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TUBITAK Marmara Research Centre, Information Technologies Institute, 41470, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey

mehmet.haklidir@bte.mam.gov.tr, deniz.aldogan@bte.mam.gov.tr

isa.tasdelen@bte.mam.gov.tr, semuel.franko@bte.mam.gov.tr

Abstract: Realistic models and robust control are vital to reach a sufficient fidelity in military simulation projects

including surface vessels. In this study, a nonlinear model including sea-state modelling is obtained and

feedback linearization control is implemented in this model. To control the system, nonlinear analysis

techniques are used. The model is integrated into a commercial framework based CGF application within a

high-fidelity military training simulation.The simulation results are presented at the end of the study.

behaviors of the surface vessels under the effect of

hydrodynamic force-moments and environmental

conditions such as waves, current, wind, season that

pertaining to the tactical environment.

The analysis and control of nonlinear motion

model of surface vessels are obtained by using SNAME’s (1950) notation is used in this study.

following techniques: The first three parameters and time derivatives that

• Linearization by Taylor Series are shown on Table define the position and the

• Phase Plane Analysis motion of the platform in x-, y-, z- axes. Last three

o Course Keeping parameters define the orientation and rotary motion

o Zig Zag Maneuver of the platform. After analyzing 6 degrees of

• Lyapunov Stability Theorem freedom motion of surface vessel, it is observed that

• Feedback Linearization 2 axis systems are needed to perform the motion.

Ship dynamics model and disturbance model are Therefore, North – East- Down (NED), is the local

introduced in Section 2; the phase plane analysis and geodetic coordinate system fixed to the Earth, and

lyapunov stability therom in Section 3 and 4, the Body Fixed, is fixed to the hull of ship, coordinate

proposed controller is discussed in Section 5; frames are used. Motion axis system X0 Y0 Z0 has

simulation results are presented in Section 6. been fixed to the platform and called as Body Fixed

axes system. The point O, which is the origin of this

axes system, is always selected as the ship’s centre

of gravity. (Figure 1)

2 THE SURFACE PLATFORM

MOTION MODULE

2.1 Coordinate System and Vector

Notation

The motion of surface vessels has 6 degrees of

freedom. The description and notation of each

degree of freedom has been shown on Table 1. Figure 1: Coordinate System.

92

MODELING, SIMULATION AND FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION CONTROL OF NONLINEAR SURFACE VESSELS

Sway: Y = m[v + ru − zG p + xG r] (2)

Fossen (1991), by inspiring Craig’s (1989) robot

model, contrary to classical representation, modeled Roll: K = I X p − mzG (u + ru )] (3)

6 degrees of freedom motion of the surface vessel Yaw: N = I Z r + mxG (v + ru ) (4)

vectorially.

η = J ( η) υ 2.2.4 Force and Moments Acting on Surface

Mυ + C (υ)υ + D (υ)υ + g ( η) = τ +g0+w Vessel

Above; M is the moment of inertia including Basically force and moments acting on surface

added mass, C(υ) is Coriolis matrix, D(υ) is vessel can be divided to four as; hydrodynamics

damping matrix, g(η) is gravitational force vector force and moments, external (environmental) loads,

and τ is the vector showing the force and moments control surface forces (rudder, fin..) and propulsion

of the propulsion system that causes motion. This (propeller) forces. Force and moments can be

representation will be used in this study. expressed according to axis system;

2.2.1 Motion Equations Surge: X = XH + XR + XE + T

Sway: Y = YH + YR + YE

Representing the motion equations in the Cartesian

system of coordinates (body-fixed reference frame) Roll: K = KH + KR + KE

and defining xG, yG and zG as the position of the Yaw: N = NH + N R + N E

ship’s CG, the well known motion equations of a Description of indices is; H, Hydrodynamic

rigid body are giving by the following (Fossen, force and moments originating from fluid-structure

1991): interaction, R , forces that affects control surface are,

Surge: E, environmental external loads (Wave, current,

X = m[u + qw − rv + xG (q 2 + r 2 ) + yG ( pq − r) + zG (rp + q )] wind), T, propulsion force.

Sway:

Y = m[v + ru − pw − yG ( r 2 + p 2 ) + zG ( qr − p ) + xG ( qp + r )] Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments

Heave: Integration of the water pressure along the wetted

Z = m[ w + pv − qu − zG ( p 2 + q 2 ) + xG ( rp − q ) + yG ( rq + p )] area of the surface vessel causes hydrodynamic force

and moments within the platform. These force and

Roll :

K = I X p + ( I Z − I y ) qr + m[ yG ( w + pv − qu ) − zG (u + ru − pw)]

moments can be defined, with the velocity and

acceleration terms as a nonlinear axes system, by

Pitch: using Abkowitz method.

