
ėgen Heat generation rate, W/m 3 R Thermal resistance, K/W
erfc Complementary error function Rc Thermal contact resistance, m 2  K/W
E Total energy, kJ Rf Fouling factor
Ėgen Total heat generation rate, W Ru Universal gas constant, kJ/kmol  K
Eb Blackbody emissive flux R-value R-value of insulation
E bl Spectral blackbody emissive flux Ra Rayleigh number
f Friction factor Re Reynolds number
fl Blackbody radiation function S Conduction shape factor
F Force, N Sc Schmidt number
FD Drag force, N Sh Sherwood number
Fij , Fi→j View factor St Stanton number
Fo Fourier number SC Shading coefficient
g Gravitational acceleration, m/s 2 SG Specific gravity
G Incident radiation, W/m 2 SHGC Solar heat gain coefficient
Gr Grashof number t Time, s
h Convection heat transfer coefficient, t Thickness, m
W/m2  K T Temperature, °C or K
h Specific enthalpy, u  Pv, kJ/kg Tb Bulk fluid temperature, °C
hc Thermal contact conductance, W/m2  K Tf Film temperature, °C
hfg Latent heat of vaporization, kJ/kg Tsat Saturation temperature, °C
I Electric current, A Ts Surface temperature, °C or K
I Modified Bessel function of the first kind u Specific internal energy, kJ/kg
I Radiation intensity, W/m2  sr u, v x- and y-components of velocity
j Diffusive mass flux, kg/s  m2 U Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m 2  K
J Radiosity, W/m2; Bessel function v Specific volume, m 3/kg
k Thermal conductivity, W/m  K V Voltage
keff Effective thermal conductivity, W/m  K V Total volume, m 3
K Modified Bessel function of the second kind V̇ Volume flow rate, m 3/s
L Length; half thickness of a plane wall V Velocity, m/s
Lc Characteristic or corrected length Vavg Average velocity
Lh Hydrodynamic entry length w Mass fraction
·
Lt Thermal entry length W Power, kW
m Mass, kg y Mole fraction
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Greek Letters Subscripts


a Absorptivity atm Atmospheric
a Thermal diffusivity, m 2/s avg Average
as Solar absorptivity b Boundary, bulk fluid
b Volume expansivity, 1/K cond Conduction
d Velocity boundary layer thickness, m conv Convection
dt Thermal boundary layer thickness, m cyl Cylinder
P Pressure drop, Pa e Exit conditions
Tln Log mean temperature difference f Saturated liquid; film
e Emissivity; heat exchanger or fin effectiveness i Inlet, initial, or indoor conditions
e Roughness size, m i ith component
hfin Fin efficiency l Liquid
h th Thermal efficiency m Mixture
u Total energy of a flowing fluid, kJ/kg o Outlet or outdoor conditions
m Dynamic viscosity, kg/m  s or N  s/m 2 rad Radiation
n Kinematic viscosity  m/r, m 2/s s Surface
v Frequency, l/s surr Surrounding surfaces
r Density, kg/m3 sat Saturated
s Stefan–Boltzmann constant semi-inf Semi-infinite medium
sn Normal stress, N/m 2 sph Sphere
ss Surface tension, N/m sys System
t Shear stress, N/m 2 v Water vapor
t Transmissivity; Fourier number 1 Initial or inlet state
ts Wall shear stress, N/m 2 2 Final or exit state
f Relative humidity ∞ Far from a surface; free-flow conditions
u Dimensionless temperature
Superscripts
v Specific or absolute humidity, · (over dot) Quantity per unit time
kg H2O/kg dry air _
(over bar) Quantity per unit mole