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COMPUTER LITERACY OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGION

VII EMPLOYEES

A Research

Presented to the Faculty of School of Law and Government

Southwestern University, PHINMA, Cebu City, Philippines

By

Mark Rey T. Paguray


Chapter I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
INTRODUCTION

Rationale of the study


Today, computers play a big role in the government especially in
developing countries like the Philippines. Government employees use
computers in offices even during meetings, trainings and make various
reports. Computers help these workers expedite these tasks. Computer uses
in government offices also include various e-mail functions, payment
distribution, record keeping, analyzing information and even coordinating
mailings and it increases productivity and decreasing waste.

Department of Agriculture RFO VII is a huge organization, aside from


the regional office, it has a lot of satellite offices all over the region. Majority
of the employees are using computers as part or in performance of their
duties. It is undeniable that computer and its application is a necessity in the
Department of Agriculture RFO VII.

Computer literacy can be seen as the ability of an employee to use a


computer in an effective manner, something that is very important to
Department of Agriculture RFO VII as all of its offices are dependent with
computers. Computer knowledge is a must especially to those involved in
administrative and managerial functions.

Therefore, computer literacy of the employee is vital to the success of


Department of Agriculture in fulfillment of its mission to help and empower
the farming and fishing communities and the private sector to produce
enough, accessible and affordable food for every Filipino and a decent
income for all.

The researcher is also an employee of the Department of Agriculture,


wanted to know the level of computer literacy of the employees that can be
used by the said office as basis for developing a training, thus this study is
made.

Theoretical Background

According to Moursund (2012), the concept of "computer literacy" is


receiving much mention today. Computer literacy refers to knowledge of the
non-technical and low-technical aspects of the capabilities and limitations of
computers, and of the social, vocational, and educational implications of
computers. While such a definition can provide a focus for thought and
discussion, it still does not pinpoint what is meant by computer literacy.
Among other things it does not provide a measure of computer literacy nor a
method for improving a person's level of computer literacy.

Bolter (1991) suggested that the term “computer literacy” has been
taken to mean either the ability to operate a computer (how to insert the
disks, how to call up a program, and perhaps how to type into a word
processor) or a technical knowledge of programming and concepts of
computer science.

Alvarez (1995) maintains that the age of computer literacy is upon us,
with thousands of computers being bought each day and thousands more
already in use they are quickly becoming a mainstay in our lives. It is even
more apparent in the economy where companies depend on machinery and
equipment that is far more advanced than past equipment. He argues that
computers however small have, and will to a greater extent, become a part
of the fundamental knowledge needed to survive in society.

According to a study by Ndahi and Gupta (2000), computers drive


today's workplace. Employers, therefore, seek computer literacy in almost
everyone they hire. In the workplace 'computer literacy' means ability to
operate a computer, knowledge of keyboarding skills, word-processing and
familiarity with some basic software such as Microsoft Word, Word Perfect,
and Excel. The basic idea behind seeking computer literate employees is to
facilitate the training of other workplace-specific software and programs.
Computer literate hires make it easier to train them further. It is analogous
to the basic skill of reading, which enables technical, content area reading
for learners. In today's workplace, the job applicant who lacks computer
skills is seriously handicapped, both in obtaining a job and qualifying for
promotion (Martin, Carrier & Hill, 1997).

According to recent projections, only about 22 percent of people


currently entering the labor market possess the technology skills that will be
required for 60% of new jobs in the year 2000 (Zuckerman, 1994). A study
conducted by the Wadley-Donovan Group (September 1999) showed that
companies have difficulty finding employees with the necessary computer
skills; basic computer skills are required of over 75% of office personnel;
among software applications. Work processing is the most required and
knowledge of database software needs is growing. Employees who work at
least-skilled levels will need some knowledge of operating computers if they
are to move upward in the job-market. Thus, basic technology skills and
knowledge are viewed as necessary employment tools for the workforce.

In a separate study conducted by Gupta and Ndahi (2002), they found


out that about 22 percent of adults currently entering the labor market
possess the technology skills that are required for 60% of new jobs. The
paper described the training provided to tutors and trainers of adult learning
centers in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Results showed that the trainees, prior
to the training, had limited access to computer technology and needed
training in incorporating computer technology in the curriculum. After the
training, trainees have shown increased levels of comfort with various
software, including word processing programs, such as MS Word,
PowerPoint, Netscape, Hyperstudio and MS FrontPage.

Norman (1984) suggested that there are several levels of computer


literacy and that individuals should attempt to reach them. The first level is
the basic understanding of general concepts. The second level is the
understanding of how to use a computer to accomplish something useful.
The third level is the ability to program a computer, and the fourth level is
the understanding of the science of computation. Moreover, Wolfe (1992)
stated that due to the increasing accessibility to computers all individuals
should possess some level of computer literacy in their lifetime.