M = I y q + ( I x − I Z ) rp + m[ zG (u + qw − rv) − xG ( w + pv − qu )]

Yaw: Most important step on developing maneuver

N = I Z r + ( I y − I x ) pq + m[ xG (v + ru − pw) − yG (u + qw − rv)] model is expanding force and moment terms in

Taylor’s series. This way, nonlinear terms act as

independent variables and form a polynomial

2.2.2 Simplifying Assumptions equation. The function and its derivatives have to be

continuous and finite in the region of values of the

Simplifying assumptions used in this study are

variables to use the Taylor's expansion. Certainty of

following:

the model alters depending on where the expansion

• The rotational velocity and acceleration about

is finished.

the y-axis are zero (q, = 0).

• The translational velocity and acceleration in Force and moments, which were obtained by

the z direction are zero. (w, = 0). expanding Taylor series until third power, are under

• The vertical heave and pitch motions are mentioned (Abkowitz, 1969; Sicuro, 2003)

decoupled from the horizontal plane motions.

• The vertical centre of gravity, (VCG), is on the X hid = X u (u ) + X vr vr + X uu v 2 (5)

centerline and symmetrical (yG=0) Yhid = Yv v + Yr r + Yp p + Yφ uv φ uv + Yφ ur φ ur

motion equations, the following simplified equations

of motion are obtained

93

ICINCO 2009 - 6th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

+ Kv r v r + K r v r v + K uv φ uv φ Speed (at 19,5 m above sea) [m/s]

(7)

+ K ur φ ur φ + Kuuφ uuφ + K u p u p The Current and Wind Models

+ K p p p p + K p p + Kφφφ φφφ − ΔGz (φ )

Typically wind models only treat the force and

moments that are directly related to surge, sway and

yaw motions. In this study, the wind model is

Obtaining Hydrodynamic Derivatives

obtained by using Isherwood Method.(Isherwood

In order to obtain hydrodynamic derivatives three

1972)

basic methods can be used.

Wind forces and moments acting on a surface

¾ By means of basin test using the realistic

platform are usually defined in terms of relative

model

wind speed VR (knots) and relative angle γR (deg).

¾ By using CFD (Computational Fluid

The wind forces for surge and sway and the wind

Dynamics) software

moment for yaw as is shown.

¾ By using empirical formulae

In this study third method was used. 1

X wr = C X (γ R ) ρ wVR2 AT (9)

Hydrodynamic derivatives have been used by the 2

empirical formulae of the source Inoue et al. (1981). 1

Ywr = CY (γ R ) ρ wVR2 AL (10)

To have an opinion about validity and fidelity of the 2

empirical formulae, parameters of a merchant ship 1

that was chosen from literature was used. By using N wr = C N (γ R ) ρ wVR2 AL L (11)

2

these parameters and related formulae hydrodynamic

derivatives were calculated and compared with the where CX, CY and CN are the force and moment

equivalent in the literature.(Table 2) coefficients, ρw is the density of the air, AT and AL

are the transverse and lateral projected areas and L is

Table 2: Comparing the hydrodynamic derivatives the overall length of the ship. (Isherwood, 1972).

obtained from the model data and empirical formulae. The equations of current forces and moments are

similar with wind forces and moments.

When the simplified 4 degrees of freedom motion

model, which was obtained in previous section, was

associated with hydrodynamic forces and

environmental external loads a nonlinear maneuver

The Environmental Disturbances model can be obtained. To behave like independent

The environmental disturbances acting on the variables and become coefficients of a polynomial

surface vessels can be grouped into two main motion equation, hydrodynamic derivatives are

categories; the wave model, the current and wind derived by another software that makes use of ship

models. geometry. As well, terms of ship motion equations

are normalized relative to the ship velocity. (Fossen,

The Wave Model 1991)

