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Chapter 1



According to Nestoso (2010) in his study, “Rehabilitation

Program for Inmates”, one of the primordial mandates of the

Bureau of Corrections is the effective rehabilitation of

prisoners. Thus, various programs are in place to address the

rehabilitation aspect in corrections. Rehabilitation in

correctional work is done through a combination of programs

that involves spiritual activities, educational courses (formal

and informal), medical and hygienic practices, cultural and

recreational activities, productive work, counselling,

therapeutic and disciplinary measures. After the basic needs of

an inmate are met, the formal rehabilitation process involves

the following institutionalized programs such as inmate work

program, health care, education and skills training, recreation

and sports, religious guidance and behavior modification using

the therapeutic community approach.

Criminal rehabilitation is gaining popularity among many

who are forward thinkers. Such forms of rehabilitation can help

to reduce the number of repeat offenders who return to jail

after being unable to adapt to life outside of jail. This can

also help to solve some of the more serious cases, such as


sexual offenders who may continue in their ways after being

released, preying on women or children. Criminal rehabilitation

can help to solve the problem of overcrowding in most prisons.

The criminal population continues growing, as the death penalty

has been abolished, and the state would need to spend more on

facilities to house criminals (Ward and Maruna, 2007).

In the Philippines, the Bureau of Correction has

undertaken rehabilitation programs to help an inmate lead a

responsible, law abiding and productive life upon release.

Efforts shall be made to ensure an optimum balance between the

security of the prison and the effectiveness of treatment

programs. Inmate and public safety, and the requirements for

effective custody, shall, however, take precedence over all

other activities at all times and shall not be compromised.

Rehabilitation and treatment programs focus on providing

services that will encourage and enhance the inmate=s

self0respect, self-confidence, personal dignity and sense of

responsibility. Corrective and rehabilitation services include

religious guidance, psychotherapy, socialization, health and

sanitation, vocational training, mental, physical and sports

development, and value formation and education. Occupational

and vocational training programs are based on the needs of the

inmates, general labor market conditions, and institution labor

force needs. An important component is on the job training,


which inmates receive through institution job assignments and

work in federal prison industries. The Bureau also facilitates

post-secondary education in vocational and occupationally-

oriented areas. Recreation and wellness activities encourage

healthy lifestyles and habits. Institution libraries carry a

variety of fiction and nonfiction books, magazines, newspapers,

and reference materials (as cited by Nestoso, 2010).

In the study conducted by Nestoso (2010) revealed that the

inmates at the Davao Prison and Penal farm work at the TADECO

plantation and receive minimum wage for their efforts. They use

their earnings to support various personal needs and income-

generating activities. The prisoners are encouraged to engage

in livelihood programs particularly in handicrafts in order for

them to have additional source of income. The inmates are also

given value formation and moral building activities through the

educational and religious program of the bureau. Such

activities help them to realize what they have gone through and

prepare them to become better individuals and re0born members

of the society, eventually. The visiting and recreational

program further helps them to get an atmosphere of the world

beyond the confines of the penal farm. It actually prevents the

inmates in developing a feeling of isolation which might even

lead to depression. The bureau ensures that while the prisoners

are serving their punishment for their respective offenses they


would not be futile and that there is always room for change

and development. In such case, they retain their identities and

make their families feel that they still exist and could even

afford to support the latter though they are in prison.

The ability of inmates to cope in prison continues to be

an area of concern for both criminal justice practitioners and

researchers alike. The harsh reality of imprisonment can have a

negative impact on inmates, influencing their capacity to adapt

to their new environment. Adjustment to prison life is a

process that can be affected by a variety of issues. According

to Covert (1995) there are eight environmental concerns that

impact inmate behavior and adjustment to prison life: privacy,

safety, structure, support, emotional feedback, social

stimulation, activity, and freedom. The inability to have these

concerns addressed manifests in strained inmate tolerance

levels and immune systems, compromised inmate physical and

emotional health, and increased incidents of aggression and

violence (Covert, 1995) which affect their social well-being.

Quality of life is defined as the degree of excellence of

one’s life that contributes to satisfaction and happiness and

benefits mental health. Quality of life of an individual would

be affected by a number of factors, particularly by the

significant positive and negative life events. As stated by

Milbrath (1979), “subjective studies of quality of life


typically have shown that most people derive their greatest

sense of quality of life from their home and family life and

from the close supportive relationships they have with friends

and colleagues”.

