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Inference System

1,2

Anang Tjahjono 1

Dimas Okky Anggriawan, 1Ardyono Priyadi, 1Margo

1

Department of Electrical Engineering Pujiantara, and 1Mauridhi Hery Purnomo

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember priyadi@ee.its.ac.id, margo@ee.its.ac.id, hery@ee.its.ac.id

2

Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya

Indonesia

anang.tj@pens.ac.id

Abstract— In this paper, model of overcurrent relay (OCR) is planned for coordination with other OCR in series [7]. In

characteristic curves using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system the industrial power systems, protection coordination is not

(ANFIS) are proposed. The OCR characteristic curves play an always calculated with maximum current because the large

important role for protection coordination of power system. variation of time-curves and damage curves from protection

Model of OCR characteristic curves are appropriate with IEC equipment. Moreover, time-current curve is correlated with

standard. This model implements of microcontroller AT mega pickup current of OCR so that time-current curve also is

128 as microprocessor and personal computer as facility to correlated with load demand. This condition can generate long

design of OCR characteristic curves. Input for training to OCR time operation. Furthermore, variations of time curve can

characteristic curves using IL/IS and TCB. ANFIS is developed

cause time-curve intersect each other [8].

with different types of membership function and each

membership function is trained for 10 iterations. ANFIS is Recently, in the modern power systems, protection uses

developed using visual basic. The simulation results are digital relay as protection device. Modeling of OCR is initially

compared with different types of membership function to obtain started with analogue relay such as electromechanical relays

the optimal design of OCR characteristic curves. Moreover, the and static relays. Digital relay obtains analog data using

testing results are compared with mathematical method to check analog to digital conversion (ADC). Moreover, digital relay

validation and accuracy of the proposed model. implements digital signal processor (DSP) to protection

process. DSP will increase reliability and flexibility of

Keywords—over current relay charateristic curve, protection,

ANFIS, digital relay

protection because DSP has high speed device [9]. In the

digital relay, modeling of OCR curve use digital computer to

I. INTRODUCTION plotting the curve and calculating time delay for different

setting. Modeling OCR curve uses two methods are direct data

Power system protection has important role in the power storage and software model. Refers to IEEE std. C37.112 does

systems. It is designed to ensure continuity of electrical not require mathematical equation to OCR modeling. These

supply. Protection requires analysis of load flow and short methods have the problem is requires a large amount of data in

circuit for determine setting of protection relay. Commonly, the computer memory for different settings and needs for

OCR is the most used to protection than other relays in the storing [6, 10-14].

power systems. Operation of OCR occurs when fault is

detected with conduct sensing of overload current and short Time-current OCR curves based on IEC standard can

circuit. OCR will be operated with opening the circuit breaker intersect each other during coordination process because the

to disconnect the affected area of fault. In the power systems, load demand is very complex in the industrial application [15].

OCR uses 2 protection devices are primary and backup The coordination process of time-current OCR curves require

protective device to reduce damage in the equipment. time up to several seconds due to diversity of time-current

Therefore, good OCR coordination is important to protect OCR curves and damage curve of protection equipment. These

equipment of fault [1-5]. conditions can reduce of equipment lifetime and power

quality. Moreover, long time operation of time-current OCR

OCR has standard time-current curves. Refers to IEC curves can increase stress of electrical and mechanical

standard, there are 4 OCR curves to protection such as normal equipment. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to non-

inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse and long-time inverse conventional OCR curve modeling. Non-conventional OCR

[6]. The basic principle of OCR is OCR will operate when curves purpose to generate time-curves that appropriate with

current that flow into relay exceeds a predetermined amount load demand, generate time curves that reduce coordination

with delay time is determined by time dial setting (TDS) time interval with other OCR curve so that reduce stress of

whereas OCR with definite time delay has time delay more electrical and mechanical equipment and avoid mal-trip to

shorter where the fault current is very big. Time delay of OCR occur [8].