When real data regarding the complicated seas lacks,

idealized mathematical spectrum functions are ′ v ′2

X ′ = X ′(u ′) + (1 − t )T ′( J ) + X vr′ v′r ′ + X vv

(12)

generally used for marine calculations. One of the + X rr′ r ′2 + X φφ

′ φ ′2 + cRX FN′ sin δ ′

easiest and commonly used of these calculations is

the Pierson – Moskowitz spectrum where a wave ′ v ′3 + Yrrr

Y ′ = Yv′v′ + Yr′r ′ + Yp′ p ′ + Yφ′φ ′ + Yvvv ′ r ′3

spectrum formula is provided for winds blowing

over an infinite area and at a constant speed for over ′ v ′2 r ′ + Yvrr

+Yvvr ′ v ′r ′2 + Yvv′ φ v ′2φ ′ + Yv′φφ v ′φ ′2 (13)

a sea of full state. In this study this spectrum is used +Yrr′ φ r ′2φ ′ + Yr′φφ r ′φ ′2 + (1 + aH ) FN′ cos δ ′

while a wave model is created.(Berteaux, 1976)

This spectrum is expressed as follows due to the ′ v′3 + K rrr

K ′ = Kv′ v′ + K r′ r ′ + K ′p p′ + Kφ′ φ ′ + K vvv ′ r ′3

wave frequency and wind speed. ′ v′2 r ′ + K vrr

+ K vvr ′ v′r ′2 + Kvv

′ φ v′2φ ′ + Kv′φφ v′φ ′2 (14)

0.0081g 2 ⎡ ⎛ g ⎞

4⎤

+ K rr′ φ r ′2φ ′ + K r′φφ r ′φ ′2 − (1 + aH ) z R′ FN′ cos δ ′

Sξ = exp ⎢ −0.74 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (8)

ω5 ⎢⎣ ⎝ Vω ⎠ ⎥⎦

94

MODELING, SIMULATION AND FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION CONTROL OF NONLINEAR SURFACE VESSELS

′ v′3 + N rrr

N ′ = N v′ v′ + N r′ r ′ + N ′p p′ + Nφ′ φ ′ + N vvv ′ r ′3 20° rudder angle. For a zig-zag maneuver, when the

angular acceleration plotted is against angular

′ v′2 r ′ + Nvrr

+ N vvr ′ v′r ′2 + N vv

′ φ v′2φ ′ + Nv′φφ v′φ ′2 (15)

velocity it shows how non-linear ship response can

+ N rr′ φ r ′2φ ′ + N r′φφ r ′φ ′2 + ( xR′ + aH xH′ ) FN′ cos δ ′ be (Figure 4).

3.1 Phase Portrait of Course Keeping

Phase portraits of surface platform are shown. Yaw

angle (psi) versus its derivative yaw rate (r) in

Figure 2 and Roll angle versus roll rate in Figure 3

are used to obtain the phase portraits. If the real part

of the eigenvalues is positive, then x(t) and x(t) both

diverge to infinity, and the singularity point is called

an unstable focus.

4 LYAPUNOV STABILITY

THEOREM FOR SURFACE

PLATFORM DYNAMIC

A fully actuated surface platform can be described

by

Mυ + C ( υ)υ + D ( υ) υ + g ( η) = Bu = τ

η = J ( η) υ

Figure 2: The Phase Portrait (Yaw vs Yaw rate).

where J(η) is singular for θ = ±90 degrees (Euler

angles), M= MT>0 and D(ν) = DT(ν) > 0. The

The phase portrait in Figure 3 demonstrates that position is controlled by

the unstable free motion of the surface platform.

u = BT ( BBT )−1 ⎡⎣ g (η) − J T (η) K P η⎤⎦

(

where Kp = KTp > 0. Let V = 1 υ T Mυ + η T K Pη

2

)

be a Lyapunov function candidate for the closed-

loop system (4.1), (4.2) and (4.3). We take the time

derivative of the Lyapunov function candidate to

obtain

(

V = υT M υ + J T (η) K P η )

(

= υ Bu − C (υ )υ − D (υ )υ − g (η ) + J T (η ) K Pη

T

)

= υ (− C (υ )υ − D(υ )υ )

T

= −υ T D(υ )υ

Figure 3: The Phase Portrait(Roll angle vs Roll rate).

which is negative semidefinite. Asymptotic

3.2 Phase Portrait of Zig Zag stability can then be established by applying

Maneuver LaSalle’s invariance principle, but the equilibrium

point (η, ν)=(0, 0) is only locally asymptotically

It is intended that the surface platform makes zig- stable since J(η) is singular for θ = ±90 degrees.

zag maneuvers of 45° with a velocity of 8 m/s with

95

ICINCO 2009 - 6th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

The basic idea with feedback linearization is to The crucial parameters of the surface platform

transform the nonlinear systems dynamics into a chosen for the illustration have been displayed in

linear system (Freund (1973). Conventional control Table 3.

