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– Elastic Rebound Theory • After the stress or pressure is release the rock

seals and again starts to accumulate stress.

– Harry Fielding Reid

– May 18, 1859, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.

– American seismologist and glaciologist

– 1911 developed the elastic rebound theory of

earthquake mechanics

– San Francisco earthquake of 1906,

major earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9 that
occurred on April 18, 1906, at 5:12 AM off the
northern California coast.

– What is the Elastic Rebound Theory?

– States that as tectonic plates move relative to each

other, elastic strain energy builds up along their edges
in the rocks along fault planes.

• Ruptures or breaks in the rock are planar cracks

that grow in all directions

• The rupture itself may remain buried, invisible

underground (a blind fault). A rupture may or may
not reach the surface.

• Pressure or stress, builds up in the rock, much like

a bending rubber eraser in your hands.

• You can break a rubber eraser if the pressure or

stress you apply to it exceeds the natural strength
of the rubber.

• Stress in earth sciences refers to the pressure the

rock experiences Foreshocks and Aftershocks are smaller earthquakes that
precede and postdate the main shock.
• Strain is the actual damage or resultant
deformation that we can measure. What is a foreshock or aftershock depends on when the
main shock comes. But, this is really only known AFTER the
• When the rock breaks or ruptures some of the big earthquake occurs!
energy goes into breaking the rock and a lot of it
goes into moving the surround rocks.

• The rupture itself may remain buried, invisible

underground (a blind fault). A rupture may or may
not reach the surface.
BOHOL EARTHQUAKE - Patients from secondary to tertiary hospital
including Tagbilaran City were transferred to open grounds
 Chocolate Hills and makeshift tents that added to patient precarious
 TARSIER stage/ condition.
 BACLAYON CHURCH UUU - Temporary health centers were set-up to restore
 LOBOC CHURCH OOO services but limited to the municipal capitol

What are the facts about bohol earthquake?  POWER AND WATER SUPPLY

 Earthquake happened last October 15, 2013, - 91 percent of 602 villages had their power
Tuesday, 8:12 in the morning restored

 Duration: 34seconds -On October 24, Tagbilaran City was the only town
in the province where energy was fully restored.
 The energy released by quake is equivalent to 32
Hiroshima bombs - Nearly November 3, all electrical power had been
 Deadliest earthquake in Philippines in 23 yeas
By 20 October the water supply in 42 towns of Bohol was
 7.2 magnitude restored except for the towns of:

 The epicenter is located at Municipality of


 Max Intensity-VII (Destructive)


 Type of Fault: Reverse Loon

 As of December 6, 2013, 4,026 aftershocks were Maribojoc
recorded but 114 of which were felt
 Postponement of 2013 barangay elections in
 222 dead
Bohol On 16 October 2013
 8 missing
 877 injured
 Provinces of Cebu and Bohol are immediately put
 73,000 structures were damaged under the state of calamity.

 2.25 billion worth of damage in structures  Airports and seaports resumed quickly

 671,103 families or more than 32million people  Access to municipalities available on Oct 21
were affected
 Telecommunications have been restored
Total Estimated costs of damages= 759.640 MILLION
 40% of households still have no power
- By second week, search and rescue shifted to
 TRANSPORTATION recovery operations.
- Restoration of power, roads, and water systems
Several flights from Cebu and Bohol airports and the has started.
airport operations itself put on hold as response to check - NDRRMC accepted assistance from Humanitarian
the safety status of the airport buildings Country Team
- UN agencies, IOM, NGO, and partner
organizations seeks US$46.8million (Php2.33
- Many Bohol residents were left without adequate safe billion)
drinking water and sanitary facilities after the quake. - They seek to implement 23 projects across 13
Consequently, serious public health issues arose such as sectors over 6 months to deliver aid to at least
cases of diarrhea and water-borne diseases. 344,000 people

 Emergency Shelter

 Early Recovery

 Water

 Sanitation

 Education

 Food

 Logistics and Coordination


 US$9,7 million (Php438 million) needed to fund

temporary shelters for displaced families

 Tools and items to create temporary shelters will

be provided

 The government will give Php5,000 for damaged

houses and Php10,000 for destroyed houses

 US$5.1 million (Php254 million) is allotted for this


 Clear rubbles and debris of damaged


 Provide debris management

 Repair/Construct community service



 US$8 million (Php398 million)


 US$4 million (Php199 million)


 US$6.8 million (Php338 million)


 US$1 million (Php49 million)

THE BIG ONE  Of these, the study projected, residential buildings
would sustain bulk of the damage from the
 Japan International Cooperative Agency (JICA) earthquake. Details of damage projections below:
 Metropolitan Manila Development Authority  Residential buildings - 339, 800 (25.6%) partly
(MMDA) damaged; 168,300 (12.7%) heavily damaged
 Philippine Institute of Volcanogy and Seismology  Mid-rise buildings (10-30 stories) - 27% partly
damaged, 11% heavily damaged
WEST VALLEY FAULT  High-rise buildings (30-60 stories) - 2% heavily
ANGAT, BULACAN damaged, 12% partly damaged

QUEZON  Public-purpose buildings - 8-10% heavily damaged,

20-25% partly damaged
The quality of construction and the type of building
PASIG materials used play a big role in a building’s chances of
surviving the earthquake, according to experts at
Damaged power lines, fire breakouts
 At the time the MMEIRs study was conducted, some
CARMONA 4,482 kilometers of electrical/power lines connected
the different parts of the city to the main electrical
DAMAGES power sources. The MMEIRs study says 30
kilometers of this massive transmission and
500000 HOUSES
distribution system could be damaged if a
9 BRIDGES magnitude 7.2 earthquake strikes.