Criminal Propensity is the notion of an underlying, or

latent characteristic of all individuals – aggression,

impulsiveness, self-control, or conditionality – that has a

direct effect on a person’s likelihood of committing criminal

acts which may threaten the well-being of the society, or

injure any of its members. Research findings suggest that

people with criminal propensity score high on neuroticism,

extroversion, psychoticism and lie tests (Khurana and Dhar,

2000). For inmates, one of the fundamental consequences of

their imprisonment is lack of control over decisions about

their activities. This lack of autonomy is evident in nearly

all aspects of prison life. Prisoners have virtually no privacy

and are observable at all times by different forms of

surveillance. Understanding the quality of life of the

prisoners, an understudied population, is necessary to inform

us on their current state.

As part of the requirement for the degree in Bachelor of

Science in Criminology and to provide valuable information as

regard the status of rehabilitation program of BJMP Roxas,

Isabela and its effect on the social, emotional and


aspirational aspects or well-being of inmates of BJMP Roxas,

the researchers find the present study essential. Measuring

their quality of life satisfaction could generate baseline data

to create and design appropriate and effective rehabilitation

program. It is for this reason that the researchers were

inspired and motivated to conduct this study to establish

essential information about the prison inmates’ life and

eventually use the results in the formulation of effective

strategies for possible community extension program of the

College of Criminology.

Statement of the Problem

The main purpose of the study was to assess the

Rehabilitation Program of BJMP Roxas, Isabela and its effects

to the social, emotional and aspirational aspects of its


More specifically, it attempted to answer the following


1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in

terms of the following variable:

1.1 Age;

1.2 Gender;

1.3 Civil status;

1.4 Highest educational attainment;


1.5 Crime committed;

2. What is the level of satisfaction of the inmates of BJMP

Roxas, Isabela on the following rehabilitation programs:

2.1 Moral Recovery/Religious Program;

2.2 Educational Program;

2.3 Livelihood Program;

2.4 Recreational Program; and

2.5 Visiting Program

3. What is the extent of the effects of the different

rehabilitation programs to the inmates of BJMP Roxas,

Isabela as to the following:

3.1 Social aspect;

3.2 Emotional aspect; and

3.3 Aspirational aspect


Based from the specific problems raised in the Statement

of the Problem, the following assumptions were made:

1. The level of satisfaction of the inmates on the

rehabilitation program of BJMP Roxas, Isabela is defined

by the successful implementation and positive perceptions

of the inmates on the following programs:

1.1 Moral Recovery/Religious Program;

1.2 Educational Program;


1.3 Livelihood Program;

1.4 Recreational Program; and

1.5 Visiting Program

2. The rehabilitation program has positive effects on inmates

as to the following aspects of their life:

2.1 Social aspect;

2.2 Emotional aspect; and

2.3 Aspirational aspect

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The focal point of the study was the assessment of the

Rehabilitation Program of the Bureau of Jail Management and

Penology (BJMP) in Roxas, Isabela. It determined the effects of

the rehabilitation program on the inmates as to social,

emotional, and aspirational aspects or domains. In particular,

it will discussed the demographic profile of the inmates as to

some selected variables, their perceptions as to the

implementation of the rehabilitation program and its effects on

the social, emotional, and aspirational aspects of the inmates.

In this study, the researcher utilized descriptive method

as research design. Simple random sampling technique was

utilized in selecting the respondents of the study. A

structured type of questionnaire was used in collecting data.


The respondents of the study were limited to thirty (30)

selected inmates of BJMP Roxas, Isabela.

Significance of the Study

By the nature and purpose of this study, the results or

findings of the study bear significant contributions to the


BJMP Roxas, Isabela. The results of this study will serve

as reference and guide in order to become more effective and

efficient in the implementation of rehabilitation programs for


Inmates of BJMP Roxas, Isabela. This study will provide

them with an idea of their present status as inmates of BJMP

Roxas, Isabela. This information could serve as a reference for

them to further improve their performance in the jail in order

that their rehabilitation process will be successful. Moreover,

this information could enlighten the administration of jails to

address the problems encountered by the inmates in order to

minimize their burden inside the jail.

Families of the Inmates. The findings of this study will

give them an idea about the current status of the members of

their family who are at BJMP Roxas, Isabela. Consequently, this

may ease their fears that something wrong might be happening

with their loved ones in jail, or it may provide them with idea

that they should visit them very often to remind them to

manifest good character inside the jail.

