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Boom Cranes
Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists,
Hooks, Iacks, and Slings


Boom Cranes
Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists,
Hooks, Jacks, and Slings

Reproduced by Global Engineering

Documents With the Permission of
ASME Under Royalty Agreement


~ The American Soeiety 01

~ Mechanical Engineers Three Park Avenue • New York, NY 10016
Date of Issuance: December 15, 2005

The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2010. There wiU be no addenda
issued to this edition.

ASME issues written replles to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this
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of the Standard.

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This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National
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competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made
available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia,
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The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016·5990

Copyright © 2005 by
All rights reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

Foreword v
Committee Roster vi
Introduction viii
Surnmary of Changes xi
Chapter 22-0 Scope, Definitions, and References 1
Section 22-0.1 Scope of B30.22 1
Section 22-0.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Section 22-0.3 Legend for Figs. 12, 13, 14, and 15 8
Section 22-0.4 Nomenclature for Articulating Cranes 13
Section 22-0.5 References. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Chapter 22-1 Construction and Characteristics 15
Section 22-1.1 Load Ratings 15
Section 22-1.2 Boom Lift, Boom Telescoping, and Load Hoist Mechanisrns 16
Section 22-1.3 Swing Mechanism 16
Section 22-1.4 Crane Transport 16
Section 22-1.5 Rope and Reeving Accessories 16
Section 22-1.6 Controls 17
Section 22-1.7 Instal1ation 18
Section 22-1.8 Construction 18
Section 22-1.9 Operating Manual 18
Chapter 22-2 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 19
Section 22-2.1 Inspection 19
Section 22-2.2 Testing 20
Section 22-2.3 Maintenance 20
Section 22-2.4 Rope Inspection, Replacement, and Maintenance 21
Chapter 22-3 Operation 23
Section 22-3.1 Qualifications for and Conduct of Operators and Operating
Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Section 22-3.2 Operating Practices 24
Section 22-3.3 Miscel1aneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figures ,
1 Commercial Truck-Mounted Standard Ground Control 2
2 Commercial Truck-Mounted Top Seat Control.......................... 3
3 Commercial Truck-Mounted Remote Control........................... 4
4 Stationary Installation ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5 Rail Car Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6 Trailer-Mounted 5
7 Traveling Rail Base-Mounted on Trailer 5
8 Off-Road Vehicle 5
9 Wheel-Mounted Off-Road Dual Control Station 6
10 Wheel-Mounted Off-Road Single Control Station 6
11 Crawler-Mounted Off-Road Single Control Station 6
12 Definitions of Specifications for Articulating Cranes . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
13 Hook Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
14 Elevation Below Horizontal 12
15 Elevation Above Horizontal 12
16 Nomenclature for Articulating Cranes 13

17 Danger Zone for Cranes and Lifted Loads Operating Near Electrical
Transmission Lines 25
1 Required Clearance for Normal Voltage in Operation Near High Voltage
Power Lines and Operation in Transit With No Load and Boom or
Mast Lowered 26


This American National Standard, Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists,
Hooks, [acks, and Slings, has been developed under the procedures accredited by the American
National Standard s Institute (formerly the United States of America Standards Institute). This
Standard had its beginning in December 1916 when an eight-page Code of Safety Standards for
Cranes, prepared by an ASME Cornrnittee on the Protection of Industrial Workers, was presented
to the annual meeting of the ASME.
Meetings and discussions regarding safety on cranes, derricks, and hoists were held from 1920
to 1925, involving the ASME Safety Code Correlating Committee, the Association of Iron and
Steel Electrical Engineers, the American Museum of Safety, the American Engineering Standards
Cornrnittee (later changed to American Standards Association and subsequentIy to the USA
Standards Institute), Departrnent of Labor - State of New Jersey, Departrnent of Labor and
Industry - State of Pennsylvania, and the Locomotive Crane Manufacturers Association. On
June 11, 1925, the American Engineering Standards Cornrnittee approved the ASME Safety Code
Correlating Cornrnittee's recornrnendation and authorized the project with the U.S. Departrnent
of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks, and ASME as sponsors.
In March 1926, invitations were issued to 50 organizations to appoint representatives to a
Sectional Cornrnittee. The call for organization of this Sectional Cornrnittee was sent out October
2,1926, and the cornrnittee organized November 4,1926, with 57 members representing 29 national
organizations. The Safety Code for Cranes, Derricks, and Hoists, ASA B30.2-1943, was created
from the eight-page docurnent referred to in the first paragraph. This document was reaffirmed
in 1952 and widely accepted as a safety standard.
Due to changes in design, advancement in techniques, and general interest of labor and industry
in safety, the Sectional Cornrnittee, under the joint sponsorship of ASME and the Naval Facilities
Engineering Command, U.S. Departrnent of the Navy, was reorganized as an American National
Standards Cornrnittee on January 31, 1962, with 39 members representing 27 national organiza-
The format of the previous code was changed so that separa te standard s (each complete as to
construction and installation; inspection, testing, and maintenance; and operation) will cover the
different types of equipment included in the scope of B30.
In 1982, the Cornrnittee was reorganized as an Accredited Organization Cornrnittee, operating
under procedures developed by the ASME and accredited by the American National Standards
This Standard presents a coordinated set of rules that may serve as a guide to governrnent
and other regulatory bodies and municipal authorities responsible for the guarding and inspection
of the equipment falling within its scope. The suggestions leading to accident prevention are
given both as mandatory and advisory provisions; compliance with both types may be required
by employers of their employees.
In case of practical difficulties, new developments, or unnecessary hardship, the adrninistrative
or regulatory authority may grant variances from the literal requirements or perrnit the use of
other devices or methods, but only when it is clearly evident that an equivalent degree of
protection is thereby secured. To secure uniform application and interpretation of this Standard,
adrninistrative or regulatory authorities are urged to consult the B30 Cornrnittee, in accordance
with the forrnat described in Section ID, before rendering decisions on disputed points.
This volurne of the Standard, which was approved by the B30 Cornrnittee and by ASME, was
approved by ANSI and designated as an American National Standard on September 28, 2005.
Safety codes and standard s are intended to enhance public safety. Revisions result from cornrnit-
tee consideration of factors such as technological advances, new data, and changing environrnental
and industry needs. Revisions do not imply that previous editions were inadequate.

Safety Standards for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Holsts,
Hooks, Iacks, and Slings
(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Standard.)


P. S. Zorich, Chair
B. D. Closson, Vice Chair
J. D. Wendler, Secretary


N. E. Andrew, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems P. A. Boeckman, Alternate, The Crosby Group
W. T. Hargrove, Alternate, Manteeh International Corp. E. K. Marburg, Columbus MeKinnon Corp.
R. E. Bluff IV, Gantry Construetors, Ine. M. G. Miller, Alternate, Columbus MeKinnon Corp.
R. J. Bolen, Consultant L. D. Means, Means Engineering and Consulting/Wire Rope
G. B. Hetherston, Alternate, E. 1. Dupont Teehnieal Board
A. D. Brown, A. D. Brown, Inc. D. M. Sleightholm, Alternate, Bridon American Corp.
D. Ritchie, Alternate, The Construetion Safety Couneil K. J. Miller, Jaeobs Engineering
T. A. Christensen, Allianee of Ameriean Insurers/Liberty Mutual D. W. Smith, Alternate, Chieago Bridge and lron Co.
Insuranee G. L. Owens, Granite Construetion, Inc.
M. W. Milis, Alternate, Liberty Mutual Group J. T. Perkins, lngersoll-Rand
B. D. Closson, Craft Forensie Serviees, Inc. H. G. Leidich, Alternate, lngersoll-Rand
T. L. Blanton, Alternate, NACB Group, Ine. J. E. Richardson, U.S. Department of the Navy
s. Cloutier, U.S. Department of Labor W. P. Rollins, Manitowae Crane Group
J. P. Colletti, John P. Colletti & Associates, Inc. M. E. Brunet, Alternate, Manitowoe Crane Group
R. M. Lovgren, Alternate, Crane Partner Internaional J. W. Rowland 11I,Consultant
R. A. Dahlin, Walker Magneties Group E. E. Rudy, U.5. Department of the Army
J. W. Downs, lr., Alternate, Downs Crane and Hoist CO. J. C. Ryan, BOH Bros. Construetion CO.
L. D. DeMark, International Union of Operating Engineers A. R. Ruud, Alternate, Atkinson Construetion
S. C. Buck, Alternate, International Union of Operating Engineers D. Sayenga, Associated Wire Rope Fabricators
D. W. Eckstine, Eekstine and Associates D. J. Bishop, Alternate, Bishop Lifting Produets, Inc.
R. J. Edwards, Sehwing Ameriea G. W. Shields, Caterpillar, Inc.
D. R. Remus, Alternate, Reed Manufaeturing W. J. Smith, Ir., Maxim Crane Works
J. L. Gordon, Aeeo Chain and Lifting Produets R. G. Strain, Advaneed Automation Associates, Ine.
N. C. Hargreaves, Terex Corp./Power Crane & Shovel Association J. B. Hamill, Alternate, Advaneed Automation Associates, Inc.
E. D. Fidler, Alternate, Grove Worldwide A. R. Toth, Morris Material Handling
J. J. Headley, Crane Institute of Ameriea B. E. Weir, lr., National Ereetors Assoeiation/Norris Brothers
R. M. Parnell, Alternate, Industrial Iralníng' International . Co., Ine.
C. W. Ireland, National Oilwell J. Conant, Alternate, Conant Crane Rental Co.
A. J. Egging, Alternate, National Oilwell J. D. Wendler, The Ameriean Soeiety of Meehanical Engineers
L. S. lohnson, AMECO R. C. Wild, U.5. Army Corps of Engineers
E. P. Vliet, Alternate, Niehols Construetion Co. S. G. Testerman, Alternate, U.S. Arrny Corps of Engineers
R. M. Kohner, Landmark Engineering Serviee D. N. Wolff, National Crane Corp.
H. l. Shapiro, Alternate, Specialized Carriers and Rigging A. L. Calta, Alternate, National Crane Corp.
Association/Howard 1. Shapiro & Associates P. S. Zorich, RZP International Ltd.
C. E. Lucas, The Crosby Group H. W. Fair, Alternate, H. Fair Associates, Inc.