Modeling based on conventional mathematical tools is not This microprocessor don’t require external ADC in this

well appropriated for dealing with ill-defined and uncertain implementation [28].

systems. The fuzzy logic can be used to solve complex and

uncertainty problems such as classification, database At the Fig. 1, describes implementation of digital relay

management, automatic control, modeling, time-series using microprocessor STM32F407 and at the fig. 2, describes

prediction, signal processing. Fuzzy logic depends on user’s configuration system of digital relay. In the digital relay, there

knowledge for establishment of membership function and rule are fiber optic to high speed communication. Fiber optic is

base [16, 17]. On the other hand, neural network is applied to required to maintain coordination time interval between the

modeling of OCR curves but it requires computational effort primary relay and the backup relay. CTI refers to IEEE

to modeling [18-20]. In this paper, we propose adaptive neuro standard has margin time is 0.2 – 0.4 s [5, 29]. With fiber

fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to modeling OCR curves. optic, the digital relay capable to reach of optimum result in

ANFIS is integration of neural network and fuzzy logic. the CTI so that reliability can be increased. The digital relay

Membership functions and rules base are learned by neural also provides interfacing between user and the digital relay to

network to obtain modeling with accurate and good [21, 22]. simplicity in the modeling.

In this paper, we work focus on modeling for non- In the implementation process, personal computer

conducts process such as initialization, learning process and

conventional OCR curve using ANFIS and provide simplicity

for user to unconventional OCR curve modeling. To increase running program. This process to designing of unconventional

reliability and flexibility of OCR relay so that modeling is OCR curve appropriate with the user desire. Personal

implemented microprocessor that has high speed device. computer download the learning result to digital relay.

Microprocessor uses STM32F407 is derived from ST. the high Parameter of the learning result are premise parameter,

speed precision capability of STM32F407 is important for consequent parameter and rule base. Furthermore, the digital

modeling OCR curve using ANFIS. This feature is suitable to relay is tested to check reliability and flexibility.

implement of digital relay modeling [23-24].

II. UNCONVENTIONAL OCR MODELING

A. Digital Relay Implementation

The implementation of the digital relay is described in this

section. Unconventional OCR curve modeling with digital

relay consists of microprocessor as processor device for

protection algorithm of relay, the function generator has

function as device for supply of currents and voltages to relay

and personal computer as programs installing and data

processing. Current sensor has function as device to detect

over current. Current sensor uses ACS712. Whereas, voltage

sensor has function as device to detect overvoltage. Voltage

sensor uses AMC1100. The contactor magnetic driver has

function as circuit breaker. Moreover, interfacing between the

user and the digital relay uses keypad to entry data. USART

RS-232C to download of the learning result parameter in the

PC and LCD graph to displays the result. Microprocessor uses

Fig. 1. Prototype of circuit breaker

STM32F407 because high speed capability. STM32F407 can

operate at 167 MHz. This microprocessor provides high B. Proposed Overcurrent Relay Model

performance for digital relay with high accuracy and speed. The Unconventional OCR curve modeling aims for give

The microprocessor has large memory so that it sufficient to the solution about weakness of protection coordination in the

store listing program of the protection algorithm. Moreover, industrial power system. The time curve can be obtained with

microprocessor is equipped with three ADC to convert analog curve fitting [8]. However, if operating point not suitable with

inputs into digital before is processed by processor. any set of curve point values, so the curve fitting require

STMF32F407 has 12 bit ADC, 12 bit DAC, 1 Mbyte of flash interpolation from midpoint that be obtained [22]. Therefore,

memory and 196 Kbytes of SRAM [24-27]. suitable from IEEE std. C37.112 about does not require

The input of currents and voltages are generated from the mathematical equation to OCR modeling furthermore we

function generator. In order to can check the operation same propose OCR modeling using ANFIS.

with actual state, the input of currents and voltages are 50 Hz. Modeling of conventional OCR curve can be obtained with

