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Saws and

Sawing

. by
lan Bradley

ARGUS BOOKS

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Argus Books Limited
1 Golden Square
Preface
London W 1R 3AB
England

The saw is not only one of the oldest


but perhaps one ofthe most important
tools in the craftsman's armoury. lt
is also, without doubt, one that has
suffered a great deal of abuse over
the years.
The author, therefore, makes no
apology for introducing a book designed
to cover the whole subject as widely as
possible, within the limits of available
space of course, and to include in it
some practical notes on the use of both
hand and machine saws.
In its preparation the following firms
have provided information and illustra-
©Argus Books Ltd 1986 tions: Messrs. James Neill Limited of
Sheffield, Wad kin Limited of Leicester,
W. J. Meddings Limited of lvybridge,
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be Devon, Black and Decker of Maidenhead
reproduced in any form, by print, photography, microfilm and Peter Gee of Dereham, Norfolk.
or any other means without written permission from the Their valuable and welcome assist-
publisher. ance is hereby gratefully acknowledged.

I. B. Hungerford 1986
ISBN 0 85242 887 1

Phototypesetting by Photocomp Ltd., Birmingham

Printed and bound by A. Wheaton & Co. Ltd., Exeter

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Contents CHAPTER 4 BENCH MOUNTED HACKSAW MACHINES. The Goodell-
Pratt machine. The author's hand machine. Power-driven
machines. The Meddings hacksaw. The Cowell machine.
The author's bench hacksaw. The 'Duplex' saw and its use
as a lathe attachment. 45
PART 1 CHAPTER 5 THE POWER HACKSAW. Floor mounted machines.
Commercial hacksaw machines. Hydraulic variable feed and
CHAPTER 1 The hand saw for wood. Hand saw teeth. Forms of blade relieving systems. The dashpot relieving device fitted
handsaw. The panel saw. The bow or frame saw. The to the 'Duplex' saw. An enlarged 'Duplex' saw. The
tenon saw. The compass saw. The keyhole saw. 8 counterbalance. 'Cardboard Engineering'. The work vice.
Selecting tooth size. Fitting the saw blade. Sawing failures
CHAPTER 2 Sharpening saws. Topping the teeth. Sharpening the and their causes. Blade breakages. Excessive blade wear.
saw teeth. Setting the saw teeth. Saw sets. Tooth fracture. Crooked sawing. 51
The saw-setting block. 14
CHAPTER 6 USING THE POWER HACKSAW. Mounting t he work.
CHAPTER 3 The circ~lar saw. The pendulum saw. The saw bench. The machine vice. Material support stands. The length stop.
Lathe circular saw attachment. Light saw benches for Sawing short lengths of material. 'Bundling' round, square,
amateur use. Sawing attachments for the electric hand hexagon and angle stock. 60
drill. Black and Decker portable saw attach"m ents.
Modifications to the Black and Decker saw bench. CHAPTER 7 THE FRETSAW AND JIGSAW. The fretsaw frame. The
The Wad kin saw bench. Circular saws. 20 piercing saw. The fretsaw blade. The spiral saw blade.
Using the fretsaw and piercing saw. Jig saw blades.
CHAPTER 4 Using woodsaws. The bench hook. Starting the cut with Choice of blades for the jig saw. Lubricants for use with
the tenon saw. Sawing along the grain. The sawing horse. the jig saw. Points needing attention when fretsawing. 63
Correct and incorrect method of rip-sawing. 28
CHAPTER 8 POWER FRETSAWS AND JIGSAWS. An old-time fretsaw.
APPENDIX Sawing stone. 30 The mechanical piercing saw. American light fretsawing
machines. The Hobbies fretsaw. The Meddings fretsaw
machine. The 'Duplex' jigsaw. Fences for use with the
jigsaw. The Black and Decker jigsaw. 70
PART2
CHAPTER 9 THE COLD SAW. Hand and power driven cold saws.
The Meddings light cold saw. The quick-acting vice for use
CHAPTER 1 THE HACKSAW. Hacksaw frames. Blade tensioning
with t he cold saw. 79
devices. Adjustable hacksaw frames. Specialised saw
frames. Fretsaw and piercing saw frames. The back saw. 32
CHAPTER 10 THE BANDSAW. The modern machine. Protecting the
operator. Bandsaw blades. Forms of band s-aw tooth.
CHAPTER 2 THE HACKSAW BLADE. Types of blade and their selection.
Tooth set. Bandsaw breakages. 82
Comparison between inch-fractional and metric blade
dimensions. Tooth pitch and its relation to the sawn
CHAPTER 11 BAND SAW BRAZERS AND WELDERS. Brazing equipment.
material. The Eclipse Junior Saw blade. 38
Butt welding. Dressing the weld. Bandsaw sharpening.
Handling the bandsaw blade. 88
CHAPTER 3 USING THE HAND HACKSAW. Starting the cut.
Marking-off large material. 'Bundling'. 42
APPENDIX Two miniature hacksaws with some notes on making them. 92
6
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Flg.1 The skew-backed saw.
PART 1
CHAPTER 1

Ag. 2 The straight-backed .saw.

The Wood Saw

The saw, in its various forms, is one In the past a variety of objects has been
of the oldest tools in the workman's used to provide the cutting edge; these are said to have used the latter combina- while the latter is used for cutting along
armoury. Without it one would find it differ from sharks' teeth - set in a tion to cut granite and metal, presum- the grain.
difficult to visualise how any work could wooden blade - to precious stones let ably when building the Pyramids and Hand-saws in the past have been
be initiated. into a bronze matrix. The former is other architectural works. made either Skew-back or Straight-
Essentially the saw consists of a said to have been used by the South The two saws in Fig. 1(a) come from back. The first is to be preferred as it
blade having teeth formed on one edge. American Indians, while the Egyptians Western Australia. The saw depicted at is lighter and tends to clear in the
(a) has inserted stone plates while that 'kerf', that is the cut made by the saw
Fig. 1A Two S4ws lrom Westem A ustralio. (8) Inserted stone platBS, (b) lnSBrted glass plates at (b) has plates of glass embedded in itself, rather more easily than does the
clay baked to harden it. straight-back saw.
So far as woodworking hand-saws The two forms of hand-saw are shown
are concerned these have developed in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. It is sometimes
into two main classes, the cross-cut convenient, as an example when sawing
A saw and the rip saw. As these terms logs for firewood, to provide means
should convey, the former is intended whereby two operatives can use the
for cutting across the grain of the wood saw at the same time. In the case of

Rg. 3 The two--handed cross-cut


uw.

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Fig. 5
Fig. 4 Pit-saw equipment from
the mid-18th century.

teeth stamped out square n


Fig. 6

IM
.I
teeth filed
Fig. 7

Stages in forming saw teeth.


teeth f iled and set
II
In passing it is perhaps worth noting There are four main variations of saw
that all two-handed sawing is carried tooth pattern in use for hand-saws. Of
out by pulling the saw, not pushing it, these we have already taken note of the
as anyone cutting firewood by this patterns commonly applied to hand-
method will have found out. saws used for cross-cutting and ripping.
Some good examples of pit saws are There are, however, two further patterns
to be found in the Folk Museum near that have been fou nd in connection
Aberystwyth, Wales, where many of the with two-handed saws. The first of
a medium-sized cross-cut saw this is some of which may be seen hanging these is shown at (a) in Fig. 9.
tools used by the old craftsmen are to
achieved by attaching an upright handle up, were provided with cross handles at be found.
to the leading end of the blade as each end of the blade. In use one man
depicted in Fig. 3. stood on the timber to be sawn while Hand-saw Teeth
The saw blade has a hole punched in the second, his mate, took his place The teeth of the hand-saw are just
it and a th readed hook is inserted in this below in the pit. Sawing was performed stamped out of the edge of the blade
hole and pulled up tight by means of by each man in turn pulling the saw square with its axis; they are then filed RIP SAWS
the handle which is turned to impart the towards him, upwards by the man on and set in order to give clearance to the
necessary tension . top and downwards by the sawyer saw when in use. These stages are
The two-handed saw is, of course, by below. Meanwhile wedges were driven depicted in Figs. 5, 6 and 7.
no means a modern conception, for it into the saw kerf to ensure that the The angularity of the teeth depends
was the standard method once used timber did not bind on the saw blade. upon the use to which the saw is to be
when ripping down long timbers in The saw pit itself was straddled by a put, that is to say whether the saw is to
days gone by. pair of heavy timbers while the work C RO SS CUT & T ENON SAWS
be used for crosscutting or for ripping.
Fig. 4 demonstrates the equipment was supported on ties which bridged These variations are depicted in Fig. 8. Fig. 8 Variations in sawtooth angle.
used by sawyers about 1750. The saws, those timbers.
11
10

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Fig. 9 Sew tooth pettttrns for two-handed s8W$. Rg. 11 The compass SBW1 also sometimes
csllttd e ped-uw.

®
Fig. 12 Compess uw with three blades.

® r ""'""""'""'' ""'""""""m"''"'~~ :
.: :-,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .~ 4
""·"''""'"'''"'"'""'"'""'''" ' " • §

This is the gullet-tooth once used 1. The Panel Saw is about the same Fig. 13 Key-hole saw. olso known as a
PBd·SaW.
with pit-saws for cutting ~long the grain length as the hand-saw but the blade
of the wood. is thinner and the pitching of the saw
The Encyclopaedi~ Britannica de- teeth much closer.
scribes the gullet-tooth in the following 2. The Bow or Frame Saw depicted in
terms : 'The rationale of the gullet-tooth Fig. 10 is Qf some antiquity and has Fig. 14 Iron-handled pad-sow.

is clear, the keen chisel-like edges ofthe now seem-ingly fallen in1to disuse,
teeth being well adapted for slicing the
fibres of the wood transversely, and for
t his it leaves little to be desired'.
though examples are sometimes to
be found.
since were they set the saw would
=:::;:::==---- - -· 0
that t he saw blade can be set at any
3. The Tenon Saw is used for cutting tend to keep a straight line and so be desired distance within the handle
across the fibres of wood, t hat is difficult to operate.
Forms of Hand-saw where it is secured by a set-screw.
across the grain, getting its name
We have already noticed the pit-saw, 5. The Key-hole Saw, sometimes called The blade is long and narrow, con-
from its employment in f orming the
sometimes called t he whip-saw in old the pad-saw, Fig. 13 and Fig. 14, sequently, in order to preserve rigid-
shoulders of wood tenons.
books, and the h and-saw which is some as its name implies is a form of ity, only the shortest amount of
26" long and intended to be used by a 4. The Compass Saw Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 compass-saw intended for cutting blade that is sufficient for the work is
single man. There are a number of is used f or cutting circular or irregular sharp curves such as keyholes them- allowed to project from t he handle. It
other forms o f saw for hand use, how- curved work. As distinct f rom other selves. The handle is long and is is perhaps worth noting that this
ever, t hat need to be m entioned. forms of saw the teeth are not set, perforated throughout it s length, so type of t ool is often called a pad-saw.

~ - /?
I
\

c_ JL I""-- - • •••...•.. - ...... ·"' _~


j
_ y -)

12 13

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certain that the file is applied squarely
PART 1 but that it is travelling in a straight line
up and down the tops of the saw teeth.
CHAPTER 2 Whilst it may suffice to secure the file
by a pair of G-clamps as a temporary
measure, when much sharpening needs
to be done it may pay to make a simple
wood fixture, such as that depicted in
Fig. 2, which will not only hold t he file
Sharpening Saws firmly but will be found rather more
comfortable to use.
Two clamps are needed, one at each Fig. 2 Simple device for ~·topping .. saw teeth.
end of the file; as will be seen, the
clamps are secured to the block by When filing the teeth, the blade must
wood screws. be gripped between two pieces of board
Sharp tools are the prerequisite for A saw may become blunted for a set in the vice. These will keep the saw
good work and saws are no exception. variety of reasons and amongst them Sharpening the Saw Teeth blade straight and clamp out the inevit-
The procedure for " carrying out the may well be accidental contact between Once the saw teeth have been topped able screeching sound produced by the
sharpening is quite simple, if a trifle hidden nails and the saw teeth. Be that they have to be sharpened by a filing filing operation. For this reason the saw
time-consuming; however, providing as it may, general wear results in the operation. teeth should be allowed to project from
the matter is treated methodically suc- tops of the saw teeth coming out of line. The files used for the purpose ate the pieces of board a short distance
cess can be assured. The first step, therefore, is to restore triangular and, for the most part, are only as shown in Fig. 3.
In the previous chapter we have con- this alignment. double ended. In the case of the rip saw Once the teeth of the saw have been
sidered the difference between the rip In order to do so the crests of the saw the file is applied to the teeth at right filed to shape they have to be set, in
saw and the cross-cut saw, and the teeth will need to be 'topped' in order angles to the axis of the saw blade order to ensure clearance to the blade
variation in tooth form and angle in that those teeth that are high are re- itself, while when sharpening a cross- during the saw operation.
both cases, so while sharpening a saw it duced to a common level. cut saw the file is held at an angle to the
is, of course, necessary to preserve Fig. 1 depicts the three stages that axis.
these essentials. concern the first part of the re-
sharpening process. At A the ideal state
of t he saw teeth is represented, for all
the crests are level with the broken line.
When wear has taken place some of the
teeth may have worn down below the
line as at B. It will be necessary there-
fore to file down the high teeth till their
tops are level with those seen below the
dotted line; this condition is seen repre-
sented at C.
It is, of course, important that the
filing should be quite square with the
side of the saw blade. To ensure this,
the file to be used should be clamped t o VICE JAWS
© a square piece of timber about 10-12"
long, which, when placed against the WOOD BOARDS THE. FULL
Fig. 1 Topping •~w tsoth. side of the saw, will not only make fig. 3 Holding the saw for filing the teeth. LENGTH OF THE. SAW

14 15

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Fig. 4 A simple sew set a notched blade fitted with a handle are squeezed together; when the
to give adequate leverage during the handles are released the plunger springs
setting process. The notches, as may be back. Naturally means are provided for
noticed, are of different widths to suit adjusting the saw-sets to suit the vari-
the varying thickness of saw blades in ous sizes of saw available.
use. With such a simple device the The illustration reproduced is of a
amount of set is left to the judgement of page taken from the catalogue of the
the operator, as indeed is its evenness late George Adams of High Holborn,
as between successive teeth. London, who will doubtless be re-
For this reason the simple saw-set is membered by older readers for the
provided with a gauge which can be quality and variety of the tools he kept
Fig. 5 Notched sew set with gavge. adjusted to suit the notch in use. The in stock in his London shop.
gauge is so adjusted that, when the
Setting the Saw Teeth out with some care, bending each tooth tooth is bent outwards sufficiently, the The Saw-setting Block
Setting the teeth involves bending alter- evenly so far as is possible. There are gauge will touch the side of the saw The oldest method of setting the teeth
nate teeth outward in opposite direc- several forms of saw-set, the simplest blade. A notched saw set with gauge is of a saw is to place the blade on a cast
tions. This operation needs to be carried of which is shown in Fig. 4. This is depicted in Fig. 5. . iron or hard wood block having a
I The professional worker and the ex- bevelled edge. The teeth are set to
perienced amateur now largely make project over the bevel and are then hit
use of plunger saw-sets of the type with a hammer in order to bend t hem to
shown in Fig. 6. With this type of set, for the correct angle. In the hands of an
the most part, a plunger is pressed expert this is probably the most rapid
against the saw teeth when the handles way of setting the teeth. A special saw-

Fig. 7 Saw-setting bloclcs 11nd h11mmer.

