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STUDY GUIDE

MPU3412
Community Service

Copyright © Open University Malaysia (OUM)


STUDY GUIDE MPU3412 Community Service

STUDY GUIDE
MPU3412
Community Service

Writer: Oo Cheng Keat


Open University Malaysia

Moderator: Dr Rozeman Abu Hassan


Open University Malaysia

Developed by: Centre for Instructional Design and Technology


Open University Malaysia

First Edition, August 2017


Copyright © Open University Malaysia (OUM), August 2017, MPU3412
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without the written permission of the President, Open University Malaysia.

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STUDY GUIDE MPU3412 Community Service

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STUDY GUIDE MPU3412 Community Service

INTRODUCTION TO STUDY GUIDE


This Study Guide is intended for Open University Malaysia's MPU3412
Community Service course. It comes in TWO parts, as described below:

Part One comprises the Course Introduction, which gives you an overview
of the course. More specifically, it provides you with the course synopsis,
objectives, learning outcomes and study load. There is a brief description of
the main textbook(s), which you must read to fulfil the course requirements.
There is also a list of additional reading references. You are encouraged to go
into myINSPIRE to check out the assessment, assignment and final
examination formats.

Part Two comprises the Learning Guide. This starts with an overview, a
recommended weekly study schedule to guide your learning process, and a
brief description of the various elements in the Learning Guide. There is also
a list of topics to be covered. For each topic, you are given the specific learning
outcomes, a topic overview and a listing of the focus areas, together with
assigned readings and the pages where information on the focus areas is
found. To consolidate your learning and test your understanding, a summary
of the main content covered and study questions are provided at the end of
each topic.

Finally, there are two appendices, Learning Support and Study Tips, to help
you walk through the course successfully.

Please read through this Study Guide before you commence your course. We
wish you a pleasant study experience.

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STUDY GUIDE MPU3412 Community Service

Contents
Part One: Course Introduction ................................................................... 5
Synopsis ............................................................................................ 5
Objectives .......................................................................................... 5
Learning Outcomes ........................................................................... 5
Study Load ......................................................................................... 6
Main Textbook(s) ............................................................................... 6
Additional Recommended Readings.................................................. 7
Assessment ....................................................................................... 7

Part Two: Learning Guide ........................................................................... 8


Overview ............................................................................................ 8
Topic 1: Introduction to Community Service Courses ................... 10
Topic 2: Community Service Project Implementation .................... 19
Process (I): Planning
Topic 3: Community Service Project Implementation .................... 24
Process (II): Implementation
Topic 4: Community Service Project Implementation ................... 26
Process (III): Reportage
Topic 5: Community Service Project Implementation ................... 28
Process (IV): Reflective Journal

Appendices ................................................................................................ 31
Appendix A: Learning Support ......................................................... 31
Appendix B: Study Tips ................................................................... 32

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STUDY GUIDE MPU3412 Community Service

PART ONE: COURSE INTRODUCTION

Synopsis

Community Service MPU3412 course discusses the concept of community


service projects, the preparation of the proposal papers and the characteristics
of effective projects. The purpose of this course is to provide an understanding
and appreciation of the community engagement project. Teaching and
learning will be conducted online and through group discussion, experience-
based learning through group activities and the spirit of volunteerism. By the
end of this course, it is hoped that learners can practice the values and ethics,
leadership and teamwork as well as social responsibility.

Objectives

By the end of this learning course, learners can:


1. Understand the process of implementing community service projects
that include the aspects of planning, practical work, reflective, report and
appreciation;
2. Provide knowledge on various community activities that can be carried
out to produce university graduates who are helpful and willing to
sacrifice in life; and
3. Establish the nature of volunteerism, spirit of helping each other,
cooperation and communal works in learners as a practice of communal
harmony.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this course, you should be able to:


1. Apply the skills and social responsibility in society;
2. Apply the communication, leadership and teamwork skills; and
3. Practice information and project management skills and
entrepreneurship skills.

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Study Load

It is a standard OUM practice that learners accumulate 40 study hours for


every credit hour. As such, for a two-credit hour course, you are expected to
spend at least 80 hours of learning. Table 1 gives an estimation of how the 80
hours can be accumulated.

