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D e p a r t m e n t of the Navy

B u r e a u of Ships
C o n t r a c t ~ o n-220(
r 12)

W a t e r T u n n e l T e s t s of

T H E NACA 661-012 HYDROFOIL IN

N O N C A V I T A T I N G AND C A V I T A T I N G F L O W S

by
R o b e r t W. K e r m e e n

T h i s r e s e a r c h w a s c a r r i e d out under the B u r e a u of Ships


F u n d a m e n t a l Hydromechanics R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m
P r o j e c t NS 7 15- 102, David T a y l o r Model B a s i n
Reproduction in whole o r i n p a r t i s p e r m i t t e d f o r any
purpose of the United S t a t e s Government

Hydrodynamics L a b o r a t o r y
California Institute of Technology
P a s a d e n a , California

R e p o r t No. 4 7 - 7 Approved:
F e b r u a r y , 1956 M.S. P l e s s e t
ABSTRACT

The r e s u l t s of f o r c e t e s t s on the NACA bbl -0 12 hydrofoil in non-


cavitating and cavitating two-dimensional flow a r e presented. The
r e s u l t s of wind tunnel t e s t s on this profile a r e included for comparison
with the r e s u l t s of the noncavitating water tunnel experiments. The non-
cavitating experiments w e r e made a t Reynolds n u m b e r s f r o m 0.89 to
6
1.65 x 10 and the cavitation experiments a t Reynolds numbers of 0.89
and 1.18 x 10
6
.

INTRODUCTION

Two-dimensional hydrodynamic data a r e now available f o r a


number of hydrofoil shapes. The f o r c e coefficients in noncavitating a n d
cavitating flow have been obtained on simple geometrical shapes such a s
wedges, flat plates and c i r c u l a r a r c hydrofoils, a s well a s conventional
c a m b e r e d a i r f o i l shapes. S y m m e t r i c a l hydrofoil shapes, such a s those
d e s c r i b e d in this r e p o r t , a r e important both f o r lifting s u r f a c e s and f o r
nonlifting support s t r u t s and fairings. The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r support
s t r u t s , such a s low d r a g , low c r i t i c a l cavitation number, and high
strength a r e much the s a m e as f o r lifting hydrofoils.

The NACA 661-012 hydrofoil w a s selected a s a representative ex-


ample of a c l a s s of a i r f o i l shapes which would be suitable for s y m m e t r i -
c a l hydrofoil design applications where sl.-ength is important. The
NACA 6bl -012 hydrofoil h a s a thickness to chord r a t i o of 0. 12 with a
c r i t i c a l cavitation .index of approximately 0. 35 a t a n angle of attack of
z e r o degree, F o r applications where cavitation r e s i s t a n c e is a m o r e
important consideration, a thinner hydrofoil section would be selected.

In addition, this hydrofoil shape w a s selected to be tested in the


High Speed Water Tunnel a t the Hydrodynamics Laboratory and i n the
w a t e r tunnel a t the Iowa Institute of H y d r a u l i c R e s e a r c h in o r d e r that
the r e s u l t s obtained in the two f a c i l i t i e s could be c o m p a r e d .

APPARATUS AND TESTS

Hydrofoil

T h e hydrofoil m o d e l h a s a 3,30-in. c h o r d and a 2.90-in. span.


T h e m o d e l w a s m a d e of s t a i n l e s s steel. The NACA 661 - 0 12 hydrofoil
i s a s y m m e t r i c a l profile with a m a x i m u m thickness of 12 p e r c e n t of the
chord. O r d i n a t e s of the hydrofoil a r e given in T a b l e I a n d a photograph
of the m o d e l i n Fig. 1.

W a t e r Tunnel a n d T e s t P r o c e d u r e

T h e hydrofoil m o d e l w a s t e s t e d i n the two-dimensional working


s e c t i o n of the High S p e e d W a t e r Tunnel. T h e m o d e l w a s mounted on a
5. 0 -in, d i a m e t e r c i r c u l a r d i s k a t t a c h e d to the f o r c e balance spindle a n d
s e t flush i n the working s e c t i o n wall. T h e r e w a s a n a r r o w gap of a p -
p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 0 0 2 in. between the f r e e end of the m o d e l and the w o r k i n g
s e c t i o n wall. D e t a i l s of the t e s t setup, f o r c e balance, t e s t p r o c e d u r e ,
a n d data r e d u c t i o n m e t h o d s a r e given in R e f s . 1 and 2.

Tests

T h e s e c t i o n lift, d r a g , and q u a r t e r - c h o r d pitching m o m e n t w e r e


m e a s u r e d f o r noncavitating flow a t w a t e r v e l o c i t i e s of 3 0 , 40, 50 and 60
f p s , which gave Reynolds n u m b e r s f r o m 0.89 x l o 6 to 1.65 x 10
6
Lift, .
d r a g , and q u a r t e r - c h o r d pitching m o m e n t w e r e m e a s u r e d f o r cavitating
flow a t a velocity of 40 f p s for hydrofoil a t t a c k a n g l e s f r o m z e r o to 7
d e g r e e s and a t 30 f p s f o r a n g l e s of a t t a c k g r e a t e r than 7 d e g r e e s . Be-
c a u s e the hydrofoil i s s y m m e t r i c a l , the cavitating f o r c e r u n s w e r e m a d e
o r ~ l ya t positive a t t a c k angles. In e a c h cavitation f o r c e r u n the angle of
a t t a c k of the m o d e l a n d the velocity w e r e held c o n s t a n t a n d the cavitation
n u m b e r v a r i e d f r o m noncavitating flow to f u l l cavity flow. Photographs
w e r e taken of the c a v i t a t i n g hydrofoil a t e a c h t e s t point.
Fig. 1 - The NACA 661 -0 1 2 hydrofoil.