I i ll; . •'3.-Sa w "ettint, !.lock :>f Iron


o r H nruwc.od
fog. 56.-Hammer·stttin~ Saw 0:1 1 tnn Hlock

lAW<;
lnf-llWVh t :nnt1 U l hi-..sh."'l_}:)ef"nahh: ... mw
HI u-., tlat·m W!lh J(rQat ...usc-·. 1·hc· !t."lW i~&
tlt hifinnly.n~~m"-ttlwJ.(au~ewhil"t.hf"
J111 h·htk '''t
t~"'th.
1 ht• -.;h</ t('{·th nr1· u1 f'l•lu •
.
\'It'\'> \'-hir h aH<)W" lht· u-;cr tn 'lukklv Ml ·
)IUt Uu· lnO"Jl l•1 th•• t(lf)fiJ. tu IJ.;• ~wt I IW\" T

U\t\ h1• 'lut ·ldy t•ljti.,l(·d i.-•r roo_,,-..,. ( t hut· l1i:


t.;(Um~. !h n.u\·1 olj.l.ltn.. t \\lu-h Hu•
pi•H\Il I wr rl..4 t'~ Lit·~·l·nt; •I .ulf"i tlw ..,.,\tllr
a•lJ!I lf\tt"J\l t .tfl J,. ult~ 11• t! {ur dlll'h·· ~t•
'*' Jtk. '"· 1 ('I .t lJU·l dr!• 1<or t!i\ ll.nL. Fit. 55. i Etnn Fig. 57.-Saw-scttin~
rr r( lh• '* ht.:u!• Fig. 6 Plunger type saw sets Fig. 54.- Saw-setting Ha mme r l:llock for t.:se in \ •c~
from 81) early catBiogue. So" ·Scttinj! Hlock

16 17

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acknowledgements from 'The Practical The Eclips e No. 77 S aw Sets A number of warnings are given and
Woodworker', demonstrates various The saw set in Fig. 8 is a product of of these two perhaps are pre-eminently
aspects of the setting block and its James Neill of Sheffield, England. It is important:
use. designed specifically for use with hand- The first, to make sure that the saw to
The setting block is about 7 or 8" long saws and is seen in operation in Fig. 9. be serviced is made of a material that
with its upper edges bevelled as shown. There are, of course, several points to can be set; some modern saw blades
The bevelled edges each have a dif- watch when using this type of saw set are expendable.
ferent slope so that they will serve for and in this connection the makers ofthe The second, never to reverse the set of
varying sizes of teeth. In use the saw is 'Eclipse' saw set have put together a a saw tooth (one supposes this could
held flat on the block with its teeth leaflet in several languages, the English happen accidentally) - reversal might
projecting over the bevel. Each alternate version of which is reproduced below. easily break a tooth.
tooth is then struck with the hammer.
The saw is then turned over and the
process repeated. ln•truc tione forUM
No~ for clrcu&.r NW.
The A:tna saw setting blo·ck depicted For handsaws. 4 co 12 oolnts/ lnch
is an iron casting in which A is a steel 125mm), maxtmum thickness 16
S.W.G.- 1.6mm.
block w ith its edges bevelled at varying The an v il numbers correspond w ith
the n,Jmbcrs of ooints/mch.
angles and 8 is a steel wedge to hold In use. the hammer presses the
the block in· place in the casting C. The tooth against the anvil.
Designed so that set does not
m ethod of using this saw setting device e ~eceed h811the tooth depth.

is also seen In the illustration. Adlu1tment


Hold in the nofmal working
Fig. 8 . The "Eclipse" No. 77 ssw set. Alternatively, an ordinary hammer POSition.
Release knurled anvil screw. press
and a nail punch may be used together and IUrn until aoo,opriate anvit
numbe-r Is In l1ne wilh the hammer
setting hammer is required for the work with the setting-block, which may wel l lfio 11.
as may be deduced from Fig. 7. be made from hard wood if the work is Comoress handles 10 grip the anvil.
TiQhten the knurled anv•l sere:w.
This illustration, which is taken with to be carried out by amateur hands. Choic• of Anvil Number
Oo not adhere r9dtv to the ooints
numbers. Be guided bv t lt.o erience,
tO SLMIIhe Y\IOOd 10 be CUI and the
hardneu of the saw teelh.
When setting Ieeth on e•tra Mrd
saws, adiuS1 1he anvtl one number
higher than the saw POintS number.
Some modetn saws ere exP«\dible;
lig.2 tonger lite than more ord~narv UW$
but never to be 14!rvlce<l. Because
of 1he risk ot too1h breakage, it mav
be dangerous to enemot to set the
teeth on such NIWS.
Chtck the adiustment by H.,. I
seuino of teeth at the handle end of
the saw.

Using th• MW Mt
Always follow the saw maktfs
instructions.
H old the aaw in avice.
Place the head of the Saw Set over
the saw , so that the tooth to be set
....--
Is directly in line whh the hammer
Ifig. 21.
NEVE A reverse the set ot a tooth.
AVOID all chango In the relative
positions of saw and Sow Set.
AVOID e~ecesslve pressure.
AVOID leverage or twisting.
Just saueezo the handles togother
gentlY, and let tho Saw Set do the
work.
T hen teleaso the handles. and lilt
Fig. 9 The "Eclipse" ssw s•r m the Saw Set c lear before moving it Fig. 10 Instructions for u sing thfl
USB. to the next tooth. saw set.

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Fig. 2 An old·time cirr:ular ssw

PART 1 btJnch.

CHAPTER 3

The Circular Saw

Once the amateur or the small pro- means of the saw attachments provided
fessional woodworking shop h as de- by the makers of electric hand drills.
cided to mechanise -the plant, and to go The history of the circular saw is
in for pow er-driven tools, probably the somewhat obscure. But the Encyclo-
first machine t o be purchased will b e a paedia Britannica attributes its origin to
ci rcular saw. In th is way not only will a Brunei who \Jsed it first in 1790 when
lot of fatigue be avoided but the qualit y it formed part of the block-making
of the workmanship may be much machinery he was setting up in Ports-
enhanced. Fo r the most part wood- mouth Dockyard. This equipment has From t his monograph, 'The Ports- t his t ime were carried in a reversed-
working tools are somewhat power- been the subject of a booklet published mouth Blockmaking Machinery', it cone bearing at the forward end, while
consuming though it is quite surprising by H.M. Stationery Office, Kingsway, would seem that the real inventor of the at the opposite end the mandrel was
what a lot of work can be ca rried out by London. circular saw was one Walter Taylor, the seated in a plain journal. In order to take
head of Taylor's of Southampton w ho, care of end float, and to maintain
until Brunei and his special equipment adjustment of the forward bearing, an
came on the scene, were the principal axial screw was f itted in an attachment
suppliers of blocks to the Admiralty. at the rear of the plain bearing. In the
Brunei's first application of the device, case of Brunei's pendulum saw a similar
if not the only one, was in the pendulum arrangement can be seen in the bearing
saw; this machine was hung f rom the assembly nearest the camera.
rafters of the workshop in a frame Somewhat the same arrangement
capable of being swung to-and-fro so would appear to apply to the circular
that timber placed on a table in its orbit saw bench in Fig. 2. But here, however,
could be cross-cut to lengths suited to the spindle was mounted on centres at
the making of the blocks t hat were to be each end which could only be adjusted
produced. to take up shake when it occurred. One
Brunei's pendulum saw is depicted in would imagine that t his could be pretty
Fig. 1. It would appear that Brunei called often, the more so if the saw bench w as
on his experience with the contemporary being roughly handled. The illustration
centre lathe when designing the bearing reproduced here appears in a book
Fig. 1 BrurPel's Pendulum arrangements for his saw spindle. The entit led 'Arts and Sciences' published
Saw. mandrels of centre lathes made about about 1800, so it may be that the

20 21

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II

representation of this circular saw bench bered, however, that the average
is m ore diagrammatic than factual. amateur metal-turning lathe is not well
However, it is very pro bable that the adapted to wood sawing because of its
basic design indicated is accurate. There low spindle speed.
would seem to be little versatility in Some 30 or 40 years ago there was on
such a machine, w hich could do little the market a number of well-designed
more than act as a rip saw for cutting light circular saw benches very suitable
down lengths of timber. for use by the amateur or the small
At the turn of the century a number of professional workshop. Some of these
amateur workers' wood-turning lathes machines were treadle driven while
were adapted to circu lar sawing. For the others were intended to be mounted on
most part the saws were 6" diameter, the bench and driven by electric motors
mounted on arbors set between centres set below it. All the best of these Ball Bearinr Circular Saw Benchll
in the lathe, and driven from the man- machines had rise and fall tables, and a No. r. Suw (, in. diant., tnhlc Fig. 3 (left) The George Adams saw bene/I.
drel catch plate through a carrier on the great many of them were provided with
1.! x ll in. . fast pulll'Y ;~c\ x r ~ in.
!2 15 8 - - Fig. 4 (ab ove) A n American small saw bench.
saw arbor. ball-bearing plummer blocks for the No. ..!. Saw !! in. cliam., tnblt•
An example belonging to a relative saw spindle, though, it must b e added, ro x 1.: in., fast pulley 3 x r ! rn The second saw bench is an American-
of the author w as used in high-class those with plain bearings gave equally £4 15 6 , made machine impo rted about 35 years
cabinet-making for many years. This good service when the design and the No. 3. Saw 111 in. diam .• table
! I x J ~ in.. fast and loose ago by E. P. Barrus, who specialised in
device comprised a wooden box fitting was of a high standard. pulleys .11 x r \ in £8 0 0 tools and equipment f rom the U.S.A.
mounted on the lathe bed, and having a Fences for r1pping and cross-cutting No. 4. Saw I.! rn. cli<•m .. table • The machine illustrated w as intended
hinged top that could be adjusted to set were supplied and it was common for .!(,X rll in.. fast :mrl loose for driving by V-rope, w hilst the George
the depth of cut required. the cross-cutting fence to be capable of pull<'}~ d • • "' £9 0 0 Adams saw bench, as befits the age in
:'\0. l has j >f.1111 i<'IIC c· nnl\• hilt
Two saws were provided, each angular setting so that mitre sawing '\o~.~. J:rnd rh·ll• l~·lhpl.lJJI which it was produced, had a flat belt
mounted on a separate arbor, one for could be undertaken. and 1 • 1 rt t4·u, '"'· drive.
ripping, the other for cross-cutting. The saw benches in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 Both machines w ere fitted w ith guards
The arrangement is depicted dia- are typical of the equipment to which will be remembered by many and par- over the saw itself, a requirement the
grammatically in Fig. 2(a). Some lathe reference has been made. The former is ticularly by those of the same age group desirability of which cannot be too
manufacturers at the present time have a bench once supplied by the late as the author. strongly emphasised.
adopted sim ilar devices as attachm ents George Adams w hose reputation for
for their products. It must b e remem- marketing high grade tools of all types

t
Fig. 2A Sow adaptation for o
LATHE BED wood turning IIJthe. Fig. 5 The Block ond Decker
portable ssw.

2.2
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The Portable Saw Attachment 0.7876
This attachment is in Fig. 5. It is fully
adjustable for angle as well as for depth
of cut. A fence is provided that enables
accurate rip-sawing to be carried out.

Portable Saw Bench 0.1660


The portable saw bench depicted in
Fig. 5 may be mounted under the saw
bench in Fig. 6. As has already been
said, the attachment is adjustable for
both angle and depth of cut so the saw
bench also has these facilities. The
Fig. 6 Ths Bisek and DecktJr saw btJnch. bench also has a graduated protractor
for mitre-cutting and an adjustable fence
for rip-sawing.
Sawing Attachments for the The author has made some additions
Electric Hand Drill 1 and modifications to the saw bench. In
Of late years the do-it-yourself handy- the main these comprise extension plat-
man has demanded and been supplied forms at each end of the original bench
with sawing attachments for various in order to enable relatively long pieces
makes of electric hand drill on the of wood to be rip-sawed more easily. At
market. the same time the framework of the
The range of equipment manufactured original bench was walled in <>n three
by Black and Decker of Maidenhead sides, with a f lexible covering on the
serves well to demonstrate the facilities fourth side, in order to retain the saw-
available. For the most part the devices dust produced during the sawing pro-
to be described are attachments to be cess. The arrangement is depicted
made to an electric hand drill though diagrammatically in Fig. 6(a). 7 Ths Wadkin Bursgreen tO Inch .ssw bsnch.
some may be obtained as individual or The right-hand extension is made to
independent machines. fold down. This enables the set-up to be In the original saw bench the gap in attached directly to the electric drill,
shortened for packing away in the shop. h the saw itself operates is wide, although the tool has proved so useful
rwise it would be impossible to tilt that several ma.,ufacturers market com-
saw for cutting on the angle. The plete jigsaws or 'sabre saws'. The
has now been restricted by the device is eminently suitable for contour-
of a wooden filling piece in sawing in wood, metal and plastics. The
lch the saw was allowed to cut its author has used the equipment on
clear way by the simple process a number of occasions when other
rating the cleating arrangement methods would have· been of little avail.
the saw is actually rotating.
filling piece can, of course, be The Wadkin 10" Sawbench
if angular cutting has to be The sawbench in Fig. 7 is a good
rtaken. example of modern professional equip-
ment. It is fitted with a 10" (250m/m)
Fig. 6A The author's modifiC8tion to the Jigsaw Attachment W .1017 saw carried on a %" arbor. Such a
Bisek and D«:ksr saw bench. is a most useful fitment that is machine is in every way a versatile saw-

24
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Opposite, Fig. 8. Forms of circul~r saw. Mechanical Pit Saws
Fig. 9 Mechaniatl pir saw. The particular saw seen in Fig. 9 is a
CIRCULAR SAWS
BS96 single-bladed machine for cutting up or
A general purpose squaring logs. It dates from 1902 and it
RIP SAW bench, being capable of compound was designed to deal with oak timbers
lor hard or soli woods
angle crosscutting and bevel ripping from 12" to 28" in depth, when it had a
with the saw itself canted. In the illustra- rate of feed from 8" to 4" a minute.
tion the bench is seen with the sliding The machine depicted is, of course, a
BS97 extension table set up. By this means model, which may be seen in the Science
For CROSS cross-cutting or ripping on large panels Museum. As may be surmised, the
CUTIING or
RIPPING with an can be undertaken. upper platform represents the floor of
exceptionally smooth When angular ripping or compound the sawmill with the drive to the saw
finish.
angular crosscutting has to be under- frame mounted below; the frame is
BS 1 00 as above but
HOLLOW GROUN D taken the arbor can be tilted to allow the carried in guides machined in a heavy
saw itself to assume the angle desired. iron casting forming part of the main
machine assembly. The log to be sawn
BS96 The Circular Saw . is mounted on a travelling carriage
This is our standard range of saws,
normally ava1labla from stock. Hollow The various types of saw that- are driven through a rack and pinion from
BS98 ground ;;aws reQuire no setting, gwe commonly used appear in Fig. 8, and it the mechanism seen to the left of the
A general purpose mm1mum saw kerf or wastage and
ensure exceptionally clean fm1sh. will be noticed that in some instances illustration. An interesting feature of the
CROSS CUT SAW
they may be obtained in hollow ground general design is the setting of the saw
form. Saws made in this way need no blade out of the vertical in relation to
setting; consequently the saw kerf is the longitudinal axis of the work. In this
kept to a minimum with the resultant way the teeth of the saw do not drag
greatly reduced wastage of wood when through the work on the upper or non-
expensive timber is being sawn. working stroke.