Table 1: Allocation of Study Hours

Activities No. of Hours


Reading course materials and completing exercises 36
Attending four tutorial sessions (two hours for each session)* 4
Engaging in online discussions 10
Completing assignment(s) 30
Total 80

* Unless otherwise specified

Main Textbook(s)

Ali, H. (2002). Volunteerism and the development of Malaysian social care


system. International Council on Social Welfare, 101-109.

Holdsworth, C. (2010). Why volunteer? Understanding motivations for student


volunteering. British Journal of Educational Studies, 421-437.

Idris Jusoh. (2015, Januari 23). Terima kasih untuk sukarelawan. Berita
Harian.

Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi. (2012, September). Yayasan Sukarelawan


Siswa (YSS): Medan mahasiswa tabur bakti. BITARA.

Khaled Nordin. (2011, September 29). Mahasiswa: Gerak untuk Malaysia.


Utusan Malaysia.

Mardhiyyah Sahri, Khairudin Murad, Asmidar Alias & Mohd Dasuqkhi


Sirajudin. (2013). Empowering youth volunteerism: The importance and
global motivating factors. Journal of Educational and Social Research,
3(7), 502-507.

Zaliha Hj Hussin, & Mohd Ramlan Mohd Arshad. (2012). Altruism as


motivational factors toward volunteerism among youth in Petaling Jaya,
Selangor. IPEDR, 225-229.

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Additional Recommended Readings

Franken, R. E. (2002). Human motivation (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi. (2010). National higher education strategic


plan: Laying the foundation beyond 2020. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia:
Author.

Maniam, V. A. (2004). Volunteerism for youth development. INTI Journal, 306-


317.

Mohd Azlan Abdullah, Noraziah Ali, Junaidi Awang Besar, Rosniza Aznie Che
Rose, Siti Khatijah Zamhari & Zuriatun Fadzliah Sahdan. (2012).
Pengetahuan dan amalan kelestarian alam sekitar di kawasan Majlis
Perbandaran Sepang, Selangor. Akademika, 82(3), 41-48.

RM100 million funds for iM4U. (2012, July 16). The Star.

United Nations Volunteers (UNV). (2011). State of the world’s volunteerism


report: Universal values for global well-being. Retrieved from
http://www.ifrc.org/docs/IDRL/Volunteers/UNV%20Report%202011_full
.pdf

Assessment

Please refer to EPIC for information on the assessment format and


requirements.

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PART TWO: LEARNING GUIDE

Overview

This Learning Guide is arranged by topic. This guide covers from Topic 1 to
Topic 5 and is organised to stretch over 14 weeks. Use this Learning Guide to
plan your engagement with the course content. You may follow the
recommended weekly study schedule in Table 2 to help you progress in a
linear fashion, starting with Week 1.

Table 2: Recommended Weekly Study Schedule

Topic Week
Topic 1: Introduction to Community Service Courses 1
Topic 2: Community Service Project Implementation Process (I): 2-4
Planning
Topic 3: Community Service Project Implementation Process (II): 5-10
Implementation
Topic 4: Community Service Project Implementation Process (III): 11-13
Reporting
Topic 5: Community Service Project Implementation Process (IV): 14
Reflective Journal

Each topic in the Learning Guide comprises the following sections (refer to
Figure 1):

 Learning Outcomes: Outline the specific tasks to be accomplished;

 Topic Overview: Briefly explains what the topic touches on so as to provide


a general interpretative framework for understanding the topic content;

 Focus Areas: Identify the main and sub areas to be covered;

 Assigned Readings: Help you to navigate the main textbook and reading
materials;

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 Content Summary: Provides an interpretative framework for understanding


the core content; and

 Study Questions: Help you to focus on key subject areas.

Figure 1: Organisation of the learning guide

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Topic 1: Introduction to Community Service Courses

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

1. Define community service;

2. Identify the goals of project community service;

3. Explain the importance of community service;

4. Predict the implications of community services to individuals;

5. Prepare yourself as a volunteer; and

6. Select target groups.

Topic Overview

This topic begins with the explanation of the concept of community service.
Then, it is followed by the discussion of the readiness of someone who wants
to be a volunteer. In addition, this topic also explains the importance of
community service.

