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# ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY AND WAVES

UNIT 1 - STEP 1
RECOGNIZE THE WAVES AND MEDIUM BEHAVIOR

COD: 1028006954

GRUPO 203057_29

TUTOR
WILMER HERNAN GUTIERREZ

## UNIVERSITY OPEN AND DISTANCE UNAD

TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING
2/16/2018
Introduction

From this activity we can find the importance of having clear the basic
concepts that are part of the area of electromagnetism and waves, thus
obtaining bases to understand and analyze the other contents of the
following units and thus achieving a greater understanding of the issues
to treat.
In addition, this will bring a degree of knowledge and ownership in the
area of training allowing to be an excellent professional and q in the
future can perform in any work in the area of telecommunications
without any inconvenience.
Activities to develop
- Medical applications
- Wireless data transmission.

## Taking into account the applications, you will answer the

following questions.
1. Explain the importance to consider the Skin Deep in medical
treatments.

The first thing you should know is the depth of the skin in medical
treatments, the type of wave that is applied to it, that is, if you count in
the account the length of a wave is an extremely important feature, that
is, the definition of the depth in the tissue to be treated, in addition to
the different wavelengths, also known as absorption coefficients, if we
take into account that the radiation emitted in the ultraviolet region high
absorption coefficient by the skin with an absorption in the surface that
is in the region in the near future (820 nm and 840 nm) is verified a low
coefficient of absorption, implying a maximum of penetration in the
tissue.
That is, according to the type of fabric, the length of the wave, that
absorbent tissue, energy in a more superficial way, or allows light to
pass through it, acting as a target in the intimacy of the tissue there,
which is important consider. The importance of depth in the skin in
terms of penetration under waves.
Figure 1 - Didactic design illustrating the penetration of the laser according to its wavelength.
http://www.nupen.com.br/Revista_esp/fund_fisicos4_3.php

## 2. Make a graphic explaining at least three modes of electromagnetic

wave propagation, including a brief explanation about these.
3. Can the human tissue change its conductivity because a disease?
Explain.

## In fact, according to the type of disease that human beings have,

their conductivity is different; this is because the type of tissue that
is used to recover or recover must be taken into account, the basic
data of each tissue or place. , that is, you can not apply the same
amount of electrical energy or electrical wave to a muscle tissue if
you do not have an account in its basic structure, you cannot
establish a single model for the types of tissues because it presents
different intrinsic constants and dependence on the constitution of
each one.

## 4. Using the electromagnetic spectrum, select a frequency used in

medical treatment and explain how it is used and select a frequency
used in wireless transmission and explain its application.

## in the field of medicine is used for specific treatments such as discomfort

in the joints for example, with brief surgery, in medicine such as
diabetes, is a technique that uses the heat produced by radiofrequency
for surgical treatments. Diathermy equipment normally operates on the
shortwave radio frequency (range 1-100 MHz) or microwave energy
(range of 434 to 915 MHz).

## In the transmission of wireless data we have an efficient type of

transmission, that is, which allows the information to travel using two
individual methods. One of them is the terrestrial method, which uses
two microwave towers with a clear field of vision between them;
therefore, there are no obstacles to interrupting said visual field. The
frequency of data transmission of terrestrial systems is from 4 GHz to 6
GHz or 21 GHz to 23 GHz, while the speed is usually from 1 megabit per
second (Mbps) to 10 Mbps.
5. Define the following concepts and give an example of a practical
application where they are used:
- Power loss
Insertion losses in telecommunications are losses of signal power due to
the insertion of a device in a transmission line or fiber optic and is
normally expressed in decibels (dB).

## this is reflected when we add more elements to a network or topology,

thus preventing it from improving its quality and, on the contrary, losing
power in practical cases in satellite antennas.

## - Coupled transmission lines

The ideal case is to have a transmission line coupled, this means that R
is said to be uncoupled. Whenever the possible sea you want to couple
the transmission lines to eliminate the reflections. The uncoupled lines
(R) cause echoes (reflections), these reflections give rise to the standing
waves. This situation can be particularly undesirable, for example, in
telephone circuits.

Component that demands current or power from an electrical circuit.
Normally it is located in parallel with the output terminal of the circuit,
so the load impedance is in parallel with the output impedance of the
circuit, changing the voltage and current values supplied.

- Reflection
Reflection is the change of direction of a wave, which, when coming
into contact with the surface of separation between two changing
media, returns to the point where it originated. Common examples
are the reflection of light

- Refraction
Refraction is the change of direction and speed that a wave
experiences when passing from one medium to another with a
refractive index.
We can see this case when the satellite signal is reflected from the
RF unit to the antenna.

- Loss tangent

The loss tangent is the ratio at any particular frequency between the
real and imaginary parts of the impedance of a capacitor.
Conclusion

## With the work we could understand the importance of electromagnetic

waves, and the use that is given to everyday life, both in
telecommunications and in the field of medicine, you can also understand
the importance of many electrical concepts that are linked to the subject
and allows it to be attended, this work leaves us as the application that
can have a wave according to its frequency taking into account the scope
and even the penetration and many other factors that play an important
role according to the function that is want to give.
Bibliographic Reference

Chen, W. (2005). The Electrical Engineering Handbook. Boston: Academic Press. 513-519.
direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=117152&lang=es&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_513

## Quesada-Pérez, M., & Maroto-Centeno, J. A. (2014). From Maxwell's Equations to Free

and Guided Electromagnetic Waves: An Introduction for First-year Undergraduates. New