Students of Bachelor of Science in Criminology. The result

of this study will provide essential information to them which

could be helpful in preparing them to become good and effective

criminologist or jail personnel in the future.

Society. The result of this study will serve as a call to

all members of the society, especially the criminals, to always

do good things and avoid committing crimes because if one is

put in jail, he or she will be deprived of most of his or her

rights, especially the right to live freely.

Future Researchers. This study may serve as a potential

reference which may provide baseline data needed in the conduct

of further related studies.

Definition of Terms

To have a better understanding of the contents of the

study, some key terms were defined authoritatively and

operationally as follows:

Aspirational Aspect. The strong desire, longing, aim,

ambition, goal or objective of the prisoner to improve himself

and eventually live outside the prison.

Educational Program. The term refers to program given to

the inmates regarding learning activities.


Emotional Aspect. The state of a person's emotions,

especially with regard to pleasure or dejection. As used in the

study, the term refers to the state to which inmates’ emotions

are manifested and affected inside the jail.

Inmate. A person who is forced by the law to stay in a

prison. It also refers to a person who is confined in jail or

prison to serve a sentence after a conviction by a competent

court or authority. It is also referred to as convict.

Jail. The prison, especially one for the detention of

persons awaiting trial or convicted of minor offenses.

Livelihood Program. The subsistence or employment of

prisoners while serving their offenses.

Recreational Program. This activities that include

athletic sports, music and arts, social games, special

activities on special events, etc.

Rehabilitation Program. An emending or an emendation,

rebuking or punishing. In this study, it refers to the program

given by the bureau of corrections to the inmates.

Religious Program. A system of beliefs and practices

relating to the sacred and uniting its adherents in the

community. In this study, it refers to practices and beliefs

given by the bureau of corrections.

Social Aspect. The interaction of the individual and the

group, or the welfare of human beings as members of society. As


used in the study, the term refers to how an inmate interacts

with his fellow inmates and the persons he come to associate

with inside the jail or prison.

Visiting Program. An integral element of any prison

system. Visitation improves the prison environment and gives

inmates something to look forward to as an incentive to

participate in rehabilitative programs and cope up with prison


Theoretical Framework of the Study

The rehabilitation theory was adopted as the basis for the

theoretical framework of this study. According to Packer as

cited in Dambazau (2007), rehabilitation theory posits that

offender should be treated as an individual whose special needs

and problems must be known in order to enable prison officials

to deal effectively with him. They also argued that one cannot

inflict a severe punishment or inhuman treatment to inmates in

the prison and expect them to be reformed and reintegrate

themselves into the society upon release. Although it is

important to inflict punishment on those persons who breech the

law, so as to maintain social order, the importance of

rehabilitation is also given priority as it is the only assured


way of ensuring that offenders do not return to crime

particularly since they have acquired skills that will help

them engage in productive activities upon release (Wikipedia,

20017). The theory of rehabilitation therefore, seeks to reduce

recidivism because it believes that through retraining

programmes for offenders, a more purposeful life would be

guaranteed to ex-convicts.

Rehabilitation theory is the most valuable ideological

justification for punishment. It promotes the humanizing belief

in the notion that offenders can be saved and not simply

punished. It recognizes the reality of social inequity. To say

that some offenders need help to be rehabilitated is to accept

the idea that circumstances can constrain, if not compel and

lead to criminality; it admits that we can help persons who

have been overcome by their circumstances. It rejects the idea

that individuals, regardless of their position in the social

order, exercise equal freedom in deciding whether to commit

crime, and should be punished equally according to their

offence irrespective of their social background (Tan, 2008).

Furthermore, this theory is relevant to the study as it

tries to establish the justification or rationale behind the

treatment of the convict by changing the attitude and behaviour

of criminals so that they will be able to choose lawful means,

in satisfying their needs (Dinitz & Dine, 1989). This theory


emphasizes the need to retrain the convict so that he can live

a lawful and independent life which upon release. It advocates

that vocational training be designed to transform convicts’

life styles through the vigorous application of discipline,

education, work and other relevant programs.

Conceptual Framework of the Study

The study employed the Input-Process-Output (IPO) model of

goal accomplishment. This model has three major components

namely: the input, the process and the output.

The input involved the respondents’ personal circumstances

as to age, gender, civil status, highest educational

attainment, crime committed, and the length of imprisonment of

the inmates of BJMP, Roxas, isabela. It also included the

perceptions of inmates regarding the status of the

implementation of the rehabilitation program and its effects on

their social, emotional and aspirational well-being. These

were, in brief, the elements that brought about the results.