Other than that, this topic also explains the functions of an individual in the
community service besides identifying the target group that becomes the main
subject in a community service project. Next, this topic explains the
implications of community services to individuals. Finally, this topic explains
the importance of community service.

Content Summary

1.1 The Concept of Community Service Project


What does community service mean?

Community service is the social work that is carried out in


groups and has goals as well as has particular purposes.

Community service if implemented properly will certainly produce


something useful outputs or products.

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1.2 Goal of Community Service Projects


What are goals of the community service projects? Among the goals
of the community service projects are:
(a) Foster a sense of love and togetherness among the individuals
towards the surrounding community;
(b) Cultivate and apply the knowledge, skills and practice of civic
values in each individual;
(c) Contribute in the form of energy and skills to the community and
nation;
(d) Develop personality and understand the concept of cooperation
and helping one another;
(e) Nurture the spirit of living together in a community regardless of
race, religion, beliefs or ideology;
(f) Be a citizen who is patriotic, caring and responsible towards the
society and nation; and
(g) Practise a healthy lifestyle and always active in helping others
who are in need.

How about the themes of the projects? Among the project themes
proposed that could be carried out include:
(a) Educational responsibility;
(b) Community development;
(c) Health;
(d) Disaster management;
(e) Information technology;
(f) Social entrepreneurship;
(g) Well-being of society;
(h) Innovation, art and culture; and
(i) Sports.

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What are the focuses of community service projects? Some examples


are as follows:
(a) Project to clean the university/college/school/kindergarten areas;
(b) Project to beautify the school area;
(c) Project to clean the recreational area;
(d) Project to clean the cemetery;
(e) Project to clean the village community halls;
(f) Community service projects at the orphanages;
(g) Community service projects at the old folk’s homes; and
(h) Many more community service projects either in school, village,
town and national levels.

1.3 Importance of Community Service


The importance of the community service is as follows:
(a) Improve knowledge and skills in solving people's problems.
Participants or volunteers can learn about related issues in-
depth;
(b) Nurture a sense of love and togetherness in individuals towards
the surrounding community;
(c) Form personality and understand the concept of cooperation and
helping in the community;
(d) Inculcate the spirit of living together in a community, regardless
of race, religion, beliefs and ideology;
(e) Practise a healthy lifestyle and always active in helping others
who are in need;
(f) Become citizens who are patriotic, concerned and responsible
towards society and nation; and
(g) Increase the belief in the community organisation and
governance. Working together to enhance communication and
understanding. Find out what the government, people,
community leaders and organisations can and cannot do to
reduce conflict in the future.

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1.4 Implications of Community Services to Individuals


Community service activities will produce positive input to the self-
development of each individual. Many benefits can be derived from the
implementation of community service activities. Among them are:
(a) The community service activities which are carried out together
will create a sense of understanding and strengthen self-esteem
in a group;
(b) Activities that have been well-planned will have an impact on
personal health in terms of physical and spiritual aspects;
(c) Activities implemented jointly in a community that is made up of
various ethnic groups will result in a stronger sense of tolerance
and strengthen the unity among the ethnic groups;
(d) Create a sense of consideration and love for other people,
especially for the disabled and elderly people;
(e) The community service activity which is in the form of communal
work will reduce the cost of implementation;
(f) Create a deeper sense of neighbourhood and understanding
among the society in a neighbourhood area; and
(g) Produce citizens of great heart and are patriotic and love the
country.

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1.5 Self-readiness as a Volunteer


Let us start off this subtopic by looking at this newspaper excerpt (see
Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1: Newspaper excerpt on volunteers


Source: https://goo.gl/x6mA4C

The excerpt in Figure 1.1 was part of the full article which was quoted
from the website of www.utusan.com.my dated 25 June 2016. This
shows the sporting spirit of Malaysians to become volunteers for the
success of the events. The question is, what is the definition of
volunteer?

Volunteers can be defined as the readiness to get involved in


voluntary work.