J.M. Klibert, Lift-AlI Co., Ine.
R. W. Parry, Consultant


D. N. Wolff, Chair, National Crane Corp. G. L Owens, Granite Construetion
T. D. Arkilander, Cargoteeh C. M. Recard, Equipment Safety Consultants
T. A. Christensen, Liberty Mutual Insuranee



SECTlON 1: SCOPE B30.23 Personnel Lifting Systerns

B30.24 Container Cranes!
The ASME B30 Standard contains provisions that
B30.25 Scrap and Material Handlers
apply to the construction, installation, operation, inspec-
B30.26 Rigging Hardware
tion, testing, maintenance, and use of cranes and other
lifting and material-handling related equipment. For the B30.27 Material Placement Systerns
convenience of the reader, the Standard has been divided B30.28 Balance Lifting Units!
into separa te volumes. Each Volume has been written
under the direction of the ASME B30 Standards Commit-
tee and has successfully completed a consensus approval SECTION 11: SCOPE EXCLUSIONS
process under the general auspices of the American
The B30Standard does not apply to track and automo-
National Standards Institute (ANSI).
tive jacks, railway or automobile wrecking cranes, shíp-
As of the date of issuance of this Volume, the B30
board cranes, shipboard cargo-handling equipment,
Standard comprises the following volumes:
well-drilling derricks, skip hoists, mine hoists, truck
B30.1 Jacks body hoists, car or barge pullers, conveyors, excavating
B30.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running equipment, or equipment covered under the scope of
Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top Run- the following standards: A10, A17, A90, A92, A120, B20,
ning Trolley Hoist) B56, and B77.
B30.3 Construction Tower Cranes
B30.4 Portal, Tower, and Pedestal Cranes
B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes SECTION 11I: PURPOSE
B30.6 Derricks
The B30 Standard is intended to
B30.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists
B30.8 Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks (a) prevent or minimize injury to workers, and other-
B30.9 Slings wise provide for the protection of life, limb, and property
B30.1O Hooks by prescribing safety requirements
B30.11 Monorails and Underhung Cranes (b) provide direction to manufacturers, owners,
B30.12 Handling Loads Suspended From Rotorcraft employers, users, and others concerned with or respon-
B30.13 Storage/Retrieval (SIR) Machines and Asso- sible for its application
ciated Equipment ' (c) guide governments and other regulatory bodies
B30.14 Side Boom Tractors in the development, promulgation, and enforcement of
B30.15 Mobile Hydraulic Cranes appropriate safety directives
(NOTE: B30.15-1973 has been withdrawn.
The revision of B30.15 is included in the lat-
B30.16 Overhead Hoists (Underhung)
This Standard may be adopted in whole or in part
B30.17 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running
for governmental or regulatory use. If adopted for gov-
Bridge, Single Girder, Underhung Hoist)
ernmental use, the references to other national codes
B30.18 Stacker Cranes (Top or Under Running
and standards in the specific volumes may be changed
Bridge, Multiple Girder With Top or Under
to refer to the corresponding regulations of the govern-
Running Trolley Hoist)
mental authorities.
B30.19 Cableways
B30.20 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices
B30.21 Manually Lever Operated Hoists
B30.22 Articulating Boom Cranes 1 These volumes are currently in development.

SECTION V: EFFECTIVEDATE Upon receipt by the Secretary, the request will be
forwarded to the relevant B30Subcornrnittee for consid-
(a) Effectíve Date. The effective date of this Volume of eration and action. Correspondence will be provided to
the B30 Standard shall be one year after its date of the requester defining the actions undertaken by the
issuance. Construction, installation, inspection, testing, B30 Standards Cornrnittee.
maintenance, and operation of equipment manufactured
and facilities constructed after the effective date of this
Standard shall conform to the mandatory requirements
of this Standard.
(b) Existing Installations. Equipment manufactured The B30Standards Cornrnittee will render an interpre-
and facilities constructed prior to the effective date of tation of the provisions of the B30 Standard. Such
this Volurne of the B30 Standard shall be subject to the requests should be directed to:
inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation require-
Secretary of the B30 Cornrnittee, ASME, Three Park
ments of this Standard after the effective date.
Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990
It is not the intent of this Volume of the B30 Standard
The requests should be in the foIlowing format:
to require retrofitting of existing equipment. However,
when an item is being modified, its performance require- Volurne: Cite the designation and title of the volurne.
ments shall be reviewed relative to the requirements
within the current volume. The need to meet the current Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the volurne.
requirements shall be evaluated by a qualified person
selected by the owner (user). Recornrnended changes Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s)
shall be made by the owner (user) within 1 year. and the relevant heading(s).

Question: Phrase the question as a request for an inter-

SECTION VI: REQUIREMENTS ANO pretation of a specific provision suitable for
RECOMMENDATIONS general understanding and use, not as a
Requirements of this Standard are characterized by request for approval of a proprietary design
use of the word shall. Recornrnendations of this Standard or situation. Plans or drawings that explain
are characterized by the word should. the question may be submitted to clarify the
question. However, they should not contain
any proprietary names or information.
Upon receipt by the Secretary, the request will be
This Standard contains SI (metric) units as well as forwarded to the relevant B30 Subcornmittee for a draft
U.S. Customary units. The values stated in customary response, which will then be subject to approval by the
units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI units B30 Standards Cornrnittee prior to its formal issuance.
are a direct (soft) conversion from the customary units. Interpretations to the B30 Standard will be published
in the subsequent edition of the respective volume and
will be available online at http://cstools.asme.org.
The B30 Standards Cornmittee will consider requests
for revision of any of the volumes within the B30 Stan- SECTION X: ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE
dard. Such requests should be directed to:
Secretary of the B30 Cornrnittee, ASME, Three Park The equipment covered by the B30 Standard is subject
Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 to hazards that cannot be abated by mechanical means,
The requests should be in the following forrnat: but only by the exercise of intelligence, care, and com-
mon sense. It is therefore essential to have personnel
Volume: Cite the designation and title of the volurne.
involved in the use and operation of equipment who
Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the volurne. are competent, careful, physically and mentally quali-
fied, and trained in the proper operation of the equip-
Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) ment and the handling of loads. Serious hazards include,
and the relevant heading(s). but are not limited to, improper or inadequate mainte-
nance, overloading, dropping or slipping of the load,
Request: Indicate the suggested revision.
obstructing the free passage of the load, and using equip-
Rationale: State the rationale for the suggested ment for a purpose for which it was not intended or
revision. designed.

The B30 Standards Committee fully realizes the the equipment or material; on the loads; on the accelera-
importance of proper design factors, minimum or tion or speed of the ropes, chains, sheaves, sprockets,
maximum dimensions, and other limiting criteria of or drums; on the type of attachments; on the number,
wire rope or chain and their fastenings, sheaves, sprock- size, and arrangement of sheaves or other parts; on envi-
ets, drums, and similar equipment covered by the stan- ronmental conditions causing corrosion or wear; and on
dard, all of which are closely connected with safety. many variables that rnust be considered in each individ-
Sizes, strengths, and similar criteria are dependent on ual case. The requirements and recommendations pro-
many different factors, often varying with the installa- vided in the volurnes rnust be interpreted accordingly,
tion and uses. These factors depend on the condition of and judgment used in determining their application.

ASME 830.22-2005

Following approval by the ASME B30 Cornmittee and ASME, and after public review, ASME
B30.22-2005 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on September 28, 2005.

ASME B30.22-2005 includes editorial changes, revisions, and corrections identified by a margin
note, (05).
Page Location Change
viii-x Introduction Revised in its entirety
8 Section 22-0.3 Legend for Figs. 12 through 15
redesignated as Section 22-0.3

13 Section 22-004 Added

14 Section 22-0.5 Former 22-0.3 redesignated and updated
18 Section 22-1.9 Added
23 22-3.1.2(f) Revised

The interpretations to ASME B30.22 are intended in this edition as a separa te section for the
users convenience.