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parallel with the surface of the work.
PART 1 This procedure is depicted diagram-
matically in Fig. 3.
CHAPTER 4 If the larger of the two bench hooks
illustrated is in use its extended floor
will give support to the work that will
permit the saw to break through cleanly,
though it may be advisable to provide
some additional support when the work
Using Wood Saws overhangs the bench hook to any extent.
When holding work in the bench vice
Fig. 2 The place of the bench hook on the bench.

the same procedure must be followed


when starting the sawcut.
The tenon saw is used, for the most
part, in cross-cutting; but it can, of
In the space of a single chapter one can cross-cutting, in the main for bench course, be employed for sawing along
only hope to deal cursorily with the work. The work is either held in the vice the grain, though necessarily to a limited
subject of sawing Wood by hand. For or secured against a simple device extent.
the most part this is confined to ripping called the bench hook.
and cross-cutting with a hand-saw and Sawing Along the Grain
to cross-cutting with the tenon saw. The Bench Hbok Earlier in the book we have referred to
In the amateur and small workshop Bench hooks are made in two forms; a the rip saw which is the correct tool for
rip-sawing is performed with a circular simple device such as in Fig. 1(a) and sawing along the grain. Short pieces of Fig. 3 Starting the Tenon Saw.
saw, whilst the tenon saw is used for a larger and more versatile form in wood are held in the bench vice for
Fig. 1(b). ripping while long lengths are mounted proceeded a little way, say for a couple
Both forms of bench hook are built up on the sawing horse, or between a pair of feet or so, the board is supported on
from odd pieces of timber, sawed and of horses, for the purpose. a pair of horses with the second of
glued together. The first is often used in The sawing horse will be familiar to t hese as close to the point of sawing as
pairs whilst the larger sees service with many readers. It consists of a couple of possible. As the sawing proceeds the
cabinet-makers and those dealing with A-frame leg assemblies surmounted by
small components on the bench. a spine that holds them together. The
As may be inferred bench hooks are woodworker uses these supports when-
placed on the work bench so that thei r ever long material needs to be handled.
outer ends overhang its edge, as in The sawing horse is depicted in Fig. 4.
Fig. 2. The horse needs to be made from
As has already been mentioned, t he substantial material and well stayed so
bench hook is used, for the most part, that it remains rigid at all times.
where working with the tenon saw, so it When starting the sawcut, the worker,
may not be out of place to draw atten- having lined out the work with a pencil
tion to the correct method of using this as a guide, rests the saw blade against
type of saw. his left thumb. In this way the t eeth
First then, when starting a cut the saw can be made to enage t he pencil line
should commence working at the side correctly and the sawing operation can
of the work farthest away from the then proceed.
operator. As the cut proceeds the saw is At first the work is set against a single
Fig. 1 Bench Hooks. gradually lowered until a kerf is formed horse but later, when the sawing has Fig. 4 The Sswing Horse.

28 29
R.OSE BR'UFORD COLLEGE
liBRARY
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WRONG horse is moved along to continue the Egyptians, when building the Pyramids, Modern Practice in Stone Sawing
support. made much use of saws when cutting The methods outlined previously are, of
The angle at which the saw blade the granite of which their buildings are course, somewhat time-consuming and
meets the work is important. This point largely composed. The saws themselves unacceptable industrially. For this
is depicted diagrammatically in Fig. 5. were made of bronze in which were reason modern practice is to m ake use
As will be seen the optimum angle of embedded precious stones or pieces of an abrasive cut-off wheel, sometimes
attack is about 60 degrees to the work. If of natural cor.undum. Presumably the diamond impregnated, and to run it at
the saw is held too flat or too upright sawing was carried out dry; certainly it speeds of from 4000 to 8000 surface
sawing becomes tedious. was accurate, for the errors in the feet per minute, suiting the characteris-
For the most part the workman makes construction of the Pyramids have been tics of the wheel to t he material to be
the sawcut in a direct ion towards him- shown to be negligible. cut. In this way granite, marble and
self; however, some cabinet-makers in The whole subject of working stone is slate are regularly cut together w ith
Fig. 5 Correct and inco"ect anglss for rip-siJwing. t he past have used a procedure in treated exhaustively by Holtzapffel in other natural and artificial stones.
which the saw is held vertically, with his 5-volume treatise on mechanical The use of diamond-mounted cut-off
'' the teeth away from the operator and is manipulation. Those w ho would wish wheels may seem to many a very
' pushed along the sawcut with the saw to learn m ore of the subj ect are advised modern technique, but Holtzapffel has
~--'
itself angled som e 10-15 degrees from to consult Volume Ill of the series. It shown that in the stone-working trade
the vertical in the direction of the saw may be hard to come by, but the tibrary they appear to have been commonplace
cut as depicted in Fig. 6. Service should be able to find a copy. in the m iddle of the 19th century.
The operation needs both hands to be
gripping the handle. For this reason the
sawyer stands to the side of the w ork Fig. 1 Leonardo da Vincrs design for IJ machine to saw stone.
and not above it as in normal practice. . .... - .......
The direction of t he cut is as indicated in
Fig. 6 The cabinet·makers method of ri{Hawing. the sketch.

PART 1
APPENDIX
rundum powder, using turpentine as a
Stone Sawing lubricant, w ill understand the method.
Saws for the cutting of stone have been Fig. 1, which is reproduced from
mentioned earlier in this book, as have Leonardo da Vinci's sketch book, shows
some of the media used for the purpose. an arrangement for cutting stone using
In the past plain iron blades without the technique described above. The
teeth have been used. These· were machine depicted was intended to be
reciprocated in the stone using abrasive used by one man, though smaller
grains suspended in water to carry out sketches to the left of the illustration
the actual cutting. Those readers who reveal an alternative arrangement
have either drilled, or seen glass drilled allowing two men to operate the device.
with a copper tube and emery or carbo- To go further back in time, the

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Rg. 1C Amateur form of
PART2 adjustable hacksaw frame.

CHAPTER 1

The Hacksaw

In the small workshop the hacksaw has nut to put tension on the blade. The saw
m any important functions to perform. It blade itself is located by a pin set in
is commonly used t6 cut material to each of the anchorages. These pins are part highly ornamental, is quite m'odern
length before machining, to rough-shape usually set at a slight angle with the in appearance. The saws illustrated
parts before a final filing operation and object of drawing the face of the saw date from the 17th and 18th centuries.
often to remove surplus material in blade into confact with each anchorage, The group of hacksaws illustrated In
advance o f some machining process. thus helping to preserve the alignment the photo Fig. 28 is interesting since it
The several manufacturers of saw of the blade as a whole. demonstrates how stabilised the basic
frames and blades are always willing to This minor but important point is design of the hacksaw has become
supply information on their products, depicted in Fig. 1(d). during the last two hundred years.
so the newcomer is well advised to seek The five saw frames depicted in Fig. The largest of the saws depicted dates
the authorative advice they are able to 2A are clearly predecessors of modern from the 18th century while the saw in
give. practice. Today' s method of tensioning the centre Of the illustration WaS made Rg. 1D Thebladoanchorageandtonsioning wingnut
the saw blade owes its introduction to
The Hacksaw Frame the class of saw illustrated, and the
Originally commercial hacksaw blades whole conception, though for the most a
were made to a single length, namely
9", so that there was no requirement for
fa IIIII
anything other than a fixed frame to
:
accommodate them.
A typical frame is shown in Fig. 1(a). It
will be seen to consist of a bow, usually
of steel though some early examples 0
appear to have had cast-iron bows, and Fig. 1A Hacksaw frame, fixed.

a wooden handle incorporating one


anchorage for the saw blade itself. At
the opposite end is the other anchorage
for the blade, which consisted (and still
consists), of a square section member
passing through a corresponding square Fig. 2A Fiva 16rh and 17th
hole in the bow and fitted with a wing Fig. 1 8 Hacksow frome, adjustable. c.ntury saws.

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Fig. 28 Three antique hacksaws. piece cut off is again the distance from
- FRAME . HANDLE END
the saw teeth to the inside of the frame.
A typical method of ensuring that the
saw blade remains in alignment in the
frame is depicted in Fig. 4. This is the
arrangement adopted by L. S. Starret of
America.
As will be seen each frame Jug is
provided with a pair of V-notches set at
right angles to one another. These
allow the blade anchorages to be turned
90 degrees and secured by a pin en-
gaging the notch at the handle end
while at the front end of the tram~
a projection machined on the sleeve
against which the wing nut abuts also
engages notches formed on the lug. In
1
about 1850. The tool at the top of the allow this to happen; the modern frame this way, when rotated, the anchorages
2ND NOTCH HERE
picture is a hacksaw made by J. Buck, a has this provision. remain in true alignment with each
well-known tool merchant of the time, A typical example, the product of other.
in 1891. James Neill & Co., is shown in action in The sleeve is fitted with a grub-screw Fig. 4 LS. Starret's method of aligning tha ssw blode.
The somewhat ornate nature of two Fig. 3. It w ill be appreciated that, when engaging a keyway formed in t he
of the saws will be noted. using the hacksaw with the blade set in anchorage itself. This arrangement pre- frame making it especially suitable for
Early forms of saw frame had no its normal position, the depth of cut is vents the anchorage from turning when use on rolled steel joists and girders.
provision for setting the saw blade at somewhat circumscribed, being con- the wing nut is moved to put tension on The frame in Fig. 7 is one of the
right angles to its normal setting. trolled by the distance from the saw the saw blade. Junior saws made by 'Eclipse' to take
In this connection it is sometimes teeth to the inside of the saw frame. On
expedient to cut downwards with the the other hand when the frame is used The Adjustable Hacksaw Frame
saw frame on its side. To do so involves on its side there is no limit to the depth Hand hacksaw blades are obtainable in
adjusting the position of the blade to of cut but the maximum width of the 10'' and 12" lengths and, in order to
accommodate both sizes in one tool
adjustable frames can be provided. '
For the most part the method of
adjustment consists of making the spine
of the frame telescopic and arranging
for some detent to lock the frame in
whatever position is necessary. Three
devices or arrangements designed to
do this are depicted in Fig. 5.

Specialised Saw Frames


As might be expected, with the basic
design features of the frame stabilised
there are special saw frames availabl~
Fig. 3 Cutting downwards with
for a number of purposes. For example
thB saw frame on its sid11. the saw in Fig. 6 has a deep throated Fig. 5 ThrtJB methods of odjusting tht1 saw fram11.

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The frames depicted in Fig. 8 were I' roo Fig. 9 The Fmtsaw.

produced by the author many years ago !::;~


to apply a positive adjustable tension to
the saw. They have been found very
throdt
successfu l for they tend to keep the
blade straight, a factor that prolongs the
life of ~he blade.
~
p ,

Fig. 6 The dBBp-lhroated saw frame.


Fretsaw and Piercing Saw Frames
The fretsaw in Fig. 9 is used, as many " C=
readers will know, when it is necessary
to saw somewhat intricate carved work.

Fig. 7 The "Eclipse" Junior saw framtJ.


Its deep throat enables the user to
encompass quite large surfaces. It can
be used on metal and plastics but it is, u
'
their Junior saw blades. These blades
are flexible and are designed to cut any
material commonly encountered by
workers in the various spheres of Fig. 10 The Piercing saw .

engineering . The blades are unbreak-


able in normal use; they cut rapidly and
have been found satisfactory when used
in a light power hacksaw made by the
author.
The two Junior saw frames from
'Eclipse' have, in one instance, a pre-set
blade tension; in the other a limited

~ -:J
tension is applied to the blade when the
handle is turned to secure the saw itself.
C[ Fig. 11 The Backsaw.

[__ ______ ..... .. ... .. _.................... ]


Fig. 8 The authors saw frames for Junior blades. rigid back to give it strength while the
The Back Saw thumb rest at the f ront or leading end of
perhaps, most useful in the wood- Finally we must take note of the back the tool helps to promote accuracy
working field. saw depicted in Fig. 11. As illustrated when sawing.
The special blades needed when using the saw has a non-detachable blade, Three blades are usually provided, all
the fretsaw will be discussed later. but modern versions of the tool now 5" long, with thicknesses .014", .011" and
The piercing saw, seen in Fig. 10, is have detachable and alternative blades .008" and having 32, 44 and 60 teeth
intended for fine work in all metals and enabling them to be u sed in a variety of respectively. The first blade is intended
is commonly used by silversmiths and circumstances. The saw is somewhat for wood or metal while the other two
Fig. 7A The "Eclip so" No. 675 ssw frame. goldsmiths. like the carpenter's tenon saw, having a are most suitable for fine work in metal.

