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A Laboratory Manual for

Refrigeration And
Air-conditioning
Third year Diploma in
Mechanical Engineering Group (ME)

Maharashtra State
Board of Technical Education, Mumbai
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CELL, MSBTE, MUMBAI.
LABORATORY MANUAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Item Team for design Team for restructuring

Educational Consultant/ Dr. R.S. MahashabdeTechnical Dr. A. R. Thete,Asst.


Regional Project Teachers' Training Institute, Director, Regional Office of
Coordinator Extension Centre, Pune Technical Education,
Aurangabad.

Project Institution Govt. Polytechnic, Aurangabad Govt. Polytechnic, Aurangabad

Project Period April 2002 - March 2003 July 2004 - Feb. 2005

Chief Project Principal, Shri P. V. Sarode Principal, Shri P. V. Sarode


Coordinator

Project Coordinator Shri R. D. Virdhe, HOD, Shri R. D. Virdhe,HOD,


Mechanical Engineering, Govt. Mechanical Engineering, Govt.
Polytechnic,Aurangabad Polytechnic,Aurangabad

Course Coordinator Shri R. N. Khadse, LME Govt. ---


Polytechnic, Aurangabad

Subject Experts 1) Shri M.W.M.S.Baig, LME, 1) Shri R. N. Khadse,


Government Polytechnic, LME Govt. Polytechnic,
Nanded. Aurangabad
2) Shri S.S.Moon, LME, 2) Shri S.A.Kulkarni,
Government Polytechnic, Arvi LME Government Polytechnic,
3) Shri V.D.Thakur, LME, Aurangabad.
Government 3) Shri S. A. Joshi, LME,
Polytechnic,Amravati. Govt. Polytechnic, Jalna
4) Shri S.A.Kulkarni,
LME, Government
Polytechnic, Aurangabad.
5) Shri C.Z.Kazi, LME Gramin
Polytechnic, Nanded.

Subject Editor Shri P. V. Rekhade, HOD, ---


Mechanical
Engineering,Government
Polytechnic, Arvi

© 2004,Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education,


49,Kherwadi, Aliyawar Jung Road, Bandra (East), Mumbai-400051,
Maharashtra State, India.
No part of this Laboratory Manual may be reproduced, in any form or by any
means, without permission in writing from MSBTE Mumbai.
MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF
TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Certificate

This is to certify that, Mr. / Ms.

roll no. of Third Year Diploma in has

completed the term work satisfactorily in Refrigeration And Air-conditioning

(1548) for the academic year 200 to 200 as prescribed in the

curriculum.

Place : Enrolment No.:

Date : Exam. Seat No.:

Subject Teacher Head of the Department Principal

Seal of
Institution
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

LEARNING OVERVIEW
IMPORTANCE OF SUBJECT -
Mechanical Engineering Diploma holder often comes across various systems based on the Refrigeration
and Air conditioning applications. He is required to often operate and regulate the regularly maintained these
systems in various application areas. For performing this, it is very essential that diploma engineer should be
well conversant with fundamental principles, concepts, devices and systems based on Refrigeration and Air
conditioning.

By conducting the experiments in these manual, following aspects will be strengthened -

• Solidification of theory concept by performing practical


• Intellectual skills and psychomotor skills
• Logical method of analysis and interpretation
• Concepts of Refrigeration and air conditioning.
• Carry out fault finding in the systems
• Undergo the repair and maintenance
• Conduct the trials on refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment
• Find out the performance of the equipment
• Get acquainted with the latest know-how of the refrigeration field

The Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education has conducted a survey of industries in Maharashtra
to find out the job functions of the Mechanical Engineering Diploma Holders in the Industries.

The curriculum document explicitly describes technical skills, social skills and attitudes to be developed
in industries while designing this subject; the principles under theories of learning have been used. The link
diagram and graphical structure is provided, which helps the students to learn systematically and also helps the
teachers to use different strategies for teaching.

