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Uppreti et al./VIII: Special Ediition: 1: 2017//21 - 25
Volume VIII:
V Special Edition:
E 1: 20117 [21 - 25] [ISSN 0975
5 - 6272]

Effectt of Chitossan On Prrinting Behaviour of Silk Faabric

Upreti, Monika1; Pant,

P Sumann2; Rani, Sonnu1 and Mishra, Anupaama3

Receiveed: June 3, 2016  Acccepted: Julyy, 20, 2017  Online: August

A 20, 2017

In the present
p studdy, the effecct of chitosaan on trreated sillk fabric, stiffnesss slightlyy
printingg quality, stiffness and crease recoovery in
ncreased. Treatment
T of silk fabric
fa withh
of the silk
s fabric has h been presented. Effect
E chitosan
c b
before prinnting caused more
of pree-treatment of silk with varrying reeduction inn crease reecovery off silk thann
concenttration of chitosan
c (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%1 simultaneouus treatment in printing..
and 2%) 2 in printing and varrying Keywords:
K Chitosan | crease recover |
concenttration of chhitosan (15ml, 25ml, 35ml 3 printing
p | silkk | stiffness
and 455ml) whenn incorporrated into the Introduction
printingg paste was studied. Pre-treatm ment
with chhitosan doess not affectt the color yield
of the printed saample. Eveenness of print
decreassed as comppared to coontrol fabricc. As
concenttration of chitosan increased
i from
0.5% too 1.5%, shaarpness of printp decreaased. Fig. 1:
1 Chemical Strructure of Chito
The texxture of the printed silkk fabric beccame With
W growinng awareneess of peop ple towards
harsh inn pre-treateed fabric buut there waas no environment
e tal friendlyy approach hes, natural
effect on texture in simulttaneous use of fibre
fi and natural
n pollymer havee receivedd
chitosann in printinng paste. It was also found
fo much
m more attention tthan ever before
b from
that, stiffness
s o silk faabric increeased
of th
he researccher. Eco-ffriendly teextiles are
progresssively withh increase in i concentraation becoming
b onne of the prriority areaas that have
of chitoosan in pre--treatment of o silk fabrric in tu
urned attenntion towaards environmentallyy
printed fabric, wheereas in simuultaneouslyy benign
b prooducts. Chhitosan is a natural
For Corrrespondence:
b of poly [β-((1-4)-2-amiio-2-deoxy-
D anose]- obttained by chitin de-
ment of Clothingg& Textiles, Coollege of Home
Science, G.B.P.U.A.&T
G ., Pantnagar, Utttarakhand, Inddia acetylation.
a The monom mer unit is found
f in the
ment of Clothingg& Textiles, Coollege of Home
Science, Banasthali
B Univversity, Jaipur, Rajasthan, Indiia exoskeleton
e of many animal sp pecies like
ment of Clothingg& Textiles, Coollege of Home
Science, SAPKM,
S Kichhha, Uttarakhandd, India
c arthropodss and mollu usces’. It is
E-mail: monika.upreti0
m 04@gmail.com m
Upreti et al./VIII: Special Edition: 1: 2017/21 - 25

one of the chief constituent of cell walls of Experimental procedure

certain fungi (Enescu, 2008). 1. Raw Materials
Many researchers reported that chitosan Silk fabric was purchase from Khadi Bhandar
having unique properties like Haldwani, Uttarakhand and others chemical
biodegradability, biocompatibility, non- which are used in this work was available in
toxicity, and antimicrobial properties College of Home Science laboratory,
(Hosseini et al., 2013; Lim and Hudson, Banasthali Vidhayapith, Jaipur (Rajasthan).
2003; Jia et al., 2001). The non-toxic and Chitosan and Glycerin was used as an
biodegradable properties are specifically auxiliary agent, Gum Tragacanth as a
gaining attention of research and commercial thickener, Ammonium Oxalate and Ezee for
communities like biomedical, textile and scouring of the silk fabric.
chemical industrial (Jocic et al., 2005).
2. Procedure
Treatment of textile material with chitosan Scouring: Scouring bath was made up with
which is considered as multifunctional ezee (5gm/lt) and fabric was treated for 30
finishes which not only provide antimicrobial minutes at 40˚-50˚C and MLR was 1:30. The
properties but also enhance the color strength fabric was taken out from bath, rinsed
(Bondyopadhyay et.al. 2001). thoroughly in running water and dried at
Abdou (2013) reported that printed samples room temperature (Gupta et al., 2013 and
have similar colorfastness to that of Upreti et al., 2017).
commercial samples, but chitosan film on Simultaneous treatment with Chitosan in
fabric surface create the problem of poor printing paste: 5gm chitosan was dissolved
handling i.e. makes the fabric stiff. Chitosan into 500ml of water. 7.5 ml of 10% acetic
is applied on all type of natural fabrics. In the acid was added. This solution was divided
present study silk fabric was used. Silk fibre according to the requirement during printing.
is known as “Queen of Fibres” because of its In printing, the paste was divided into 5 equal
graceful lustre and soft texture which makes parts and various concentrated chitosan
it different from others (Peng et. al., 2012). solutions (15ml, 25ml, 35ml and 45ml) were
Chitosan is used as an auxiliary in textile added into the paste respectively. Then the
printing. print paste was applied on the silk fabric with
Therefore, keeping in view the importance the help of screen.
and utility of the chitosan, this paper focused Pre-treatment of silk fabric with Chitosan
on, studying the effect of chitosan on printing in Screen Printing: Pad-dry-cure method
of silk fabric with acid dye and depth of was followed to apply Chitosan on silk
shade, evenness of dyeing and texture of fabric. In this technique first Chitosan
printed sample were evaluated. Also, the solution of different concentrations were
effect of chitosan concentration of stiffness prepared. Silk fabric was immersed for 5
and crease recovery of the printed sample minutes in the solution for better
were studied. impregnation and then the fabric was passed
between two rollers to squeeze out air and to