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Single Edge - for Power Use
PART2 Length Width Thickness Teeth Pin Hole Length Width Thickness Teeth
in mm in mm in mm per 25mm Dia. mm in inches in inches in inches per inch
CHAPTER 2 300 25 1.25 10, 14 7.0 12 0.050 10, 14
350 25 1.25 10, 14 7.0 14 0.050 10, 14
350 32 1.6 6, 10 8.5 14 1% 0.062 6, 10
350 40 2.0 4,6 10.5 14 1% 0.075 4, 6
400 32 1.6 6, 10 8.5 16 1% 0.062 6, 10
400 40 2.0 4,6 10.5 16 1% 0.075 4,6
The Hacksaw Blade 425
425
25
32
1.25
1.6
10, 14
4, 6,10
7.0
8.5
17
17
1
1%
0.050
0.062
10, 14
4,6, 10
450 32 1.6 6, 10 8.5 18 1% 0.062 6, 10
450 40 2.0 4, 6 10.5 18 1% 0.075 4,6
450 45 2.25 4, 6 10.5 18 P/4 0.088 4,6
525 40 2.0 6 10.5 21 1% 0.075 6
Steel. These are lower priced and are 525 45 2.25 4, 6 10.5 21 1% 0.088 4, 6
One manufacturer has said that the 600 45 2.25 4, 6 10.5 24 1% 0.088 4, 6
hacksaw blade is very likely the most designed to saw mild steel and the 600 50 2.5 4, 6 12.5 24 2 0.100 4, 6
abused of tools and -experience has softer m etals. 750 63 2.5 4 12.5 30 2% 0.100 4
shown that there is much to justify this Both types are obtainable in the 'all-
view. Later in the book, therefore, we hard' condition, a form preferred by
shall be considering measures that will experienced woFkers. On the other hand
enable the user to get t he most out of the flexible form is intended for the less
what is now a comparatively expensive experienced man who, because of the
difficult nature of the work, is more LOW AUOY STEEL HACKSAW BLADES
piece of equipment.
Hacksaw blades are either made from liable to break the all-hard blade.
Single Edge - for Hand and Light Power Use
High Speed Steel or from Low Alloy
Steel. The former gives the best per- The tables which follow are intended Length Width Thickness Teeth Pin Hole Length Width Thickness Teeth
to show the reader what blades are in mm in mm in mm per 25mm Dia. mm in inches in inches in inches per inch
formance, for blades made from this
material will cut the harder and tougher available and to provide him with data FLEXIBLE TYPE
materials faster and for a greater length that will enable the correct selection of ' 250 13 0.65 18, 24, 32 4.0 10 0.025 18, 24, 32
of time than will blades of Low Alloy blade to be made. 300 13 0.65 14, 18, 24, 32 4.0 12 0.025 14,18,24,32
300- 16 0.8 14, 18, 24 5.0 12 0.032 14, 18, 24
ALL HARD TYPE
250 13 0.65 18, 24, 32 4.0 10 0.025 18, 24, 32
HIGH SPEED STEEL HACKSAW BLADES 300 13 0.65 14, 18, 24, 32 4.0 12 0.025 14,18,24,32
300 16 0.8 14, 18, 24 5.0 12 0.032 14, 18, 24
Single Edge - for Hand and light Power Use
Length Width Thickness Teeth Pin Hole Length Width Thickness Teeth
in mm in mm in mm per 25mm Dia.mm in inches in inches in inches per inch

FLEXIBLE TYPE
250 13 0.65 18,24,32 4.0 10 '/2 0.025 18, 24, 32
4.0 12 % 0.025 14,18,24,32 Double Edge - for Hand Use
300 13 0.65 14, 18, 24, 32
length Width Thickness Teeth To take pin length Width Thickness Teeth
ALL HARD TYPE in mm in mm inmm per 25mm Dia. mm in inches in inches in inches per inch
250 13 0.65 18,24,32 4.0 10 % 0.025 18, 24, 32
300 13 0.65 14, 18, 24, 32 4.0 12 % 0.025 14,18,24,32 250 25 0.8 24 5.0 10 0.032 24
300 16 0.8 14, 18, 24 5.0 12 o/e 0.032 14, 18, 24 300 25 0.8 24 5.0 12 0.032 24

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Single Edge - for Power Use The dimensional components of the
hacksaw blade are shown in Fig. 2.
Length Width Thickness Teeth Pin Hole Length Width Thickness Teeth
Dia. mm in inches in inches in inches per inch It should b e appreciated that, unless
in mm in mm in mm per 25mm
some means are taken to prevent it, the
1.25 10, 14 7.0 12 0.050 10, 14
300 25
10, 14
saw blade will be liable to jam or stick in Fig. 3 The "set" in the saw blade.
350 25 1.25 10, 14 7.0 14 0.050
0.062 10
the kerf sawn in the work. To avoid this
350 32 1.6 10 8 .5 14 1 'I•
1 0.050 10, 14 the teeth of the blade are 'set' as
400 25 1.25 10, 14 7.0 16 Distance
10 8.5 16 1 'I• 0.062 10 depicted in the diagram Fig. 3. A lternate
400 32 1.6 between
teeth, or a series of alternate teeth, are
Total Pin Tooth
bent at a slight angle to t he axis of the Lengt h Centres Width Thickness Pitch
It should be noted that normal metric pitch must not be such that two blade, with the effect that the sawn kerf
consecutive teeth straddle the work. 6" 5'/2" .025" .017" 32
lengths of saw blade are measured is wider than the thickness of the blade 150m/m 140m/m 6m/m .043m/m
between their pin hole centres, while Always make sure that at least three itself. Thus the possibility of metal
t h e inch lengths are taken over the consecutive teeth are in contact with particles jamming the blade is negatived. The author has used these blades in
outside of the pin holes as seen in Fig . 1. the work. both a light power hacksaw and a
The reader will have noted the varia- These requirements apply equally Eclipse Junior Saw Blades jigsaw.
tion in tooth pitch that is available well, of course, whether it is a hand-saw A word must be said here with reference
in connection with thet various blade or a machine that is being used. to these blades. They were designed The Abrafile
lengths listed. The newcomer, there- As a guide to the tooth pitch that specifically for use with Eclipse Junior The Abrafile in Fig . 4 is really not a saw
fore, may well be in some difficulty in should be used for a given thickness of frames. They are supplied with pinned at all but is a species of round file that
deciding which pitch is suited to the material the accompanying table may ends to fit these frames and, being may be mounted in a hacksaw frame,
work in hand. be of service : flexible, they are virtually unbreakable using links su pplied f or the purpose. By
In general one may summarise the in normal use. means of the device one may embark
HAND BLADES
requirements as follows: They will cut metal efficiently as w ell on contour drawing since it is possible
Material Thickness Hard Soft as plastics and many other materials. to steer the cut in any direction with
1. When cutting soft materials a coarse Inches mm Materials Materials Their salient dimensions are: considerable ease.
tooth should be used. Otherwise the Up to 'Is" Up to 3 32 32
teeth will become clogged and the '/•" to v.· 3 to 6 24 24
sawing operation will be slowed '/•" to '12" 6 to 13 24 18
down. '12' to 1" 13 to 25 18 14 SdW frdm~

2. On the other hand if sawing hard \


POWER BLADES
materials one should fit a fine-tooth
M aterial Thickness Hard Soft
saw, since there is little or no chance Materials Materials
Inches mm
of clogging when h ard material is
being cut. 1" to 2" 25 to 50 14 10
2" to 4" 50 to 102 10 6
3. When cutting thin sections, angle 4

..
Over 4" Over 102 6
and T-section for example, the tooth
o .025"1r
~
------.1_~
Fig. 4 The "Abrafile".
\
'dbrafile •

I ,11NCH25mrm. I
PITCH

Fig. 1 Comparison of inch and metric blade. Fig. 2 Components of the hacksaw blade.

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PART2 RIGHT

CHAPTER 3

Using the Hand Hacksaw WRONG

If the hand hacksaw is to be used blade take up the slack with t he wing
nut then give it three full turns only Fig. 3 Sawing angle and
accurately and economically there are a channel sections.
numher of points that must receive to apply tension.

~
- ',
attention.
When these matters have been satis- 14 IN.
TEETH PER : :
1. Make sure that the work is gripped factorily atten'ded to the sawing opera- FOR MILD STEEL
firmly in the vice. tion may commence.
As depicted in Fig. 2 the cut should
2. Check that the saw blade is set PLENTY OF CHIP NO CHIP CLEARANCE
always be started on the side of the CLEARANCE
square, in abutment w ith its anchor- work away from the operator. When
PI TCH TOO FIN E
age and that the teeth are, of course, sawin·g channel, angle or girder sections
pointing away from the operator! this is most important, otherwise 18
See Fig. 1. damage to the saw teeth i s likely to TEETH PER IN.
FOR lOOL STEEL
3. Ascertain that the saw blade is cor- occur. The point is illustrated graphically
rectly tensioned. When fitting a new in Fig. 3.
P LENTY OF CHIP NO C HIP CLEARANCE
CLEARANCE PITCH TOO f i NE

sr;\ blade---~ [h
'\~ ~~
24
TEETH PE R INCH

WR~NG
FOR ANGLE I RON, BRASS,
COPPER ETC
AT L EAST TWO
\ . r BIGHT T EETH O N SECTION
TOO COARSE

32
TEETH PER INC H
WORK
fO R THIN TUBING
& SHEET ME TAL
Rg. 4 Choosing the correct AT LEAS T T WO PI TCH TOO COARSE
Fig. 1 Checking the sew blede. Fig. 2 StErling the saw cut. tooth pitch. TEETH O N SECTION TEETH STRADDLE WORK

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SAW BETWEEN THESE
TWO LINES PART2
CHAPTER 4

Bench Mounted Hacksaw


Machines
An intermediate stage between the hand or work placed in the vice mounted on
hacksaw and the power machine was the baseplate.
introduced many years ago by Gaodeii- Many years ago, requ iring some
MATERIAL TO BE CUT Pratt of America. This consisted of a means of accurately slitting a number
OFF pair of uprights set in a metal base and of components, the author constructed
Fig. 5 Lining out the saw cut. supporting a framework on which · a the machine as in Fig. 1. The make-up of
carriage could slide. A suitable hacksaw the device wi ll be clear from the illustra-
The selection of correct tooth pitch is, can check the progress of the cut and its frame was fixed to this carriage enabling tion. In view of the nature of the work
of course, of the utmost importance. It accuracy, and avoid waste of material the user to saw accurately any material for w hich it was intended, a pair of
is therefore disappointing to f ind that, by so doing.
for the most part, local stockists carry The practice of ' bundling', that is the
only one pitch of saw blade (usually 24 grouping together of similar sections
teeth per inch or 24 teeth in 25m/m) for of stock for sawing, is perhaps more
general use. applicable to work for the power hack-
If we look at Fig. 4 it is clear that such saw. Nevertheless, angle material, for
a blade is not fitted for general purposes example, can be bundled with advantage
and that such a condition is not realis- sometimes. To do so, of cou rse, would
able. It would seem, therefore, t hat require the work to be lined out as
blades of 18 pitch are desirable and described in the previous paragraph, if
worth stocking. success is to result. This matter will be
Whenever practicable, large material dealt with comprehensively in Chapter
to be cut off should be lined out in 6, ' Using the Hacksawing Machine',
accordance with Fig. 5. In this way one later in Part 2.

Fig. 1 The bench-mounted


hand hacksaw.

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to adjust the pos1t1on of the work in Fig. 3A Sketch of the Pacera 03) PW.£Y IIAACkE!.
relation to the saw as well as making
maximum use of the blade itself.
hacksaw.
/
@(]f)

e
The actual saw frame may n ot be
without interest. It was thought, as
indeed it is, essential that the saw blade
.. (3) PISTON ROO
(I) "'U&0£R
(2)DAS>'00T CYl. ' DEll
ll£U.()w$

should. remain truly vertica l when ten- C4) ~~jsu1~~;~~


sioned. For this reason the somewhat (Jd BL.o.OE
novel method of applying tension de-
picted in Fig. 2 was devised.
The action of the t ension er shou ld be
evident from the illustration, where it
will be appreciated that the function of
the bell-crank is to pull the saw blade in
a dead straight line when the t ension Fig. 38 Specification of the I
(&)pi ATE" (¢.)MAIN SWITCH
Pacera bench hacksaw.
wheel is turned.
Fig. 2 Method of tensioning the saw blade, devised by ·t I !i\CKSAWING MI\CIIINI fho 4 '" t ftu ~ "'''"' M-ilctunft: ~~ r~t. m ltfll•t • 1 ~,"'
•• •··4•''
the author. I Bench Mounted Power Hacksawing d t "•tHI1 eonu~pl ;,nd lu.tlw•·._, '"' Hr1lt1 •• flrw,, 1, 1 ' 11 , .,0
Machines 1tw1 h ,1fH!.m /\II wrn~ m(1 l~otfi<J ''"' ,, _l'l·lt .,, 1 ,. tl,h If
tiU) ht•,u l fJf litH tl1,1f hUU! ,JHd tt V• f / f ,.,,,,J.II' I •1u,11 ,,
11
stops were fitted to the uprights. The From time to time there has been a lll!'nt o f Jmrn.:try ur.d Vff ond"' 1 'l'•"' htH1 t lt 1· , . r.t ,1t 1
mounting for the vice is also seen in the number of small power hacksaws put l l •fltll ~ f·W~~If('"> ,,(JlfJUih tUf\ttiiHJ I'JtnJ..I t;Juf!IJ t 1o'ft•ll
••Jhtn•tu.
illustration. This consists of two parts, a on the market. These, for the most part,
I h• rn.r<. hmf• IS taJtil on a hr..:o~v r.~Jst tron tJ,...-J v·r 1 t;n
base plate superimposed by an adjust- were intended for bench mounting, All muvmg _p;JtU. mr..ludmu th€:: d11..-1ng n-.Q1(jt, ... ,
able plate to which the vice itself is where they were most conveniently '"ount(~t rn thr· "tu;.ad· of the mtJthmt thus n.~nt:.tnu ..r ,.,,
fixed. This arrangement allows the user located for the use of the mechanics u-.olul Y~.f'IQht .u lht.! mo~.t -3d-,.aor::tqf:OU\ p.o\tl!rm, 1-.
~tbOvt• lht' s-ioJ'"

lho mach•nr IS CQurp;.t11 ..-.<~lh an o. t1<e~\h r101 1'.1


con1tol1he fall of the bo.·~ .:md rt-,~ r onuolrs -.."br,aLJe ·~
nn~um rnoost efht.:•enl CUTI+nq of an., tn.:ltet 1l The, r ~'
of wr.Hol ptOv1dt:d c.sn eallilly bo aliJu t• J rfJ ~~ •
tt.lfeot•g cond.uons but all rrn~tunes fire d, , '• t it:41
horn lh~ Wor.-s wllh :he c;onu~ at"JJu'!lltud f;)r a.'!fagt
uc;.l!. Tho m.!t.h•rw olS arrangPd 10 cut on th-.: for.·. •d
tiolrQ~ P. lhe dash POll tO\-•d+ng It'll rof!(l'"SS31'""t •t

hl.1dt.:: on 1h~ r"'hnn s troke

~· HA >$1,.\"IM, MACHINE
Cu·• r:, Cetn~ "" et ~ 4 102n•m
Cur• n 1 C~r>ac;r; ·'I 45' :>" Vl mm.
ltop!*l C/ S:r(l."l' J"
102 "'"'
Bille-.- S ltJ 17" 30!.> 11tfU
CtJt! P"J S··~ · ttSi ''t 1 ~, nYtt• 1!>0
Vo•o· } hp
..
e~ ~~·
f ~ ng C#Ottes
at~~• r~oo"' 21~·. ar G90 x 222 rnm

... fla¢r MO<Jtl


'~ • f! t Bent..h Modt·l
floor Mud~ I
31!' X !JJ"
178 11"
~10 lb~
800 x 248 mm
81 Ins
95 k'l~
; h p M0101, Swrvul V1C:O, Bwlt rn
110 voh ond ovcrlo;Jd reln,1St' ''·HICr
Fig. 3 The Pacers bench floor ~land
hacksaw.