TABLE I

ORDINATES O F THE NACA 66 -0 1 2 HYDROFOIL

Ordinate Ordinate
(Upper and ( u p p e r and
Station Lower Surface) Station Lower Surface)
70 C h o r d % Chord 310 Chord 70Chord

Leading Edge Radius: 0 . 9 5 2 % Chord


Data Reduction

The t e s t data w e r e reduced to dimensionless coefficients a s


follows:

Lift
Lift coefficient, CL = I
p/2 V'A

Drag
Drag coefficient, C,, -
7

p/2 V'A

Pitching Moment
Q u a r t e r - c h o r d pitching moment,

P0 - Pv
Cavitation number, K = 1

Reynolds number, Re =
v-c
v

where:

V = velocity of undisturbed flow, ft/sec


3
p = density of water a t the temperature of the r u n , slugs/ft
2
A = plan a r e a of the hydrofoil (chord X span), ft

c = chord of hydrofoil, ft

P0 = p r e s s u r e of undisturbed flow, lb/ft 2


PV = vapor p r e s s u r e of f r e s h water a t the t e m p e r a t u r e of the
2
run, 1b/ft

v = kinematic viscosity of f r e s h water at the t e m p e r a t u r e of


the run, ftL/sec.

A number of c o r r e c t i o n s w e r e applied to the m e a s u r e d data. The


t a r e f o r c e s on the spindle disk w e r e m e a s u r e d by mounting the hydro-
foil f r o m the opposite wall with a s m a l l gap between the end of the
hydrofoil and the spindle disk. The force r u n s w e r e repeated with this
setup and the f o r c e s m e a s u r e d on the mounting d i s k alone. The lift and
pitching moment disk t a r e c o r r e c t i o n s w e r e negligible, hence only the
d r a g c o r r e c t i o n w a s applied to the data. T h e data f o r fully wetted flow
w e r e c o r r e c t e d f o r tunnel i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t s . The m e t h o d s of d a t a
c o r r e c t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n Ref. 1.

RESULTS

C u r v e s of lift and q u a r t . e r - c h o r d pitching m o m e n t coefficients a s


functions of angle of a t t a c k f o r noncavitating flow a r e shown in F i g . 2.
F i g u r e 3 i s a polar d i a g r a m giving lift and d r a g coefficients for non-
cavitating flow. The r e s u l t s of wind tunnel t e s t s of thi s profile m a d e
with the Langley two - d i m e n s i o n a l , low- turbulence wind tunnel a r e shown
i n F i g s . 2 and 3 f o r c o m p a r i s o n . 3 The wind tunnel data shown a r e f o r a
Reynolds n u m b e r of 3 . 0 x 10
6
.
F i g u r e 4 shows lift coefficient a s a func -
tion of angle of a t t a c k f o r s e v e r a l cavitation n u m b e r s f r o m fully wetted
to full cavity flow. The cavitation d i a g r a m , F i g . 5 , shows the extent
of the cavitation o n the hydrofoil a s a function of angle of a t t a c k and
cavitation n u m b e r . F i g u r e 7 shows lift coefficient d a t a a s a function
of cavitation n u m b e r a t constant a n g l e s of a t t a c k . D r a g coefficient i s
shown a s a function of cavitation n u m b e r a t c o n s t a n t a n g l e s of a t t a c k in
F i g . 8. F i g u r e 9 i s a cavitation polar d i a g r a m showing lift and d r a g
coefficients f o r a r a n g e of cavitation n u m b e r s . F i g u r e 10 shows the
pitching m o m e n t coefficient about the q u a r t e r - c h o r d point a s a function
of angle of a t t a c k and cavitation n u m b e r . ~ i f t / d r ar a~t i o i s shown in
F i g . 1 1 a s a function of cavitation n u m b e r and angle of a t t a c k .