The process involved the assessment of the implementation

of the rehabilitation program and its effects on their social,

emotional and aspirational well-being.


The linkage of the input and the process determined the

output. Thus, it was expected that the output will bring forth

an improved rehabilitation program and well-being of inmates in

BJMP, Roxas, Isabela.

To conclude the flow of the paradigm, the feedback is sent

back to the input and the process through a broken line for

suggestions to be made from the results of the study.

To understand better the conceptual framework of this

study, a paradigm is presented on the next page.


1. Respondent’s
Profile as to:
1.1 age;
1.2 gender:
1.3 civil
1.4 highest
1.5 crime
1.6 length of
Assessment of the rehabilitation
2. Implementation implementation of program and well-
of the
Rehabilitation the rehabilitation being of inmates
Programs as to: program and its in BJMP Roxas,
2.1 Moral
effects on the Isabela
igious social, emotional
and aspirational
2.2 Educational
Program; well-being of
2.3 Livelihood inmates in BJMP
2.4 Recreational Roxas, Isabela
Program; and
2.5 Visiting

3. Effects of the
Program as to:
3.1 Social
3.2 Emotional
Aspect; and
3.3 Aspirational


Figure 1
Paradigm of the Study
Chapter 2


This chapter presents the literature and studies that have

bearing with the present piece of work. These were extracted

from books, journals, unpublished thesis and dissertations and

from other materials found in several libraries.

Related Literature

Rehabilitation means to restore to useful life as through

therapy and education, or to restore to good condition,

operation, or capacity (The American Heritage Dictionary of the

English Language, 2014). Elsewhere, and in more sociological

terms, it is defined as the process of helping a person adapt

to society (Campbell, 2005), or a punishment intended to reform

a convict so that he or she can lead a ‘productive’ life free

of crime (Smith, n.d.). Rehabilitation seeks to reduce criminal

propensity by changing attitudes, cognitive patterns, social

relationships, and/or resources of offenders (Cullen &

Applegate, 1997).

According to Ward and Maruna (2007), in criminal

rehabilitation, prisoners are given opportunity to increase

their content knowledge base. This is essential as studies show

that many inmates do not have basic grade school education.

This would severely impede their success of acquiring jobs,

thus many had to turn to a life of crime. Basic criminal


rehabilitation programs ensure that there is a standard level

of literacy amongst the inmates who sign up for the course.

Rehabilitation also ensures that inmates are socially well

adjusted. Psychological assessments are being meted to test for

mental or physical disabilities that led to their incarceration

in the first place. Should the inmates be ready and willing to

accept counselling and assessment, many of them are able to

return to society as relatively well-balanced individuals. For

drug addicts, this is a pertinent issue, as many of them are

struggling with addiction problems. Counselling would help to

balance inner dynamics that led to the addiction, and possibly

the criminal behavior that financed the addiction. Criminal

rehabilitation has many positive benefits and can impact the

lives of many inmates as well as their families. It can help

with wider social issues as well, such as reducing

discrimination and stigma. There are statistics showing that

only 35 percent of inmates do not make their way back to prison

upon their release. This leaves us with a large percentage of

released criminals who do commit crimes and end up being repeat

offenders. This poses a major difficulty to society as well as

a strain.

The government has to fork out huge sums to keep tabs on

these possible repeat offenders as well as maintaining the

prison systems. Needless to say, the possibility of releasing


prisoners who might be repeat offenders is a threat to social

safety. However, the scenario does have a light at the end of

the tunnel. There seems to be a good reason why some former

inmates do not return to jail: it appears that their time in

incarceration was spent productively, changing some vital

aspect of their personality. Studies have shown that

normalizing the prison experience through the offering of

education programming, vocational training, and work for pay,

along with transitional skill building reduces recidivism

exponentially. Prison should not be - for the inmate - a life

of leisure with no sense of responsibility to the larger

society. Prison should however, be a place where the inmate can

make amends, find societal redemption, and learn skills

allowing him to live in the larger society as a positive force

instead of a liability (Lin, 2007).

As stated by Roach (2000), structured rehabilitative and

treatment programs are for all inmates requesting

participation, including general education, substance abuse,

individual and group counselling, religious, recreation, work

and educational release programs. All of the programs are

available to all inmates regardless of sex, race, origin,

religion, political views, disabilities or legal status. The

primary goals of classification are the proper housing and

custody assignment of inmates to ensure inmate, staff and


public safety and to facilitate appropriate treatment and

program. Classification, or the evaluative process by which

housing decisions are made, is the primary management tool to

aid in providing appropriate responses to this widely diverse

inmate population.