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Fig. 4 Bench hocksew by £. W. made use of standard 10" hand blades
Cowell Ltd.
in the first instance, though in a later
design the blade length was reduced to
an effective 5" by cutti ng down the saw
blade with an elastic grinding wheel.
The original test machine is depicted
in Fig. 5 where its starkness will be
apparent. However, it did yeoman ser-
vice and is still in use 25 years after it
was first put to work.
The final design as realised by 'Duplex'
is in Fig. 6. It will be seen that several
additions have been made to the original
conception, notably that of the sliding
weight enabling increased pressure to Fig. 5 Test machine for the author's hacksaw.
be put on the saw blade when needed.
It should perhaps be e~plalned that
the carriage, upon which the saw frame When setting work in the vice, provi-
is mounted, runs on ball races travelling sion has to be made that will allow the
in the slot seen in the carriage arm 8 carriage arm to be held up during the
and fitters for whom they were intended. Another example, not illustrated, is and that the saw cut can be adjusted process. This is effected by the Trigger
Some of these machines were fully the machine made by Kennedy. This within limits by raising or lowering the F engaging the StopE under the control
finished and fitted with a driving motor, had a capacity of 2 inches and was of fulcrum standard A to allow the saw cut of the Push Rod H. The Stop E is
others were supplied as castings and simple but robust construction. to finish parallel with the base of the attached to the Guide Arm D, while the
other necessary material but with some Of the part-machined examples the vice. The stop K can be adjusted to limit Push Rod has a return spring set in the
of the difficult machining already com- hacksaw offered by E. W. Cowell of the travel of the carriage arm once the rear Counterweight Support C.
pleted. Watford is probably the best known. position on the work for finishing the Fig. 7 depicts the obverse of the
Amongst the former the hacksaw in This machine, designed by Sawyer- cut has been determined. machine set up as a lathe attachment.
Fig. 3 made by W. J. Meddings is an Lowe, is fitted with a relieving device to
example. take the load off the saw teeth on the
This is a p articularly interesting return stroke. See Fig. 4.
machine, having some very novel fea- In this connection James Neill, the
tures in its design. Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) makers of hacksaw blades, have stated
will perhaps reveal the nature of some that in their opinion the use of a relieving
of them. The most enterprising feature device on machines where only hand
is the setting of the crankshaft vertically blades are fitted is somewhat irrelevant.
with reduction arrangements and the They are continually making tests on
final drive to the crankshaft set horizon- hand hacksaw blades fitted in special
tally. Almost as interesting is the use of machines without relief, and are finding
the driving motor as a counterpoise. that no undue shortening of blade life
The machine is fitted with an oil -dash- results.
pot in order to regulate the rate of down This finding is amply borne out by the
feed for the saw blade, and an auto- author's experience with a home-made
matic knock-off is provided to stop the machine introduced some years ago.
driving motor as soon as the sawing This machine was of very simple con-
operation has been completed. struction so had no relief device. It

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Fig. 7 The aurhor's machine as a
lathe attachmen t.
PART2
CHAPTER 5

The Power Hacksaw

Floor Mounted M achines No comparable machine seems avail-


For heavier duty than can be expected able today so it seem s that t he amateur,
f rom bench -mounted saws it is neces- at all events, m ust build for himself a
So far as the author is aware this is the sary t o provide indepen dent supports contrivance that best suits his capa-
only instance of the power hacksaw that w ill enable the machines to be bilities, unless of course he wishes
being made an attachment for the lath e. bolted to the f loor, thus, perhaps, giving to purchase a professionally-made
If there are others the autho r would be greater stability. Of equal importance, machine.
glad to hear about them . however, is the increased accessibility
As a lathe attachment the machine is that is given by this independence; Commercial Hacksawing Machines
mounted on a pair of parallel packing plenty of room round the hacksaw is a Historically, there have been many de-
pieces B. These are aligned with the b ed prerequisite if long pieces of material signs of hacksawing machine in the
of the lathe by m eans of the guide A are to be handled with safety and past, varying from the very light to
while the machine as a whole is secured speed. something heavier as befits the work it
by the bolt C. At one time there was on the market a may be called on to perform.
The Hacksaw Attachment is depicted number of light floor-mounted machines
mounted on the lathe in Fig. 8. with a maximum capacity round about
3", that adequately filled the needs of
Fig. 8 The hacks8w srtachment mounted on the lathe. the small machine shop but were lacking
in the versatility required in the larger
establishments.
A typical example of a light machine
is shown in Fig. 1(a). No relieving
arrangements were provided but a
counterweight was fitted; this cou ld be
adjusted either to lighten or increase
the load on the saw blade according to
the class of work being undertaken.

Fig. 9 A n early Bx ample of 11 light commercial power hacksaw. Pig. 1 A light power hacksaw (very similsr to that opposita).

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SAW CARRIAGE Fig. 1A Ths simple power At the other end of the scale the
hacksaw.
ADJUSTABLE
COUNTERWEIGHT
t machine depicted in Fig. 2 is represen-
tative of modern practice. This saw,
with a capacity of 8", mounts a 16" blade

\ and has a working stroke of 6%''. Two


cutting speeds are available, 65 strokes
per minute and 105 strokes per minute.
A hydraulic variable feed is provided;
PISTON
this incorporates mechanism that gives
relief to the saw blade on the return
stroke.
The vice f itted to the machine has
both jaws capable of movement axially.
The arrangement allows the operator to
As an example of a light saw Fig. 1 is out. A counterpoise was fitted so that make use of the whole saw blade once
representative of equipment available, pressure applied to the work through some part of it has become blunted: LEATHER
about the turn of the century, for a very the saw blade could be varied. this is effected by moving the standing DISC
few pounds. The iii\.Jstration is taken jaw along and securing· it to .bring the VALVE
from a somewhat historic catalogue The Power Hacksaw work under a fresh section of the saw. Fig. 3 The Dashpot.
published in 1910, and the price tag Modern hacksaw machines have either
{£5.50) speaks for itself. prismatic or .square section slides for Hydraulic Variable Feed and Blade closes and the oil supports the arm by
The make-up of the saw had all the the saw carriage. The simple machine Relieving Systems means of the piston which is now held
essentials including a stop enabling illustrated had a pair of parallel bars For the most part commercially pro- stationary. However, as soon as t he
repetitive length cutting to be carried upon which the frame for the saw duced hacksaw machines are provided control valve is opened oil passes up
carriage could slide much on the lines with variable down feed for the saw
of the device in Fig. 1 of Chapter 4. blade and this is sometimes supple-
As with so many of these tools no mented by devices to give relief to the
countershaft was provided, nor w as blade on the back stroke.
there any accommodation for indepen- The variable down feed is commonly
dent motor drive since at the time these provided by an oil-filled dashpot having
machines were made, none was avail- its piston attached to the saw carriage
able. Instead the drive was taken directly arm which is supported by the oil in the
from the lineshafting, a hand-operat ed dashpot pressing against the underside
clutch on the saw's crankshaft being of the piston itself. A typical dashpot
used to st op and start the machine. An may be seen attached to the 3" capacity
example of such a saw in the author's machine made by the author and de-
possession gave splendid service for scribed later in the chapter. The dashpot
many years. It seems a pity that no is a simple device consisting of a cylinder
comparable commercially produced closed at one end and provided with a
saw is available today, for this is ideal transfer port having a needle control
equipment for the amateur and small valve at its upper end. When the saw
professional workshop whose owners carriage arm is raised it carries with it
obviously will not be prepared to pay a the piston to the top of its stroke. The
high price for a tool whose use cannot piston is ~rovided with a disc valve on
possibly be described as anything else Its lower face. Consequently, as soon as
Fig. 2 A m odern 8 /nch capociry hacksaw. but intermittent. the carriage arm is released the valve Fig. 3A A typia~l mounting for the dashpot.