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Noncavitating Flow

Lift coefficient a s a fu.nction of angle of a t t a c k f o r noncavitating


flow i s shown i n F i g . 2. T h e r e s u l t s of wind tunnel t e s t s of the s a m e
p r o f i l e 3 a r e shown f o r c o m p a r i s o n . The p r e s e n t t e s t s w e r e m a d e a t
Reynolds n u m b e r s f r o m 0 . 8 9 to 1. 65 x 10
6 . T h e wind tunnel d a t a a r e
6
f o r a Reynolds n u m b e r of 3.0 x 10 . There a r e considerable
d i f f e r e n c e s in F i g . 2 between the w a t e r tunnel and the wind tunnel r e -
s u l t s both in the slope of the lift coefficient c u r v e and in the m a x i m u m
lift coefficient. The lift coefficient, however, c a n e a s i l y change by
t h i s a m o u n t o v e r a r a n g e of Reynolds n u m b e r s f r o m one to t h r e e million.
D a t a w e r e not available f o r the NACA 661 -0 12 profile for Reynolds n u m -
6
b e r s l e s s than 3 . 0 x 10 ; however, t e s t s of a s i m i l a r s y m m e t r i c a l
NACA 641 -0 12 a i r f o i l4 m a d e a t Reynolds n u m b e r s f r o m 0 . 7 to
9 . 0 x l o 6 show c h a n g e s in lift coefficient with Reynolds number of the
s a m e magnitude a s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the w a t e r tunnel and wind
tunnel r e s u l t s of F i g . 2. T h e NACA 6 4 1 - 0 1 2 a i r f o i l h a s a t h i c k n e s s of
12 p e r c e n t of the c h o r d a n d a profile v e r y s i m i l a r to that of the NACA
661 -01 2 profile e x c e p t that the m a x i m u m t h i c k n e s s o c c u r s a t a p p r o x i -
m a t e l y the 40 p e r c e n t c h o r d point o n the f o r m e r and a t the 45 p e r c e n t
c h o r d point o n the l a t t e r . T h e m i n i m u m p r e s s u r e coefficient o c c u r s at
the 40 p e r c e n t c h o r d point on the NACA 64 - 0 12 and a t the 60 p e r c e n t
c h o r d point on the NACA 66 - 0 12 profile. T h e slope of the lift coeffi-
c i e n t c u r v e f o r the NACA 64 -0 12 profile i n c r e a s e d f r o m 0.099 per
6
d e g r e e a t a Reynolds n u m b e r of I . 0 x 10 to 0. 110 p e r d e g r e e a t a
Reynolds n u m b e r of 3.0 x 10
b
.
In F i g . 2 the slope s f the lift coefficient
f o r the w a t e r tunnel d a t a i s 0.084 p e r d e g r e e a t a Reynolds number of
4 a n d 0. 105 p e r d e g r e e f o r the wind tunnel d a t a a t a Reynolds
1. 18 x 10
6
n u m b e r of 3 . 0 x k O . The m a x i m u m lift coefficient f o r the NACA
6
641 -012 a i r f o i l i n c r e a s e d f r o m 0 . 8 8 7 a t a Reynolds n u m b e r of 1.0 x 10
to 1.430 a t a Reynolds number of 3.0 x 10 o r a change of 0.543.
6 The
m a x i m u m lift coefficient f o r the NACA 661 -0 12 profile w a s 0. 747 a t a
6
Reynolds n u m b e r of I . 18 x 10 f o r the w a t e r tunnel t e s t s and. 1.222 a t
6
a Reynolds n u m b e r of 3.0 x 10 for the wind tunnel t e s t s , o r a n i n c r e a s e
of 0.475.

T h e q u a r t e r - c h o r d pitching m o m e n t coefficients a r e a l s o shown i n


F i g . 2. T h e pitching m o m e n t coefficient d o e s not change a p p r e c i a b l y
with Reynolds n u m b e r . T h e c u r v e of pitching m o m e n t coefficient f r o m
3
the wind tunnel t e s t s i s quite d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o b t a i n e d i n the w a t e r
tunnel e x p e r i m e n t s . Since the hydrofoil i s s y m m e t r i c a l , i t s e e m s
r e a s o n a b l e that the f o r c e and m o m e n t coefficient c u r v e s should be s y m -
m e t r i c a l about z e r o d e g r e e a t t a c k angle. The pitching m o m e n t
coefficients about the q u a r t e r - chord point obtained in the water tunnel
t e s t s a r e s y m m e t r i c a l about z e r o d e g r e e and very nearly z e r o for
angles of a t t a c k up to stall.

F i g u r e 3 i s a polar d i a g r a m showing lift and d r a g coefficients for


noncavitating flow. At large attack angles the d r a g coefficient f r o m the
w a t e r tunnel t e s t s i n c r e a s e s rapidly due to the s t a l l o c c u r r i n g a t
s m a l l e r attack a n g l e s than for the higher Reynolds number wind tunnel
tests. In the low d r a g range, for lift coefficients l e s s than t 0. 3
corresponding to angle of attack of l e s s than f 3 d e g r e e s , the water
tunnel r e s u l t s , though somewhat higher due to s m a l l e r Reynolds num-
b e r s , a r e in good a g r e e m e n t with the wind tunnel r e s u l t s .

The w a t e r tunnel r e s u l t s show a slight i n c r e a s e in d r a g coeffi-


cient with i n c r e a s i n g Reynolds n u m b e r , indicating that a laminar boundary
layer m a y have e x i s t e d o v e r a considerable portion of the hydrofoil. The
NACA 66 -012 profile h a s i t s minimum p r e s s u r e coefficient o c c u r r i n g
1
a t the 60 percent chord point a t z e r o d e g r e e attack angle. At s m a l l
attack angles the l a r g e region of d e c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e o v e r the f o r w a r d
p a r t of the profile would tend to delay l a m i n a r turbulent boundary l a y e r
transition and would c a u s e a n i n c r e a s e in d r a g coefficient with Reynolds
number due to the l a m i n a r turbulent boundary l a y e r transition point
moving f o r w a r d on the profile a s the velocity i s i n c r e a s e d .