The major important points to note for users of curriculum (as described in curriculum document of
MSBTE) are:

• Job description and role of technician


• Curriculum objectives drawn from job analysis
• Personal development domain
• Social development
• Life Long Learner
• Industry related professional role
• Curriculum areas to develop / achieve curriculum objectives
• Graphical structure of the subject area
• Teaching learning process at curriculum level
• Approach student evaluation

Diploma Engineers work in different industries where the climatic conditions are controlled for the
processes. In these areas He / She comes across various refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment.
Maintenance and measuring performance of these equipment plays an important role. It is therefore essential
that knowledge and familiarization with Basic refrigeration cycles, Laws, equipment, air-conditioning Processes,
various related devices like compressors, evaporators, expansion valves is necessary.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦♦ 5i


Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

LINK / BLOCK DIAGRAM


SHOWING INTER RELATIONSHIP OF SUBJECT AREAS,
CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES & JOB PROFILE.

HUMAN SCIENCES CORE TECHNOLOGY


1. Communication skill 1. Manufacturing Processes
2. Generic skill 2. Elements of Mech. Engineering.
3. Industrial organization & 3. IT-III
supervisory 4. Machine Drawing
5. Theory of M/c.
6. Thermal Engineering.
7. Advance Manufacturing processes
8. Mechanical Measurements
ENGINEERING
SCIENCES
1. App. Mechanics
2. Engineering Drawing
3. Electrical Engineering &
Electronics
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
4. IT-II
1. Machine Design
2. Metrology & Quality Control
3. Production Engineering.
4. Fluid power Engineering.
5. Project/Generic skills
BASIC SCIENCE
6. Application Areas
1. App.
7. Automobile Engineering.
Mathematics
2. App. Physics. 8. Refrigeration & A/C
9. Tool Engineering.
10. CAD/CAM
11. Tool Design
12. Mechatronics

CURRICULUM
OBJECTIVES
Management and Supervisory
skill Technical skill
1. Drawing & Drafting
2. Operational skill for
JOB PROFILE Automated M/c.
1. Supervisor 3. Fault finding and
2. Entrepreneur problem solving
3. Engineering 4. Interdisciplinary skill of
technician Electrical, Electronics,
4. Self developer Instrumentation
5. Member of society 5. Design skills
6. Life long learner

ii ♦♦
6 MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

GRAPHICAL STRUCTURE OF SUBJECT AREA


Third year- Mechanical Engineering
Refrigeration And Air-conditioning (1548)

Understanding, analyzing and applying various aspects of refrigeration and air-


conditioning, in practical application areas in relation with operation and maintenance
Problems
of various equipment like refrigerators, air conditioners, cooling towers, cold storages,
and Refrigeration systems.

Analyze, understand working of devices Analyze and understand various


like evaporators, Compressors, expansion systems like hermetically sealed
Procedure compressors, centrifugal
devices from application point of view.
compressors

Bell Coleman refrigeration cycle, Vapour Daltons law,


Principles Compression Refrigeration cycle, Vapour
Absorption Refrigeration Cycles,Various air-
conditioning processes

Refrigerants, latent heat, freezing point, Refrigerating effect, work supplied,


Concepts additives, COP Coeff. of performance.

Facts Refrigerators, air conditioners, cooling towers, cold storages, etc.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ iii


7
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS
Intellectual skills:
1. To plot V.C.R. cycle on P-H diagram.
2. To calculate refrigerating effect, compressor work and C.O.P. from P-H diagram.
3. To calculate C.O.P. based on Carnot cycle.
4. To calculate actual Refrigerating effect, energy supplied and C.O.P. of the refrigerating unit.
5. To understand the working of the ice plant.
6. To calculate heat load, work, C.O.P. of the ice plant.
7. To understand meaning of various psychometric processes such as humidification
dehumidification etc.
8. To know the details of the instruments used to get desired p processes.
9. To Calculate theoretical actual C.O.P. of the system.
10. To select proper set of equipments to get desired p processes.
11. To classify the water coolers.
12. To calculate refrigerating effect, work of compression and C.O.P.
13. To select water coolers for required applications
14. To develop the ability of finding the faults in the system.
15. To develop the ability of analyzing the fault
16. To develop the ability for selection of proper tool.
17. To understand concept of central air conditioning and air distribution system.
18. To develop ability to discriminate components related with humidification and dehumidification
process.
19. To develop ability to locate conditioned air distribution outlets.
20. To know the construction features of window air conditioners unit.
21. To understand working principles of window air conditioners.
22. To understand concept of unitary air conditioning system.
23. To identify the type of industry visited.
24. To identify the different components of Ice Plant.
25. Understanding the different processes.
26. Procedure for applying the system concept to selected industry for visit.
27. To observe various controls and equipment location in the refrigerator.
28. Interpret working of different controls and equipments.