ASME 830.22·2005


Chapter 22-0
Scope, Definitions, and References

SECTION 22-0.1: SCOPE OF 830.22 trailer or rail car-mounied: a crane, consisting of a rotating
The scope includes only cranes of the types described mast, mainframe or base, and boom, mounted on a
in para. 22-0.2.1, articulated by hydraulic cylinders, trailer or rail caroThe function is to lift, lower, and swing
which are powered by internal combustion engines or loads at various radii, See Figs. 5 and 6.
electric motors and are mounted on a mobile chassis or traveling base-mounied: a crane, consisting of a rotating
stationary installation. Frequently, articulating cranes mast, boom, mainframe or base, and one or more opera-
are equipped with a load hoist mechanism to broaden tor's stations, mounted on a traveling base. The function
their versatility. Load hoist mechanisms equipped is to lift, lower, and swing loads at various radii. See
machines are covered by this Volume. Fig.7.
Some basic machine types within this scope are con-
toheel- or crauiler-mounted (rnultiple control stations): a
vertible for excavating work and other uses not consid-
crane, consisting of a rotating mast, mainframe or base,
ered to be lifting service. The requirements of this
operator's station, and boom, mounted on an off-road
Volume are applicable only to such machines when used
carrier equipped with axles, rubber-tired wheels, or
as lifting cranes.
crawlers for travel, a power source(s), and having sepa-
Exemptions from this Volume include
rate stations for driving and operating. Its function is
(a) all units with a maximum rated capacity of 1 ton
to lift, lower, and swing loads at various radii. See Figs. 8
or less
and 9.
(b) all units with booms constructed of nonconduc-
tive-type materials ioheel- or craioler-mounted (single control station): a crane,
(e) all units equipped with or designed primarily for consisting of a rotating mast, mainframe or base, and
personnel baskets, platforms, ladders, etc. boom, mounted on an off-road carrier equipped with
(d) all units when equipped with nonlifting attach- axles, rubber-tired wheels, or crawlers for travel, a power
ments source, and having a single control station for driving
(e) all units used in forestry and logging applications and operating. Its function is to lift, lower, and swing
(1) telescoping boom cranes that do not articulate loads at various radii. See Figs. 10 and 11.
(covered under B30.5)
(g) scrap and material .handlers 22-0.2.2 General Definitions
accessory: a secondary part or assembly of parts that
SECTION 22-0.2: DEFINITIONS contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a
22-0.2.1 Types of Articulating Boom Cranes crane.
commercial iruck-mounted: a crane, consisting of a rotating administrative or regulatory authority: governmental
mast, mainframe or base, boom, and one or more opera- agency or the employer in the absence of govemmental
tor's stations, such as ground controls (Fig. 1), top seat jurisdiction.
controls (Fig. 2), or remote controls (Fig. 3), mounted on
appointed: assigned specific responsibilities by the
a frame attached to a cornmercial truck chassis, retaining
employer or the employer's representative.
a payload capability whose power source may power
the crane. The function is to lift, lower, and swing loads authorized: appointed by a duly constituted administra-
at various radii. tive or regulatory authority.
stationary: a crane, consisting of a rotating mast, main- axle: the shaft or spindle with which or about which a
frame or base, and boom, mounted on a stationary struc- wheel rotates. On wheel-mounted cranes, it refers to
ture. The function is to lift, lower, and swing loads at a type ofaxle assembly, including housings, gearing,
various radii from a fixed center of rotation. See Fig. 4. differential, bearings, and mounting appurtenances.


Control location

Fig. 1 Commercial Truck-Mounted Standard Ground Control

axle (tandem): two or more axles mounted in tandem in commercial truck vehicle: a commercial motor vehicle
a frame so as to divide the load between the axles and designed primarily for the transportation of property in
permit vertical oscillation of the wheels. connection with business and industry.
ballast (counienoeighi): weight used to supplement the controls: a means for controlling the movement functions
weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting of the crane.
working loads. crane: articulating boom crane.
boom extension cylinder: the hydraulic cylinder(s) that crane rating: the crane shall be rated in ft-lb (Nrn). This
extends the boom's extensions. rating shall be established by multiplying the manufac-
boom extensions, manual or hydraulic (one or more): struc- turer's rated load by the minimum boom radius with the
tural members, which extend and are usually located boom in its horizontal retracted position (all extension
in or on the outer boom or on the jib boom. booms retracted), outer and jib boom fully extended
and hook pin height equal to the inner boom pin height.
brake: a device used for retarding or stopping motion.
crossover points: in multiple layer spooling of rope on
cab: a housing that covers machine or operator's or driv-
drum, those points of rope contact where the rope
ers station.
crosses preceding rope layer.
carrier: the undercarriage of a wheel- or crawler-
designated person: a person selected or assigned by the
mounted crane specifically designed for transporting
employer or the employer's representative as being com-
the rotating crane structure. It may or may not provide
petent to perform specific duties.
its own travel mechanism. It is distinguished from a
commercial truck vehicle in that it is not normally drum: the cylindrical member around which a rope is
designed to transport personnel, materials or equipment wound for lifting and lowering the loado
other than crane rotating structure and is normally dynamic loads: loads introduced into the machine or its
designed for off-road use. components due to accelerating or decelerating forces.


Fig. 2 Commercial Truck-Mounted Top Seat Control

electrically insulated: a material property that is related load hook: a structural component that pins to the outer
to the material's ability to resist conduction of electricity. boom, jib boom, extensions, or the Ioad line and is used
Jlange point: a point of contact between rope and drum for attaching loads to the crane.
flange where the rape changes layers. load indicator: a device that measures the weight of the
inner boom: the structural member, attached to the mast, loado
which supports the outer boom(s). load radius: the horizontal distance from the center line
inner boom lift cylinder: the hydraulic cylinder that lifts of rotation to the center line of the hook pin at any boom
the inner boom. position.

inner boom pivat: the horizontal pin about which the inner load ratings: ratings in pounds (kg) established by the
boom is raised or lowered relative to the mast. manufacturero

jib (jIy jib): an articulating or fixed boom assembly with mainframe (base): the stationary base of the crane that
or without extendable boom sections that attaches to supports the mast or turntable.
the outer boom. mast: a frame for use in connection with supporting a
load, working: the externalload in pounds (kg) applied boom from mainframe or base.
to the crane, induding the weight of load-attaching model designation: manufacturer's modeI number for
equipment such as slings, pallet forks, and grapples. articulating boom crane.
load block, lower: the assembly of hook or shackIe, swivel, mounting or suspension beam: a structural member used in
sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting rape. three-point mounting concept, which allows the chassis
load block, upper: the assembly of shackle, swivel, sheaves, frame to twist and transfers the crane's Ioading into
pins, and frame suspended from the boom point. chassis rails.
load hoist mechanism: a hoist drum or rope reeving system mounting structure: the structure on which the crane is
used for lifting and lowering loads. mounted.


Fig. 3 Commercial Truck-Mounted Remote Control

Fig. 4 Stationary Installation

nonlifting attachment: devices attached to the crane that ground- orjloor-operated crane: conditions during which
perform functions other than lifting a load, such as a crane is performing functions within the scope of the
augers, tampers, and hydraulic harnmers. original designo Under these conditions, the operator is
normal operating conditions at the operating controls that are mounted to the crane
cab-, station-, or top seat-operated crane: conditions dur- but operated with the operator off the crane and with
ing which a crane is performing functions within the no other person on the crane.
scope of the original designo Under these conditions, the remote-operated crane: conditions during which a crane
operator is at the operating controls on the crane, and is performing functions within the scope of the original
no other person is on the crane. designo Under these conditions, the operator is at the


Fig. 5 Rail Car Inslallalion

$ p¡ iE39

Fig. 6 Trailer-Mounled

Fig. 7 Traveling Rail Base-Mounled on Trailer

Fig. 8 Off-Road Vehicle


Fig. 9 Wheel-Mounted Off-Road Dual Control Station

Fig. 10 Wheel-Mounted Off-Road Single Control Station

Fig. 11 Crawler-Mounted Off-Road Single Control Station

operating controls that are not directly mounted to any outer boom pivot: the horizontal pin about which the outer
part of the crane, and with no other person on the crane. boom is raised and lowered relative to the inner boom.
outer boom: the structural member, attached to the inner payload: the load or loads being transported by the com-
boom, which supports the jib boom. mercial truck chassis from place to place.
outer boom cylinder: the hydraulic cylinder that lifts and qualified person: a person who, by possession of a recog-
lowers the outer boom in relation to the inner boom. nized degree in an applicable field or a certificate of


professional standing, or by extensive knowledge, train- swing (sleunng): rotation of the mast and boom for move-
ing, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ment of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of
ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject rotation.
matter and work.
swing (slewing) cylinders: two opposed single-acting cyl-
reeving: a rope system in which the rope travels around inders that act on a rack gear which engages the mast
drums and sheaves. pinion.
rope: refers to wire rope unless otherwise specified. swing (slewing) drive gearbox: a mechanism that drives
rotation resistant rope: a wire consisting of an inner layer the mast or tumtable.
of strands laid in one direction covered by a layer of swing (sleunng) mechanism: the machinery involved in
strands laid in the opposite direction; this has the effect providing rotation of the mast and boom.
of counteracting torque by reducing the tendency of the
finished rope to rota te.
swivel: a load carrying member to permit rotation under
load in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the loado
running rope: a rope that travels around sheaves or
drums. swiveling: the rotation of the load attachment portion
(hook or shackle) of a lower load block or hook assembly
shalI: indicates that the rule is mandatory and must be about its axis of suspension in relation to the load line(s).
telescoping boom: consists of a boom from which one or
sheave: a grooved wheel or pulley over which the rope
more boom sections are telescoped for additionallength.
should: indicates that the rule is a recornmendation,the
tipping: see stability.
advisability of which depends on the facts in each situ- transit: the moving or transporting of a crane from one
ation. job site to another.
side loading: a load applied at an angle to the vertical travel: the function of the machine moving under its own
plane of the boom power from one location to another.
stability: a condition in which the sum of the moments two-block damage-prevention [eaiure: a system that will
tending to overturn the unit is less than the sum of the stall when two-blocking occurs without causing damage
moments resisting overturning. to the hoist rope or crane machinery components.
stabilizer: an extendable or fixed member(s) attached to two-blocking: the condition when the lower load block
the mounting base to increase the stability of the crane, or hook assembly comes in contact with the upper load
but which may not have the capability of relieving all block or boom point sheave assembly.
of the weight from wheels or tracks.
wheelbase: the distance between centers of front and rear
stabilizer cylinder, horizontal: a hydraulic cylinder that axles. For a multiple axle assembly, the axle center for
extends the stabilizer.
wheelbase measurement is taken at the midpoint of the
stabilizer cylinder, vertical: a hydraulic cylinder that low- assembly.
ers the stabilizer pad to ground surface.
weight 01crane: weight of manufacturer's
standard articu-
stabilizer pad: the structural member that distributes unit lating boom crane. List separately weights of optional
load over ground surface. items such as hydraulic pump, hydraulic oil, counter-
standard crane: as defined by the manufacturero weight, ballast, accessories, and equipment added by
structural competence: the ability of the machine and its
components to withstand the stresses imposed by winch (hoisi): a power driven drum(s) capable of lifting
applied loads within the rating of the crane. and lowering loads.