techniques like pole placement and linear quadratic

optimal control theory can then be applied to the Table 3: The main parameters of the surface platform.

linear system. Feedback linearization allows us to

design the controller directly based on a nonlinear

dynamic model that better describes a ship

maneuvering behavior. Consider Norrbin's nonlinear

ship steering equations of motion in the form

(Fossen 1992):

mψ + d1ψ + d 3ψ 3 = δ (16)

here m = T/K, d1 = n1/K and d3 = n3/K. In the sample application, it is intended that the

Taking the control law to be: surface platform makes zig-zag maneuvers of 45°

δ = mˆ aψ + dˆ1ψ + dˆ3ψ 3 (17) with a velocity of 8 m/s. The route information

regarding this task is inputted by the VR-Forces

where the hat denotes the estimates of the graphical user interface (Figure 6).The results below

parameters and a, can be interpreted as the have been produced after running the simulation for

commanded acceleration, yields: 800 seconds.

~ a + d~ ψ + d~ ψ 3

m(ψ − aψ ) = m (18)

ψ 1 3

Here m~ = mˆ − m , d~ = dˆ − d and d~ = dˆ − d

1 1 1 3 3 3

are the parameter errors. Consequently, the error

dynamics can be made globally asymptotically

stable by proper choices of the commanded

acceleration aψ. (Fossen 1992) In the case of no

parametric uncertainties, equation (18) reduces to:

Figure 6: The route defined for the platform.

ψ = aψ which suggests that the commanded

acceleration should be chosen as: In this application, which is known as the zig zag

test of Kempf in the literature (Kempf, 1932), the

aψ = ψd − K dψ~ − K pψ~ (19)

initial speed of the platform has been given as 0. The

where ψ d is the desired heading angle and platform is ordered to move to the specified

ψ~ = ψ − ψ d is the heading error. This in turn yields waypoints one by one by increasing its velocity up

to 8 m/s. It takes the platform 96 seconds to reach to

the error dynamics: the first point. The first loop is accomplished in

ψ + K dψ~ + K pψ~ = 0 (20) approximately 295 seconds. The results are

acceptable for the motion behaviors that are

The block diagram of the control system is supposed to be realized by a large platform and

shown in Figure 5. satisfactory in terms of simulation.

96

MODELING, SIMULATION AND FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION CONTROL OF NONLINEAR SURFACE VESSELS

7 CONCLUSIONS

In this study, feedback linearization control has been

implemented in a nonlinear surface vessel model

including sea-state modeling (wave, current, wind).

The performance of the maneuver controller has

been illustrated through a simulation study. The

results are acceptable and satisfy for the needs of

military simulation. Although we have designed our

control to cover all influences, a more specified

design can upgrade the performance in each

Figure 7: (b) Change of velocity. different case. In the future work, the performance

of the controller may be compared with an

intelligent control technique.

REFERENCES

Abkowitz, M. A. , 1969. Stability and Motion Control of

Ocean Vehicles, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge,

Massachusetts.

Berteaux, H. O. , 1976. Buoy Engineering, Wiley and

Sons, New York.

Fossen, T. I., 1991. Nonlinear Modeling and Control of

Underwater Vehicles, Dr. Ing. thesis, Dept. of

Engineering Cybernetics, The Norwegian Institute of

Figure 8: Changes in the yaw angle and rudder angle of Technology, Trondheim.

the surface platform. Fossen, T. I. and Paulsen, M. J., 1992. Adaptive Feedback

Linearization Applied to Steering of Ships,

Controller performance can tried by some Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Conference on Control

Applications (CCA'92), Dayton, Ohio, September 13-

different route applications:

16, 1992, pp. 1088-1093.

Freund, E., 1973. Decoupling and Pole Assignment in

Nonlinear Systems. Electronics Letter, No.16.

Inoue, S., Hirano, M., Kijima, K., 1981. Hydrodynamic

derivatives on ship manoeuvring; International Ship

Building Progress, Vol. 28.

Isherwood, R. M. , 1972. Wind Resistance of Merchant

Ships, RINA Trans., Vol. 115,pp. 327-338.

Kempf, G., 1932. Measurements of the Propulsive and

Structural Characteristics of Ships, Transactions of

SNAME, Vol. 40, pp. 42-57.

SNAME, 1950. The Society of Naval Architects and

Marine Engineers. Nomenclature for treating the

motion of submerged body through a fluid, Technical

Research Bulletin No. 1-5

97

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