Motor skills:
1. To measure actual Refrigerating effect by nullifying the cooling effects by electrical heating.
2. To measure the energy input to the Refrigerating unit by using energy meter.
3. To measure pressure and temperature at salient points of the system
3. To operate the ice plant (starting, running, stopping)
4. To measure pressures and temperatures at salient point of the plant
5. To plot operating cycle of p-h & T-S chart.
6. To read psychrometric properties from chart.
7. To record properties such as pressures, temperatures etc.
8. To observe and identify the different components of a water cooler.
9. To set thermostat of the water cooler.
10. To measure input power using energy meter.
11. To locate the type of fault.
12. To use the proper tools required for the remedial action.
13. To carry out the servicing of the system
14. To check for proper functioning of the component
15. To develop ability to draw layout of air distribution system and central station of central air
conditioning system.
16. To observe operation of different components and controls of central air conditioning plant.
17. To locate different / various parts of window air conditioner unit.
18. To draw layout or diagram showing inter relationship between different parts of window air
conditioner unit.
19. To operate different controls of window air conditioner unit.
20. Designing, piloting, collecting, documenting, analyzing & concluding information of industrial visit
using system tool.
21. Drawing the plant layout
22. Set the simple controls such as thermostat,
23. Operate the defrost system.

8 ♦♦
iv MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

GRID TABLE
Following table gives grid of the experiments and related intellectual and motor
skills.
• Teacher shall ensure for development of generic skills during the practicals.
• Students are expected to focus on acquiring specific skills mentioned therein.

EXPT. NAME OF EXPERIMENT Intellectual Motor skills


NO. skills.

01 Trial on Vapor compression Refrigeration Test rig. 1,2,3,4 1,2,3

02 Trial on Ice Plant Test rig. 5.6 4,5

03 Trial on Air Conditioning Test rig. 9,10 4,5,6

04 Trial on Water Cooler Test rig. 13,14 7,8,9

05 Dismantling and assembly of hermetically sealed 14 9


compressor.

Visit to repair and maintenance workshop of


06 Refrigeration and Air conditioning machine for 16.17.18 10,11,12
study and use of different tools.

07 Visit to a central Air-conditioning plant in view of


19,20,21 14,15
cooling load calculations

Study of insulating materials used in Refrigeration


08 and Air conditioning applications with properties. 21 15

09 Study of window / split Air-conditioning unit 22,23,24 16,17,18

10 Visit to Cold Storage Plant 26,27,28.29 19,20

Study of Domestic Refrigerator to identify various


11 29,30 21.22
controls and elements used in it.

NOTE : Idenditified Skills indicated by numbers.

STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTATION


It is suggested that 40 to 50% experiments shall be completed in first term and remaining
experiments in the second term.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 9


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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS


Teachers shall discuss the following points with students before start of practicals of the
subject.
1) Learning Overview: To Develop better understanding of importance of the subject. To Know related
skills to be developed such as intellectual skills and Motor Skills.
2) Link / Block Diagram : Context of the subject in the form of link diagram showing interrelationship
of various subject areas, curriculum objectives and job profile.
3) Graphical structure: In this topics and sub topics are organized in systematic way so that ultimate
purpose of learning the subject is achieved. This is arranged in the form of fact, concept, principle,
procedure, application and problem.
4) Know your Laboratory work : To understand the layout of laboratory, specifications of Equipment
/Instruments/ Materials, procedure, working in groups, planning time etc. Also to know total amount
of work to be done in the laboratory.
5) Teacher shall ensure that required equipments are in working condition before start of experiment,
also keep operating instruction manual available.
6) Explain prior concepts to the students before starting of each experiment.
7) Involve students actively at the time of conduct of each experiment.
8) While taking reading/observation each student (from batch of 20 students) shall be given a chance
to perform/observe the experiment.
9) List of questions is given at the end of each experiment. Teacher shall instruct the students to
attempt all questions given at the end each experiment / exercise. Teacher shall ensure that each
student writes the answers to the allotted questions in the laboratory manual after performance is
over.
10) If the experimental setup has variations in the specifications of the equipment, the teachers are
advised to make the necessary changes, wherever needed.
11) Teacher shall assess the performance of students continuously as per norms prescribed by MSBTE.
12) Teacher should ensure that the respective skills and competencies are developed in the students
after the completion of the practical exercise.
13) Teacher is expected to share the skills and competencies to be developed in the students.
14) Teacher may provide additional knowledge and skills to the students even though not covered in
the manual but are expected from the students by the industries.
15) Teachers shall ensure that industrial visits recommended in the manual are covered.
16) Teacher may suggest the students to refer additional related literature of the technical papers /
reference books / Seminar Proceedings, etc.
17) During assessment teacher is expected to ask questions to the students to tap their achievements
regarding related knowledge and skills so that students can prepare while submitting record of the
practicals. Focus should be given on development of enlisted skills rather than theoretical/codified
knowledge.
18) Teacher should enlist the skills to be developed in the students that are expected by the industry.
19) Teacher should organise Group discussions / brain storming sessions/ Seminars to facilitate the
exchange of knowledge amongst the students.
20) Teacher should ensure that revised CIAAN-2004 norms are followed simultaneously and
progressively.
21) Teacher should give more focus on hands on skills and should actually share the same.
22) Teacher shall also refer to the Circular No. MSBTE/D-50/Lab Mannual / 2005 / 3183 dated 5th May,
2005 for additional guidelines.