(05) SECTION 22-0.3: LEGEND FOR FIGS. 12. 13. 14.

and 15

A articulating angle - the angle through which the outer boom moves from full retraetion to full extension of the outer boom lift
eylinder (Rg. 13)
CA cab-to-axle dimension - the distanee from the baek of the ehassis eab to the eenter line of the rear axle, or tandem axle assern-
bly [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
CG center of gravity of crane [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
CGH crane center of gravity, horizontal - the horizontal distanee from the eenter line of rotation to the eenter of weight of the stowed
erane in the travel position [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
CGL crane center of gravity, longitudinal - longitudinal eenter of gravity as measured from the eenter line of rotation to the eenter of
weight of the stowed erane in the travel position [Rg. 12, illustration (a)]
CGV crane center of gravity, vertical - the vertical eenter of gravity as measured from the mounting surfaee of the mainframe or base
to the eenter of weight of the stowed erane in the travel position [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
CH crane height - the overall height measurement from the mounting surfaee of the erane to the highest point on the erane when
stowed for travel [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
CLL center /ine of rotation location, longitudinal - the horizontal distanee parallel to the longitudinal eenter line of the ehassis from
the rear axle of the ehassis to the eenter line of rotation of the mast [Fig, 12, illustration (a)]
CLR center /ine of rotation - the vertical axis about which the mast rotates [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
D depth of crane - mounting spaee for erane less clearanees [Fig. 12, illustration (e)]
El elevation below horizontal - the travel of the hook to maximum depression below horizontal (Fig. 14)
E2 elevation above horizontal - the travel of the hook to maximum elevation above horizontal (Rg. 15)
F chassis height - the height of the top of the ehassis frame rail above ground level [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
FO front overhang - the distanee from the most forward part of the vehicle or erane ahead of the front axle to the eenter line of the
front axle [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
GC ground clearance - the distanee from the lowest part of the erane to the ground [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
GL ground level - the surfaee (assumed to be flat and level) on whieh the vehicle is supported [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
HA hook approach, horizontal (HA¡J and vertical (HAv) - the horizontal distanee from the eenter line of rotation to the eenter line of
the hook pin and the vertical distanee from the erane mounting surfaee to the eenter line of the hook pin when inner boom is at
maximum elevation, outer boom is fully retraeted, and all extension booms are fully retraeted (Fig, 13)
HR hook height, maximum retracted - the height above the mounting surfaee of the base of the unit of the eenter line of the boom
tip hook pin with all booms at maximum elevation and all extensions fully retraeted [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
H1 hook height, maximum tst extension - the height above the mounting surfaee of the base of the unit of the eenter line of the
boom tip hook pin with all booms at maximum elevation and the 1st extension stage boom fully retraeted [Flg, 12, illustration
H2 hook height, maximum 2nd extension - the height above the mounting surfaee of the base of the unit of the eenter line of the
boom tip hook pin with all booms at maximum elevation and the 1st and 2nd extension boom fully retraeted [Fig, 12, illustra-
tion (b)]
H3 hook height, maximum 3rd extension [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
H4 hook height, maximum 4th extension [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
MO mast offset - the amount of offset from the eenter line of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle to the eenter line of rotation of the
mast of the erane [Fig. 12, illustration (e)]
P stabi/izer vertical travel - the distanee measured below mounting surfaee of crane to whieh the stabilizers eould reaeh when fully
extended [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
R load radius - the horizontal distanee from the eenter line of rotation to the eenter line of the hook pin at any boom position
[Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
RR horizontal reach, retracted - the distanee from the eenter line of rotation to the eenter line of the boom tip hook pin with all
booms horizontal and all extensions fully retraeted [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
R1 horizontal reach, tst extension - the distanee from the eenter line of rotation to the eenter line of the boom tip hook pin with all
booms horizontal and 1st extension stage fully extended [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
R2 horizontal reach, 2nd extension [Rg. 12, illustration (b)]
R3 horizontal recen, 3rd extension [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
R4 horizontal reach, 4th extension [Rg. 12, illustration (b)]
RO rear overhang - the distanee from the most rearward part of the vehicle or crane behind the rear axle to the eenter line of the
rear axle in the traveling position [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
S stabi/izer spread - the distanee measured between the eenter lines of pivotal points of stabilizer pads at ground level at maxi-
mum spread [Fig. 12, illustration (b)]
W width of unit in stowed position [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]
WB wheelbase [Fig. 12, illustration (a)]


$---r- CH






Fig. 12 Definitions of Specifications for Articulating Cranes












Fig. 12 Definitions of Specifications for Articulating Cranes (Cont'd)


Center line

11 11
z- CG cr ane

(in st owed
V posit ion)

L/~ +
Crane [111 -c =F I D
center lin e
...••.. 1

¡... MO ¡..-


Fig. 12 Definitions of Specifications for Articulating Cranes (Cont'd)



'- __ -..;- .••.•.

- ••..•
-----.:L Mounting
surface E2 - elevation above horizontal
Center line
of rotation
Fig. 15 Elevation Above Horizontal

Fig. 13 Hook Approach

E1 - elevation below horizontal

Fig. 14 Elevation Below Horizontal



Figure 16 provides nomenclature for articulating

13 14


1. Stabilizer
2. Stabilizer pad
3. Stabilizer cylinder, vertical
4. Mainframe or base
5. Mounting or suspension beam
6. Rotation (slewing) cylinder type
7. Mast or turntable
8. Controls
9. Inner boom lift cylinder
10. Inner boom pivot
12. Outer boom cylinder
13. Outer boom pivot
14. Outer boom
15. Jib (fly jib) boom cylinder
16. Jib (fly jib) boom pivot
17. Jib (fly jib) boom
18. Boom extension cylinder 2
19. Boom extensions (one or more)
20. Load hook
21. Rotation (slewing) drive, gearbox type
22. Stablilzer cylinder, horizontal
23. Winch

Fig. 16 Nomenclature for Articulating Cranes


(05) SECTION 22-0.5: REFERENCES ANSI/SAE J765-0ct90, Crane Load Stability Test Code!
Within the text, references are made to the following ANSI/SAE J1063-Nov93, Cantilevered Boom Crane
publications, copies of which may be obtained from the Structures - Method of Test1
publishers as indicated.
Publisher: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE),
U.S. Oepartment of Transportation Standards 400 Cornmonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096
Publisher: Superintendent of Oocuments, U.S. Govem-
ment Printing Office, Washington, OC 20402
ASME B30.9-2003, Slíngs'
ANSI/ AWS 014.3-00, Welding Specifications for Earth
ASME B30.10-1993, Hooks!
Moving and Construction Equipment'
Publisher: American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical Engi-
Le Jeune Road, Miami, FL 33135 neers (ASME), Three Park Avenue, New York, NY
1 May also be obtained from American National Standards Insti-
10016; Order Oepartment: 22 Law Orive, Box 2300,
tute (ANSI), 25 West 43nd Street, New York, NY 10036. Fairfield, NJ 07007

ASME 830.22·2005

Chapter 22-1
Construction and Characteristics

SECTION 22-1.1: LOAD RATINGS are established. Therefore, if the crane specification
includes additional ratings for directions other than the
22-1.1.1 Load Ratings Where Stability Governs least stable, such ratings also may be govemed by struc-
Lifting Performance tural competence rather than stability. For such specified
(a) The margin of stability for determination of load additional ratings, the work area shall be indicated, and
ratings, with booms of stipulated lengths at stipulated for those ratings which might be govemed by tipping
working radii for the various types of crane mountings, loads, the applicable percentage factors in para.
is established by taking a percentage of the loads that 22-1.1.1(a) shall not be exceeded.
will produce a condition of tipping or balance with the (b) For all operational applications, the crane load
boom in the least stable direction, relative to the mount- ratings established by the manufacturer shall not be
ing. The load ratings shall not exceed the following exceeded.
percentages for cranes, when tested in accordance with
ANSIjSAE J765 for indicated types of mounting. 22-1.1.3 Load Rating Chart