What are the criteria to become a volunteer? One of the criteria to


become a volunteer is to have a positive mindset to serve the
particular section of the society. In addition, the volunteers should have
an interest, concern and a tendency to contribute physical energy,
share interests and experience to a target group or particular
community groups are also among the main criteria to become a
volunteer.

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The readiness of the volunteers may be motivated by several factors


such as:
(a) The work performed is voluntary without expecting any rewards
from certain parties;
(b) Volunteer activities must bring benefits to a community group and
not limited to themselves only; and
(c) The voluntary work that has been carried out was not to get
financial reward or be shown off to the public.

What are the activities that enable an individual to become a


volunteer? There are a lot of activities that enable an individual to
become a volunteer, such as:
(a) Assist victims when natural disasters or calamities happen (see
Figure 1.2 and Figure 1.3);

Figure 1.2: Helping the flood victims

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Figure 1.3: Helping the fire victim

(b) Becomes the tutor or teacher to guide to children of the poor; and
(c) Patrolling at night in the vicinity of the neighbourhood.

In recognition of the contributions of volunteers and recognise voluntary


work done by volunteers, the United Nations has set 5 December every
year as International Volunteer Day.

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1.6 Target Groups (Implementers and Recipients of Benefits)


In the context of this course, the implementing group has to be from
you, as a learner studying in a higher learning institution. This is
because, as enshrined in the National Philosophy of Education:

“Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort to further develop the


potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as
to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a
firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to
produce Malaysian citizens of high moral standards,
knowledgeable and competent, and who are responsible and
capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as
being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the
family, the society and the nation at large”

Furthermore, in the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2015-2025 (Higher


Education) in Shift One states that

Holistic, Entrepreneurial and Balanced Graduates

The shift is important since each graduate is poised to become a global


citizen with pride of Malaysia who shines and is ready and willing to
sacrifice for the sake of the harmony and well-being of the family,
society, country and global.

Next, the proposed groups of benefit recipients are as follows:


(a) Elderly;
(b) Persons with disabilities (OKU);
(c) Orphans;
(d) Vagrant;
(e) Poor;
(f) Indigenous/remote people;
(g) Single mothers; and
(h) Students and other.

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Study Questions

1. Explain the meaning of community service in your own words.

2. Discuss the importance of community service.

3. Recently, you have received an invitation as a speaker in conjunction


with the national level Senior Citizens Day organised by the Ministry of
Women, Family and Community in Putrajaya. The title of the talk is "The
Role of Undergraduate Students in Contributing Community Service to
the Elderly". Before you give this talk, outline the draft of the talks and
discuss with your coursemates at myINSPIRE to obtain feedback from
them.

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Topic 2: Community Service Project Implementation


Process (I): Planning

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

1. Describe the importance of planning;

2. Identify the key elements in planning;

3. Use the key elements in the preparation of proposals; and

4. Consider some important elements to be included in preparing the


proposal.

Topic Overview

It is no doubt that planning is very important in implementing community


service projects. Therefore, proper planning will indirectly ensure the
community service projects will be carried out smoothly and accordingly. The
focus of this topic will introduce you to the key elements in the planning
process as well as the elements that should to be included in a proposal.

Content Summary

2.1 Planning
We do agree that planning is very important. Only with good and
perfect planning a community service project will be carried out
properly and achieve the intended objectives.

Besides that, other elements such as the needs analysis, systematic


planning and accurate budget estimates and credibility have to be
taken into account by the individual or group that wants to carry out
community service.

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2.2 Key Elements in the Planning


What are the key elements that need to be emphasised in the
planning? Among the key elements that need to be emphasised in the
planning are:
(a) Identify and select title or community service project to be
implemented;
(b) Identify clear goals, purposes and objectives to avoid wastage in
terms of energy, money and time;
(c) Identify other resources that can support the implementation of
community service activities to be implemented;
(d) Identify other parties who can contribute to the implementation of
community service activities;
(e) Organise and specify the implementation during the meeting of
the committee concerned;
(f) Provide a checklist of tasks and equipment as well as other
support needed to efficiently run the community service activities;
(g) List and delegate tasks according to the skills and abilities of
individuals who participate in community service;
(h) Determine the method of information gathering and
documentation before, during and after the activities are carried
out;
(i) Determine the method of recording the implementation of
community service for the purpose of reporting and
documentation;
(j) Determine the financial resources for project implementation;
and
(k) Other planning which will ensure that every community service
activities can be carried out prudently, with discipline and achieve
the goals and objectives that have been set.