Classification determines the degree of supervision

required to control each inmate to ensure the security of the

institution and the safety of the community. Overall, a

properly functioning classification system has been found to

provide the basis for the effective management of inmates in a

safe, secure correctional environment, while also ensuring

their equitable, humane treatment. Classification is an on-

going process reoccurring as needed during the inmate’s

incarceration. The classification section is staffed by three

full time members including a supervisor. All inmates are

afforded equal protection against personal abuse, corporal

punishment, personal injury, disease, property damage and

harassment. Each inmate committed shall be afforded freedom

from discrimination based on race, religion, national origin,

sex, handicap or political beliefs. Security permitting, all

inmates will have equal access to the jail’s various programs

and work assignments and involvement in decisions concerning

their classification status (Patterson, 2012).


Work program for inmate includes daily maintenance of the

prison, housekeeping, laundry, painting, canteen operations,

public and food service operations. The principal value of

trustee programs is in the opportunities they provide for the

development and/or reviving of skills and work habits

instrumental in the inmate’s successful occupational adjustment

in the community. The various routine cleaning and other

housekeeping chores must be performed by inmates on a day-to-

day basis but some intramural work assignments such as food

service, painting, laundry or other duties, offer inmates the

opportunities to receive a form of vocational training. These

vocational training opportunities may provide the inmate with

the necessary skills to obtain similar jobs in the free society

(Patterson, 2012).

As part of the rehabilitation of inmates, recreational

program provides a wide range of activities to permit inmates

to express their talents and pursue their interests in a

wholesome way. This can be an important factor in reintegration

into society as well as meeting the physical fitness, mental

fitness, and general wellness of the inmate while he/she is

incarcerated. Specific activities within a category are

determined by assessing inmate needs and considering physical

plant constraints, security/operational concerns, financial

considerations, staff availability, resource availability, and


seasonal limitations. The games category includes activities

primarily of a sporting nature, including intramural programs

and general recreation as available on a daily basis. This also

includes informal recreation such as table games and other game

activities. Creative arts includes activities related to art,

music, drama, graphic arts, in0cell craft studies, etc.

Wellness education which deals with the understanding of

positive use of free time is incorporated into all activities

programs. Wellness education is a key component to a successful

positive lifestyle. This program promotes self-awareness, self-

fulfilment, and personal motivation toward positive actions and

avoidance of idleness (Patterson, 2012).

According to Munakukaama (2005), the religious programs

has a mission to serve the inmate population and institutions

by promoting and delivering quality spiritual life services in

the areas of worship, religious education and crisis

counselling. This department seeks to achieve the highest

professional response from staff chaplains and volunteers

involved in the delivery of a variety of religious activities

across the state, and to integrate Religious programs staff and

services into an institutional response toward meeting the

needs of the inmate population. This is also the best

opportunity to confront negative attitudes and behaviors of

newly adjudicated offenders.


As stated by Ward (2011) that as long as there have been

prisons, religious education and training have been offered to

prisoners. Religious programs for inmates are not only among

the oldest but also among the most common forms of

rehabilitative programs found in correctional facilities today.

Among all other types of personal enhancement programs offered

in prison, religious activities attracted the most


Sarkin (2008) was correct when he observed that

rehabilitation and reformation are two different things: we can

measure rehabilitation, but we cannot measure reformation.

Though we can observe that some inmates unquestionably may have

changed in positive ways, there is no way of observing whether

they have repented. The former inmate still may be a “very bad”

person on the inside, but as long as he does not commit illegal

acts when he leaves prison, as he did previously, he is

“rehabilitated”. This intriguing distinction warrants research.

As mentioned by Long (1990), if religion can inhibit

delinquent and criminal activity, why might it not facilitate

the process as well as the outcomes of prison rehabilitation?

Aside from complex and difficult theological discussion about

the possible spiritual roles of religion, as well as the

evidence demonstrating the mental and physical health benefits

of religion there are scientific reasons to predict that


religion might affect behavioral and social change. Religion

targets antisocial values, emphasizes accountability and

responsibility, changes cognitive approaches to conflict, and

provides social support and social skills through interaction

with religious people and communities. Such emphases seem to be

consistent with what many rehabilitation workers would call

principles of effective treatment. Increased church attendance

or religious practice has often been associated negatively with

crime and/or delinquent activity. In keeping with much of the

religion-crime literature, one could argue that inmates are

most strongly committed to religious activities.