Analog inputs are sampled at 5 kHz by ADC or 200 input IL/IS and time dial setting ( TDS). Parameter of IL/IS is the load

samples per cycle for currents and voltages. The sampling current divided with the current setting. In the conventional

frequency must be sampled at least twice of the fundamental OCR curves have some characteristic such as normal inverse,

frequency to ensure of Nyquist theorem and avoid of aliasing. very inverse, extremely inverse and long-time inverse. The

The protection algorithm is programmed by computer to equations of OCR curves can be explained, respectively as

microprocessor after analog inputs are converted by ADC. follows:

Fig. 2. System configuration of digital relay

0.14 (1) uses least square estimator (LSE) and the improvement

T _ CB 0,02

xTDS process of the premise parameter uses gradient descent back

IL propagation. The improvement of premise parameter and

1

IS consequent parameter is conducted until iteration exceeds

maximum iteration or error is smaller than the determined

13.5 (2) error. ANFIS with various membership functions can be

T _ CB 1

xTDS shown, respectively at fig. 3, fig. 4, fig. 5 and fig. 6. At the fig.

IL

1 7, it shows ANFIS to Unconventional OCR curve modeling.

IS

80 (3)

T _ CB 2

xTDS

IL

1

IS

120 (4)

T _ CB 1

xTDS

IL Fig. 4. ANFIS with 1 input, 2 membership function and 1 output

1

IS

With understand of the above equations, can know that delay

time is determined by time dial setting (TDS) and IL/IS. . This

condition can generate long time operation. Furthermore, if

variations of time curve are very complex so that can cause

time-curves intersect with other time curves.

We propose the unconventional OCR curve to reduce CTI

between the primary relay and the backup relay. Moreover, Fig. 5. ANFIS with 1 input, 3 membership function and 1 output

with unconventional OCR curve can avoid intersection OCR

curve with each other and avoid mal-trip occurs. The digital

relay uses the unconventional OCR curve increases the

equipment lifetime and power quality. Implementation of this

the digital relay provides simplicity for user to unconventional

OCR curve modeling suitable with condition in the industrial

power system.

Unconventional OCR curve modeling has some stages.

The first stage is forms unconventional OCR curve with

giving inputs of training data. This stage can be conducted Fig. 6. ANFIS with 1 input, 4 membership function and 1 output

with including come through the table input and output of

training data. The second stage is the initialization process of

ANFIS. The initialization process comprises the third process

are in the premise parameter uses fuzzy clustering mean

(FCM), the improvement process of consequent parameter

Unconventional

ANFIS Error Architectural

Overcurrent

Modeling Modeling Update

Relay

Fig. 3. Block diagram of the proposed ANFIS based Unconventional overcurrent relay

can be characterized by the generalized bell function:

1

A ( x) bi (7)

x c 2

i

1 i

i

a

Where {a1, b1, c1} is the parameter set. This parameter has the

Fig. 7. ANFIS with 1 input, 5 membership function and 1 output change values. The bell-shaped has functions vary

accordingly. Parameters are known as premise parameters.

C. ANFIS Architecture

ANFIS is incorporation of the fuzzy inference system A1 B1

(FIS) mechanism is described in the neural network

architecture. FIS uses Takagi-Sugeno-Kang FIS model with W1

the first order. FIS also consider simplicity of computation.

ANFIS is combination of neural network and FIS with Takagi- X Y

Sugeno-Kang FIS model.

A2 B2

ANFIS architecture is assumed with two inputs x and y

and one output z. The ANFIS structure consists of 5 layers W2

with different function for each layer. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang

FIS model obtains membership function with learning

algorithm. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang FIS model has the rule x X y Y

assemblage with use the linier combination from inputs. The

rule assemblage can be expressed as follows: Fig. 8. Sugeno model mechanism

Layer 4

Rule 1: if x is A1 and y is B1 then f1=p1x+q1y+r1 Layer 1

x y

Rule 2: if x is A2 and y is B2 then f2=p2x+q2y+r2 A1

x Layer 2 Layer 3

Layer 5

Mechanism of sugeno model is illustrated at the fig. 8. The w1 w1

ANFIS architecture is shown in fig. 9, where each node in the A2 Π N w1f1

same layer has similar function. Each node is expressed as Σ f

node i in the layer l is Ol,i. B1 Π N w2f2

w2 w2

w1 f1 w2 f 2 y

f w1 f1 w2 f 2 (5)

w1 w2 B2

x y

Layer 1: every node i in the layer is an adaptive node with Fig, 9. ANFIS structure of a two inputs Takagi-Sugeno model

node function:

Layer 2: every node in this layer is multiplied with

O1,i Ai ( x), for i 1,2 or incoming signals. Every node is a fixed node. The output layer

(6) declares degree every fuzzy rule. Equation in the second layer

O1,i Bi 2 ( y) for i 3,4 is shown as follow:

Where, x or y is the input to node i. Ai and Bi-2 is a fuzzy set O2,i wi Ai ( x) Bi ( y ), i 1,2 (8)

associated with this node function. Outputs of this first layer

The every node output represents the firing strength of a rule.

Layer 3: every node in this layer is fixed node labeled N. proposed OCR relay using ANFIS can be used to the

The i - th node calculates with summing of all rules firing protection coordination because the robustness of ANFIS. The

strength. Equation in the third layer is shown as follow: proposed OCR relay using ANFIS will reduce long time

operation and prevent of time curves intersect from the

wi

O3,i wi , i 1,2 (9) protection coordination.

w1 w2

For convenience, the every node output in this layer represents Start

normalized firing strengths.

Layer 4, every node is an adaptive node with a node ADC

function. Every node is multiplied with p, q, r parameter.

Equation in the fourth layer is shown as follow:

Current RMS

O4,i wi fi wi ( pi x qi y ri ) (10)

where wi is the normalized firing strengths from layer 3 and Signal Conditioning

(pi,qi,ri) are the parameter sets of this node. Parameters will be

referred as consequent parameters.

Layer 5: the single node in this layer is a fixed node Fault No

Detected?

labeled .The single node computes the overall output as

summing all of incoming signals. Equation in the fifth layer is

Yes Protection Algorithm

shown as follows

O5, I wi fi

w f i i

(11)

No

w

Tripped?

I i

network has the same function as Takagi-Sugeno-Kang FIS

Output Tripping

model. The structure of this adaptive network is not unique

with combine layers 3 and 4 to obtain an equivalent network

with only four layers [16, 21].

Fig. 10. Flowchart of the protection algorithm for unconventional relay

D. Protection Algorithm

The protection algorithm of an unconventional OCR relay

can be shown in fig. 10. In the protection algorithm, analog

signal is converted become digital signal through ADC.

STM32F407 converts the voltage value become the current

III. RESULT AND ANALYSIS

value because STM32F407 only can read input voltage less

than 3,3 V before the digital signal inputs are used to compute Inputs for training of ANFIS to unconventional OCR

current root mean square (RMS). This name is called as signal modeling can be shown at fig. 8. Input uses IL/IS and TCB as

conditioning [23]. The current RMS value is used to make data to be trained. ANFIS is developed with different types of

decision within the digital relay with the way is comparing the membership function and each membership function is trained

current RMS inputs with the current RMS pickup. for 10 iterations. ANFIS is developed by using visual basic.

The sample data for training ANFIS can be shown in Table 1.

STM32F407 as processor in the digital relay ensure that it has

In the Table 1, sample data comprises of normal inverse, very

sufficient time and accurate within calculate the current RMS inverse, extremely inverse and long time inverse to OCR

value every cycle because high speed capability and bit of curves modeling.

ADC. This flowchart of the protection algorithm can be

described in the fig. 10. Equation of the current RMS value

can be expressed as follow:

N

1

I

N

V

N 0

2

N (12)

generate long time operation because many variations of time

curve and damage curve from protection equipment.