Cavitating Flow

Lift, d r a g , and q u a r t e r - chord pitching moment w e r e m e a s u r e d f o r


the NACA 661 - 0 12 hydrofoil f o r a range of cavitation n u m b e r s f r o m
fully wetted to full cavity flow a t a n g l e s of a t t a c k of 0 to 10 d e g r e e s .
The t e s t s w e r e made a t a tunnel velocity of 40 f p s for angles of a t t a c k
up to 7 d e g r e e s and a t 30 fps for attack angles g r e a t e r than 7 d e g r e e s .
B e c a u s e the hydrofoil i s s y m m e t r i c a l , the data a r e p r e s e n t e d only f o r
positive attack angles. No tunnel i n t e r f e r e n c e c o r r e c t i o n s have been
applied to the data f r o m the cavitation f o r c e r u n s . The cavitation num-
b e r in all f i g u r e s i s b a s e d on the vapor p r e s s u r e of w a t e r .

F i g u r e 4 shows c u r v e s of lift coefficient a s a function of angle of


a t t a c k a t constant cavitation n u m b e r s . The curve marked K >3. 0 i s
ANGLE OF A T T A C K I N DEGREES, a CAVITATION NUMBER, K

F i g . 4 - Lift coefficient as a function of angle of F i g . 5 - Cavitation d i a g r a m f o r the


a t t a c k and c a v i t a t i o n n u m b e r f o r the NACA 661-0 12 NACA 66 1-0 12 hydrofoil.
hydrofoil, T h e s e c u r v e s a r e c r o s s plots of the d a t a
c u r v e s , F i g . 7.
f o r noncavitating flow. F o r angles of attack g r e a t e r than 3 d e g r e e s
t h e r e i s a n i n c r e a s e in lift s m a l l amounts of cavitation on the hydrofoil.
The cavitation d i a g r a m , Fig. 5, shows the extent of cavitation on the
hydrofoil a s a function of angle of attack and cavitation number. At
angles of attack up to 3 d e g r e e s , the cavitation first a p p e a r s a t approxi-
mately the 65 percent chord point, a s shown by the lower, broken line.
At angles of attack g r e a t e r than 3 d e g r e e s , cavitation began n e a r the
leading edge of the hydrofoil. In the region between t h r e e and four
d e g r e e s attack angle, the position of the cavitation on the hydrofoil
became unstable and incipient cavitation might occur either at the
leading edge o r a t the 60 percent chord point, After cavitation had been
established on the hydrofoil a t these attack angles, i t would often
fluctuate between the leading edge and the 60 percent chord point o r
the cavitation would s e p a r a t e into long thin individual cavities attached
a t the leading edge. F i g u r e 6 shows examples of the t h r e e patterns of
cavitation on the NACA 6 b l -0 12 hydrofoil a t a n a n g l e of attack of 3
degrees. In Fig. 6a there is a continuous cavity attached a t the lead-
ing edge of the hydrofoil. A s the cavitation number is reduced, F i g s .
6b and 6c, the cavity s p l i t s into a number of long individual cavities
s e p a r a t e d by portions of fully wetted flow. At s t i l l lower cavitation
n u m b e r s the cavitation d i s a p p e a r s f r o m the leading edge and begins
on the after portion of the hydrofoil, Fig. 6d, e , and f . At the attack
angles where the position of the cavitation on the hydrofoil is not
stable, the presence of the tunnel walls c a u s e s the cavitation to r e m a i n
attached n e a r the leading edge of the hydrofoil a t the walls.

The dashed lines in Fig. 5, noted a s X1 = 0.25 c to 1.00 c show


the extent of the cavitation on the upper surface of the hydrofoil. At
X I = 1.00 c the downstream end, o r closure, of the cavity just extends
to the trailing edge of the model. The region to the left of the
X I = 1.00 c line gives the cavitation number for which the hydrofoil i s
in full cavity flow with the cavity extending downstream f r o m the hydro-
foil.

Cavitation o c c u r r e d on the lower, p r e s s u r e s u r f a c e of the hydro-


foils f o r angles of attack u p to 8 degrees. T h e cavitation number a t
which the cavitation begins on the lower surface i s indicated in Fig. 5.
At angles of attack g r e a t e r than 3 d e g r e e s , cavitation did not being on
the lower surface until a long, full cavity covered the entire upper s u r -
face.

Figure 7 shows lift coefficient a s a function of cavitation number


a t constant angle of attack. Each curve in Fig. 7 r e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s
of one test run, and the data points a r e the m e a s u r e d values of the lift
coefficient. F i g u r e 4 is a c r o s s plot of Fig. 7. The dashed line in Fig.
7 shows the cavitation number for incipient cavitation on the upper s u r -
face. As noted in Fig. 4, there i s an increase in lift coefficient a t
constant angle of attack when cavitation f i r s t begins near the leading edge
of the hydrofoil. F o r s m a l l angles of attack where the cavitation begins
nearly a t the mid-chord point, the lift coefficient d e c r e a s e s a s soon a s
the hydrofoil begins to cavitate.

F i g u r e 8 shows drag coefficient a s a function of cavitation number


a t constant angle of attack. Each curve in Fig. 8 i s f o r the s a m e t e s t
r u n a s the data for the corresponding angle of attack in Fig. 7. The d r a g
coefficient i n c r e a s e s a s soon a s cavitation begins on the hydrofoil,
r e a c h e s a maximum when the cavitation extends approximately to the
trailing edge and then d e c r e a s e s a s the cavitation number is reduced
fur the r .
Lift and d r a g coefficients a t constant cavitation numbers a r e s h o w
in the cavitation polar diagram, Fig. 9. The dashed lines in Fig. 9 a r e
lines of constant angle of attack. F i g u r e 9, like Fig. 4, was compiled
f r o m many test runs in which the velocity and angle of attack were held
constant and the cavitation number varied f r o m noncavitating to fully
cavitating flow. The d r a g coefficient has been plotted to a scale ten
times that of the lift coefficient in Fig. 9.