Inmates in serious trouble with institutional authorities

may be more likely to attend a religious function if they

believe it may benefit them in some way. Religion offers the

opportunity to gain forgiveness, to start over, to receive

another chance, and even to attempt to cover over (or cover up)

their prison sins. Religion can be comforting, or even a tool

for manipulation. In an environment where status degradation is

common, spirituality can be empowering, especially to those who

find themselves in trouble and alone. Therefore those who have

committed a serious infraction may be more likely to seek out

religious programs. Although religion is frequently practiced

in prisons, either privately or programmatically, criminal

justice research suffers in both quality and quantity in


examining the impact of religion on prison process and outcome

factors (Long, 1990).

The sprawling New Bilibid Prison to the south of the

Philippine capital is known for holding the country’s most

notorious and hard-core convicts. But perhaps what is less

known is that fashion has recently found itself a place inside

the 551-hectare compound here. Every Tuesday, around 40 inmates

from the maximum-security section would sit face-to-face with

one of Manila’s haute couture designer to learn how to bead and

hand-paint fancy evening gowns and formal attire. When their

skills grew mature, each participating inmate was paid anywhere

from 100 to 500 pesos per gown, depending on the intricacy of

the design and the time to finish it. The originality, the

quality and craftsmanship of the painting of these gowns have

attracted so much attention from the fashion world. The fashion

creativity workshop is a part of the livelihood programs aimed

at preparing the inmates for a life once they finished serving

their sentence. There are various programs including education,

sports, industry, spiritual growth, agricultural, vocational

and alternative learning tailored to meet the demand of 22,000

inmates serving their terms in New Bilibid, the country’s

largest prison facility. The inmates are given a second chance

and their dignity is restored through the harnessing of their

talent and staying productive. Giving them a second chance is


better than locking them up. The fashion design initiative

makes them proud again, and be responsible. It is the feeling

of restored dignity, self-esteem and pride in one’s work that

gives inmates the greatest achievement of the fashion

creativity workshop (Gutierrez, 2001).

Livelihood program for inmates is set to become an earning

opportunity as well as a means to contribute to the inmates

having a healthy mind occupied with creativity and

productivity. Besides developing handcrafting skills, it also

taught life skills - to exercise their power of choice and to

become productive and responsible members of society. The

inmates are learning that committing a crime and ending up in

jail isn’t the end of it all, realizing that they have the

right and responsibility to make and have a great life for them

(McCarthy, 2010).

Pete (2008) said that reformation of the offender is being

regarded as an ultimate aim of the prison sentence. Prison

reform measures should lead to some reduction in inmate’s

feelings of hostility, helplessness and other negative

emotions. The stresses behind the bars include separation from

their family members, overcrowding, sensory deprivation,

exposure to a high-density of hard core offenders and variety

of uncertainties, fear, frustrations. The “Family Visiting

Program”, allow selected inmates to spend up to two days in


relatively unsupervised private visits on the prison grounds

with members of their immediate family. The second program, the

“Temporary Release Program”, allows inmates about to be paroled

to make visits to their home communities in order to arrange

jobs and housing, spend time with their families, and otherwise

prepare themselves for release.

Related Studies

Research conducted by Doris MacKenzie (2006) others find

that rehabilitation programs that have shown to be effective

include the following:

• Academic education

• Vocational education

• MRT (Moral Recognition Therapy)

• R&R (reasoning and rehabilitation)

• Cognitive restructuring

• Cognitive behavioral treatment for sex offenders

• Behavioral treatment for sex offenders, hormonal

• Surgical treatment for sex offenders

• MST for juveniles (Multi-systemic therapy)

• Drug courts

• Drug treatment in the community

• Incarceration based drug treatment


Uche, et al (2015) conducted a study to find out the

prison inmates’ perception of the effectiveness of

rehabilitation programmes in the Nigerian prisons service with

reference to Enugu prison. The study adopted the cross-

sectional survey design. A total of one hundred and forty five

(145) inmates comprised the target of the study. Questionnaire

was the instrument used for data collection. The Statistical

Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), frequency tables and

percentages (%) were employed in the data analysis. The result

showed that rehabilitation programmes in the prisons have not

achieved much. It was also discovered that the duration of

service for the inmates does not make the inmates to be

actively involved in rehabilitation programmes. Majority of the

respondents agreed that lack of fund/inadequate funding was the

major hindrance to the programmes. It is recommended that

social workers, philanthropists should contribute in ensuring

that adequate facilities are provided to enhance the

effectiveness of the rehabilitation programmes.