400 BUILDINGS Water supply, communication lines

13 KM ELECTRICAL LINE  At the time of the MMEIRS study, the total length of
water distribution pipes in Metro Manila was
WATER CONNECTIONS estimated at 4,615 kilometers. This system will be
broken at 4,000 different points, according to the
 Angat Dam, where 97% of Metro Manila gets its
Effects of an earthquake on the West Valley Fault water supply, is also near the faultline and may also
be affected by a strong ground shaking, resulting to a
CALOOCAN potential water leakage.
LASPINAS Human impact
MALABON MAKATI MANDALYONG MANILA MARIKINA  Metro Manila, during daytime, has a population of
MUNTINLUPA PARANAQUE PASAAY PASIGPATEROS QC roughly 14 million, with a night time population of
Damaged buildings, homes, other infrastructure  Based on the MMEIRS, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake
from the West Valley Fault in this mega city will
At the time the MMEIRs study was conducted, there were
leave 33,500 people dead.
1,325,896 residential buildings, 981 mid-rise buildings,
119 high-rise buildings, and 1,826 public-purpose  An additional 18,000 could perish as fire breaks out
buildings. in various parts of the city mostly due to damaged
electrical wirings. On top of these, some 113, 600
Public-purpose buildings at the time included hospitals
more will be injured.
(177), schools (1,412), fire stations (124), police stations
(43), city and municipal halls (53).
 Apart from expected casualties, such an earthquake,
according to the MMEIRS study, could leave 3.15
million people homeless.

Thing to do when BIG ONE occurs

 If you own a home anywhere west of the Cascade

Mountains, bolt it to its foundation.

 Strap down your water heater.

 Redecorate your home with an eye to gravity.

 Make a plan with your family.

 Get to know your neighbors.

 Keep an earthquake kit in a safe, accessible spot in

your home.
Earthquake Bolt or strap the heavy furniture and cabinets to the walls.

A shaking or trembling of the earth that is volcanic or Secure breakable objects properly and on the lowest part
tectonic in origin. of the shelves.

John Blume Check the stability of the hanging objects.

“FATHER OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING”  Organize the things needed during an earthquake.

He was an American structural engineer born in California. Prepare a handy EMERGENCY SUPPLY KIT.

His career included major contributions to dynamic theory,  First aid kit
soil structure interactions, and the inelastic behaviour of  Canned food and can opener
structures.  Water
 Clothing and blankets
Earthquake Engineering
 Battery-operated radio
is the application of the study of earthquakes and the  Flashlights
vibrations generated at the surface in order to protect the  Batteries
built environment and people from being harmed.
To DO’s Before an Earthquake
Aim of Earthquake Engineering
 Familiarize yourself to the fire exits.
Earthquake engineering is the science of the performance
 Know where to find the fire extinguishers, alarms
of buildings and structures when subjected to seismic
and communication facilities.
loading. It also assists analysing the interaction between
civil infrastructure and the ground, including the  Conduct and participate in regular earthquake
consequences of earthquakes on structures. drills.
To make buildings that are earthquake resistant in order to  Practice DROP, COVER, HOLD ON, and EVACUATE.
save lives and property.
Aim of Earthquake Engineering
Things to do after EARTHQUAKE
Proper design and construction of buildings in accordance
with building codes, so as to minimize damage to  Check yourself and others for injuries. Provide first
earthquakes. aid for anyone who needs it.
People behind the earthquake engineering in the  Check water, gas, and electric lines for damage.
Philippines  Turn on the radio
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology  Stay out of damaged buildings
(PHIVOLCS) is a service institute of the Department of  Be careful around broken glass and debris.
Science and Technology (DOST) that is principally
mandated to mitigate disasters that may arise from  Be careful of chimneys (they may fall on you).
volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami and other  Stay away from beaches.
related geotectonic phenomena  Stay away from damaged areas.
MANDATES  If you're at school or work, follow the emergency

To DO’s Before an Earthquake plan or the instructions of the person in charge.

 Expect aftershocks.
 Plan for the effective disaster prevention.

Know the earthquake hazards.

Have the right structural design and engineering practices.

Evaluate the structural design of the buildings and houses.

To DO’s Before an Earthquake

 Prepare your home and workplace