According to (Winter, Chudoba & Gutek, 1997) it is in the best interest


to maintain a computer literate workforce, as they will become more
productive, and they will assume new roles. During the 1980s workers who
gained access to personal computer became the largest group of end-users
throughout organizations (Winter, Chudoba & Gutek, 1997). Consequently,
they became more productive by assuming new responsibilities in their
workplaces (Gerrity & Rockart, 1986). However, Davis (1991) stated that
actual productivity improvements in white collar workers were not the result
of the introduction of new technologies in the workplace. Productivity
improvements reflected the increasing awareness of the new technologies
and its potential application in the workplace.

Workers with higher computer literacy levels are able to use their
computers in more sophisticated manners (McGrath, 1990). Conversely, the
lack of computer literacy severely underutilizes equipment and diminishes
desired results. Andersen (1990) suggested that computer literate workers
possess both, concrete and abstract knowledge of computers, and are able
to apply their knowledge to new situations without experiencing hardship.
THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the level of computer literacy and how
computer is being used in the office of Department of Agriculture RFO VII.
This study attempted to answer the following research questions?

1. What is the profile of the employees in Department of Agriculture in


terms of:
1.1 Age;

1.2 Sex;

1.3 Civil status;

1.4 Employment status;

1.5 Highest Educational Attainment;

1.6 Number of years of service; and

1.7 Number of computer trainings and seminars attended?

2. What is the level of computer literacy of the employees in Department


of Agriculture in terms of:
2.1 Email functions;

2.2 Microsoft Applications; and

2.3 Social Media?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the employees


in Department of Agriculture and the level of computer literacy?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the level of computer
literacy among employees when grouped according to:
4.1 Age;

4.2 Position; and


4.3 Highest Educational Attainment?

5. What action plan can be proposed based on the findings of the study?

Statement of Null Hypothesis

HO 1 – There is no significant relationship between the profile of the


employees in Department of Agriculture and the level of computer literacy.

HO 2 – There is no significant relationship between the level of


computer literacy among employees when grouped according to age,
position, and highest educational attainment.

Significance of the Study

Computer literacy is the ability to use computers and related


technology efficiently. By another measure, computer literacy requires some
understanding of computer programs and how computers work. Knowing
how to use a computer often allows you to get work done in a more
organized, efficient and timely manner, especially if you perform a job that
requires you to use a computer on a frequent or regular basis.

Hence, this study is greatly beneficial to the following entities:

Employees – will be given insights and information regarding their


literacy on how to use computer. Therefore, they can improve their skills and
knowledge that will help them accomplish their task in an effective and
efficient manner.

Office – the office will be greatly benefited of this study. It may serve
as basis in determining those who are in need of computer trainings. A high
level of computer literacy of its employees would mean a big help in the
fulfillment of the office’s mission and vision towards the farmers and fisher
folks.
Researcher – will better understand the level of computer literacy of
the employees and factors affecting their literacy. Also, the researcher will
gain additional knowledge to improve own computer skills and be able to use
it and share to others.

Future Researcher – the result of this study will be the foundation of


future studies related to computer literacy.
Methodology

Research Design

This research uses Quantitative-qualitative approach in determining


the computer literacy of the Department of Agriculture Region VII
Employees. The researcher chose a survey because it best served to answer
the questions and the purposes of the study.

The survey research is one in which a group of people is studied by


collecting and analyzing data from only a few people considered to be
representative of the entire group. In other words, only a part of the
population is studied, and findings from these are expected to be generalize
to the entire population.

Research Environment

This study was conducted on the Department of Agriculture Region VII


located in Highway, Maguikay, Mandaue City, Cebu. It has 10 satellite offices
around the region and a regional office located in Mandaue City, Cebu.

Since, the Department of Agriculture RFO VII and all of its satellite
offices are dependent on computer technology, improving computer literacy
should be given importance.

Research Subjects

This research applied only to the employees assigned in the regional


office of the Department of Agriculture RFO VII located at Mandaue City,
Cebu which has 372 employees, 150 of which are regular and 222 are job
order employees.

Since, the researcher is also an employee of the said office, the


researcher quite know about the duties and roles of all employees and its
importance to the organization. Hence, enough representative of each
division were considered in this research.

Research Instrument

In gathering the necessary data, the researcher used two kind of


approaches. The first approach was through a questionnaire, a self-made
tool, concentrating on the profile as to age, sex, civil status, course
graduated, employment status, position, number of years of service, and
number of computer trainings and seminars attended.