Upreti et al./VIII: Special Edition: 1: 2017/21 - 25

force liquor inside material, excess liquor Result and discussion

being sent back along the fabrics. Fabric was Effect of chitosan on printing quality and
dried at 90˚C for 3 minutes and cured at texture of the silk fabric
150˚C for 1 minute. Four concentrations of On the visual inspection, it was found that
Chitosan (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%) were applied the controlled sample showed deepest shade.
individually. Application of different There was no effect on the color yield of the
concentrated Chitosan solution paste into the print either in pre-treated silk fabric with
silk fabric was done with the help of padding Chitosan or incorporation of Chitosan on
mangle. After that, printing was done. printing paste. Evenness of print improved
Drying: Printed sample was dried at room slightly when silk was treated with 0.5%
temperature (30˚C) for 24 hrs and Prints were Chitosan. Other samples showed decrease in
fixed by steaming. Steaming of printed evenness of print as compared to control
samples was done in laboratory in open bath fabric. Analysis of sharpness of print
at 100˚C for 30-45 minutes. revealed that pre-treatment with 0.5%
Evaluation Methods: Subjective analysis Chitosan resulted in increase in sharpness of
technique was used to analyse the printing print. As concentration of Chitosan
quality of the dyed samples. Five point rating increased from 0.5% to 1.5%, sharpness of
scale was used to evaluate the depth of shade, print decreased. In case of incorporation of
evenness of print and texture of the silk Chitosan in printing paste, almost similar
fabric. The result of depth of shade, evenness trend was observed. Texture analysis
and texture has been presented in terms of revealed that as the percentage of Chitosan
weighted mean score whereas stiffness and increased in pre-treated sample, texture of the
crease recovery and colour fastness of the silk fabric became harsh but here is no effect
silk fabric were determined with standard on texture of the simultaneous use of
procedure. Chitosan in printing paste.
Rating Scale
Depth of shade 3.93
14 3.62
Very Deep Slightly Moderately Very 3.24
12 3.38
Deep Light Light light 2.93 2.28 Texture
10 3.43
5 4 3 2 1 3.33 2.62
8 3.53 Sharpness of 
Evenness of Print 3.85
6 3.05
Very Even Slightly Moderately Very 4.7 Eveness of 
4 print
Even Uneven Uneven Uneven 3.07 3.08 3.05
2 2.42
Depth of 
5 4 3 2 1
0 Shade
Texture of the silk fabric
Very Soft Slightly Moderately Very
Soft Harsh Harsh Harsh
5 4 3 2 1 Fig. 2: Effect of Chitosan on Printing quality and Texture of
pre-treated Silk fabric

Upreti et al./VIII: Special Edition: 1: 2017/21 - 25

16 chitosan, stiffness is more in warp wise

3.43 3.45 3.12 direction as compared to weft wise direction;
12 Texture
2.93 3.02 but in case of incorporation of Chitosan in
10 3.48 3.3 2.98
8 3.53 2.87 Sharpness of  printing paste the weft wise stiffness is more
6 2.78 2.73 3.27 2.62 print
4.7 as compared to warp wise stiffness.
4 3.53 3.38 3.62 2.95 Eveness of 
2 print  Crease recovery: Treatment of silk fabric
0 Depth of  with Chitosan before printing caused more
reduction in crease recovery of silk than
simultaneous treatment in printing. This may
Fig. 3: Effect of Chitosan on Printing quality and Texture of be due to the fact that Chitosan made silk
Simultaneous treated Silk fabric stiffer. Stiff fabrics are more prone to
Effect of Chitosan on selected properties of creasing than soft fabric. Abdou (2013) also
silk fabric reported chitosan film on fabric surface
Stiffness: It is clearly shown in table 1 that, create the problem of poor handling i.e.
in case of printed silk fabric pre-treated with makes the fabric stiff.

Concentration Stiffness Crease Recovery

Sample of
Chitosan Warp Weft Warp Weft

Control 2.65 3.42 68.3 85

0.5% 2.67 3.3 90 85
1% 4.21 3.5 78.33 76.67
1.5% 4.97 3.1 70 66.67
2% 5 3.4 80 61.67
15ml 5.2 3.4 55 60
25ml 2.51 3.38 66.67 66.67
35ml 2.57 3.15 66.67 73.33
45ml 2.75 3.03 53.33 70
Table 1: Effect of Chitosan on stiffness and
crease recovery

Conclusion References
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used with the combination of starch which
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might be increase the color strength. To
permanently fix the chitosan on silk fabric
anchoring chemicals like Cyanuric chloride, Bandyopadhyay, B.N.; Sheth, G.N. and
hydroxydichlorotrizine or glutaraldehyde Moni, M.M. (2001): Application of
may be used in further studies. chitosan in dyeing and finishing.

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