The study of Uche, et. al. bears similarities with the

present study as both of them tries to examine the

effectiveness of the rehabilitation programs of jails. They

differ in the locale of the study.

The causes of various jail problems are demeaning physical

facilities and lack of other facilities such as dining room,


recreation area, chapel, class rooms, or places for inmates to

enjoy some solitude other than the loneliness of their cells

(Gutierrez, 2001).

This result from the study of Gutierrez (2001) is related

to the present study because it proves that the demeaning

physical facilities of a jail can cause some problems to


The cause of jailbreak and escapes in the experience of

the inmates in Quezon Provincial Jail were boredom which ranked

first with a frequency of 10. Family problem ranked second with

a frequency of 9; and homesickness ranked third with a

frequency of 8 (Ang, 2004).

This finding from the study of Ang (2004) is relevant to

the present study because it stresses that the common problems

encountered by inmates can trigger jailbreak or escapes among

these inmates particularly those who experienced boredom and


According to Luce’s “treatment programs”, the treatment of

inmates shall be focused on the provision of services designed

to encourage them to return to the fold of justice; and enhance

their self-respect, dignity, and sense of responsibility. These

treatment should focused on the following; (a) basic needs of

inmates; (b) health services; (c) education and skills

training; (d) religious services; guidance and counselling; (e)


recreation services, sports and entertainment; (f) work

programs, such as livelihood projects; (g) visitation services;

and (h) mail services (Luce, 1998).

This findings of Luce complements the study because it

present the different factors that should be seriously

considered by jail personnel in formulating measures to

minimize the effects of the common problems of inmates.

The programs that were given to the inmates of Quezon

Provincial Jail and Talipan District Jail were involvement of

inmates to religious activities; inmates participates in

livelihood programs such as handicraft weaving; and inmates

were given to talk to anther people, relatives, friend, and

family members during visitation hours; inmates were encourage

to the different sports; and they were given medical assistance

(De Villa, 2003).

In his study, De Villa (2003) recommended that: (a) Quezon

Provincial Jail should seek the help of the religious

counsellors through coordination with the bishop to further

help inmates have faith in God and to guide them to live as

responsible individual;(b) the correction counsellors in the

Quezon Provincial Jail must continue doing their responsibility

more efficient to maintain good relationship between them in

the inmates to reach the objectives of counselling more

effective; (c) Quezon Provincial jail should continue to give


support for implementation of counselling program so that it

will be more effective in rehabilitating inmates; (d) Quezon

Provincial jail should maintain the imposition of deserved and

fair disciplinary punishment by means of giving warning

reprimand was effective to avoid jail disturbance and create

positive impact to the offender; (e) there should be adequate

jail personnel in the institution in order to boost the proper

and effective implementation of rules and regulation; (f) the

institution should continue to apply the less punitive

sanctions in jail institution like the disciplinary punishment

for violation of jail rules and regulations to the violators

that could give safety from inmates and staff environment

conducive for reforming and rehabilitating inmate offenders (De

Villa, 2003).

Arana (2012), in his study measured their quality of life

satisfaction can generate baseline data to create and design

appropriate and effective rehabilitation program. The

satisfaction level on the different domains of life of selected

inmates of Iligan City jail was assessed to determine their

quality of life using the generic version of the Ferrans and

Powers Quality of life index questionnaire. The descriptive

survey was employed in this study. Results revealed that

majority of the respondents were slightly satisfied in all

domains of life - health, functioning, psychological,


spiritual, social, economic and family; or slightly high level

of the quality of life was achieved by the respondents despite

of the condition that they were held captive in prison. Only

the social and economic domains of life affect the level of

satisfaction between the male and female inmates as depicted

from the statistical analysis. There is no significant

difference between male and female inmates’ satisfaction with

the health, functioning, psychological, spiritual and family

domains of life. The overall quality of life index was

influenced by the respondent’s gender. Thus, there is

significant difference between male and female inmates overall

quality of life.

Chapter 3


This chapter includes the description of the research

design, locale of the study, respondents of the study, data

gathering instruments, data gathering procedures and the

statistical treatment of the data.

Research Design

The objective of this study was to determine the status of

the implementation of the rehabilitation program of the Bureau

of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP) in Roxas, Isabela and

assess its effects of the socail, emotional and aspirational

aspects of inmates. The proponents of this study believed that

the method appropriate the descriptive-survey method.

