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Digital Overcurrent Relay with Unconventional

Curves Modeling Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy


Inference System
1,2
Anang Tjahjono 1
Dimas Okky Anggriawan, 1Ardyono Priyadi, 1Margo
1
Department of Electrical Engineering Pujiantara, and 1Mauridhi Hery Purnomo
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember priyadi@ee.its.ac.id, margo@ee.its.ac.id, hery@ee.its.ac.id
2
Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya
Indonesia
anang.tj@pens.ac.id

Abstract— In this paper, model of overcurrent relay (OCR) is planned for coordination with other OCR in series [7]. In
characteristic curves using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system the industrial power systems, protection coordination is not
(ANFIS) are proposed. The OCR characteristic curves play an always calculated with maximum current because the large
important role for protection coordination of power system. variation of time-curves and damage curves from protection
Model of OCR characteristic curves are appropriate with IEC equipment. Moreover, time-current curve is correlated with
standard. This model implements of microcontroller AT mega pickup current of OCR so that time-current curve also is
128 as microprocessor and personal computer as facility to correlated with load demand. This condition can generate long
design of OCR characteristic curves. Input for training to OCR time operation. Furthermore, variations of time curve can
characteristic curves using IL/IS and TCB. ANFIS is developed
cause time-curve intersect each other [8].
with different types of membership function and each
membership function is trained for 10 iterations. ANFIS is Recently, in the modern power systems, protection uses
developed using visual basic. The simulation results are digital relay as protection device. Modeling of OCR is initially
compared with different types of membership function to obtain started with analogue relay such as electromechanical relays
the optimal design of OCR characteristic curves. Moreover, the and static relays. Digital relay obtains analog data using
testing results are compared with mathematical method to check analog to digital conversion (ADC). Moreover, digital relay
validation and accuracy of the proposed model. implements digital signal processor (DSP) to protection
process. DSP will increase reliability and flexibility of
Keywords—over current relay charateristic curve, protection,
ANFIS, digital relay
protection because DSP has high speed device [9]. In the
digital relay, modeling of OCR curve use digital computer to
I. INTRODUCTION plotting the curve and calculating time delay for different
setting. Modeling OCR curve uses two methods are direct data
Power system protection has important role in the power storage and software model. Refers to IEEE std. C37.112 does
systems. It is designed to ensure continuity of electrical not require mathematical equation to OCR modeling. These
supply. Protection requires analysis of load flow and short methods have the problem is requires a large amount of data in
circuit for determine setting of protection relay. Commonly, the computer memory for different settings and needs for
OCR is the most used to protection than other relays in the storing [6, 10-14].
power systems. Operation of OCR occurs when fault is
detected with conduct sensing of overload current and short Time-current OCR curves based on IEC standard can
circuit. OCR will be operated with opening the circuit breaker intersect each other during coordination process because the
to disconnect the affected area of fault. In the power systems, load demand is very complex in the industrial application [15].
OCR uses 2 protection devices are primary and backup The coordination process of time-current OCR curves require
protective device to reduce damage in the equipment. time up to several seconds due to diversity of time-current
Therefore, good OCR coordination is important to protect OCR curves and damage curve of protection equipment. These
equipment of fault [1-5]. conditions can reduce of equipment lifetime and power
quality. Moreover, long time operation of time-current OCR
OCR has standard time-current curves. Refers to IEC curves can increase stress of electrical and mechanical
standard, there are 4 OCR curves to protection such as normal equipment. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to non-
inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse and long-time inverse conventional OCR curve modeling. Non-conventional OCR
[6]. The basic principle of OCR is OCR will operate when curves purpose to generate time-curves that appropriate with
current that flow into relay exceeds a predetermined amount load demand, generate time curves that reduce coordination
with delay time is determined by time dial setting (TDS) time interval with other OCR curve so that reduce stress of
whereas OCR with definite time delay has time delay more electrical and mechanical equipment and avoid mal-trip to
shorter where the fault current is very big. Time delay of OCR occur [8].
Modeling based on conventional mathematical tools is not This microprocessor don’t require external ADC in this
well appropriated for dealing with ill-defined and uncertain implementation [28].
systems. The fuzzy logic can be used to solve complex and
uncertainty problems such as classification, database At the Fig. 1, describes implementation of digital relay
management, automatic control, modeling, time-series using microprocessor STM32F407 and at the fig. 2, describes
prediction, signal processing. Fuzzy logic depends on user’s configuration system of digital relay. In the digital relay, there
knowledge for establishment of membership function and rule are fiber optic to high speed communication. Fiber optic is
base [16, 17]. On the other hand, neural network is applied to required to maintain coordination time interval between the
modeling of OCR curves but it requires computational effort primary relay and the backup relay. CTI refers to IEEE
to modeling [18-20]. In this paper, we propose adaptive neuro standard has margin time is 0.2 – 0.4 s [5, 29]. With fiber
fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to modeling OCR curves. optic, the digital relay capable to reach of optimum result in
ANFIS is integration of neural network and fuzzy logic. the CTI so that reliability can be increased. The digital relay
Membership functions and rules base are learned by neural also provides interfacing between user and the digital relay to
network to obtain modeling with accurate and good [21, 22]. simplicity in the modeling.