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Fig. 4 Saw blade relief
described. Consequently, when the
---cONNE.CTING ROD mechanism.
r;=::::::::::~ '-... casing of the dashpot is lifted by the
rocking lever, the oil within closes the
valve in the piston, which is then lifted
by the continuing movement of the
lever pushing up the connecting rod
CONTROL and so elevating the carriage arm of the
-+DASH POT saw itself.
VALVE
All of this in no way impairs the
action of the automatic feed which
ROCKING LEVER continues to function under the control

~~~-~~~----~
0
of the bypass valve itself.
One should perhaps point out that the
drive to the rocking lever needs to be
timed accurately to ensure that the lift
the transfer pipe into the top of the control valve, and set to any required to the carriage arm is given on the right
cylinder allowing the arm and the saw value. stroke.
carriage to descend. Tile rate of descent, The arrangement is depicted dia- The machine in Fig. 5 and· Fig. 6 was
and consequently the feed of the saw grammatically in Fig. 3. made by the author, largely from scrap
itself, can then be adjusted by the Fig. 3(a) depicts a typical installation material, in order to supplement the
of the dashpot~ The device in question 'Duplex' hacksaw described earlier and
is one designed for E. W. Cowell's to make use of standard 10" handsaw
bench hacksaw machine and was made blades, so avoiding the cutting down of Figs. 5 and 6. The Autlwrs Hacksaw.
up by the author in order to test the the normal handsaw blades as required
possibilities of hydraulic down feed. for the 'Duplex' machine.
Relieving mechanism also comprises The bed is made from 1Va" hardwood
an oil dashpot. Whereas in the auto- faced with mild steel plate, a combina-
matic feed the cylinder of the dashpot is tion that has proved very successful.
fixed, in the relieving mechanism the The drive is through a 30-1 worm
cylinder floats, supported on a rocking reduction gearbox, the shaft carrying
lever actuated either by a cam or an the worm wheel acting as the crank-
eccentric attached to the hacksaw's shaft for the machine. The hacksaw is
crankshaft, as depicted in Fig. 4. designed to make 60 strokes per minute
Fig. 4(a) shows a blade-relieving de- and the drive from the motor to give
vice fitted by the author to the 'Duplex' effect to this is by means of a %"round
hacksaw. This device follows the lines rubber-canvas endless belt running on
of that depicted in Fig. 4. The eccentric 4" diameter pulleys. These belts are the
gives the saw blade a clearance of product of Greengate Industrial Polymers
approximately an eighth-of-an-inch, ·Limited of Salford, Lancashire, England
allowing the cut to be resumed as soon who it is hoped may be so able to
as the working stroke commences. arrange sales matters that individual
The action of the system is quite belts will be available to amateur and
simple, and should be easily under- small workshop users.
stood from the illustration. The interior The motor is set on a swinging mount
arrangements ofthe dash pot are similar that may be set positively to put the
Fig. 4A S•w relisl mechanism fitted to the "Duplex" hacksew. to that of the hydraulic feed already correct tension on the belt.

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Some work has been carried out on relieving device now fitted to the 'Duplex'
the machine in order to establish the hacksaw machine. There is little doubt
possi~ility of providing some relief for that this device has proved satisfactory
the saw blade. Indeed the work still in every way and has had a marked
goes on, despite assurances from James effect on saw blade life.
Neill, who make saw blades, that pro- It was decided, therefore, to apply the
vided the operating speed is kept low same mechanism to the larger hacksaw
the wear on hand saw blades is little in the workshop. The equipment follows
affected if no relief is provided. closely that shown in Fig. 4. That is to
Counterbalance weights have been say the dashpot floats on a rocking
fitted and the spindle upon which they lever extension to the saw's crankshaft. Fig. 7 The "Cardboard Engineering" simulator.
move has an anchorage that permits it The equipment in Fig. 6(a) shows that
to be set either before or behind the a bellows has been fitted to the dash pot of place. A lot of drawing time can be lems to be solved quickly and the
fulcrum centre on which the arm carry- in order to keep out swart and dirt. saved if, instead of making a whole component position to be established.
ing the saw frame swings. With the Subsequent work on the machine has series of detailed drawings in order to
weight behind the fulcrum centre the led to the fitting of an oil dashpot to find out what occurs to various com- The Vice
counterbalance can be set so that v,s" regulate the dow n-feed of the saw ponents in their working cy.cle, a simple For the simple type of power-operat'3d
box section material (t~e legs on which blade. In addition a micro-switch has full scale representation of the parts to saw the vice fitted, for the most part,
the machine itself stands for example) been added in order to cut out the be investigated is made in cardboard. can only accommodate work that will
can be cut without fear of evil conse- driving motor as soon as the saw has This can then be used to simulate the be cut at right angles to its axis. In the
quences. Alternatively, when cutting finished its work. actual working of the mechanism. larger type of saw, however, in order to
large diameter material the weight needs The method described was employed exploit its capacity to the full, the vice
to be set forward of the fulcrum centre. 'Cardboard Engineering' when designing the hacksaw depicted must be capable of angula r setting.
Since the above was written the author Under this heading a few words on the in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 and the actual The vice in Fig. 8 is typical. Both jaws
has had some experience with the design of the machine may not be out simulation employed is shown in Fig. 7. are movable radially, so the work may
'" ,_......,_ This enabled a number of small prob- be set at any angle that may be required.

Fig. 6A The Relieving Device. Pig. 8 The Vice.

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Selecting Tooth Size The table above, reproduced by the Sawing Failures a nd their Causes 3. Teeth of the saw blade ripping out
Before fitting a new blade to the hack- kindness of James Neill and Co. makers The causes of the failures t hat can be a) Tooth pitch too coarse when
saw machine one must choose the of 'Eclipse' saw blades, refers to blades encountered when using a power driven cutting thin sections
correct tooth size for the work in hand. suitable for use in heavy hacksaws. For hacksaw may be grouped under four b) Sawing against a sharp corner
The table that follows will assist the recommendations applying to light headings: with less than three consecutive
reader to make a correct selection. machines the table reproduced in teeth in contact with t he work
Chapter 2 should be consulted as the 1. Blade breakages c) Material moving during the saw-
Recommended information contained in it applies to a) Insufficient tension of t he blade, ing operation
Material Teeth per inch light power machines as well as to the or excessive t ension if breakage
Alloy Steels 6 10* handsaws with which the chapter is occurs at the pin holes 4. The saw cuts crooked
Aluminium 6 10 concerned. b) Cutting a thin section on a sharp a) Blade held insecurely or out-of-
Brass 4 6 10 It should be noted that figures marked corner with too much pressure on square
Bronze 6 10 with an asterisk indicate that a high- the blade, or with a blade having b) Blade insufficiently tensioned
Carbon Tool Steel 6 10* speed steel blade is recommended. too coarse a pitch c) Hard spot in material forcing the
Case Hardening Steel 6 10 c) Using too light a blade with too blade out of line. To overcome the
Cast Iron 4 6 10 Fitting the Saw Blade heavy a feed trouble turn the work over and
Cold Rolled Steel 4 6 10 The mounting of the saw blade so that it d) Material working loose in the vice start from the other side. If neces-
Copper 6 10 is truly upright is of vital importance to
Cupro Nickel 6 10 e) Using a new blade in a cut made sary fit a new blade
Drill Steel 6 10 14* the satisfaetory working of the power by an old blade d) Material working loose in vice
Duralumin 6 10 hacksaw. This is a matter that has e) Saw frame out of line
High Speed Steel 6 10* already been stressed in connection 2. Blade dulling quickly
Gauge Steel 6 10* with hand-held saws. a) Low tungsten steel blade being
Heat Resisting Steel 6 10 14* It is also of importance that the used w here a high speed steel It is of great importance to see that
Machinery Steel 4 6 tension on the blade should be correct, blade is essential, for example on the machine is run at the correct speeds.
Malleable Iron 4 6 10 otherwise the resulting cut is likely to be hard material These are 70 strokes per minute for
Silver Steel 6 10* crooked and may cause breakage. The b) Incorrect tooth pitching hard materials and 120 for soft stock.
Stainless Steel 6 10 14
correct sequence for tensioning the saw c) Blade fitted with teeth pointing in These figures apply to High Speed Steel
Tubing, Conduit 10 14
blade is as follows: the wrong direction blades using a coolant on all material
d) Excessive speed except on cast iron or nickel chrome
I. Place t he blade on the pins A in the e) Excessive pressure on the blade steels which should be sawn dry.
blade holder f ) Insufficient pressure. Saw teeth A suitable coolant comprises water in
II. Turn the nuts Bon the blade holder rub instead of biting into the work w hich soda and a small portion of
until they are finger tight g) Failure to use a proper coolant soluble oil has been m ixed.
Ill. Apply the correct number of turns to
the tension nut (in the absence of
other instructions turn it finger tight
plus one full turn)
IV. Tighten the nuts of the blade holder
with a spanner

The parts referred to in the above


instruction are detailed in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9 Parts of the blade tensioning device.

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use of the whole saw blade itself, instead
PART2 of confining the wear to a relatively
small part of it.
CHAPTER 6 Pressure is applied to the moving jaw
either by means of a lever having a cam
formed on its extremity, or a screw
passing through the centre of a block,
both having anchorages set on the
slotted base. In the case of the screw,
Using the Power Hacksaw the block may engage slots machined
across the face of the slotted base as
Fig. 2 Application of the pressure screw.

seen in Fig. 2.
Where long lengths of material have WORK ~~SAW BLADE
to be sawn some form of stand needs to
be provided in order to support the bar \ : - - - -- - -- -- - - 0- - ?:.
In previous chapters we have considered deal with any work needing this facility. during the operation. This applies par- -. __)
many salient points that govern the The vice may take several forms; it ticularly to repetition sawing when the
selection and applieation of the correct may either form part of the machine as length stop fitted to the hacksawing
hacksaw blade for a particular class of seen in the Pacera Hacksaw or it may be machine is in use.
work. We must now consider some of a self-contained unit such as is fitted to
the common jobs that are performed the Cowell machine. The Length Stop
on the hacksawing machine. Perhaps one of the simplest, though Most commercial hacksaws are pro- Fig. 3 The length s top.
not by any means the least useful vided with an adjustable stop enabling
Mounting the Work holding device is that depicted in Fig. 1. the user to set the saw to cut repetitively
Clearly, any work set up for sawing In this pattern a T-slotted base is any length of material required. These PACKING SAME DIA.AS WORK
must be held firmly or damage to the affixed to the bed of t he machine and is stops are, for the most part, of simple

O[H~
saw blade must result. For the most positioned so that there is a clearance conception and are, of course, easy to
part the work will be caught in a of approximately half-an-inch between use. They consist of a rod, sliding in
machine vice capable of holding material the saw frame members and the edge lugs forming part of the hacksaw base
of the maximum size for which the of t he vice jaws. The jaws themselves casting, and having a plate or outer
.._.'I.ORK
hacksaw has been designed. In addition are movable along the slotted base, abutment attached to it. The plate is set
the vice jaws can be set at an angle to thus enabling the operator to make f ull at a distance f rom the saw blade equal Fig. 4 Sawing short lengths of material.
to the length of t he pieces of material it
Is required to produce. The arrange-
ment is set out in Fig. 3.
Clearly, little difficulty need be ex-
perienced in holding those pieces of
material or parts that engage the full
width of the vice jaws. Small pieces,
however, need special treatment if they
ere to be sawn successfully.
Fig. 4 depicts a method frequently BENCH TOP
used for the purpose by the author.
In order to ensure that the work I
T-SLOTTED BASE remains level when being sawn it will
Fig. 1 M~chine vic11 for tho hacksaw. pey to support it with a jack, as in Fig. 5. Fig. 5 Supporting short lengths of material.

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Fig. 6 " Bundling".
PART2
CHAPTER 7

The Fretsaw

The Fretsaw and Jigsaw attention being given to the use of the
So far we have been consi.d ering saws, special saws used in buhl or marquetry
both hand and mechanically operated, work. These saws are similar to the
that are intended for sawing in a straight present day fretsaws and piercing saws
line. It is clear, however, that the ability in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
This method is particularly useful round, square; hexagon or angle section to execute curved work is essential-to The fretsaw has a deep-throated frame
when employed with bench-mounted metal that will 'nest' within the vice much workshop activity, an ability that enabling it to be employed on relatively
machines. However, provided sufficient jaws with or without additional support. extends back many years. large areas of work. Tension on the saw
firm packing is available the method is Fig. 6 demonstrates the four examples In the author's copy of Holtzapffel's blade is maintained by springing t he
equally applicable to a floor-mounted of 'bundling' to which reference has 'Turning and Mechanical Manipulation' frame while the saw blade is being
hacksaw. With the bench machine the been made. It will be noticed that in Vol II 1846 these matters, as usual, are mounted. The piercing saw seen in
author employs a standard machinist's three instances V-blocks are used to dealt with at some length, particular Fig. 2 has the same make-up as the fret-
jack, or a car jack if t he floor-mounted support the work. In the case of the
hacksaw is in use, with again, sufficient round material depicted at A it is prob-
rigid packing to ensure a fi rm support able that, for the most part, a pair of
for the jack itself. V-blocks will be needed as also will the
example ilustrated at C.
'Bundling' Square section metal, as seen in
As its name suggests this is the practice diagram B, is best held between pieces
of grouping together a number of similar of card place between the vice jaws and
pieces of material and holding them in the material itself. In this way any very
the vice so that a number of identical slight inequalities there may be in the
lengths can be treated for sawing at the sizes of the individual pieces will be
one setting. For the most part it is short counterbalanced and the work held
lengths of metal that lend themselves to firmly.
bundling since long lengths would be In some machine vices a V-groove is
too difficult to handle in this way. The machined horizontally across the face
practice may be applied to any material of its standing jaw. This would be a
of regular section. satisfactory alternative to the V-blocks
Thus 'bundling' may be used with indicated in example D.
1 Tlwl hand fretsaw.

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Fig. 2 The pie~ing s;rw. TABLE 1 PIERCING SAW BLADES
Thickness and Pitch of Thickness of
Blade Width of Blade Tooth Material Type of Work
M 4/0 .006" X .018" For extremely fine and del icate
scro ll work
80 Up to .015"
M 3/0 .007" X .019" A slightly stronger blade f or less
intri cate scroll work
M 2/0 .008" X .021" For intricate scroll work
M 1/0 .009" X .023" A slightly stronger blade for less
60 .016" to .030"
intricate scroll work
MO .010" X .025" A stronger blade for general use
M1 .011" X .026" 52 .031" to .045" For either scroll or straight work
M2 .012" X .027" For scroll work
44 .046" to .060"
saw; the blade is sec;ured in the same maximum tension on the blade. Pressure M3 .014" X .030" A stronger blade fo r genera l use
way by means of a pair of clamps and is is applied by gripping the cast member M4 .015" X .032" .061" to .092" Fo r scroll work
in the right hand and squeezing while

' ,,,;
tensioned by springing the frame. 32
M5
In the piercing saw in Fig. 3, however, the thumb is applied to the end of the
f rame. The left hand can then be used t o
.017" X .036"
..061 " & over A stronger blade for general use
tension is applied to the blade by more
positive methods. As will be seen the t urn the screw that secures the two
spine of the frame is carried in a lug in elements together.
the cast member forming the main
element of the saw itself. A clamp screw The Fretsaw Blade
in this member serves to secure the Blades for use in the fretsaw, whether
spine in the correct position to obtain by hand or in the machine, are divided
;;;;;;;;;
FRETSAW BLADES
Thickness and Pitch of Thickness of