Maximum (a) A durable rating chart or charts with legible letters

Type of Crane Mounting Load Ratings, % and figures shall be provided with each crane and
CommerciaJ truck vehicle-mounted crane 85 attached in a location available to the operator while at
with stabilizers extended and set the controls. The data and information to be provided
Rail car, without stabilizer support 85 on these charts shall include, but not be limited to, the
[Note (1)] following:
Crawler, without stabilizer support 75 (1) a range of manufacturer's crane load ratings at
Crawler, using stabilizers fuliy extended 85
stated operating radii, work areas, boom lengths, confíg-
and set
Wheel-mounted without stabilizer 75
urations, and jib lengths
support (2) in areas where no load or reduced load is to be
Wheel-mounted using stabilizers fully 85 handled, a work area figure or load rating chart shall
extended and set so state
NOTE: (3) recommended reeving for the hoist lines shall
(1) As a precaution, while testing for free ratings, stabilizers be shown if the crane is equipped with a winch
should be loosely applied; rail clamps should not be used.
(b) In addition to the data required on the load rating
(b) The effectiveness of these preceding stability fac-
chart, the following information shall be shown either
tors will be influenced by such additional factors as on the load rating chart or in the operating manual:
freely suspended loads; raíl, wind, or ground conditions; (1) recommended tire pressure chart, where appli-
condition and inflation to tire manufacturer's highway- cable
rated pressure of rubber tires; boom lengths; proper (2) cautionary or warning notes relative to limita-
operating speeds for existing conditions; and, in general, tions on equipment and operating procedures
careful and competent operation. (3) the maxirnum telescopic travellength of each
boom telescopic section
22-1.1.2 Load Ratings Where Structural Competence (4) whether sections are telescoped with power or
Governs Lifting Performance manually
(a) Load ratings for some radii are limited by the (5) sequence and procedure for extending and
stability of the crane. However, in some of the operating retracting telescopic boom section
ranges, the ratings may be lirnited by factors other than (6) maxirnum loads permitted during actual boom
stability, such as the following conditions: extending operation, and any limiting conditions or cau-
(1) Load ratings at some radii may be based on tions
structural competence of the crane rather than stability. (7) hydraulic relief valve settings specified by the
(2) A nonsymmetrical mounting requires a higher manufacture
loading to produce a condition of tipping in a direction (8) if the crane is equipped with a load hoist mecha-
other than that of least stability on which the load ratings nism, recommended parts of hoist reeving, size, length


and type of rope for various crane loads, and recom- (e) The drum flange shall extend a minimum
mended hoist reeving diagram 1;2in. (13 rnm) over the top layer of rope at all times.
(3) The winch drums shall provide a first layer rope
SECTION 22-1.2: BOOM L1FT,BOOM pitch diameter of not less than 18 times the nominal
TELESCOPING, ANO LOAO HOIST diameter of the rope used.
MECHANISMS (4) A means controllable from the operator's station
shall be provided to hold the drum from rotating in the
22-1.2.1 Inner, Outer, and Ilb Boom Lift Mechanism lowering direction and be capable of holding the rated
(a) The inner, outer, and jib boom cylinder(s) shall
load without further action by the operator.
be capable of elevating, lowering, and controlling the (e) Twa-Blacking Damage-Preventian Feature. On an
booms with rated load and shall be capable of support- articulating crane equipped with a winch, a two-
ing the boom and rated load without action by the blocking damage-prevention feature shall be provided.
operator. Stalling of the hydraulic system may be acceptable.
(b) An integrally mounted holding device (such as (d) Cylinders With Rape Reeving
a load holding check valve) shall be provided on the (1) Cranes using a load hoist mechanism with
cylinder(s) to prevent uncontrolled lowering of the hydraulic cylinder(s) and rope reeving shall have power
boom(s) in the event of a hydraulic system failure and operational characteristics to perform allload lifting
(e.g., supply hose rupture). and controlled lowering functions required in crane ser-
vice when operated under recornmended conditions.
22-1.2.2 Telescoping Boom(s) (2) Cylinders shall be equipped with a load holding
(a) Extension and retraction of boom sections may be
device to prevent uncontrolled lowering of the load in
accomplished through hydraulic, mechanical, or manual case of hydraulic line failure.
means. (3) The load hoist cylinder shall be capable of hold-
(b) The powered retract and extend functions shall ing rated load without action of the operator.
be capable of controlling the rated loado
(e) An integrally mounted holding device (such as SECTION 22-1.3: SWING MECHANISM
a load holding check valve) shall be provided on the
cylinder(s) to prevent uncontrolled movement of the 22-1.3.1 Swing Control
boom(s) in the event of a hydraulic system failure The swing mechanism shall start and stop with con-
(e.g., supply hose rupture). trolled acceleration and deceleration.
22-1.2.3 Load Hoist Mechanism (Load Hoist 22-1.3.2 Swing Braking Means and Locking Devices
Equipped Machines Only)
(a) A stopping means with holding power in both
(a) The hoist mechanism may consist of a winch or
directions shall be provided to restrict movement of the
hydraulic cylinder(s) with necessary rope reeving.
rotating mast, when desired under normal operation.
(b) Winch Assembly. The winch drum assemblies shall
The braking means shall be capable of being set in the
have power and operational characteristics to perform
holding position and remaining so without further
allload lifting and lowering functions required in crane
action by the operator.
service when operated under recornmended conditions.
(b) A positive locking device or boom support shall
(1) When brakes are used with winch drums, they
be provided to prevent the boom from rotating when
shall be of the size and ther~l capacity to control all in stowed position for transit.
rated crane loads with minimum recornmended reeving.
Brakes shall be provided with adjustments, when neces-
sary, to compensate for lining wear and to maintain force SECTION 22-1.4: CRANE TRANSPORT
in springs, where used. Cornmercial truck vehicle-mounted cranes shall meet
(2) Winch drums shall have rope capacity with the
applicable requirements of U.S. Department of Transpor-
recornmended rope size and reeving to perform crane tation Standards.
service within the range of boom lengths, operating
radii, and vertical lifts specified by the manufacturero
(a) Not less than two full wraps of rope shall SECTION 22-1.5: ROPE ANO REEVING
remain on the drum when the hook is in the extreme ACCESSORIES
low position and the booms are at maximum elevation
22-1.5.1 Rope Design Factors
and extension.
(b) The drum end of the rope shall be anchored (a) For supporting rated loads and for supporting the
to the drum by an arrangement specified by crane or boom and working attachments at recornmended travel
winch manufacturero or transit positions and boom lengths


(1) the design factor for live or running ropes that 22-1.5.4 Sheaves
wind on drurns or travel over sheaves shall be not less
(a) Sheave graoves shall be free from surface condi-
than 3.5
tions which would cause rape damage. The cross-sec-
(2) the design factor for boom pendants or standing
tional radius at the bottom of the groove should be such
rapes shall not be less than 3.0 as to form a close-fitting saddle for the size rape used,
(b) For supporting rated loads, rotation-resistant and the sides of the graove should be tapered outwardly
rapes shall have a design factor of 5 or greater to facilitate entrance of the rape into the groove. Flange
(e) The design factor specified in paras. 22-1.5.1(a)(1), corners should be rounded and the rirns should run true
(2), and (b) shall be the total "nominal" breaking strength about the axis of rotation,
of all ropes in the system divided by the load imposed (b) Sheaves carrying ropes which can be momentarily
on the rape system when supporting the static weights unloaded shall be provided with close-fitting guards or
of structure and crane rated loado other devices to guide the rape back into the groove
when the load is reapplied.
22-1.5.2 Ropes (e) The sheaves in the lower load block shall be
equipped with close-fitting guards that will prevent
(a) The ropes shall be of a construction recornmended rapes from becoming fouled when the block is lying on
by the rope or crane manufacturer, or a qualified person, the graund with rapes slack.
for that service. (d) All sheave bearings, except permanently lubri-
(b) Socketing shall be done as recornmended by the cated bearings, shall be provided with means for lubri-
manufacturer of the assembly or a qualified persono cation.
(e) If a load is supported by more than one part of
22-1.5.5 Sheave Sizes
rope, the tension in the parts shall be equalized.
(d) Wherever exposed to ambient temperatures at the (a) Load hoisting sheaves shall have pitch diameters
rape in excess of 180°F (82°C), rape having an indepen- not les s than 18 times the nominal diameter of the
dent wire-rope or wire-strand core or other temperature- rape used.
damage resistant core shall be used. (b) Lower load block sheaves shall have pitch diame-
(e) Rotation-resistant rapes and fiber core rapes shall ters of not less than 16 times the nominal diameter of
not be used for boom extension systerns or boom sup- the rope used.
port reeving. (e) Boom extension system sheaves shall have a pitch
diameter of not less than 15 times the nominal diameter
of the rape.
22-1.5.3 Reeving Accessories
22-1.5.6 Load Hooks, Ball Assemblies, and Load
(a) Eye splices shall be made as recornmended by the
rape or crane manufacturer, or a qualified person, and
rope thimbles should be used in the eye. Load hooks, ball assemblies, and load blocks shall be
(b) Wire rope clips shall be drap-forged steel of the
of sufficient weight to overhaul the line from the highest
single saddle (U-bolt) or double saddle type clip. Mallea- hook position for boom or boom and jib lengths, and
the number of parts of line in use. All hook and ball
ble cast iron clips shall not be used. For spacing, number
assemblies and load blocks shall be labeled with their
of clips, and torque values, refer to the clip manufactur-
rated capacity and weight. Hooks shall be equipped
er's recornmendation. Win? rape clips attached with U-
with latches unless the application makes the use of a
bolts shall have the U-bolt over the dead end of the rape
latch impractical. When provided, the latch shall bridge
and the live rope resting in the clip saddle. Clips shall
the throat opening of the hook for the purpose of
be tightened evenly to the recornmended torque. After
retaining slings, or other lifting devices, under slack
the initialload is applied to the rape, the clip nuts shall
conditions (refer to ASME B30.10).
be retightened to the recornmended torque to compen-
sate for any decrease in rape diameter caused by the
loado Rope clip nuts should be retightened periodically SECTION 22-1.6: CONTROLS
to compensate for any further decrease in rape diameter
during usage. 22-1.6.1 General
(e) Swaged, compressed, or wedge-socket fittings (a) Basic controls used during the crane operating
shall be applied as recornmended by the rope, crane, or cycle shall be located within reach of the operator while
fitting manufacturer, or a qualified persono at the operator's station and labeled as to their desig-
(d) Wire rope clips used in conjunction with wedge nated function.
sockets shall be attached to the unloaded dead end of (b) Controls for "swing," "inner boom," "outer
the rape only. boom," "jib boom," "boom extension," and "optional