Figure 10 shows curves of quarter-chord pitching moment as a


function of angle of attack a t constant cavitation number. It should be
noted that the moment coefficient in Fig. 10 has been plotted to a much
expanded scale compared with that for noncavitating flow, Fig. 2, i n
o r d e r to show the changes more clearly. F o r noncavitating flow with
K* 3.0 the pitching moment i s slightly positive, o r nose up. When
Fig. 8 - Drag coefficient as a function of cavitation number at constant
angle of a t t a c k for the NACA 661 -0 12 hydrofoil. Each angle of
a t t a c k r e p r e s e n t s one t e s t run.
DRAG COEFFICIENT, CD
Fig. 9 - Polar diagram for cavitating and noncavitating flow for the
NACA 661-012 hydrofoil. These curves are c r o s s plots of
the data curves, Fig. 8.

NACA 66[ - 0 12

ANGLE OF ATTACK IN DEGREES, a


Fig. 10 - Quarter-chord moment coefficientas a function of angle of attack
and cavitation number for the NACA 661- 0 1 2 hydrofoil.
cavitation begins a t higher attack angles the pitching moment becomes
negative, then i n c r e a s e s toward the noncavitating value a s the cavita-
tion number i s d e c r e a s e d , and finally becomes m o r e positive a t
cavitation numSer s l e s s than 0. 3 , The pitching moment i s z e r o for
attack angles l e s s than two d e g r e e s for a l l cavitation numbers.

F i g u r e 11 shows the lift/drag ratio a s a function of cavitation


number. Each curve in this figure i s for a constant angle of attack. The
horizontal portions of the c u r v e s in Fig. 1 1 a r e regions of z e r o cavita-
tion. When cavitation begins there i s a rapid d e c r e a s e in lift/drag r a t i o
even though F i g s . 4 and 7 show a n i n c r e a s e in lift with s m a l l amounts of
cavitation a t angles of attack g r e a t e r than 3 degrees. As cavitation b e -
gins, the i n c r e a s e in d r a g i s proportionately g r e a t e r than the i n c r e a s e
i n lift. A s the cavitation number i s reduced to give a large cavity on
the hydrofoil, the d r a g coefficient r e a c h e s a maximum and then d e -
creases. T h e lift coefficient, however, d e c r e a s e s rapidly with cavita-
tion number and the reduction in d r a g coefficient m e r e l y c a u s e s a reduc-
tion in the slope of the lift/drag ratio c u r v e s .

REFERENCES

1. Kermeen, Robert W . , "Water Tunnel T e s t s of NACA 4412 and


Walchne r Profile 7 Hydrofoils in Noncavitating and Cavi -
tating Flows", California Institute of Technology, Hydro-
dynamics Laboratory Report No. 47-5, January 1956.

2. Hotz, G. M. and McGraw, J. T. , "The High Speed Water Tunnel


T h r e e -Component F o r c e Balance If, California Institute
of Technology, Hydrodyriamics Laboratory Report No.
47- 1, January 1955.

3. Abbot, I . H . , von Doerihoff, A . E . , and Stivers, L.S. J r . ,


''Summary of Airfoil Data", NACA Report No. 824, 1945.

4. Lof tin, L. K. and Smith, H. A. , '*Aerodynamic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s


of 15 NACA Airfoil Section a t Seven Reynolds Numbers
f r o m 0.7 x l o 6 to 9 . 0 x log", NACA Technical Note 1945,
October 1949.
APPEND] X

DATA TABLES

I. Section Characteristics of the NACA 601 -012 tfvdrofoil In Non-


cavitating Flow (lift and drag c o r r e c t e d for tunnel interference
effects).

1 V=II.Ofps Re = 0.893 x lo6 Y = 41.2 Ips R e = 1. 185 x l o 6 I V = 49.5 fps Re = 1 . 4 2 5 ~106

V = 57.4 fps 650 x lo6


0
a
CL CF.4
0
1
-0,007
.090
.oou
-0,001
2 .I85 -0.002
3 .247 ,004
4 .338 '004
5 ,434 .004

11. F o r c e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the NACA 6bl-012 Hydrofoil i n Cavitating


Flow (datn not c o r r e c t e d for tunnel interference effects; cavitation
number baeed on vapor pressure).

V = 40 fps a = -lo V = 40 fps V = 40 fps

K
2.984
2.081
1.615
1.106
0.844
.580
.336
.
.220
174
.I39
,115
.LO2
.089
,092
,089
,387
1. 119
2.984
11. ( c o n t . ) F o r c e Ctlaracteristics of the N.4CA 6 6 1 - O l Z HydrofoiI in
Cavitating Flow (data not corrected for tunnel interference effects;
cavitation number based on vapor pressure).

