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BICS and CALP

1.The Common Underlying Proficiency


Theory

2.Context Embedded and Context


Reduced Communication

(Cummins, 1981)
Context Embedded and
Context Reduced Communication
Context embedded communication
exists when there is a good degree of
contextual support in communications, e.g.
body language, gestures, intonation etc.

Context reduced communication there


are very few clues to meaning outside
language.
Jim Cummins’ Interdependence hypothesis

BICS in first language BICS in second language

Common
Underlying
Proficiency

CALP in first language CALP in second language


The Common Underlying Proficiency Theory
(The Iceberg Analogy)
Development of context-reduced
fluency
Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate
levels of contexts-reduced language proficiency
Level of language

Monolingual
child
proficiency

Second
language learner

Length of time
Development of context embedded
second language fluency
Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate
levels of contexts-embedded language proficiency

Monolingual
child
Level of language
proficiency

Second
language learner

Length of time
Comunication vs. Study
Comunicación
Comunicación
simple
simple

Language
Languageof
of
communication
communication

Comunicación
Comunicaciónligada
ligada Comunicación
Comunicaciónlibre
libre
del
delcontexto
contexto del
delcontexto
contexto

Language
Languageof
ofstudy
study

Comunicación
Comunicación
compleja
compleja
Focus on message:
making input comprehensible.
Developing critical literacy

Focus on use (language to)


Focus on language:
Generate new knowledge.
Awareness of/and critical Create literature and art
analysis of language Act on social realities
forms and uses
Definition of bilingual
education

“Bilingual education…a program where two


languages are used equally as media of
instruction”
(Romaine, 1989:216)
Content-based language teaching:
A continuum of content and language integration

Content-driven Language-driven

Total immersion

Partial immersion

Subject courses

Subject courses/language teaching

Language classes based on thematic units

Language classes/use of content for


language practice
Speak English,
please