Moreover, conventional OCR curves are very complex so that

may cause time-curves intersect with other time curves. The

Fig. 8. Graphic of OCR normal inverse curve for training of ANFIS

ANFIS uses various types of membership function to

check influence membership function for ANFIS capability.

Types of membership function consists of ANFIS with 2

membership functions, ANFIS with 3 membership functions,

ANFIS with 4 membership functions and ANFIS with 5

membership functions. The detail simulation with different

types of membership function and types of IEC standard to

evaluate the proposed method can be shown respectively at

Fig. [9-12] and table 2.

Table 1. Sample data from characteristic unconventional OCR curve for training of ANFIS

no

IL/IS (input) TCB (output) IL/IS (input) TCB (output) IL/IS (input) TCB (output) IL/IS (input) TCB (output)

1 1.11 67.0055 1.11 122.7273 1.11 344.679 1.11 1090.909

2 1.2 38.3237 1.2 67.5 1.12 314.4654 1.2 600

3 1.3 26.6105 1.3 45 1.3 115.942 1.3 400

4 1.4 20.7342 1.4 33.75 1.4 83.33333 1.4 300

5 1.5 17.1942 1.5 27 1.5 64 1.5 240

6 1.6 14.8236 1.6 22.5 1.6 51.28205 1.6 200

7 1.7 13.122 1.7 19.28571 1.7 42.32804 1.7 171.4286

8 1.8 11.8392 1.8 16.875 1.8 35.71429 1.8 150

9 1.9 10.8361 1.9 15 1.9 30.65134 1.9 133.3333

10 2 10.029 2 13.5 2 26.66667 2 120

Table 2. The result summary of OCR curve modeling using ANFIS with various types membership function

OCR curve

error error error error

Very Inverse 839.27027439267 211.445718062396 136.428096151581 3.99E-21

Extremely Inverse 8702.3625236488 3412.07547083326 3026.94668592747 6.41E-21

Long Time Inverse 94253.269160893 73957.6695089537 19933.9237066595 4.18E-19

error of membership function decreases when membership

function increases. In the OCR normal inverse curve,

membership function giving very minimum error is 1.31e-22.

In the OCR very inverse curve, membership function giving

very minimum error is 3.99e-21. In the OCR extremely

inverse curve, membership function giving very minimum

error is 6.41e-21. Moreover, in the OCR long time inverse

curve, membership function giving very minimum error is

4.18e-19. In the normal inverse, OCR curve modeling giving

very minimum for all OCR curves modeling are based on IEC

standard.

Fig. 11. The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with training target (4

membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling

membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling

Fig. 12. The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with training target (5

membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling

Testing is conducted to check validation and accuracy of

OCR normal inverse curve in the prototype. The test is done

by giving current corresponding to IL/IS in the input of training

ANFIS to OCR normal inverse curve modeling. In the figure

13, the result of testing shows that the prototype has the OCR

normal inverse curve matching with the output of ANFIS.

Moreover, in the figure 14, the test is conducted by giving

current which is smaller than the first test. In the figure 14, the

Fig. 10 The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with training target (3

result of the test shows that prototype having the OCR normal

membership function) for OCR normal inverse curve modeling

inverse curve is not as accurate as the first test because the

sample data of training to ANFIS are just 10. From the test of

OCR in normal inverse curve for the prototype, ANFIS gives

accurate result to OCR curve modeling.

is not as accurate as the test that is given current

corresponding to IL/IS. This happens because the sample data

of training to ANFIS are just 10. From the test of OCR normal

inverse curve in the prototype, ANFIS gives accurate result for

OCR curve modeling.