In this paper, we work focus on modeling for non- In the implementation process, personal computer
conducts process such as initialization, learning process and
conventional OCR curve using ANFIS and provide simplicity
for user to unconventional OCR curve modeling. To increase running program. This process to designing of unconventional
reliability and flexibility of OCR relay so that modeling is OCR curve appropriate with the user desire. Personal
implemented microprocessor that has high speed device. computer download the learning result to digital relay.
Microprocessor uses STM32F407 is derived from ST. the high Parameter of the learning result are premise parameter,
speed precision capability of STM32F407 is important for consequent parameter and rule base. Furthermore, the digital
modeling OCR curve using ANFIS. This feature is suitable to relay is tested to check reliability and flexibility.
implement of digital relay modeling [23-24].
II. UNCONVENTIONAL OCR MODELING
A. Digital Relay Implementation
The implementation of the digital relay is described in this
section. Unconventional OCR curve modeling with digital
relay consists of microprocessor as processor device for
protection algorithm of relay, the function generator has
function as device for supply of currents and voltages to relay
and personal computer as programs installing and data
processing. Current sensor has function as device to detect
over current. Current sensor uses ACS712. Whereas, voltage
sensor has function as device to detect overvoltage. Voltage
sensor uses AMC1100. The contactor magnetic driver has
function as circuit breaker. Moreover, interfacing between the
user and the digital relay uses keypad to entry data. USART
RS-232C to download of the learning result parameter in the
PC and LCD graph to displays the result. Microprocessor uses
Fig. 1. Prototype of circuit breaker
STM32F407 because high speed capability. STM32F407 can
operate at 167 MHz. This microprocessor provides high B. Proposed Overcurrent Relay Model
performance for digital relay with high accuracy and speed. The Unconventional OCR curve modeling aims for give
The microprocessor has large memory so that it sufficient to the solution about weakness of protection coordination in the
store listing program of the protection algorithm. Moreover, industrial power system. The time curve can be obtained with
microprocessor is equipped with three ADC to convert analog curve fitting [8]. However, if operating point not suitable with
inputs into digital before is processed by processor. any set of curve point values, so the curve fitting require
STMF32F407 has 12 bit ADC, 12 bit DAC, 1 Mbyte of flash interpolation from midpoint that be obtained [22]. Therefore,
memory and 196 Kbytes of SRAM [24-27]. suitable from IEEE std. C37.112 about does not require
The input of currents and voltages are generated from the mathematical equation to OCR modeling furthermore we
function generator. In order to can check the operation same propose OCR modeling using ANFIS.
with actual state, the input of currents and voltages are 50 Hz. Modeling of conventional OCR curve can be obtained with
Analog inputs are sampled at 5 kHz by ADC or 200 input IL/IS and time dial setting ( TDS). Parameter of IL/IS is the load
samples per cycle for currents and voltages. The sampling current divided with the current setting. In the conventional
frequency must be sampled at least twice of the fundamental OCR curves have some characteristic such as normal inverse,
frequency to ensure of Nyquist theorem and avoid of aliasing. very inverse, extremely inverse and long-time inverse. The
The protection algorithm is programmed by computer to equations of OCR curves can be explained, respectively as
microprocessor after analog inputs are converted by ADC. follows:
Fig. 2. System configuration of digital relay