2.3 Key Elements in the Preparation of Proposals


Community project proposals should contain:
(a) Theme;
(b) Introduction/background of the programme;
(c) Objectives of the programme;

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(d) Proposed venue/time/date;


(e) Estimated expenditure/financial implications;
(f) Tentative programme;
(g) List of members of the implementation committee;
(h) Gantt chart; and
(i) Groups and the total target audience.

In preparing the proposal, some of these elements need to be


addressed and considered, including:

(a) High impact – Community service projects to be carried out


should bring high impact not just to students itself, but also
include the group members and communities involved in the
project.

In addition, a high-impact community service is also a project that


can display social responsibility in its implementation among
group members and the community.

Furthermore, values like accountability, cooperation, support,


integrity, respect and so on can be viewed in community service
projects that have a high impact.

(b) Low cost – In preparing proposals to implement community


service projects, expenses of implementation should be looked
into thoroughly. Two aspects of the cost that needs to be
addressed in the cost-cutting measures to implement community
service projects are integrity and rationale.

In terms of integrity, every expense should be transparent and


has no conflict of interest between group members or the target
group. The second aspect in the implementation of this project is
the rationale. Cost savings are important so that the project does
not burden the group members.

(c) Rapid execution – The efficient implementation needs an


intensive planning. Rigorous planning requires effective
discussions between group members. Each member of the group
should work as a team to ensure the success of the
implementation of the project. Remember, “together we are
strong, divided we fall”.

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Next, in the world of cutting-edge technology, the communication


aspect is important as one of the decisive aspects in carrying out
this project quickly. You can use SMS, WhatsApp and much
more to speed up the communication between the team
members, although sometimes there are problems encountered
when attending meetings.

(d) Cross agencies – Each project should be implemented across


the agencies. For example, when carrying out the activity of
cleaning the recreational area, permission must be obtained from
the district councils, members of the village committee or the
residential areas involved and so on.

(e) Sustainability – What is sustainability?

The term sustainability can be defined as a description of


any human practices related to the use of resources as
planned to ensure it is always sustainable without
triggering adverse impacts to humans and the
environment (Mohd Azlan Abdullah et al., 2012).

Therefore, this factor needs to be taken into account in the


preparation of proposals.

(f) Creativity – What is creativity?

Creativity can be defined as the tendency to generate or


recognise ideas and alternatives or possibilities that may
be useful in solving problems, communicating with others
and entertaining ourselves and others (Franken, 2002).

Therefore, in this context, creativity in developing community service


projects include maintaining sensitivity of the local community and of
the group members, respect the views of the group members to
successfully implement the community service project and others.

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Study Questions

1. List out the things that need to be considered when planning a project to
beautify the recreational park.

2. Discuss two elements that need to be considered when preparing


proposals to carry out a communal work campaign in your village.

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Topic 3: Community Service Project Implementation


Process (II): Implementation

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

1. Describe the importance of implementation;

2. Use the key elements in the implementation of community service;

3. Demonstrate skills and social responsibility within the community; and

4. Apply communication, leadership and teamwork skills.

Topic Overview

In the previous topic, you have learnt the first process in implementing
community service projects which is planning. Now, this topic focuses on the
implementation stage.

Remember, good planning if not implemented accordingly would be


meaningless. Therefore, this topic will begin with explaining the meaning of
implementation. Next, this topic will focus on the key elements in the
implementation of community service projects.

Content Summary

3.1 Implementation
The success of the implementation of a community service activity
depends on the cooperation and consensus between each member
involved. Even though the planning was very good and detailed, if it
was not applied correctly, it will cause many problems.

Therefore, each group member must ensure that the activity or the
implementation of community service that will be carried out is a joint
activity and must be conducted as a group.

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In implementing the proposed community service project, an individual


can highlight his/her leadership skills through meetings, discussions,
consultation/planning with affected parties according to elements
which include:
(a) Values and service providing nature;
(b) Communication, leadership and cooperation skills; and
(c) Skills and social responsibility.