Width of Blade Tooth Material Type of Work
.01 1" X .034" 32 Up to V•s" For all intricate scroll w ork and
general use on such very thi n
material

22 v.a" to /a"
1

18 Ve" to %"

For general use, each size being


16 progressively stronger to suit
indiv idual requirement s.
Fig. 3 The modem piercing s.!w

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Fig. 5 The authors simple fnJtsawing equ;pment. Ag. 6 Method of using tile bench vice for
fretsawing. sheet metal
cia mP-"""ed""--"""---"~~
table

by their manufacturers into three cate- available at dealers. The same remarks
v.ood toble
gories. In addition blades are available also apply to' the other tables which
for employment in the jig saw. follow.
The categories are: Piercing Saw,
Fret Saw, Spiral Saw and Jig Saw Fretsaws
Blades. Their salient dimensions are As will be appreciated fretsaw blades
given in the accompanying tables. While are for the most part intended for use
the applications of the majority of the on wood. Consequently the tooth pitch-
categories will be evident, the use of ing tends to be much coarser than that ence is not so important but where the gripped in the vice with work held to it
spiral saw blades may be unfamiliar. employed with piercing saw blades. tooth pitching needs to be tailored to by a G-clamp so that it may be sawn in
These blades are used for cutting In Table 2 the available saw blades the thickness of the metal from which the manner prescribed.
materials that are likely to clog the teeth are listed together with the thickness of the work is composed.
of fretsaw or piercing saw blades. They work for which the individual blades are Spiral Saws
are particularly satisfactory when used suited. Ualng the Fretsaw and Piercing Saw It will be apparent that both piercing
on plastics or acrylic resins. As they will Fig. 4 demonstrates, on an enlarged In the small workshop work needing to saws and fretsaws can only cut in one
cut in any direction without the saw scale, the difference between fretsaw be sawn by the fretsaw or piercing saw direction. For this reason, and in order
frame itself being turned they make the blades intended for use on wood and rs only sporadically. Accordingly, to cope with modern plastics which
work of contour-sawing in difficult those made to saw metal. The blade work will usually have to be mounted tend to clog their teeth, spiral saw
materials that much easier. depicted at A is for use on wood and as simply as possible using equipment blades have been produced which obvi-
Piercing saw blades have been made will be seen, has a very coarse tooth to hand. For the most part this ate this trouble. In these blades the
according to the sizes given in the pitching in order to provide adequate ns using the bench vice with the toothed portion is accurately spiralled.
accompanying Table 1. It may be, how- clearance of the chips formed during supported on a small table gripped As a result the teeth do not clog or bind
ever, that by the time these notes are the sawing operation. These blades are the vice jaws. during the sawing process and, in addi-
printed some sizes will have been dis- sometimes called 'Skip tooth' blades. The equipment used by the author is tion the blades will cut in any direction
continued as the result of rationalisation. The blade illustrated at B, on the in Fig. 5 where the simple table without the saw frame itself being
It may be, however, that stocks of some other hand, is of the type employed in the vice may be seen. The turned. It should perhaps be noted that
of the discontinued sizes may still be when sawing metal, where chip clear- llliltlmlnl'llnving Fig. 6 shows the table the ends of the blade are left flat

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TABLE 3 SPIRAL SAW BLADES
allowing t hem to be gripped firmly in Lubricants for Use with the Jig Saw
Pattern No. Length Material Width Material Thickness Pitch the saw frame. Sizes that have been Jig saw blades work more easily if a
5" .024" .011" 60T.P.I.
available are given in Table 3. lubricant is applied to the work.
S.1
S.2 5" .028" .014" 52 T.P.I. Suitable lubricants are:
S.3 5" .032" .017" 44 T.P.I.
For Wood Beeswax
Jig Saw Blades For Metal Light Oil
The blades provided for the jig saw are For Plastics No lubricant
TABLE 4 JIGSAW BLADES listed in Table 4. In addition to dimen- In the case of plastics, these tend to
sional details, silhouettes showing the become overheated during the cutting
Pattern Teeth Recommended
tooth pitching are also given. A word of process, so the blade tends to jam in the
Pinned Unpinned Width Thickness 25mm cutting uses
explanation is perhaps needed in con- saw kerf. The only satisfactory solution
nection with the words 'pinned' and to the problem is to direct a stream of
A7P A7 .250" .028" Wood. asbestos, 'unpinned'. Some jigsaws have a posi- cold air on to the blade as near as
7 wall board, plastics* tive grip for the saw blade. This is
C7P C7 .187'' .022" etc., over 10mm thick possible to the point of cut. This will
provided by pins passing through each cool the blade and prevent overheating
end of the blade and engaging adapters the work.
I in the mechanism of the .jigsaw itself.
B10P B10 .187" .028" Wood, asbestos, wall In order to get the best results from
10 board, plastics* etc.,
The unpinned blades rely on f riction fretsaw and piercing saw blades atten-
010P 010 .110" .020" from 4.5mm to 9mm only, in the same way as the blades in tion should be paid to the following
thick
. hand-operated saw-frames. points:

1. The blade must be fitted correctly


C16P C16 .187" .022" and securely in the saw frame with
Wood, metal and
Choice of Blades for the Jig Saw the teeth pointing towards its handle.
016P 016 .1 10" .020" 16 plastics* etc., from To obtain the best results a blade should But first make sure that the faces of
3mm to 4.5mm thick be selected having a tooth pitch that the clamp are clean and undamaged.
E16 .070" .017" will not straddle the material to be
aawn. Put more simply, t hin sections 2. The saw must be used with the blade
need a fine-tooth saw while coarser upright and with pressure applied on
teeth are required when cutting wood t he down stroke only.
C22P C22 .187" .022"
or plastic materials. 3. The saw should not be overworked
022P D22 .110" .020" Wood, metal and Once the tooth pitch has been decided or have too much pressure applied
22 plastics* etc., from the thinnest blade available should be to it. It should be allowed to do the
E22 .070" .017" 2.5mm to 3mm thick 11118C1ted as this will ensure rapid sawing, work itself.
the cut is narrow and that the saw 4. Piercing saw blades should be lubri-
F22 .035" .011"
turn easily. cated with light oil before use.

C32P C32 .187" .022"

D32P 032 . 110" .020" • Wood, metal and


32 plastics* etc., from
E32 .070" .017" 1mm to 2mm thick

F32 .035" .011"

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PART 2 Fig. 2A MechenictJI pitJrcing
SBW.

CHAPTER 8

Power Fretsaws and Jigsaws

The Fretsaw Machine An example of such a fretsaw is Fig. 1.


ln1the interests of rapid and comfortable The work table and driving mechanism
working it was inevitai:Jie that the hand- including one blade holder are located
held fretsaws or jigsaws should be on and inside a cast-iron floor pedestal
developed into power-operated whilst the corresponding blade holder
machines. Some of these devices were and its supporting slide are suspended
of very light construction while others from the roof on a pendant provided
were large and were permanent fixtures with a laminated spring to keep t he monly made from lancewood in these
in the building where they were housed. saw blade in tension. The spring, com- machines, is connected to the upper
slide by means of a leather strap.
An interesting feature of this type
of machine fretsaw is the method of
mounting the saw blades which for the
most part have cross-pins fitted at each
end. The blade holders, or saw plungers
as some term them, have hooks formed
In them enabling them to be instantly
attached or detached when required.
Fi~. 2 depicts the method employed.
It IS perhaps worth recalling that, as
with hand-held fretsaws, the blade cuts
on the down stroke as indicated in the
Illustration.
The lancewood mentioned earlier is
Ohiefly imported from Guinea and, ac-
ng to the 'Practical Woodworker',
light, hard, elastic and fine grained. It
commonly used, in some quarters,
bows and arrows as well as for
ing rods.
Fig. 1 A large old·time power fretsaw. Fig. 2 M ethod of etteching the saw blade.
2(a) depicts a model, now in the
Museum, London, of an early Fl1g. 28 Hobb;es frt~tsaw modem version.

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shown in Fig. 2(d). This was designed The work table, which is capable of
for the amateur at a time when fretwork tilting to 45 degrees, has a working
was distinctly popular and the products surface 18" by 18" (457 x 457m/m).
of the pastime tended to litter many A sectional drawing of the Meddings
households. jigsaw is reproduced in Fig. 4. As will be
American manufacturers have, at one noticed, the drive to the blade holder is
time or another, put on the market by means of a device known as a Scotch
fretsaw machines intended for both Crank. In this mechanism no connecting
amateur and professional use. A good rod is n eeded as the crank pin engages
example from the Driver range of tools directly a phosphor bronze slider set
Is depicted in Fig. 2(e). This machine in the h ousing prepared for it in the
had considerable throat , allowing quite reciprocating rod attached to the blade
large work to be handled with some holder.
facility. It dates from about 1938. The whole of the reciprocating
Industry has always found a use for mechanism is oil-immersed, oil seals
the fretsaw or jigsaw, so much develop- being provided to prevent any leakage
ment work has been put. into t he of lubricant. The slider (77) and the
machine. reciprocating rod (84) can be seen in
Fig. 2C Hobbies fretsaw modern Vfl~ion, for bench use. The machine in Fig. 3 is intended for Fig. 5 which demonstrates, in an ex-
Right, Ag. 20 The original "Hobbies" frstssw. OK cutting wood, plastics, laminated ploded view, the various details that
Below, Fig. 2E The American "Driver" freiSIIw.
Fnllaw material and Perspex. It can also be' comprise the lower reciprocating
MICIIIM.
uaed as a filing machine. It is obtainable assembly.
both as a b ench or floor-mounted The upper assembly, again in ex-
Frame and arms o f steel. Tilting
table. A rms give a swing of 19 in. ine and has fine range of speeds, ploded view, may be seen in Fig. 6. The
and are made of light s teel S<.-ction. four in all, namely 550, 800, 1090 actuating rod (17), square in section, is
A spring fitted to the top arm adds
greatly to free running and .it rais~s 1400 strokes a minute. driven from the lower reciprocating
tho arm when t he saw breaks. Senl
ready for use w_i~h ~z saw blades,
2 d esigns, a dnll b1t, screwdnvcr
and spanner. ST/ 8 Carriage forward.

in which are set a pair of levers that


terminate in the holders for the saw
blade. The levers are connected together
at one end by a rod and in the other by
the saw itself which may be put under
tension by a screw device fitted to the
upper saw holder. This assembly is
driven from a countershaft at the back
of the machine by means of the con-
necting rod seen in the illustration.
power driven machine for piercing work The counters haft is fitted with a clutch
on metal sheets or plates. Some of the that may be operated by a treadle at the
work may be seen in the illustration. front of the machine.
The machine itself consists of a heavy Of the very light machines many
cast-iron table supported on four legs readers will remember the little machine
made by Hobbies of Dereham, Norfolk, Fl>e M ttddings fretsew.
and carrying a hollow V-shaped casting

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exhaust deflector pump (158) to be seen
CYLINDER HEAD in the previous illustration.
NO AIR VALVE
Fig. 7 demonstrates the general
assembly of the main components of
the jigsaw and, in this connection, the
bow (157) is now a one-piece casting in
the interests of rigidity and is not com-
posed of two individual parts as may
appear from the earlier Fig. 3.

The 'Duplex' Jigsaw


Some years ago the contributors
' Duplex', writing in Model Engineer,
published the detail drawings of the
jigsaw in Fig. 8. This is a small capacity
machine with a work table suitable for
cutting either wood or metal. The spring
box, set above the table, not only con-
tains the plunger supporting the upper

BELT & PULLEYS


TOTAllY ENCLOSED
BY REMOVABLE lF==:==iif1!kJ
BELT COVER

MA INSHAFT & PHOSPHOR BRONZE bly via the saw blade that is
CRANI(WHEEL SLIDER
ONE PIECE ht in holders (18) and (65) attached
CONSTRUCTIO
GROUND
PERSPEX OIL LEVEL rods themselves. The cylinder
IN DICATOR
THROUGHOUT Is held in the bow (157) and houses
mn1or,Bssion spring (16) to keep the
blade in tension at all times.
actuating rod (17) is fitted with a
cup washer assembly converting
whole into a species of bicycle
Air from this device is delive red
Fig. 4 Section of the Meddi ngs fretsaw.
the rubber hose (40) tO the Rg. 6 TheupperassemblyoftheMeddingssew.

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saw blade to which it imparts the
reciprocating motion it needs.
Fig. 9 depicts the mechanism used for
taking the thrust from the saw blade
when in work. As may be inferred, t he
two upper rollers restrain the blade
from twisting while the lower roller
supports the blade when work is pushed
against it. Experience in using the jig-
saw leaves the impression t h at a rever-
sal of the location of these rollers might
well be beneficial. It has always appeared
to the author that the rollers resisting
the twisting action are too far from the
surface of t he work which makes it

Fig. 7 G~nerol ossemb/'y of the M eddings sow.

end of the saw blade but also acts as the the illustration, the crankshaft is
cylinder of the air pump u sed t o blow under and behind the work table 8 1
away any wood dust or swart produced has a disc crank supporting a sho
when sawing. ln this matter the machine connecting rod attached to one end
follows accepted practice. the rocking lever. The opposite end
The drive to the saw blade is a little the lever is attached to a sliding mem
unusual, however. As may be seen in that acts as the lower support for

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Fig. 1 0 Fences for the Duplex jigsaw.

PART2
CHAPTER 9

The Cold Saw

cannot leave the subject of metal large sections of materials then coming
Below left, Fig. 11 The Black snd Deck•• ng without some reference to the to the fore in the wake of the Industrial
jigsaw 8UtJchment. saw and its use. The cold saw is a Revolution then underway. Fig. 1 shows
lar saw running at a slow speed, a form of saw appearing in suppliers'
fitted to prevent the work from lifting off the most part f rom 33r.p.m. to catalogues aboutthe turn of the century.
difficult to guide the work accurately
the work table. m., employed for the bulk in cutting· As will be seen the machine appears in
when sawing. In the same illustration may be seen
As might be expected all ~he rollers gth of stock in the form of solid two guises, one as a hand driven unit,
the nozzle and part of the air pipe for the ons, tubes, pipes, extrusions etc. in the other as a saw that may b e driven
are adjustable as, of course, IS the foot
dust b lower mentioned earlier. The rious materials that are available. from the line shafting. The circular saw
height and placing of this nozzle is also cold saw was introduced during fitted was approximately 12" diameter
adjustable. . . last century in order to deal with the and the maximum cutting capacity
Duplex, in additition to _des1gnmg_the
machine as a w hole, prov1ded drawmgs Cold Iron Sawing J\\achinc.
for some simple fences to be used w1th Fur t1and. or rnr Hand nnd Power. with or without Lc)t'
the jigsaw. A number of these may bo
seen in Fig. 10.

The Black and Decker Jig Saw


One further form of jig saw needs to
be mentioned. This is the hand-held
machine that may be used directly on
the work as shown in Fig. 11. The tool
depicted is the Black and Decker device
marketed as an attachment to th
electric power-drills. The tool is
attached to the drill which rema
nicely balanced when used in this
Air from the cooling arrangeme
the drill itself is ducted directly onto
work and so enables the worker to Iron Sllwing
clearly the line he has to follow.

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Fig. 2 M odem light cold ssw.

x 3". A suds pump was fitted, the bed raw material billets when required. The
the machine itself forming a trough vice has length stops so that repetition
contain the lubricant. cutting can be undertaken.
interesting design feature of this The mechanism of the saw is shown
lar cold saw is the method used in the sectional drawing Fig. 3 which is
the arbor on which the saw taken from the manufacturer's operating
is mounted. The arbor carried a instructions sent out with each machine.
wheel which was engaged by a This drawing depicts clearly the driving
worm mounted on the shaft that mechanism that is incorporated in the
driven either by hand or from the unit together with the disposition and
lineshafting, the overall speed type of the bearings used.
n being such thatthesawwould The machine is eqLiip'p ed with coolant
a maximum of 60r.p.m., pre- equipment, a necessary provision for
the work intended.
machine in Fig. 2 is a modern The quick-acting vice previously men-
of a light cold saw. Here, the tioned can be swung at any angle
drive has been retained enabling required to suit the work in hand, so an
pact motor-driven unit to be angular scale is provided in order to
A quick-acting vice is fitted in allow the vice to be set rapidly by the
Fig. 3 Section of tho light cold ssw.
to allow the rapid production of operator.