0.14 (1) uses least square estimator (LSE) and the improvement
T _ CB  0,02
xTDS process of the premise parameter uses gradient descent back
 IL  propagation. The improvement of premise parameter and
  1
 IS  consequent parameter is conducted until iteration exceeds
maximum iteration or error is smaller than the determined
13.5 (2) error. ANFIS with various membership functions can be
T _ CB  1
xTDS shown, respectively at fig. 3, fig. 4, fig. 5 and fig. 6. At the fig.
 IL 
  1 7, it shows ANFIS to Unconventional OCR curve modeling.
 IS 
80 (3)
T _ CB  2
xTDS
 IL 
  1
 IS 
120 (4)
T _ CB  1
xTDS
 IL  Fig. 4. ANFIS with 1 input, 2 membership function and 1 output
  1
 IS 
With understand of the above equations, can know that delay
time is determined by time dial setting (TDS) and IL/IS. . This
condition can generate long time operation. Furthermore, if
variations of time curve are very complex so that can cause
time-curves intersect with other time curves.
We propose the unconventional OCR curve to reduce CTI
between the primary relay and the backup relay. Moreover, Fig. 5. ANFIS with 1 input, 3 membership function and 1 output
with unconventional OCR curve can avoid intersection OCR
curve with each other and avoid mal-trip occurs. The digital
relay uses the unconventional OCR curve increases the
equipment lifetime and power quality. Implementation of this
the digital relay provides simplicity for user to unconventional
OCR curve modeling suitable with condition in the industrial
power system.
Unconventional OCR curve modeling has some stages.
The first stage is forms unconventional OCR curve with
giving inputs of training data. This stage can be conducted Fig. 6. ANFIS with 1 input, 4 membership function and 1 output
with including come through the table input and output of
training data. The second stage is the initialization process of
ANFIS. The initialization process comprises the third process
are in the premise parameter uses fuzzy clustering mean
(FCM), the improvement process of consequent parameter
Unconventional
ANFIS Error Architectural
Overcurrent
Modeling Modeling Update
Relay

Fig. 3. Block diagram of the proposed ANFIS based Unconventional overcurrent relay

are membership function values of the premise part. Ai and Bi


can be characterized by the generalized bell function:

1
 A ( x)  bi (7)
 x  c  2 
i

1   i
 
 i  
a
Where {a1, b1, c1} is the parameter set. This parameter has the
Fig. 7. ANFIS with 1 input, 5 membership function and 1 output change values. The bell-shaped has functions vary
accordingly. Parameters are known as premise parameters.
C. ANFIS Architecture
ANFIS is incorporation of the fuzzy inference system A1 B1
(FIS) mechanism is described in the neural network
architecture. FIS uses Takagi-Sugeno-Kang FIS model with W1
the first order. FIS also consider simplicity of computation.
ANFIS is combination of neural network and FIS with Takagi- X Y
Sugeno-Kang FIS model.
A2 B2
ANFIS architecture is assumed with two inputs x and y
and one output z. The ANFIS structure consists of 5 layers W2
with different function for each layer. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang
FIS model obtains membership function with learning
algorithm. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang FIS model has the rule x X y Y
assemblage with use the linier combination from inputs. The
rule assemblage can be expressed as follows: Fig. 8. Sugeno model mechanism
Layer 4
Rule 1: if x is A1 and y is B1 then f1=p1x+q1y+r1 Layer 1
x y
Rule 2: if x is A2 and y is B2 then f2=p2x+q2y+r2 A1
x Layer 2 Layer 3
Layer 5
Mechanism of sugeno model is illustrated at the fig. 8. The w1 w1
ANFIS architecture is shown in fig. 9, where each node in the A2 Π N w1f1
same layer has similar function. Each node is expressed as Σ f
node i in the layer l is Ol,i. B1 Π N w2f2
w2 w2
w1 f1  w2 f 2 y
f   w1 f1  w2 f 2 (5)
w1  w2 B2
x y
Layer 1: every node i in the layer is an adaptive node with Fig, 9. ANFIS structure of a two inputs Takagi-Sugeno model
node function:
Layer 2: every node in this layer is multiplied with
O1,i   Ai ( x), for i  1,2 or incoming signals. Every node is a fixed node. The output layer
(6) declares degree every fuzzy rule. Equation in the second layer
O1,i   Bi 2 ( y) for i  3,4 is shown as follow:
Where, x or y is the input to node i. Ai and Bi-2 is a fuzzy set O2,i  wi   Ai ( x)   Bi ( y ), i  1,2 (8)
associated with this node function. Outputs of this first layer
The every node output represents the firing strength of a rule.
Layer 3: every node in this layer is fixed node labeled N. proposed OCR relay using ANFIS can be used to the
The i - th node calculates with summing of all rules firing protection coordination because the robustness of ANFIS. The
strength. Equation in the third layer is shown as follow: proposed OCR relay using ANFIS will reduce long time
operation and prevent of time curves intersect from the
wi
O3,i  wi  , i  1,2 (9) protection coordination.
w1  w2
For convenience, the every node output in this layer represents Start
normalized firing strengths.
Layer 4, every node is an adaptive node with a node ADC
function. Every node is multiplied with p, q, r parameter.
Equation in the fourth layer is shown as follow:
Current RMS
O4,i  wi fi  wi ( pi x  qi y  ri ) (10)

where wi is the normalized firing strengths from layer 3 and Signal Conditioning
(pi,qi,ri) are the parameter sets of this node. Parameters will be
referred as consequent parameters.
Layer 5: the single node in this layer is a fixed node Fault No

Detected?
labeled .The single node computes the overall output as
summing all of incoming signals. Equation in the fifth layer is
Yes Protection Algorithm
shown as follows

O5, I   wi fi 
w f i i
(11)
No

w
Tripped?
I i

Furthermore, the first to fifth layers can construct adaptive Yes


network has the same function as Takagi-Sugeno-Kang FIS
Output Tripping
model. The structure of this adaptive network is not unique
with combine layers 3 and 4 to obtain an equivalent network
with only four layers [16, 21].
Fig. 10. Flowchart of the protection algorithm for unconventional relay
D. Protection Algorithm
The protection algorithm of an unconventional OCR relay
can be shown in fig. 10. In the protection algorithm, analog
signal is converted become digital signal through ADC.
STM32F407 converts the voltage value become the current
III. RESULT AND ANALYSIS
value because STM32F407 only can read input voltage less
than 3,3 V before the digital signal inputs are used to compute Inputs for training of ANFIS to unconventional OCR
current root mean square (RMS). This name is called as signal modeling can be shown at fig. 8. Input uses IL/IS and TCB as
conditioning [23]. The current RMS value is used to make data to be trained. ANFIS is developed with different types of
decision within the digital relay with the way is comparing the membership function and each membership function is trained
current RMS inputs with the current RMS pickup. for 10 iterations. ANFIS is developed by using visual basic.
The sample data for training ANFIS can be shown in Table 1.
STM32F407 as processor in the digital relay ensure that it has
In the Table 1, sample data comprises of normal inverse, very
sufficient time and accurate within calculate the current RMS inverse, extremely inverse and long time inverse to OCR
value every cycle because high speed capability and bit of curves modeling.
ADC. This flowchart of the protection algorithm can be
described in the fig. 10. Equation of the current RMS value
can be expressed as follow:
N
1
I
N
V
N 0
2
N (12)