3.2 Key Elements in the Implementation of Community Service


Project
Among the key elements in the implementation of a community service
project are as follows:
(a) Ensure that the project is based on the planning as well as the
ability of planned in the early stages;
(b) Hold a short briefing or notification to all members about tasks,
roles and the goal of community service activities carried out;
(c) Carry out the activity simultaneously and each member shall
abide to the scheduling of the task that was given to them during
the planning;
(d) Record every community service tasks for the purpose of
documentation or evidence;
(e) Immediately take action if something unforeseen and unplanned
happens; and
(f) Time management and layout, as well as proper scheduling of
each activity must be understood by each member.

Study Questions

1. State the key elements in the implementation of community service


projects.

2. In your opinion, what are the main challenges in implementing a project


particularly community service projects?

3. How do you solve the “ad hoc” problem that occurs during the
implementation of the community service projects in the future?

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Topic 4: Community Service Project Implementation


Process (III): Reportage

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

1. Elaborate the meaning of reportage;

2. Use the elements in the report; and

3. Apply the skills and social responsibility within the community.

Topic Overview

In this topic, you will be exposed to the important formats that should be
included in reports on community service projects. The format of this report is
important so that the report can be a source of reference to others who wish
to implement such projects in the future.

Content Summary

4.1 Reportage
What is a report and what is its importance?

A report is a form of formal writing to be used as a proof of an


implementation of the activity that had been carried out.

The report is very important to be used as a guide to others for the


same purpose to carry out community service activities.

In a report, matters related to finance, activities, time, individuals


involved, achievements and suggestions or comments to be shared
with the group members or other groups to implement community
service projects in the future should be stated clearly.

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4.2 Report Format


The format of the report is as follows:
(a) Theme;
(b) Title of the project;
(c) Date/duration of project implementation;
(d) Project group members;
(e) Other sources of personnel involved;
(f) Organisations involved;
(g) Aims and objectives of the project;
(h) Planning;
(i) Implementation of the activity;
(j) Reflection;
(k) Recommendation/comments; and
(l) Appreciation.

It should be noted that appreciation is a form of a sense of gratitude to


those who were together and contributed to the success of the projects
undertaken.

Therefore, a letter of appreciation and gratitude should be prepared


and sent to those involved. In addition, the credits can also be
delivered through the granting of a certificate of appreciation.

Study Questions

1. State the elements in the report.

2. Why does an individual implementing a project should come up with a


written report?

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Topic 5: Community Service Project Implementation


Process (I): Reflective Journal

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

1. Define reflection journal and its purpose;

2. Elaborate the importance of reflective journal; and

3. Write a reflective journal.

Topic Overview

This last topic will begin with the definition of reflective journal and be followed
with the purpose of writing a reflective journal. In addition, key elements in the
reflective journal will be featured in this topic. The last part of this topic is
related to the use of DIEP formula in the preparation of the reflective journal.

Content Summary

5.1 Introduction of a Reflective Journal


What is reflective journal?

A reflective journal is a self-learning log with the aim of recording


your learning that you have gone through.

In the reflective journal, you are required to record and think reflectively
about what you observe and the situation that you have gone through.
The reflective journal allows you to look into the thoughts and ideas
that you used in a particular context. The reflective journals usually
contain writings, images, sketches and other reference materials.

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5.2 Purpose of Reflective Journal


What is the purpose of reflective journal? The reflective journal allows
you to examine the experience and learning that you have gone
through in various ways. The reflective journal is useful because:
(a) You can record the development of ideas and opinions you
and/or your group in specific context/situations. This also
includes the theories, techniques, approaches and philosophies
that you and your group used in that situation;
(b) You can review (reflective) the materials and experiences that
have been recorded to widen and deepen your understanding;
and
(c) You can use this journal as the basis of learning and self-
development.

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5.3 Guide for Writing a Reflective Journal


How do we write a reflective journal? Let us look at Table 5.1 which
shows you two ways on how to write a reflective journal.