REFERENCES

[1] Chen, C.R., Lee, C.H., Chang, C.J., “Optimal overcurrent Relay

Coordinatiion in Power Distribution System Using a new Approach”,

Electric Power and Energy Ssytem, pp. 217 – 222, 2013

[2] IEEE Standard Inverse Time Characteristic Equations for Overcurrent

Relay, IEEE. Std. C37.112, 1996

[3] IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for

Industrial Plants, IEEE Std. 141-1993, 1994

[4] Conde, A., “Design of an Interactive Application for Educational

Support and Performance Analysis of Overcurrent Relay”, Electric

Power and Energy Systems, pp.123-129, 2014

[5] Goh, Y.L., Ramasamy, A.G., Nagi, F.H., “Modelling of Overcurrent

Relay Using Digital Signal Processor”, IEEE Symposium on Industrial

Electronics and Applications (ISIEA), 2010

Fig. 13. The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with OCR normal inverse

[6] Almas, M.S., Leelaruji, R., Vanfretti, L., “Overcurrent Relay Model

curve of prototype by giving current corresponding to IL/IS Implementation for Real-time Simulation and Hardware in the Loop

(HIL) Validation”, Conference on Industrial Electronics Society

(IECON), 2012

[7] Cho, Y.S., Lee, C.k., Jang, G., Kim, T.K., “Design and Implementation

of a Real-time Training Environment for Protective Relay”, Electrical

Power and Energy Systems pp. 194-209, 2010

[8] Darwish, H.A., Rahman, M.A, Taalab, A.I., Shaaban, H., “Digital Model

of Overcurrent Relay Characteristics”, Industry Applications

Conference, 1995

[9] Tan, J.C., Mclaren, P.G., Jayasinghe, R.P., Wilson, P.L., “Software

Model For Inverse Time Overcurrent Relays Incorporating IEC and

IEEE Standard Curves”, Conference on Electrical and Computer

Engineering, 2002

[10] Chan, S., Maurer, R., “Modeling Overcurrent Relay Characterictics”,

IEEE Trans. on Computer Applications in Power, 1992

[11] Benmouyal, G., “Some Aspects of The Digital Implementation of

Protection Time Functions”, IEEE. Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 5,

No.4, November 1990

[12] Karegar, H.K., Abyaneh, H.A., Al-Dabbagh, M., “A flexible approach

for Overcurrent Relay Characteristic Simulation”, Electric Power

System Research pp. 233 – 239, 2003

[13] Darwish, H.A., Taalab, A.I., Assal, H., “A Novel Overcurrent Relay

with Universal Characteristic”, Transmission and Distribution

Conference and Exposition, 2001

Fig. 14. The graphic comparison of ANFIS output with OCR normal inverse [14] Sidhu, T.S., Sachdev, M.S., Wood, M.S., “Design of A Microprocessor

curve of prototype by giving smaller current. Based Overcurrent Relay”, Conference on Computer, Power and

Communications Systems in a Rural Environment, 1991

IV. CONCLUSION [15] Goh, Y.L., Ranasany, A.K., Nagi, F.H., Abidin, A.A.Z., “DSP Based

Fuzzy and Conventional Ocercurrent Relay Controller Comparisons”,

In this paper, ANFIS has function for modeling OCR Microelectronics Reliability pp. 1029-1035, 2013

curve based on IEC standard. ANFIS is developed with [16] Goh, Y.L., Ranasany, A.K., Nagi, F.H., Abidin, A.A.Z., “DSP based

different types of membership function and each membership Overcurrent Relay Using Fuzzy Bang – bang Controller”,

function is trained for 10 iterations. ANFIS is developed by Microelectronics Reliabillity pp. 2366-2373, 2011

using visual basic. The simulation results can be inferred that [17] Sengul, M., Pzturk, S., Yoriikeren, N., “Obtaining Characteristic Curves

and modeling in Neural Network of An Under / Overvoltage Relay”,

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curve modeling gives very minimum error for all OCR curves Procedings of the IEEE, 1995

modeling based on IEC standard. Moreover, the test result of

OCR normal inverse curve in the prototype shows that when

the test is done by giving current corresponding to IL/IS in the

input of training ANFIS, the prototype has the OCR normal

inverse curve matching with the output of ANFIS. Whereas,

when the test is done by giving smaller current, the prototype

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