hydraulic equipment," shall be provided with means for ANSI/ AWS 014.3. Where special steels or other materi-
holding in neutral position without the use of positive als are used, the manufacturer shall provide welding
latches. procedures.
(e) Remote-operated cranes shall be equipped with
an "emergency stop" system, located at the operator's 22-1.8.2 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Une Protection
remote control station to provide the means to remove
power from the crane in the event of a malfunction. Exposed lines subject to damage shall be protected
(d) Means shall be provided to hold vehicle stationary insofar as it is practical.
while operating crane.
22-1.6.2 Control Forces and Movements 22-1.8.3 Lubricating Points
(a) Forces shall not be greater than 35 lb (156 N) on Lubricating points should be accessible without the
hand levers and not greater than 50 lb (222 N) on foot necessity of removing guards or other parts.
(b) Travel distance on hand levers shall not be greater
22-1.8.4 Stabilizers
than 14 in. (356 mm) from neutral position on two-way
levers, and not greater than 24 in. (610 rnm) on one-way (a) Means shall be provided to hold all stabilizers in
levers. Travel distance on foot pedals shall not be greater the retracted position while in transit, and in the
than 10 in. (254 rnm). extended position when blocked for crane operation.
(b) Each power operated stabilizer shall be visible
from an actuating location, unless the operator is
22-1.7.1 Mechanical Testing assisted by a signalperson.
The installer shall perform loading tests (on a vehicle (e) Cylinders for vertical stabilization of the machine
or test stand) on each crane installed. Tests shall be shall be equipped with an integrally mounted holding
conducted to the extent necessary to assure compliance device (such as a pilot-operated check valve) to prevent
with the crane's maximum load ratings, including sys- loss of support under load in the event of a hydraulic
tems such as the following: system failure (e.g., supply hose rupture).
(a) boom(s) - elevating and lowering
(b) boom(s) - extending
(e) swing (slewing)
22-1.8.5 Design Requirements
(d) safety devices Prototype models of production articulating boom
(e) optional attachments cranes shall meet applicable requirements of ANSI/SAE
22-1.7.2 Stability Testing J1063. On special design booms (not production models)
A stability test shall be conducted on each new or or other speciallift conditions, calculations to a standard,
remounted mobile unit. The test shall be conducted with by a qualified person, or by the crane manufacturer, are
the completed, unloaded vehicle on a firm, level surface. acceptable.
The stability shall be such that the load ratings do not
exceed the requirements of para. 22-1.1.1. Tests shall be 22-1.8.6 Miscellaneous Equipment
conducted in accordance with ANSI/SAE J765.
Means shall be provided for checking the manufactur-
22-1.7.3 Exhaust Gases er's specified pressure settings in each hydraulic circuit.
Engine exhaust gases shall' be piped and discharged
in a direction away from the operator. All exhaust pipes
shall be guarded or insulated to prevent contact by per-
sonnel when performing normal duties.
The manufacturer shall furnish a crane operating
manual with the crane. The manual shall include opera-
22-1.8.1 Welding tional safety guidance for the unit, crane operation
All welding and welding operator qualifications for instructions, crane specifications and recornmended ser-
load sustaining members shall be in accordance with vice/maintenance information for the assembled unit.

ASME B30.22-2005

Chapter 22-2
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance

SECTION 22-2.1: INSPECTION (j) rope reeving for compliance with crane manufac-
turer's specifications
22-2.1.1 General
(g) electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of
The manufacturer shall furnish operation and mainte- excessive deterioration, dirt, and moisture accumulation
nance information. (h) hydraulic system for proper oil level and
leaks - daily
22-2.1.2 Inspection Classification
(i) tires for recommended inflation pressure, cuts, and
(a) Initial Inspection. Prior to initial use, all new, loose wheel nuts
altered, or modified cranes shall be inspected by a desig- (j) connecting pins and locking device for wear and
nated person to ensure compliance with provisions of damage
this Standard.
(b) Regular Inspection. Inspection procedure for cranes 22-2.1.4 Periodic Inspection
in regular service is divided into two general classifica- Complete inspections of the crane shall be performed
tions based upon the intervals at which inspection at intervals as gene rally defined in para. 22-2.1.2(b)
should be performed. The intervals in turn are depen- depending upon its activity, severity of service, and envi-
dent upon the nature of the critical components of the ronment. These inspections shall include the require-
crane and the degree of their exposure to wear, deteriora- ments of para. 22-2.1.2 and in addition, items such as
tion, or malfunction. The two general classifications are
the following. Conditions such as those listed shall be
herein designated as "frequent" and "periodic" with examined and determination made as to whether they
respective intervals between inspections as defined in constitute a hazard:
the following:
(a) deformed, cracked, or corroded members in the
(1) Frequent inspection - daily to monthly
crane structure and carrier
(b) loose bolts, particularly mounting bolts
(2) Periodic inspection - one to twelve-month
(e) cracked or worn sheaves and drums
intervals, or as specifically recommended by the manu-
(d) worn, cracked, or distorted parts such as pins,
bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, and locking devices
(e) Inspections shall be performed by designated per-
(e) excessive wear on brake and clutch system parts
and linings
22-2.1.3 Frequent Inspection (j) crane hooks inspected for cracks
Items such as the following shall be inspected for (g) travel steering, braking, and locking devices, for
defects at intervals as defined in para. 22-2.1.2(b)(1) or malfunction
as specifically indicated, Íncluding observation during (h) excessively worn or damaged tires
operation for wear or damage which might appear (i) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hose, Fittings, and Tubing
between regular inspections. Conditions such as those Inspection
listed shall be carefully examined and determination (1) evidence of leakage at the surface of the flexible
made as to whether they constitute a hazard: hose or its junction with metal end couplings.
(a) control mechanisms for maladjustment interfering (2) blistering or abnormal deformation to the outer
with proper operation - daily, when used covering of the hydraulic or pneumatic hose.
(b) control mechanisms for excessive wear of compo- (3) leakage at threaded or clamped joints that can-
nents and contamination by lubricants or other foreign not be eliminated by normal tightening or recom-
matter mended procedures.
(e) safety devices for malfunction (4) evidence of excessive abrasion or scrubbing on
(d) all hydraulic hoses, particularly those which flex the outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting. Means
in normal operation of crane functions, should be visu- shall be taken to elirninate the interference of elements
ally inspected once every working day, when used in contact or otherwise protect the components.
(e) hooks and latches for deformation, chemical dam- (j) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Pumps and Motors
age, cracks, and wear. Refer to ASME B30.10 Inspection


(1) loose bolts or fasteners (1) load lifting and lowering mechanisms
(2) leaks at joints between sections (2) boom lifting and lowering mechanisms
(3) shaft sealleaks (3) boom extension and retraction mechanism
(4) unusual noises or vibration (4) swinging mechanism
(5) loss of operating speed (5) travel mechanism
(6) excessive heating of the fluid (6) safety devices
(7) loss of pressure (b) When the complete crane is not supplied by one
(k) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Valves Inspection manufacturer, such tests shall be conducted at final
(1) cracks in valve housing assembly.
(2) improper return of spool to neutral position (e) Operational test results shall be made available.
(3) leaks at spools or joints
(4) sticking spools 22-2.2.2 Load Test
(5) failure of relief valves to attain or maintain cor- (a) Prior to initial use:
rect pressure setting (1) All new and reinstalled cranes shall be
(6) relief valve pressures shall be checked as speci- inspected and load tested by or under the direction
fied by the manufacturer of a designated persono A written test report shall be
(l) Hydraulic and Pneumatic Cylinders lnspection prepared by a designated person and placed on file. Test
(1) drifting caused by fluid leaking across piston loads shall not be less than 100% or more than 110% of
(2) rod seals leaking the rated load, unless otherwise recommended by the
(3) leaks at welded joints manufacturer or a qualified persono
(4) scored, nicked, or dented cylinder rods (2) The need for testing of repaired, altered, or mod-
(5) damaged case (barrel) ified cranes shall be determined by a qualified persono
(6) loose or deformed rod eyes or connecting joints When load test is required, testing shall be in accordance
(m) Hydraulic Filters. Evidence of rubber particles on with para. 22-2.2.2(a)(l).
the filter element may indica te hose, "O" ring, or other (b) The load test, if made, shall consist of the following
rubber component deterioration. Metal chip s or pieces operations as a minimum requirement:
on the filter may denote failure in pumps, motors, or (1) Hoist the test load to assure that the load is
cylinders. Further checking will be necessary to deter- supported by the crane and held by the hoist brake(s).
mine origin of the problem before corrective action can (2) Swing the crane, if applicable, the full range of
be taken. its swing.
(n) Labels are to be in place and legible. (3) Boom the crane up and down within the allow-
able working radius for the test loado
22-2.1.5 Cranes Not in Regular Use
(4) Lower the test load, stop and hold the load with
(a) A crane that has been idle for a period of one the brake(s).
month or more, but less than 6 months, shall be given an
inspection conforming with the requirements of paras.
22-2.1.2 and 22-2.4.2(b).
(b) A crane that has been idle for a period of over 6 22-2.3.1 Preventive Maintenance
months shall be given a complete inspection conforming
with the requirements of pa~as. 22-2.1.2, 22-2.1.3, and (a) A preventive maintenance program based on the
22-2.4.2 before being placed in service. crane manufacturer's recommendations should be
established. Dated records should be maintained.
22-2.1.6 Inspection Records (b) It is recommended that replacement parts be
Dated records for periodic inspection should be made obtained from the original equipment manufacturer or
on critical items such as brakes, crane hooks, ropes, be of at least equal quality.
hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, and hydraulic and
22-2.3.2 Maintenance Procedure
pneumatic relief pressurevalves. Records should be kept
available to an appointed persono (a) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a
crane, the following precautions shall be taken as appli-
SECTlON 22-2.2: TESTING cable:
(1) crane placed where it will cause the least inter-
22-2.2.1 Operational Tests ference with other equipment or operations
(a) Each new crane shall be tested by the manufac- (2) all controls at the "OFF" position
turer to verify compliance with the operational require- (3) starting means rendered inoperative
ments of this section, including functions such as the (4) boom lowered to the ground, if possible, or
following: otherwise secured against dropping