This questionnaire contains 41 brief statements in determining the


level of computer literacy of the Department of Agriculture RFO VII
employees.

The tool has a 4-likert scale to indicate how each statement of the tool
best describes the level of computer literacy of the employees.

4 - Very Literate

3 - Literate

2 - Less Literate

1 - Illiterate

To identify the unquantifiable factors affecting the level of computer


literacy, the researcher conducted interviews to some respondents in
addition to the questionnaires given, in order to fully understand and
improve the result of the study.

Research Procedures

Data Gathering

The researcher asked first the approval of the head of the office
to conduct the study and run the questionnaires. After being approved,
the researcher identify the representative of each division that will
form part of the sample population.

The researcher distributed the questionnaires to the employees.


They were asked to answer the questionnaires at their free time. They
were given enough time to answer the questionnaire and were allowed
to asked questions and clarifications. Then, the questionnaires were
collected by the researcher and compiled for tabulation, presentation,
analysis, and interpretation.

The respondents was informed about the nature of the study. To


ensure that the respondents understand the importance of the study
being conducted. Also, measures were employed to abide by the
ethical principles in the conduct of research.

Treatment of Data
Table I
Profile of the Employees
n=193

Age
20-28 111 57.59%
29-36 23 12.03%
37-44 17 8.86%
45-52 15 7.59%
53-60 27 13.92%
Total 193 100%

Sex
Male 93 48%
Female 100 52%
Total 193 100%

Civil Status
Single 125 65%
Married 68 35%
Total 193 100%

Employment Status
Job Order 115 59%
Regular 78 41%
Total 193 100%

Highest Educational Attainment


Elementary 1 0.63%
Secondary 2 1.27.%
College 175 90.51%
Masters 15 7.59%
Total 193 100%

Years of Service
1-6 140 73%
7-13 6 3%
14-19 10 5%
20-25 10 5%
26-33 27 14%
Total 193 100%

No. of Trainings Attended


0-5 177 92%
6-10 7 4%
11-15 1 1%
16-20 6 3%
21-25 1 1%
Total 193 100%
The tables shows the profile of the employees of Department of
Agriculture Region VII. Majority of them are one the age bracket of 20-28
years old. It is because in recent years up to now, the office is always hiring
due to the rationalization program offered to the employees to retire early
with additional incentives which more than hundred avail the program. This
is to give the new graduates or young job seekers the opportunity to serve
the government.

The employees are almost equally divided into male and female and
mostly of them are single. Majority of them are Job Orders and nowadays,
higher qualifications were set by the Civil Service Commission to enter
government service, so the highest educational attainment of the
Department of the Agriculture RFO7 are generally college level which is
90.51% of the total population.

It is also observed that most of the employees served for 1-6 years
and with less computer trainings since mostly of them are recently hired.
Table 2
Level of Computer Literacy
n=193

Computer Literacy Mean Interpretation


Email Functions 3.55 Very Literate
Microsoft Excel 3.45 Very Literate
Microsoft Word 3.61 Very Literate
Microsoft PowerPoint 3.39 Very Literate
Facebook 3.65 Very Literate
YouTube 3.33 Very Literate
Instagram 3.16 Literate
Grand Total 3.49 Very Literate

Legend
3.26 - 4.00 Very Literate
2.51 – 3.25 Literate
1.76 – 2.50 Less Literate
1.00 – 1.75 Illiterate

As the level of computer literacy, most of the respondents rated


themselves as Very Literate except for the Instagram which they generally
rated themselves as Literate. This table represents already summative
results of each literacy. (see appendix A).
Table 3
Relationship of Age to the Computer Literacy
Parameter Correlation P-value Interpretation Decision
Value
Email Functions -0.522 0.735 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Excel -0.499 0.544 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Word -0.543 0.378 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft PowerPoint -0.666 0.00002 SIGNIFICANT Reject HO
Facebook -0.555 0.372 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
YouTube -0.616 0.22 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Instagram -0.551 0.214 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO

p<.05 = Significant

The researcher considered age of the employees as the main focus in


determining the computer literacy. For the reason that, according to Kathryn
Zickuhr, younger adults are leading the way in using computers as part of
their daily routine. But, this study shows that age is not significant except
for using Microsoft PowerPoint application. There is a moderate negative
relationship between age and the level of literacy to Microsoft PowerPoint. As
age of the employees’ increases, the level of literacy decreases.