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brake to bring the saw to a stop rapidly
PART2 when required.
The upper wheel is so m ounted that
CHAPTER 10 the saw can be quickly adjusted for
correct tension, a scale to give the
operator the right setting for any given
saw widt h being provided on the main
frame. As to t he wheel itself, t his is
mounted on sealed-for-life bearings that
The Bandsaw need no external lubrication and are, of
course, proof against the ingress of any
wood dust or other abrasive material.
The work table of the bandsaw is
capable oftilting when needed. Fig. 2(a)
demonstrates the method by which this
This is a machine in which an endless movement that may be imparted by the is effected. As may be seen the table
length of steel saw is,carried on large work in hand. swivels on a mount that can be set at
diameter pulleys set one above the Amongst other things, the bandsaw
work table and one below, while the is intended for handling curved work.
blade itself is t hreaded through guides Consequent ly blades of varying width
able to protect it from any twisting need to be fitted to accommodate the
scale of the work being sawn. In addition
straight dimensional sawing is within
the capacity of the bandsaw, so for the
most part the better class of machine is
provided with fences, either built-in or
as attachments, that will enable accurate
cutting to a repetitive dimension to be
carried out.
The bandsaw is a comparatively covered in; in fact only the amount of
modern conception, being probably at expos~re that is needed for any parti-
the time of writing somewhat less than cular JOb should be given, and this is
100 years old. Many of the older provided for by the pillar t hat carries the
machines must have been pretty lethal upper guide rollers. This is telescopic
for there was little or no guarding for end can be adjusted vertically and locked
the saw, as two illu strations in my book the desired position.
'A History of Machine Tools' make very In Fig. 2 we see the machine with its
clear. doors open. This illustration also
Nowadays, government regulations very convincingly how
have insisted that t hese machines are I the operator is protected should
adequately guarded should a breakage be a saw breakage.
of the saw occur. The operator would On a constructional note, the main
t hen be protected against the effects of is a welded steel fabrication
any breakages. rries the whole mechanism. The
Fig. 1 depicts a modern bandsaw in wheel is mounted directly on
Fig. 1A Using the bandsaw. w hich the saw itself is almost entirely motor Which has a fOOt-operated Fig. 2 A modem bandsaw with its protective doors open.

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The woodworking bandsaw is a high- TABLE 1
speed machine, the saw itself running
at a speed from 2000 to 3000 surface Speed and Tooth Selection Table
feet per minute. On the other hand the High Carbon Bandsaw
metal working bandsaw needs to run at
much lower speeds and, indeed, needs Number of teeth per inch
far greater latitude in t his respect, Speed Material thickness up to
ranging from 290ft. minimum to less ft./minute %" %" '}" 4"
than 75ft. minimum depending on the Low Carbon Steels 150- 175 32/24R 18/14R 10/8R 6R
metal being sawn. Medium Carbon Steels 100- 150 32/24R 18/14R 10R 8R
High Carbon Steels 80- 125 32/24R 18/14R 10R 10/8R
Bandsaw Blades Low Carbon Free Cutting 150-175 24/18R 14/10R 8R 6R
Bandsaws are made with three different Medium Carbon Free Cutting 100-150 24/18R 14110R 8R 6R
tooth formations to accommodate vari- Cast Iron 75-100 18R 14R 10R 8R
ous classes of material. The t hree Nickel, Nickel Chrome, Nickel Chrome
variations of tooth are depicted in Fig. 3 Molybdenum Steels 50-100 32/18R 14R 10R 8R
Tool and Die Steels 70- 125 18R 14R
while the accompanying table gives 10R 8R
High Speed Steels 50- 80 32/24R 18R 10R 10R
recommendations as to speed and tooth Stainless Steels 50- 90 32/24R 18R 10R 8R
form when· using a high-carbon steel Heat Resisting Alloys, e.g.,
any desired angle up to 45°. It may also saw which is the type most commonly Nimonic, Titanium 30- 45 32/24R 18/14R 10R 8R
be observed that a stop is fitted, bolted used. ' Copper 250- 1000 24118R 14R/6H 6H 3H
to the main framework, that enables the Technological developments have Brass 250- 1000 24/18R 14R/6H 6H 3H
operator to re-set t he table truly at right now brought improvements in band- Aluminium, M anganese,
angles to the saw itself once t he angular saw material. For example blades are Phosphorus, Silicon, Bronzes 200-900 24/18R 14RI6H 6H 3H
cutting operation is completed. now being produced that have teeth A luminium and Aluminium Alloys 500-1000 24/18R 14RI6S 4S 3S
Asbestos 400-800 18R 10R 6H
made from high-speed steel welded to 3H
Fibre Glass 500-1000 18R 10R 6H 3H
a back formed from ca rbon alloy st eel. Formica 400-600 18R 14R 6H 3H
The composite saw blade enables t he Plastics 1500-2500 14R 10R 6H 3H
user to cut at an increased rate, w hile Plywood 2000- 3000 14R 6H 6H 3H
t he increased resistance to flexing
REGULAR TOOTH stresses conferred by the alloy steel
Recommended type of tooth
backing greatly prolongs the useful life A- Regular S- Skip H-Hook
of the saw.
Table 2 gives the dimensions of band-
saws available whilst Table 1, already
referred to, indicates the suitable tooth
pitch for four specific thicknesses of 1. The correct set ensures an easy Two types of tooth set are available;
SKIP TOOTH work together with the correct speeds passage for the bandsaw through these are shown-in Fig. 3(a). The Decker
in feet per minute to be used with a the work set, depicted to the left of the illustra-
wide variety of materials. tion, comprises a pattern of three teeth,
2. It ensures a more accurate cut, par-
t icularly when cutting in a straight one group set to the left, another group
Tooth Set set over to the right with a third group
line
The correct set of the teeth in a band- of teeth remaining straight.
saw is of importance to the user for a 3. The right set provides a finer finish to
HOOK TOOTH the work This arrangement provides the
number of reasons. These are, perhaps optimum chip clearance. Decker set is
Fig. 3 Three variat ions of saw tooth. in order of importance: 4. More even wear on the teeth results recommended for extended runs on

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TABLE 2 1. Crystallization of the steel ribbon
from which the saw is made. This is a
Carbon Steel Bandsaw
condition produced by the back of
Regular Teeth Teeth per 25m/m or 1" the saw rubbing against the metal
m/m inch disc of the saw guide. The disc
3X 0.65 '/s X 0.025 14 18 24 shou ld only revolve when the saw is
3X 0.65 '/1e X 0.025 14 18 24 32 actually cutting, otherwise it should
5X 0.65 '/4 X 0.025 10 14 18 24 32 be stationary.
6X 0.65 s;,e x 0.025 10 14 18 24 2. Using a blade too wide for the radius
8X 0.65 3fa X 0.025 8 10 14 18 24
10 X 0.65 Y2 X 0.025 8 10 14 18 24 of the curve being cut. The blade will
16 X 0.80 o/s X 0.032 8 10 14 18 24 therefore twist against the saw guides
19 X 0.80 3/4 X 0.032 6 8 10 14 and may overheat so destroying the
25 X 0.90 1 X 0.035 6 8 10 14 temper o f the steel.
3. The use of worn or badly adjusted
saw guides. These should support
Skip Teeth Teeth per 25m/m or 1" the blade as close to the point of
m/m I inch sawing as possible. ·
6X 0.65 '/4 0.025
X 6 4. Tension of the saw blade too great. oecKERsrr wAvvsrr
10 X 0.65 3fa 0.025
X 3 6 5. Forcing the feed. If the saw does ..not Fig. 3A Bandsawtooth setting.
13 X 0.65 1!2
X 0.025 3 6
16 X 0.80 5fe
X 0.032
cut freely it may need resharpening.
3 6
19 X 0.80 %X 0.032 3 6. Incorrect saw setting leading to the
25 X 0.90 1 X 0.035 3 4 blade binding and overheating.
7. Incorrect sharpening of bandsaws
for wood. Fig. 4 depicts the right and
Hook Teeth Teeth per 25m/m or 1" wrong methods. As shown the gullets
m/m inch at the base of the saw teeth should
13 X 0.65 1!2 X 0.025 3 6 be rounded and not sharp, otherwise
19 X 0.80 3/4 X 0.032 3 6 cracks will develop.
25 X 0.90 1 X 0.035 3 6 8. Finally, bad brazing of the joint.
Check that the maker's instructions
in this matter have been followed
meticulously.
relatively heavy sections, say over %" Bandsaw Breakages ·
thick. The set is also recommended for There are several reasons for bandsaw Perhaps it should be added that
contour or profile cutting. breakage. One may take it that the machine vibration is sometimes an un-
The Wavy set is a type in which material from which the saw is made is expected source of saw breakage. When
groups of teeth are arranged alternately sure to be above reproach, for manu- the pulley wheels have become worn or
to the right and left of the blade. It is facturers check very strictly both the clogged with resin and wood fibres, or
only supplied to selected sizes of regular steel itself as well as the sharpening WRONG
the machine itself is set on an unsecure
tooth bandsaws. The set reduces to a and, of course, the jointing of the saw. foundation, then breakage may occur. Fig. 4 Correct and incorrect method of sharpening bandsaws.
minimum the danger of teeth ripping If troubles do develop it is advisable
out, and for this reason is recom- for the user to contact the actual maker
mended for use on thin section material, of his bandsaw. Meanwhile here are
that is under W' thick. some possible reasons for breakage.

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Once the tempering is complete the
PART2 joint must be trimmed with a file until it
is the same thickness as the rest of the
CHAPTER 11 blade itself.

Butt Welding
Of late years, in the interests of time-
saving, butt welding has been largely
adopted. The equipment involved has
Bandsaw Brazers and Welders provision for the automatic regulation
of the whole welding process, that is to
say the welding temperature, the pres-
sure applied to the welded joint and the
time occupied in the operation is reduced
to exact figures that eliminate human
The importance of correct bandsaw In the larger shop, however, the w ork error.
jointing has been mentioned in the is often the responsibility of a depart- Resistance heating, like the method
previous chapter. Natur~lly, satisfactory ment, perhaps the millwrights, or the used for brazing the joint, is used to
procedure in this matter relies on the saw doctors in ;a wood mill, where the raise the work to welding temperature. Fig. 2 A typical bandsaw brarer.
use of specialised equipment designed brazing equipm~nt is bench-mounted. Welding is usually initiated manually
to ensu re this. Fig. 2 depicts a' typical bandsaw brazer. after which the complete process of
Brazing the bandsaw joint is carried This equipment is provided with a fence welding and cut-off of current is auto-
out by heating the work electrically, the AA to ensure that the two ends of the matic.
electrical resistance of the joint causing bandsaw remain in alignment during A typical example of the equipment
it to rise to brazing heat. The equipment the jointing process, a pair of clamps B needed is depicted in Fig. 3. This is the
used comprises clamps to hold the saw to hold the work and a lever C to clamp Italy 4 now supplied by Wadkin to users
in place and a lever and pressure pads the brazed joint once the silver solder
to force the two halves of the joint into begins to melt after the current is
close contact as soon as the brazing switched on. When the brazing has
material or silver solder has melted. been completed the joint needs to be
In order to preserve unifo rm blade tempered before t he saw is put into
thickness at the joint the work needs to use; this work is itself carried out in the
be bevelled, the length of the bevel saw brazer and involves re-heating the
varying from %"to %" according to the brazed joint to a full heat by methods
width of the saw. In saws used for detailed by the manufacturers in their
cutting wood the bevel or scarf should instructions for using the equipment.
extend for two tooth pitches in accord-
ance with Fig. 1.

Brazing Equipment
The equipment for brazing is sometrmes ~;:
attached to the column of the handsaw
itself, more particularly on saws intended
for metal cutting in small general- FIG.I
purpose workshops where the operator 3 Bandsaw butt welding equip-
himself usually carries out the brazing. Fig.1 Preparingthebandsawtorbraring.

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mounted cup-shaped grinding wheel Ag. 4 (opposite) The ''Loroch'"
bandsaw grinding machine.
affixed to an electric motor may be
used. The motor is mounted on a slide
and means are provided for adjusting
the depth of cut which is made by
sliding the rotating guiding wheel over
the surface of the welded joint, both
sides being ground until the blade
presents a smooth f inish of uniform
thickness.
While bandsaw blades can be
sharpened by hand methods and files
are available for the purpose, modern
practice advises the use of automatic Ag 4A (right) Saw sharpening
on the Loroch machine.
grinding equipment of the type in Fig. 4.
The machine seen in the illustration is a
product of the Wadkin organisation; it
is fully automatic and its controls ensure
that the teeth are ground accurately Fig. 5 How to handle a bandssw blade.
both as to deP.th and length.
The machine can also be used for
sharpening circular saws automatically.
Its capacities are:
Circular Saws up to 235/a" dia.
(600m/m dia.)
Band Saws up to 23/a" (60m/m) wide
Maximum Tooth Pitch His" (30m/m)
Maximum Tooth Depth %" (19m/m)
of their bandsaw machines. The various Space does not permit a detailed
controls are indicated graphically while description of the bandsaw grinder being TO UNCOIL
1<1.•1Wt-""l... l'wrldi . . JI...._(f:;, I) f'f'lllr-c -~ r.....,(F.., 21;:,. . t-a-.lt,...tTI.,.._
at the top of the cabinet a guillotine is given; suffice it to say that a single ...,..,fllllloiWI4l'IO~ ~heWIII•• ..,!tO!f!O~~MW-,&.•d•-.a..,_••.,..t'9 •
•"""'" ..... .,.,»tillftt."' ... a.tn..&:ot"''b.Mo ..--.c-.-
'""........,

provided enabling the user to trim the motor drives the pivoted grinding head HOW TO HANOU aANDSAW
W~ .,..l:t.JOI\dit t.IMnlr-u.. ..,...,..~.._'>OVId..,., ...,..ntlo4o n:J-'>t 't.ledfn.;. Jo) •11·1~•1...-llt
saw ends accurately and speedily. and the cam gear that actuates the feed thM-·1"-Hif'. lh......fiWIOihP"'I~!Oit-.!t!MIIWI..."'III._I....,_...._ T;o•""'•l..r.d ,.MM'o-<""-'""''M
••KI.<Oot .... ~., fO...NI. thf QnN.,., {J"IQII•• Al'otl 1). ~ t9"'"'9) ouol..rl o!Jiy b.ll!41t*-o .....
C:. . . . . tl.foi~JitCII{'·• lJ
After welding has taken place the joint mechanism as well as the grinding
needs to be dressed, in order to ensure wheel pivoting device.
that the bandsaw blade runs smoothly,
particularly over the guide rollers and Handling Bandsaw Blades
between the fingers that prevent the It will be appreciated that if unfortunate
blade from twisting when in use. accidents are not to be forthcoming,
The dressing may be carried out by some discipline must be practised when
filing, using a simple fixture enabling bandsaw blades are being handled.
the joint to be held on a slight curve Bandsaws have a will of their own, so if
while the filing operation is taking place. they are to be tamed, a rigid procedure
Alternatively the surface of the weld must be followed. The methods to be
may be ground, in which case a vertically adopted are shown in Fig. 5.

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Fig. 2 The end pieces ofthe

PART2 frame for the sfJCOnd saw.

Appendix
!..M.
(s.s mm) 0
It has been suggested to the author that made by Jam es Neill and marketed
drawings ofthetwo miniature hacksaws under the name 'Eclipse'.
described in Chaptef- 1 would be of The hacksaw for which the drawings
interest. These two saws, as has been are given in Fig. 1 is probably the
said, are intended to take the 6" blades simpler of the two devices. The parts

blade anchorage counterboced for


(J .emm(4 BA cheese head screw

are not difficult to make, but need good a little more mechanical dexterity is
workmanship and careful fitting in order required. The main part of t he operation
to obtain a satisfactory result. is the machining of the w aists seen in
~----------------------- 9·----------------------~
(22emm}
.
112mm( In Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 4(a)
details are given of the second hack-
saw. This tool has som e parts, in parti-
the drawing. This is w ork f or the fly-
cutter, set between centres in t h e lathe,
according t o Fig. 5. As wi ll be seen the
cular those illustrated at A and 8, where work is clam ped to a vertical slide w it h

cross section
on XX ~------------ 3~ H------------~
( 98 ·42& mm) Fig. 2A The second mini•·
Fig. 1 The simpler of the two miniature hiJcksaws. ture hacksaw.

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(11.smm)
u/l&'oiA
®E (BIT\m)
s116'o1A
(nsmm)
7IS'oiA
Fig.
parts.
3 The handle Fig. 4A The front bll de
holder and adjuster.

~ 7132" square (Jmm )


L- \ (~;.smm)\ _11e"

-{~--~~~}- m pmm]
[_112·~
(12mm)
jt
(16mmy--l
S IB"

0 -021'
_..._.,""""-d_ _ _T!I (o. o6mm)
' __j

Apart from this operation the rest of


the work needed to produce the remain-
ing parts is straightforward turning and
drilling of a type described by the
author elsewhere.
its own centre to coincide with the axis required. As in this instance no great Fig. 2(a) is reproduced as a guide to

*j
of the lathe. accuracy is needed; the point of the the detail drawings.
The flycutter itself will need to be flycutting tool can be set with the aid of
adjusted to the radius of the curvature a rule as depicted in Fig. 6.

{>mm)
(3mm) II -I
";(~ ("mml
(2.51 mm)
rl...N,:J(emm~BA CLtAR
r
l•
318
..* IJmm)

Fig. 6 Adjusting the suning of tho flycutuu.

L~ (1omm)
t L
o.on• L . ~ ('mm)(j(\
\J
J

~
{o.oomm) l!
16
(17.46 mm)
(s.smm)
CD
(s.smm)
{e mm) st16'01A
~ - -,- 1M. FLYCUTTER

~~
Cr
(IO mm)
6~r
(1i>4mm)
iJ
(10 mm)
Fig. 4 The handle-end blsdo
holder and the mainframe spine. Fig. 5 Sertin g up the work for flycutti ng.

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