(5) relieve hydraulic oil pressure from a11hydraulic use during the day's operations. These visual observa-
circuits before loosening or removing hydraulic compo- tions should be concerned with discovering gross darn-
nents age such as the following, which may be an irnmediate
(b) Warning or "out of order" signs sha11 be placed hazard:
on the crane controls. (a) distortion of the rope such as kinking, crush-
(e) After adjustrnents and repairs have been made, ing, unstranding, birdcaging, main strand displacement,
the crane sha11not be returned to service until a11guards or core protrusion. Loss of rope diameter in a short rope
have been reinsta11ed, trapped air removed from hydrau- length or uneveness of outer strands should provide
lic system (if required), safety devices reactivated, and evidence that the rope or ropes need to be replaced.
maintenance equipment removed. (b) general corrosion.
(e) broken or cut strands.
22-2.3.3 Adjustments and Repairs
(d) number, distribution, and type of visible bro-
(a) Any hazardous conditions disclosed by the inspec- ken wires. When such damage is discovered, the rope
tion requirements of Section 22-2.1 sha11 be corrected shall either be removed from service or given an inspec-
before operation of the crane is resumed. Adjustrnents tion as detailed in para. 22-2.4.3(b).
and repairs shall be done only by designated personnel. (2) Care shall be taken when inspecting sections
(b) Adjustrnents shall be maintained to assure correct of rapid deterioration such as flange points, crossover
functioning of components. The fo11owing are examples: poínts, and repetitive pickup points on drums.
(1) functional operating mechanism
(b) Periodic Inspection
(2) safety devices
(1) The inspection frequency shall be determined
(3) control systems
by a qualified person and shall be based on such fac-
(e) Repairs or replacements sha11 be provided as tors as
needed for operation. The following are examples:
(a) expected rope life as deterrnined by experi-
(1) critical parts of functional operating mecha-
ence on the particular installation or similar installations
nisms which are cracked, broken, corroded, bent, or
(b) severity of environment
excessively worn
(e) percentage of capacity lifts
(2) critical parts of the crane structure, which are
cracked, bent, broken, or excessively corroded (d) frequency rates of operation
(3) crane hooks showing conditions described in (e) exposure to shock loads
para. 22-2.1.3(a)(5) shall be taken out of service Inspections need not be at equal calendar intervals
(d) Instructions shall be provided by the manufac- and should be more frequent as the rope approaches
turer for the removal of air from hydraulic circuits. the end of its life. This inspection shall be made at least
22-2.3.4 Lubrication (2) Periodic inspection shall be performed by a des-
All moving parts of the crane, for which lubrication ignated persono This inspection shall cover the entire
is specified, should be regularly lubricated per the man- length of rope. Only the surface wires need be inspected.
ufacturer's recornmendations and procedures. No attempt should be made to open the rope. Any dete-
rioration, resulting in appreciable loss of original
strength, such as the following, shall be noted and deter-
SECTION 22-2.4: ROPE INSPECTION. mination made as to whether use of the rope would
REPLACEMENT. ANO constitute a hazard:
(a) points listed in para. 22-2.4.2(a)(1)(a)
22-2.4.1 General (b) reduction of rope diameter below nominal
diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external
Due to crane design configuration, to maintain mobil-
corrosion, or wear of outside wires
ity, sheave diameters, drum diameters, and rope design
factors are limited. Due to these design parameters, (c) severely corroded or broken wires at end con-
inspection in accordance with para. 22-2.4.2 to detect nections
any deterioration and timely replacement in accordance (d) severely corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or
with para. 22-2.4.3 is essential. improperly applied end connections
(3) Care sha11 be taken when inspecting sections
22-2.4.2 Inspection subject to rapid deterioration such as the following:
(a) Frequent Inspection (a) sections in contact with saddles, equalizer
(1) A11running ropes in service should be visually sheaves, or other sheaves where rope travel is limited
inspected once each working day. A visual inspection (b) sections of the rope at or near terminal ends
sha11consist of observation of a11rope which can be in where corroded or broken wires may protrude


22-2.4.3 Rope Replacement criteria for wire ropes operating on sheaves and drurns
made of material other than steel.
(a) No precise rules can be given for determination of
(d) Ropes Not in Regular Use. Rope that has been idle
the exact time for rope replacement, since many variable
for a period of a month or more due to shutdown or
factors are involved. Once a rope reaches any one of the
storage of a crane on which it is installed, shall be given
specified removal criteria, it may be allowed to opera te an inspection in accordance with para. 22-2.4.3(b) before
to the end of the work shift, based on the judgment of
it is placed in service. This inspection shall be for all
a qualified persono The rope shall be replaced after that types of deterioration and shall be performed by a desig-
work shift, at the end of the day, or at the latest time
nated persono
prior to the equipment being used by the nextwork shift.
(e) Inspection Records
(b) Removal criteria for rope replacement shall be as (1) Frequent inspection - no records required.
follows: (2) Periodic inspection - in order to establish data
(1) in running ropes, six randornly distributed bro- as a basis for judging the proper time for replacement,
ken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand a dated report of rope condition at each periodic inspec-
in one lay. tion should be kept on file. This report shall cover points
(2) one outer wire broken at the contact point with of deterioration listed in para. 22-2.4.3(b).
the core of the rope which has worked its way out of
22-2.4.4 Rope Maintenance
the rope structure and protrudes or loops out from the
rope structure. Additional inspection of this section is (a) Rope should be stored to prevent damage or dete-
required. rioration.
(3) wear of one-third the original diameter of out- (b) Unreeling or uncoiling of rope shal1 be done as
side individual wires. recornmended by the rope manufacturer and with care
to avoid kinking or inducing a twist.
(4) kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other
(e) Before cutting a rope, seizings shal1 be placed on
damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure.
each side of the place where the rope is to be cut to
(5) evidence of any heat damage from any cause.
prevent unlaying of the strands. On preformed rope,
(6) reductions from nominal diameter greater than
one seizing on each side of the cut is required. On non-
those shown below.
preformed ropes of 7/g in. (22 rnm) diameter or smaller,
Maximum Allowable two seizings on each side of the cut are required, and
Reduction from for nonpreformed rope 1in. (25 rnm) diameter or larger,
Rope Diameter Nominal Diameter three seizings on each side of the cut are required.
(d) During installation, care should be exercised to
Up to 5/¡6 in. (8 mm) 1/64 in. (0.4 mm)
Over 5/¡6 in. to I~ in. (13 mm) 112 in. (0.8 mm)
avoid dragging of the rope in dirt or around objects that
Over I~ in. to 3~ in. (19 mm) 3/64 in. (1.2 mm) will scrape, nick, crush, or induce sharp bends in it.
Over 3~ in. to 1 % in. (29 mm) 1/¡6 in. (1.6 mm) (e) Rope should be maintained in a well-lubricated
Over 111s in. to 11~ in. (38 mm) %2 in. (2.4 mm) condition. It is important that lubricant applied as part
of a maintenance program shall be compatible with the
originallubricant and to this end the rope manufacturer
(7) in standing ropes, more than two broken wires should be consulted; lubricant applied shall be the type
in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more that does not hinder visual inspection. Those sections
than one broken wire at an end connection. of rope that are located over sheaves or otherwise hidden
(8) replacement rope shall have a strength rating during inspection and maintenance procedures require
at least as great as the original rope furnished or recom- special attention when lubricating rope. The object of
mended by the crane manufacturero Any deviation from rope lubrication is to reduce internal friction and to
the original size, grade, or construction shal1be specified prevent corrosion.
by a rope manufacturer, the crane manufacturer, or a (j) When an operating rope shows greater wear at
qualified persono wel1-defined localized areas than on the remainder of
(e) Broken wire removal criteria cited in this volume the rope, rope life can be extended in cases where a
apply to wire rope operating on steel sheaves and drums. reduced rope length is adequate, by cutting off a section
The user shal1 contact the sheave, drum or crane manu- at the worn end, and thus shifting the wear to different
facturer, or a qualified person, for broken wire removal areas of the rope.

