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Give examples how water shortage can be over come?

Several strategies can be pursued, among them (1) water conservation (using water
much more efficiently), (2) reclamation of sewage water, (3) development of ground-
water resources, (4) desalination of sea water, (5) rainmaking, (6) harvesting of
icebergs, and (7) diversion of surface water to water-short regions.
Reclamation of Sewage Water
Sewage effluent is 99 percent water, and when the 1 percent of pollutant is removed,
the final water product may be purer than the original substance. Processed sewage
water is already being used for a variety of purposes. In Singapore there using it for
Rainmaking is a novel approach to increasing our water supply. One technique
involves seeding clouds with tiny crystals of silver iodide. The hope is that these
crystals will serve as condensation nuclei around which moisture will collect until
raindrops are formed. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is confident that the weather
modification techniques now available can increase the water supply of the San
Joaquin River Basin by 25 percent, that of the Upper Colorado River Basin by 44
percent, and that of the Gila River Basin (Arizona) by 55 percent ().
Harvesting Icebergs
Billions of liters of fresh water are locked up in Antarctic icebergs. Some optimists
believe that one day this water may be used to irrigate cropland in California. Sounds
attractive and exciting, doesn't it? However, before a single iceberg is guided north,
the environmental effects of those icy mountains on coastal water temperatures, fish
reproduction and migration, and on climatic patterns must be thoroughly studied.
Developing Groundwater Resources
There are 53,000 cubic miles of fresh water in the aquifers located in the upper 0.8
kilometer (half-mile) of the Earth's crust.Intensive study and research are being made
by the U.S. Geological Survey to locate and develop new aquifers. These supplies
must be carefully used to avoid depletion
Unfortunately, desalination is an expensive process. In general, it is much cheaper to
pump fresh water if it's available. However, if the fresh water source must be pumped
more than 150 kilometers (90 miles) to the site of consumption, desalination becomes
economically feasible. This situation is relevant to Singapore.


Owen, O. S. 1971. Natural Resource Conservation An Ecological Approach. The Macmillan Company
New York United States of America. Pg 121-122

Owen, O. S. & Chiras, D. 1990. Natural Resource Management for a Sustainable Future Conservation,
PRENTICE HALL, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Pg 218

Powell J. M. 1980 Approaches to Resource Management. Spicer B. J. An Introduction for Australian

Students. Sorrett Publishing. Pg 64

John D. B. 1968. The Management and Conservation of Biological Resource. Davis Company