Table 4
Relationship of Sex to the Computer Literacy
Parameter Correlation P-value Interpretation Decision
Value
Email 0.165 0.502 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Excel 0.092 0.638 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Word 0.091 0.906 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft PowerPoint 0.011 0.063 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Facebook 0.176 0.087 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
YouTube 0.052 0.072 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Instagram 0.21 0.004 SIGNIFICANT Reject HO

p<.05 = Significant
Both males and females should be equally computer literate since
computer technology has now become important in the work of most
employees and computer related activities have become critical to
organization success. And this study found out that sex has nothing to do
with the computer literacy of the employees except, for females were more
literate to Instagram than males.

Table 5
Relationship of Civil Status to the Computer Literacy
Parameter Correlation P-value Interpretation Decision
Value
Email -0.353 0.633 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Excel -0.314 0.663 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Word -0.345 0.826 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft PowerPoint -0.41 0.088 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Facebook -0.343 0.957 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
YouTube -0.388 0.90 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Instagram -0.429 0.024 SIGNIFICANT Reject HO

p<.05 = Significant

As to civil status, most of the employees are single


Table 6
Relationship of Employment Status to the Computer Literacy
Parameter Correlation P-value Interpretation Decision
Value
Email -0.214 0.601 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Excel -0.182 0.081 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Word -0.262 0.631 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft PowerPoint -0.34 0.018 SIGNIFICANT Reject HO
Facebook -0.292 0.324 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
YouTube -0.308 0.78 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Instagram -0.267 0.708 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO

p<.05 = Significant
Table 7
Relationship of Highest Educational Attainment to the Computer
Literacy
Parameter Correlation P-value Interpretation Decision
Value
Email 0.312 0.218 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Excel 0.232 0.168 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Word 0.307 0.111 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft PowerPoint 0.224 0.816 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Facebook 0.303 0.095 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
YouTube 0.131 0.198 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Instagram 0.142 0.754 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO

p<.05 = Significant
Table 8
Relationship of Years of Service to the Computer Literacy
Parameter Correlation P-value Interpretation Decision
Value
Email -0.462 0.873 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Excel -0.436 0.203 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Word -0.51 0.601 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft PowerPoint -0.585 0.002 SIGNIFICANT Reject HO
Facebook -0.514 0.211 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
YouTube -0.523 0.6 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Instagram -0.47 0.375 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO

p<.05 = Significant
Table 9
Relationship of Number of Trainings Attended to the Computer
Literacy
Parameter Correlation P-value Interpretation Decision
Value
Email 0.129 0.25 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Excel 0.14 0.612 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft Word 0.114 0.722 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Microsoft PowerPoint 0.134 0.382 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Facebook 0.019 0.155 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
YouTube 0.054 0.735 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO
Instagram 0.022 0.435 NOT SIGNIFICANT Don’t Reject HO

p<.05 = Significant
Appendix A
Email Functions
1. I know how to create account. 3.52
2. I know how to send & reply e-mail. 3.61
3. I know how to attach files. 3.53
4. I know how to forward e-mail. 3.54
Mean 3.55

Microsoft Excel
1. I know how to copy, cut & paste. 3.65
2. I know how to insert & delete cells. 3.61
3. I know how to format cells. 3.44
4. I know how to merge cells. 3.47
5. I know how to use formulas. 3.13
6. I know how to filter & sort. 3.19
7. I know how to print. 3.67
Mean 3.45

Microsoft Word
1. I know how to copy, cut & paste. 3.69
2. I know how to edit font style, size & color. 3.66
3. I know how to insert tables & pictures. 3.54
4. I know how to insert header, footer & page no. 3.45
5. I know how to edit margin & spacing. 3.57
6. I know how to print. 3.73
Mean 3.61

Microsoft PowerPoint
1. I know how to copy, cut & paste. 3.46
2. I know how to create, duplicate & delete slide. 3.37
3. I know how to design & use animations. 3.13
4. I know how to insert chart, graph & background. 3.16
5. I know how to view using slide show. 3.39
6. I know how to print. 3.52
Mean 3.34

Social Media
Facebook
1. I know how to create account. 3.64
2. I know how to post status, photos & videos. 3.67
3. I know how to like or react, comment & share. 3.69
4. I know how to search. 3.67
5. I know how to edit profile information. 3.60
6. I know how to tag photos & videos. 3.59
7. I know how to use messenger. 3.68
Mean 3.65
YouTube
1. I know how to create account. 3.23
2. I know how to search videos. 3.61
3. I know how to download & upload. 3.24
4. I know how to save offline videos. 3.28
5. I know how to subscribe channel. 3.18
6. I know how to like, comment & share. 3.46
Mean 3.33

Instagram
1. I know how to create account. 3.14
2. I know how to post photos & videos. 3.15
3. I know how to search & follow. 3.17
4. I know how to like, comment & share. 3.20
5. I know how to edit profile information. 3.15
Mean 3.16