2.984 . 193 .DO98 -0.002 2.955 .437 . Dl48 .005 5.198 .674 .02I8 .010

i.202 .416 ,0160 ,005


1.122 .448 ,0176 .005 0503 ,011
1.008 .451 .01 80 ,005 .0'597 -012

.0457
. 05,tL
.. 0 12.
008
. 534 . 252
.104
.098
.047
.048
.0179
.a174
.0171
.030
.030
.032
.612 .432 .0738 -0.047

.083 ,044 .0186 .(I36 .040 .038I ,016 .086 .0500 . 024
.llZ .046 .Dl97 .03!
. . 142
1. 160
.183
189
,0103
.a103
.OZO
.007
.039 .O284
,0431
.Ol73
.016
-0.003
.005
. 1055 -0.073

. 0 1 37 .004

2.973 .267 .Dl02 .003 2.955


2,048
.
. 522
531 .0149
.016b
.006
.OOi
5 . 323
3.680
.756
.750
.(1522
.051R
. 010
.009
1 . 739 . 520 .0112 .006 3.614 .768 .0431 .Of16

,263 .0108 .004


1.617 .520 .OZO2 .OO6 3 . 195 .355 .0448 .009

.266 .0109 .003


.295 .0111 -0.001
.560 .0261 .007 2.465 .764 . 0567 . 010
.384
.562 .0281 .005 .759 .0543 .010
.Zlb .0267 -0.015 0.950 .600 .040.1 --0.007 Z.Oi3 . 758 .0574 .010
.340 . 176 .0232 -0.009 ,675 ,513 0714 -0.056 1.808 . 770 ,0634 .008
. . .
.. 2191
.I47
38
. 135
103
.084
.0200
.0202
.0194
.004
.016
.016
.575
:138
.6
,335
.269
. 104
0662
.0597
.0455
-0. 012
-0.018
.011
1.699
I . 605
1.499
.
770
783
.785
.0651
.0700
,0754
.OOh
.002
-0.003
. 123
1 1 0
.077
.067
.0185
.0186
.015 .2fr 1 .0?6 .O-10.1 ,016 1.427 ,790 .0516
. 0991
-0.010
-0.025
.015 .232 .066 .0371 .0IB 1 . 285 .785
. 104
.617
.072
.246
.0185
,0104
.(I16
.007
.
.
1113
I70
.052
.050
.0336
.07!8
.OIL
.Ol6
1. 105
0.870
.747
.57Y .. 12.12
1286
-0.1173
-0.080
. .710 .517 . I I75 -0.060
1.092
2.925
.257
.258
.0097
.010l
.005
.(I05 .
.
If14
162
152
.050
.
.
0 .I 'I
0.19
.0314
.0311
.0305
.OI/J
.@If>
.Ol7
.
56'7
.
27 3
,370
. OM
.0992
, 0 5 1 7.
-0.0'50
.OZ5
.6 . OH4 .0427 .GI6 ,202 .050 .0423 , 1127
1. 129 ,558 .0275 .C05 .8lO .587 . 1241 -0.Oih
2.968 . 522 . 11144 .005 2. 72.7 .I48 . 04'78 . 010
5 . 287 .740 . 0509 . 01 1

V = 4 0 Ips a 14O V = 1 0 fps a - 7O \: - 7 l fps a : lo0

K <3 (; K (; c; 1) r( 0I c;
1) M 1. C: M 1.) c: M
3. 049 . 353 .0111 .005 2.930 .609 .0171 .007 5. 3 i 7 .802 Oii'll .O11
2.080
1.662
.347
.3i?.
.0105 .005
.004
2.353 .6ui3 . OZL? .006 3.670 ,791 .0757 .Ci 3
2. I 8 0 .611 .OZ48 ,007 1.226 :794 ,0782 .OIL
1 . 131 . 349 .0099 .004 1.991 .615 .02711 .008 3.212 .8O2 .OL92 .015
0 . 846 . 358 .OI 1 3 ,005 1.61 I .616 .029'1 .009 2. 950 . 786 .(1685 .C 1 1
.816 .358 .0111 .DO5 I . 684 .6lS . 030'1 . O!l9 2. 8 4 8 . 79 1 0 7 0 .014
-819
.859
.
36'1 .0117 .005 1.453 . b28 .0348 .f?09 2.637 ,793 D 7 i \ ,011
.0121 2.451 .800 .0733 .(#I5
. 758 .. 3389
74
.0124
.004
.003
I . 336
1 . 227
. 6 35
. 6 37
.0370
.0393
.@OH
.OOb 2.260 .803 .0766 .Oli
. 70 3 .. 4397 .0129 .001 1 . 100 .678 . 0509 -0. 009 1.989 .797 .079 .1 . 1: 10
.656
.539 .279
10 ,0190
.0402
-0.009
-0.035
0. 762 ..564
391
. 0874
.078I
-0.067
-0.042
1.912
1. 7 2 6 .
.KO7 .OH54
.0900
. 1107
.a01
.563 0114
. .
.
.435
1314
.219
.231
15i
.067
.0371
.0329
.0282
-0.019
-0.003
,410
. 332
.232
. 120
.0646
05i7
.
-0,012