Table 5.1: Two Ways to Write Reflective Journal

Using Reflective Questions Using DIEP Formula

Select an event that occurred/you 1. Describe – Describe what happened


have gone through and ask objectively. You can ask yourself - What
yourself these questions: did I do, read, see, hear and others?
(a) Descriptive – What 2. Interpret – Interpret what you understood
happened? from the event.
(b) Emotive – What did you (a) Interpret what you saw, read, heard
feel at that time? and did.
(c) Cognitive – What did you (b) Your opinion/answer that you got.
think at that time?
(c) Relate that experience with the other
(d) Evaluative – Was the experiences.
experience good or bad?
(d) Your hypothesis/conclusion.
Why?
(e) What actually happened?
(e) Analysis – What can you
learn from the event? 3. Evaluate – State it objectively:
(f) Conclusion – What did you (a) Your assessment of the event/
do and what are the other experience.
options open to you? (b) Your thought of the event/
experience.
4. Plan – Based on the previous information:
(a) What suggestions can you make to
yourself in the future or other people?
(b) What you and others can learn from
your experience?
(c) How will this experience change you
in the future?

Study Questions

1. What is reflective journal?

2. List two ways to prepare the reflective journal.

3. What are the benefits of writing a reflective journal?

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Appendices
Appendix A: Learning Support

Tutorials

There are 4 hours of face-to-face facilitation, in the form of TWO tutorials of


two hours each. You will be notified of the date, time and location of these
tutorials, together with the name and e-mail address of your facilitator, as soon
as you are allocated a group.

Discussion and Participation

Besides the face-to-face tutorials, you have the support of online discussions
in myINSPIRE with your facilitator and coursemates. Your contributions to
online discussions will greatly enhance your understanding of the course
content, and help you do the assignment(s) and prepare for the examination.

Feedback and Input from Facilitator

As you work on the activities and the assigned text(s), your facilitator will
provide assistance to you throughout the duration of the course. Should you
need assistance at any time, do not hesitate to contact your facilitator and
discuss your problems with him/her.

Bear in mind that communication is necessary for you to be able to get the
most out of this course. Therefore, you should, at all times, be in touch with
your facilitator, e-facilitator and coursemates, and be aware of all the
requirements for successful completion of the course.

Tan Sri Dr Abdullah Sanusi (TSDAS) Digital Library

The TSDAS Digital Library has a wide range of print and online resources for
the use of its learners. This comprehensive digital library provides access to
more than 30 online databases comprising e-journals, e-theses, e-books and
more. Examples of databases available are EBSCOhost, ProQuest,
SpringerLink, Books24x7, InfoSci Books, Emerald Management Plus and
Ebrary Electronic Books. As an OUM learner, you are encouraged to make full
use of the resources available through this library.

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Appendix B: Study Tips

Time Commitment for Study

You should plan to spend about 12 hours of study time on each topic, which
includes doing all assigned readings and activities. You must also set aside
time to discuss work online. It is often more effective to distribute the study
hours over a number of days rather than spend a whole day studying one
topic.

Study Strategy

The following is a proposed strategy for working through the course. If you
have difficulty following this strategy, discuss your problems with your
facilitator either through the online forum or during the tutorials.

(i) The most important step is to read the contents of this Study Guide
thoroughly.

(ii) Organise a study schedule (as recommended in Table 2). Take note of
the amount of time you spend on each topic, as well as the dates of
tutorials, submission of assignment(s) and examination.

(iii) Once you have created a study schedule, make every effort to stick to it.
One reason learners are unable to cope with postgraduate courses is
that they procrastinate and delay completing their course work.

(iv) You are encouraged to do the following:

 Read the Study Guide carefully and look through the list of topics
covered. Try to examine each topic in relation to other topics.

 Complete all assigned readings and go through as many


supplementary texts as possible to get a broader understanding of
the course content.

 Go through all the activities and study questions to better understand


the various concepts and facts presented in a topic.

 Draw ideas from a large number of readings as you work on the


assignments. Work regularly on the assignments as the semester
progresses so that you are able to produce systematically a
commendable paper.

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(v) When you have completed a topic, review the Learning Outcomes for
the topic to confirm that you have achieved them and can do what is
required.

(vi) After completing all topics, review the Learning Outcomes of the course
to see if you have achieved them.

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