According to Good and Scates (2001), descriptive method is

appropriate in determining the current condition of any unit,

group or organizations, programs and many others. The term

normative is used because surveys are frequently made to

ascertain the normal and typical condition and practices. They

further claimed that these methods are used to organize,

analyze, interpret and report the present situation or status

of a group.

Similarly, Van Dalen and Meyer (1999) stated that

descriptive research method is not confined to routine fact


gathering and that predicting and identifying relationship

among and between variables is the goal of competent

investigators or researchers. As in any investigation/inquiry,

descriptive survey method will examine problematic situations,

define the problems and state the hypothesis, select

appropriate subjects and materials, establish categories for

classifying data that are ambiguous and appropriate for the

purpose of the study, and capable of bringing out significant

likeness, differences and relationships, select construct

techniques, make discriminating objectives observations and

describe, analyze and interpret their findings in clear and

precise terms. Best (1999) likewise claimed that descriptive

research describes and interprets what is to be investigated

and analyzed.

Research Locale

The study was conducted at the Bureau of Jail Management

and Penology (BJMP) in Roxas, Isabela.

Sampling Design and Sample Size

The researchers utilized simple random sampling technique

in order to give all the inmates of BJMP Roxas, Isabela equal


chances to be chosen as respondents of the study. The

respondents of the study were selected by the researchers

without bias or any predetermined choice. Those who were

willing to cooperate were included as respondents of the study.

The researchers intended to have 30 inmates as respondents of

the study. It was believed that this number is ideal to

represent the inmates who were currently under the BJMP Roxas,


Ethical Issues and Considerations

As regard to the ethical procedures, an approval letter

seeking for permission will be given to the administrator of

BJMP in Roxas, Isabela. An Information Statement that guided

the respondents in completing the questionnaire, together with

an Invitation Letter and Consent Form were also submitted for

approval. Likewise, in relation to the research manuscript,

acknowledgment and referencing was highly observed.

Data Gathering Instrument

The questionnaire was the primary data gathering

instrument that was used in this study. The questions were

written in English and were translated to Filipino to


facilitate understanding by the inmates. The questionnaire was

based from several sources like professional books,

periodicals, researches, unpublished materials like theses and

dissertations. It contained the following:

Part I – Respondents’ profile to some selected variables

as stated in the statement of the problem

Part II - The Rehabilitation Program and the Level of

Satisfaction of the Inmates of BJMP Roxas, Isabela

Part III - Effects of the Different Rehabilitation

Programs to the inmates of BJMP Roxas, Isabela

Documentary Analysis will also be conducted. To ensure the

accuracy or correctness of some data and information that will

be derived from the questionnaire, some records of the inmates

will be requested from the records of the said jail.

Data Gathering Procedures

After the approval of the questionnaire, the researchers

coordinated with the administration of the Bureau of Jail

Management and Penology in Roxas, Isabela to allow them to

conduct the study. When the permission to conduct the study

granted, the researchers personally administered the

questionnaire to the inmates in the premises of BJMP Roxas.

Subsequent to a cordial greeting to the selected inmates, a

short introduction about the study was made. The researchers

gave ample time for the respondents to complete answering the


questionnaires. Upon completion, the researchers retrieved the

accomplished questionnaires.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data gathered were summarized, tabulated, and analyzed

using the following statistical tools:

1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution

The profile of the respondents were analyzed using formula

of percentage as shown below:

Percentage (%) = f/n x 100

Where: f = frequency

N = number of respondents

100 = constant

2. Weighted Mean

The status of the implementation of the rehabilitation

program and its effects on the social, emotional and

aspirational aspects of the inmates of BJMP Roxas, Isabela were

analyzed using the formula of weighted mean as shown below:

X = ∑ WiXi

Where: X = mean score

Wi = weight of each item

Xi = value of the item


N = number of respondents

The table below shows the scoring scale for the weighted

mean on the status of the implementation of the rehabilitation

program and the extent of its effects on the social, emotional

and aspirational aspects of the inmates of BJMP Roxas, Isabela

Table 1

Scoring Scale for Weighted Mean

Point Statistical Limits Qualitative Description

5 4.51 – 5.00 Strongly Extensive

4 3.51 – 4.50 Extensive

3 2.51 – 3.50 Slightly Extensive

2 1.51 – 2.50 Slightly not Extensive

1 1.00 – .1.50 Strongly not Extensive