ASME 830.22-2005

Chapter 22-3

SECTION 22-3.1: QUALlFICATIONS FOR ANO (e) Operators and operator trainees shouId have nor-
CONOUCT OF OPERATORS ANO mal depth perception, field of vision, reaction time, man-
OPERATING PRACTICES ual dexterity, coordination, and no tendencies to
dizziness or similar undesirable characteristics.
(1) In addition to the above listed requirements, the (05)
22-3.1.1 Operators
operator shall
(a) Crane operation shall be limited to personnel with (1) demonstrate the ability to comprehend and
the following minimum qualifications: interpret alllabels, operator's manuals, safety codes, and
(1) designated persons other information pertinent to correct crane operation
(2) demonstrate their ability to read, write, compre-
(2) trainees under the direct supervision of a desig-
hend, and exhibit arithmetic skills and load/ capacity
nated person
chart usage, in the language of the crane manufacturer's
(3) maintenance and test personnel (when it is nec- operation and maintenance instruction materials
essary in the performance of their duties) (3) possess knowledge of emergency procedures;
(4) inspectors (crane) this is to be verified by verbal and written methods to
(b) No one other than the personnel specified in para. the satisfaction of the employer
22-3.1.1(a) shall enter the operating area of a crane with (4) demonstrate to the employer the ability to oper-
the exception of persons such as oilers, supervisors, and ate the specific type of equipment including, but not
those specified persons authorized by supervisors limited to
whose duties require them to do so and then only in (a) traveling to and around a work site
the performance of their duties and with the knowledge (b) choosing a safe location to set up and operate
of the operator or other appointed persono (e) set-up of the crane
(d) crane controls and functions and
(e) safe operation of the crane as outlined by the
22-3.1.2 Qualifications for Operators
(a) Operators shall be required by the employer to (5) demonstrate verbally or in writing knowledge
pass a practical operating examination. Qualifications of applicable safety regulations contained in applicable
shall be limited to the specific type of equipment for B30 volumes and federal, state and local standard s
which examined. (6) understand responsibility for maintenance
requirements of the crane
(b) Operators and operator trainees shall meet the
following physical qualifications: 22-3.1.3 Conduct of Operators
(1) vision of at least 20/30 Snellen in one eye and (a) The operator shall not engage in any practice that
20/50 in the other, with or without corrective lenses will divert his attention while actually engaged in
(2) ability to distinguish colors, regardless of posi- operating the crane.
(b) Each operator shall be responsible for those opera-
tion, if color differentiation is required for operation
tions under the operator's direct control. Whenever there
(3) adequate hearing, with or without hearing aid,
is any doubt as to safety, the operator shall consult with
for the specific operation
the supervisor before handling the loads.
(e) Evidence of physicallimitations or emotional (e) The operator shouId not leave a suspended load
instability which couId render a hazard to the operator unattended unless specific precautions have been insti-
or others, or which in the opinion of the examiner couId tuted and are in place.
interfere with the operator's performance, may be suffi- (d) If there is a warning sign on the switch or engine
cient cause for disqualification. In such cases, specialized starting controls, the operator shall not close the switch
clinical or medical judgments and tests may be required. or start the engine until the warning sign has been
(d) Evidence that an operator is subject to seizures or removed by the appointed persono
loss of physical control shall be sufficient reason for (e) Before closing the switch or starting the engine,
disqualification. Specialized medical tests may be the operator shall see that all controls are in the "OFF"
required to determine these conditions. or neutral position and all personnel are in the clear.


(1) If power fails during operation, the operator shall traveling shall be done while a person is on the hook
(1) move power controls to "OFF" or neutral or loado Hook-attached suspended work platforrns (bas-
position kets) shall not be used with cranes covered by this Stan-
(2) land the suspended load and boom, if practical dard. Work platforrns (baskets) attached to the boom
(g) The operator shall be familiar with the equipment shall be approved by the crane manufacturero
and its proper careo If adjustments or repairs are neces- (6) The operator should avoid carrying loads over
sary, the operator shall report the same promptly to the people.
appointed person, and shall also notify the next operator. (7) When the crane is so equipped, the stabilizers
(h) All controls shall be tested by the operator at the shall be fully extended and set. Blocking under stabiliz-
start of each shift. If any control s do not operate properly, ers shall meet the requirements as follows:
they shall be adjusted or repaired before operations are (a) strong enough to prevent crushing
begun. (b) of such thickness, width, and length as to
(i) Stabilizers shall be visible to the operator while completely support the stabilizer pad
extending or setting unless the operator is assisted by (8) Firm footing under all tires, or individual stabi-
a signalperson. lizer pads should be level. Where such a footing is not
otherwise supplied, it should be provided by timbers,
SECTION 22-3.2: OPERATING PRACTICES cribbing, or other structural members to distribute the
load so as not to exceed allowable bearing capacity of
22-3.2.1 Handling the Load the underIying material.
(a) Size 01 Load (9) In transit, the boom shall be carried in stowed
(1) No crane shall be loaded beyond the rated load position.
except for test purposes. (10) When rotating the crane, sudden starts and
(2) The load to be lifted is to be within the rated stops shall be avoided. Rotational speed shall be such
load of the crane in its existing configuration. that the load does not swing out beyond the radius at
(3) When loads that are not accurately known are which it can be controlled.
to be lifted, the person responsible for the job shall ascer- (11) The crane shall not be traveled with a load on
tain that the weight of the load does not exceed the the hook unless recommended by the manufacturero
crane rated load at the radius at which the load is to be (12) No person should be perrnitted to stand or
lifted. pass under a suspended loado
(b) Attaching the Load (d) Stowing Procedure. Follow manufacturer's proce-
(1) The load shall be attached to the hook by means dure and sequence when stowing and unstowing the
of slings or other devices of sufficient capacity. crane.
(2) Hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the
(e) Moving the Load
(1) The operator shall determine that 22-3.3.1 Operating Near Electric Power Unes
(a) the crane is level and, where necessary, the
(a) Cranes shall be operated so that no part of the
vehicle/ carrier is blocked properIy crane or load enters into the danger zone shown in
(b) the load is well secured and balanced in the
sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few
inches (mm)
(e) means are provided to hold the vehicle sta-
(1) The danger zone may be entered after confirmation by an
tionary while operating the crane appointed person that the electrical distribution and transmis-
(2) Before starting to lift, the hook shall be brought sion lines have been de-energized and visibly grounded at the
over the load in such a manner as to minimize swinging. point of work; or
(3) During lifting, care shall be taken that (2) The danger zone may be entered if insulating barriers (not a
(a) there is no sudden acceleration or decelera- part of nor an attachment to the crane) have been erected to
prevent physical contact with the lines.
tion of the moving load
(b) load, boom, or other parts of the crane do not (1) For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clear-
contact any obstruction ance between the lines and any part of the crane or load
(4) Cranes shall not be used for dragging loads (including handling appendages) shall be 10 ft (3 m).
sideways. For higher voltages, see Table lo
(5) This Standard recognizes that articulating boom (2) Caution shall be exercised when working near
cranes are designed and intended for handling materi- overhead lines, beca use they can move horizontally or
als. They do not meet personnellift or elevator require- vertically due to wind, moving the danger zone to new
ments. Therefore, no lifting, lowering, swinging, or positions.


This area should be avoided


GENERAL NOTE: For minimum radial distance of danger zone, see Table 1.

Fig. 17 Danger Zone for Cranes and Ufted Loads Operating Near Electrical Transmission Unes


Table 1 Required Clearance for Normal Voltage in (4) A qualified signalperson shall be assigned to
Operation Near High Voltage Power Unes and observe the c1earance and give warning before
Operation in Transit With No Load approaching the above limits.
and Boom or Mast Lowered
(b) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an
Minimum Required energized line unless and until the person owning such
Normal Voltage, kV line or the electrical utility authorities verify that it is
(Phase to Phase) ft m not an energized line.
When operating near high voltage power lines
(e) Exceptions to this procedure, if approved by the
to 50 10 3.05 owner of the electrical lines, may be granted by the
ayer 50 to 200 15 4.6 administrative or regulatory authority if the altemate
ayer 200 to 350 20 6.1 procedure provides equivalent protection and is set forth
ayer 350 to 500 25 7.62 in writing.
ayer 500 to 750 35 10.67
(d) Durable signs shall be installed at the operator's
ayer 750 to 1,000 45 13.72
station and on the outside of the crane, warning that
While in transit with no load and boom or mast lowered electrocution or serious bodily injury may occur unless
to 0.75 4 1.22 a minimum c1earance of 10 ft (3 m) is maintained
ayer 0.75 to 50 6 1.83 between the crane or the load being handled and ener-
ayer 50 to 345 10 3.83 gized power lines. Greater c1earances are required
ayer 345 to 750 16 4.87 because of higher voltage as stated in para. 22-3.3.l(a).
ayer 750 to 1,000 20 6.1
These signs shall be revised but not removed when local
jurisdiction requires greater c1earances.
(3) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the
c1earance shall be as specified in Table 1.


Replies to Technical Inquiries

July 1998 through May 2005

This publication includes all of the written replies issued between the indicated dates by the
Secretary, speaking for the ASME B30 Standards Committee, Safety Standards for Cableways,
Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, and Slings, to inquiries concerning interpretations of
technical aspects of ASME B30.22, Articulating Boom Cranes.
These replies are taken verbatim from the originalletters except for a few minor typographical
and editorial corrections made for the purpose of improved clarity. In some few instances, a
review of the interpretation revealed a need for corrections of a technical nature; in these cases,
a corrected interpretation follows immediately after the original reply.
These interpretations were prepared in accordance with the accredited ASME procedures.
ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of these interpretations when or if additional
information is available that the inquirer believes might affect the interpretation. Further, persons
aggrieved by this interpretation may appeal to the cognizant ASME Committee or Subcommittee.
ASME does not "approve," "certify," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary
device, or activity.

ASME 830.22-2005 22-5

Interpretation: 22-5

Subject: ASME B30.22d-1998, Articulating Boom Cranes, Para. 22-1.2.1(b)

Date Issued: December lO, 1999

Question: Paragraph 22-1.2.1(b) states: "(b) An integrally mounted holding device (such as a
load holding check valve) shall be provided on the cylinder(s) to prevent uncontrolled lowering
of the boom(s) in the event of a hydraulic system failure (e.g., supply hose rupture)."
Does this holding device have to be mounted directly to the cylinder, or can it be attached to
the cylinder port using hydraulic steelline tubing?

Reply: The holding device must be attached directly to the cylinder to meet the requirement
to be integrally mounted.
There are many design concepts that could be used to integrally mount holding devices on
the cylinder. The manufacturer or a qualified person is responsible to minimize the potential
failure points between the holding device and the cylinder pressure chamber.


ISBN D-7918-2988-X

9 780791 829882