.
.015
I . 518
1.277
.773
.704 .
.
1OO.i
1377
- 0 . 015
-0.C 4 G

.
.
133
132
.047
.046
.0216
.0215
.GI3
.015
.014
.28 2
.235
. 185
.076
. 0 69
,060
0469
, 0.i32
.0385
022
.020
.017
1.084
0.977
.703
..
.697
h5l
4 '?I
.
.
1454
1196
1.183
- 0 . 076
-0.083
-0. 0"tb
. I22 .06 1 .0204 .015 . 184 '057 . 0386 . 017 .
553 .300 . I067 -0.CLl
.I07 .080 .0171 .Oli . 180
. I80
.058 ,05611 .017 .3 . 175 .0 7 7 6 .. 014
.011 .393 .0360 -0.021 .I156 .0363 .017 .230 .077 . 0')09 027
I. i 0 5
.
.341 .0l6L .004 , 340 . :44 .0537 .011 .
LLO .073 .(I507 .02'1
2. 996 344 .0101 .004 I I .687 .0539 0.00'1 .832 .564 . 1441 -0.CX0
I . 675
2.955
.617
.60L
.
.
0301
017i
.DO?
.007
2. 748
5.330
.7117
,769
.0692 .013
.0739 .008
DISTRIBUTION LIST FOR TECHNICAL R E P O R T S ISSUED UNDER
CONTRACT NONR -220( 12)

-
Item Address No. C o p i e s

1 C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r a n d D i r e c t o r , David T a y l o r M o d e l
B a s i n , Washington 7, D. C. , Attn: Code 580 54

2 Chief of N a v a l R e s e a r c h , Office of N a v a l R e s e a r c h ,
D e p a r t m e n t of the Navy, Washington 25, D. C ,,
Attn: M e c h a n i c s B r a n c h (Code 438)

3 C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r , B r a n c h Office, Office of N a v a l
R e s e a r c h , 495 S u m m e r St., B o s t o n 10, M a s s ,

4 C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r , B r a n c h Office, Office of N a v a l
R e s e a r c h , 346 B r o a d w a y , New Y o r k 13, N, Y.

5 C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r , B r a n c h Office, Office of N a v a l
R e s e a r c h , T h e J o h n C r e r a r L i b r a r y B l d g . , 10th F l o o r ,
8 6 E. Randolph S t . , C h i c a g o 1, Ill,

6 C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r , B r a n c h Office, Office of N a v a l
R e s e a r c h , 1000 G e a r y St. , S a n F r a n c i s c o 9, Calif.

7 C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r , B r a n c h Office, Office of N a v a l
R e s e a r c h , 1030 E. G r e e n S t r e e t , P a s a d e n a 1, Calif.

8 A s s t . N a v a l A t t a c h e f o r R e s e a r c h , Office of N a v a l
R e s e a r c h , A m e r i c a n E m b a s s y , London, England,
Navy 100, F,P . O . New Y o r k , N. Y.

9 D i r e c t o r , N a v a l R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y , Office of Naval
R e s e a r c h , Washington 25, D. C , Attn: L i b r a r i a n

10 B u r e a u of A e r o n a u t i c s , Dept. of the Navy, Washington


25, D. C . , Attn: A e r o a n d H y d r o B r a n c h (Code AD3)

11 B u r e a u of O r d n a n c e , Dept, of the Navy, Washington 25,


D. C . , Attn: Code R e 9
Code R e 6
Code R e 3

12 C o m m a n d e r , U. S . N a v a l O r d n a n c e L a b o r a t o r y ,
U . S. Navy B u r e a u of O r d n a n c e , White O a k , S i l v e r S p r i n g
19, M a r y l a n d 2

13 U n d e r w a t e r O r d n a n c e D e p t . , N a v a l O r d n a n c e T e s t Station,
3202 E. F o o t h i l l Blvd. , P a s a d e n a , Calif. Attn: P a s a d e n a
A n n e x L i b r a r y (Code P 5507) 3

14 C h i e f , B u r e a u of S h i p s , Dept. of t h e Navy, Washington 25,


D. C . Attn: T e c h n i c a l L i b r a r y (Code 312) f o r a d d i t i o n a l
d i s t r i b u t i o n to: 10
D i s t r i b u t i o n I.,ist (continued)
-
Item Address

( B u r e a u of Ships d i s t r i b u t i o n )
R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p ~ n ~(Code
t~t 300)
Ship D e s i g n (Code 410)
P r e l i m i n a r y D e s i g n (Code 420)
Hull. D e s i g n (Code 440)
Hull Scientific (Cocle 442)
P r o p e l l e r D e s i g n (Code 554)

M r . R. II, Kent, Ballistic R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r i e s , Dept.


of the A r m y , A b e r d e e n P r o v i ~ ~Ground,
g Maryland 1

D i r e c t o r of R e s e a r c h , National A d v i s o r y C o m t n i t t e e f o r
A e r o n a u t i c s , 1512 H S t r e e t , N. W . , Washington 25, D. C. 1

D i r e c t o r , L a n g l e y A e r o n a u t i c a l Lab., National Advisory


Committee for Aeronautics, Langley Field, Virginia 1

C o m m a n d e r , N a v a l O r d n a n c e T e s t Station, Inyokern,
China Lake, Calif., Attn: L i b r a r y (Code 5507) 1

D r . K. S , M. Davidson, E x p e r i m e n t a l Towing Tank,


S t e v e n s I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 1

D r . J. H. McMillen, National S c i e n c e Foundation,


1520 H S t r e e t , N. W., Washington 25, D. C. 1

Dr. A. M i l l e r , B u r e a u of O r d n a n c e (Code Re3d) Navy Dept.