The protection algorithm of the conventional relay may


generate long time operation because many variations of time
curve and damage curve from protection equipment.
Moreover, conventional OCR curves are very complex so that
may cause time-curves intersect with other time curves. The
Fig. 8. Graphic of OCR normal inverse curve for training of ANFIS

A. Membership Function Types of ANFIS


ANFIS uses various types of membership function to
check influence membership function for ANFIS capability.
Types of membership function consists of ANFIS with 2
membership functions, ANFIS with 3 membership functions,
ANFIS with 4 membership functions and ANFIS with 5
membership functions. The detail simulation with different
types of membership function and types of IEC standard to
evaluate the proposed method can be shown respectively at
Fig. [9-12] and table 2.

Table 1. Sample data from characteristic unconventional OCR curve for training of ANFIS

Normal inverse very inverse Extremely inverse long time inverse


no
IL/IS (input) TCB (output) IL/IS (input) TCB (output) IL/IS (input) TCB (output) IL/IS (input) TCB (output)
1 1.11 67.0055 1.11 122.7273 1.11 344.679 1.11 1090.909
2 1.2 38.3237 1.2 67.5 1.12 314.4654 1.2 600
3 1.3 26.6105 1.3 45 1.3 115.942 1.3 400
4 1.4 20.7342 1.4 33.75 1.4 83.33333 1.4 300
5 1.5 17.1942 1.5 27 1.5 64 1.5 240
6 1.6 14.8236 1.6 22.5 1.6 51.28205 1.6 200
7 1.7 13.122 1.7 19.28571 1.7 42.32804 1.7 171.4286
8 1.8 11.8392 1.8 16.875 1.8 35.71429 1.8 150
9 1.9 10.8361 1.9 15 1.9 30.65134 1.9 133.3333
10 2 10.029 2 13.5 2 26.66667 2 120

Table 2. The result summary of OCR curve modeling using ANFIS with various types membership function

2 membership functions 3 membership functions 4 membership functions 5 membership functions


OCR curve
error error error error

Normal Inverse 225.21994882051 56.5205410379413 36.5923796869051 1.31E-22


Very Inverse 839.27027439267 211.445718062396 136.428096151581 3.99E-21
Extremely Inverse 8702.3625236488 3412.07547083326 3026.94668592747 6.41E-21
Long Time Inverse 94253.269160893 73957.6695089537 19933.9237066595 4.18E-19

From table 2, the OCR curve modeling can be inferred that


error of membership function decreases when membership
function increases. In the OCR normal inverse curve,
membership function giving very minimum error is 1.31e-22.
In the OCR very inverse curve, membership function giving
very minimum error is 3.99e-21. In the OCR extremely
inverse curve, membership function giving very minimum
error is 6.41e-21. Moreover, in the OCR long time inverse
curve, membership function giving very minimum error is
4.18e-19. In the normal inverse, OCR curve modeling giving
very minimum for all OCR curves modeling are based on IEC
standard.

Fig. 11. The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with training target (4
membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling

Fig. 9. The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with training target (2


membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling

Fig. 12. The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with training target (5
membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling

B. Testing of OCR normal inverse curve in the Prototype


Testing is conducted to check validation and accuracy of
OCR normal inverse curve in the prototype. The test is done
by giving current corresponding to IL/IS in the input of training
ANFIS to OCR normal inverse curve modeling. In the figure
13, the result of testing shows that the prototype has the OCR
normal inverse curve matching with the output of ANFIS.
Moreover, in the figure 14, the test is conducted by giving
current which is smaller than the first test. In the figure 14, the
Fig. 10 The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with training target (3
result of the test shows that prototype having the OCR normal
membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling
inverse curve is not as accurate as the first test because the
sample data of training to ANFIS are just 10. From the test of
OCR in normal inverse curve for the prototype, ANFIS gives
accurate result to OCR curve modeling.
is not as accurate as the test that is given current
corresponding to IL/IS. This happens because the sample data
of training to ANFIS are just 10. From the test of OCR normal
inverse curve in the prototype, ANFIS gives accurate result for
OCR curve modeling.

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