Washington 25, D.C. I
D r . H. R o u s e , Iowa I n s t i t u t e of H y d r a u l i c R e s e a r c h ,
S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 1

D r . R.G. F o l s o m , D i r e c t o r , E n g i n e e r i n g R e s e a r c h
Institute, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, E a s t E n g i n e e r i n g Bldg.
Ann A r b o r , Michigan 1

D r . V . L . S t r e e t e r , E n g i n e e r i n g Dept., U n i v e r s i t y of
Michigan, Ann A r b o r , Michigan 1

Dr. G.F. Wislicenus, Pennsylvania State University,


O r d n a n c e R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y Park, Pa. I
D r . A. T, Ippen, Dept. of C i v i l a n d S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r i n g ,
M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology, C a m b r i d g e 39, M a s s . 1

D r . L. G. S t r a u b , St. Anthony F a l l s H y d r a u l i c L a b o r a t o r y ,
U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a , M i n n e a p o l i s 14, Minn. 1

P r o f . K. E. S c h o e n h e r r , U n i v e r s i t y of N o t r e D a m e ,
College of E n g i n e e r i n g , N o t r e D a m e , Indiana 1

Director, Ordnance R e s e a r c h Laboratory, Pennsylvania


S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , Pa. 1
D i s t r i b u t i o n L i s t (continued)

-
Item Addrcss

Societ,y of Naval A r c h i t e c t s a n d M a r i n e E n g i n e e r s
74 T r i n i t y P l a c e , New York 6, N. Y.

P r o f . J. K. Vennard, St,anford U n i v e r s i t y , Dept. of


C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a 1

P r o f , 3. L. Hooper, W o r c e s t e r P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e ,
Alden f i y d r a u l i c L a b o r a t o r y , W o r c e s t e r 6, M a s s . 1

P r o f . J. M. R o b e r t s o n , Dept. of T h e o r e t i c a l a n d Applied
M e c h a n i c s , U n i v e r s i t y of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. 1

Dr. A.B. Kinzel, P r e s i d e n t , Union C a r b i d e a n d C a r b o n


R e s e a r c h L a b . , Inc., 30 E. 42nd St., New York, N. Y, 1

G o o d y e a r A i r c r a f t Gorp., A k r o n 15, Ohio, Attn:


Security Officer

P r o f . H.R. H e n r y , H y d r a u l i c s L a b o r a t o r y , Michigan
S t a t e College, E a s t L a n s i n g , Michigan 1

B r i t i s h J o i n t S e r v i c e s M i s s i o n , Navy Staff, Via:


David T a y l o r Model B a s i n , Code 580, Navy D e p a r t m e n t ,
Washington 7, D. C. 9
C o m m a n d e r , S u b m a r i n e Development G r o u p TWO,
Box 70, U. S. Naval S u b m a r i n e B a s e , New London, Conn. 1

C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r a n d D i r e c t o r , U. S. Navy E n g i n e e r i n g
E x p e r i m e n t Station, Annapolis, M a r y l a n d 1
L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , Washington 25, D. C, , Attn:
ASTSA 1

D r . P. R. G a r a b e d i a n , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ,
Applied M a t h e m a t i c s a n d S t a t i s t i c s L a b o r a t o r y , Stanford,
California 1

A r m e d S e r v i c e s Techrlical Information Agency,


Knott Building, Dayton, Ohio

M r . J . G. B a k e r , B a k e r Manufacturing Company,
Evansville, Wisconsin

M r . T . M . B u e r m a n , G i b b s a n d Cox, Inc., 21 W e s t S t . ,
New Y o r k 6, New Y o r k 1

D y n a m i c D e v e l o p m e n t s , Inc. , St. M a r k ' s L a n e , I s l i p ,


Long I s l a n d , New York, Attn: M r . W. P. C a r l , Jr. 1

H y d r o d y n a m i c s R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y , Consolidated-
Vultee A i r c r a f t C o r p o r a t i o n , San Diego 12, C a l i f o r n i a 1
Distribution L i s t (continued)

Item Address No. Copies

47 M r . R. K. Johnston, Miami Shipbuilding Corporation,


615 S. W. Second Avenue, Miami 36, F l o r i d a 1

48 M r . J. D. P i e r son, The Glenn L. M a r t i n Company,


B a l t i m o r e 3 , Maryland 1

49 M r . W . R . Ryan, Edo Corporation, College Point 56,


Long Island, New York 1

50 D r . Robert C. Seamans, Radio Corporation of A m e r i c a ,


Waltham, M a s s a c h u s e t t s 1

51 D r . A. G. Strandhagen, Department of Engineering


Mechanics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, fnd. 1

52 Dr. H. W,E. L e r b s , Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt


Hamburg 33, B r a m f e l d e r s t r a s s e 164 1

53 C o m m a n d e r , Air R e s e a r c h and Development Command,


P. 0,Box 1395, B a l t i m o r e , Maryland. Attn: RDTDED 1

54 Avco Manufacturing Gorp. , ~ d v a h c e dDevelopment Div. ,


2385 R e v e r e Beach Parkway, E v e r e t t 49, M a s s .
Atten: Technical L i b r a r i a n 1

55 D r . L. Landweber, Iowa Inst, of Hydraulic R e s e a r c h ,


State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Ia. 1