10 ♦♦
vi MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS


Teachers shall discuss the following points with students before start of practicals of the
subject.
1) Listen carefully to the lecture given by teacher about importance of subject, curriculum philosophy,
graphical structure, skills to be developed, information about equipment, instruments, procedure,
method of continuous assessment, tentative plan of work in laboratory and total amount of work to
be done in a year.
2) Students shall undergo study visit of the laboratory for types of equipment, instruments, material to
be used, before performing experiments.

3) Read the write up of each experiment to be performed, a day in advance.


4) Organize the work in the group and make a record of all observations.
5) Understand the purpose of experiment and its practical implications.

6) Write the answers of the questions allotted by the teacher during practical hours if possible or
afterwards, but immediately.
7) Student should not hesitate to ask any difficulty faced during conduct of practical / exercise.
8) The student shall study all the questions given in the laboratory manual and practice to write the
answers to these questions.

9) Student shall visit the recommended industries and should study the knowhow of the shop floor
practices and the operations of machines.
10) Student shall develop maintenance skills as expected by the industries.
11) Student should develop the habit of pocket discussion / group discussion related to the experiments
/ exercises so that exchanges of knowledge / skills could take place.

12) Student shall attempt to develop related hands-on-skills and gain confidence.
13) Student shall focus on development of skills rather than theoretical or codified knowledge.
14) Student shall visit the nearby workshops, workstation, industries, laboratories, technical exhibitions,
trade fair etc. even not included in the Lab Manual. In short, students should have exposure to the
area of work right in the student hood.

15) Student shall insist for the completion of recommended Laboratory Work, industrial visits, answers
to the given questions, etc.
16) Student shall develop the habit of evolving more ideas, innovations, skills etc. than included in the
scope of the manual.
17) Student shall refer technical magazines, proceedings of the Seminars, refer websites related to the
scope of the subjects and update their knowledge and skills.

18) Student should develop the habit of not to depend totally on teachers but to develop self learning
techniques.
19) Student should develop the habit to react with the teacher without hesitation with respect to the
academics involved.
20) Student should develop habit to submit the practicals / exercise continuously and progressively on
the scheduled dates and should get the assessment done.

21) Student should be well prepared while submitting the write up of the exercise. This will develop the
continuity of the studies and he will not be over loaded at the end of the term.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦♦ 11


vii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

KNOW YOUR LABORATORY

When the students enter the Refrigeration and Air-conditioning laboratory, they should observe the
following test rigs and working models along with the charts regarding the concepts of the subjects.

1. Vapour Compression Refrigeration Test Rig

2. Ice Plant Test rig.

3. Air Conditioning Test rig.

4. Water Cooler Test rig

5. Hermetically sealed compressor.

6. Different tools

7. Window / split Air-conditioning unit

8. Cold Storage Plant

9. Domestic Refrigerator

The students should observe all the above equipments.

12 ♦
viii MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

List of Experiments & Record of Progressive Assessment


Exp Name of the Experiment Page Date of Date of Assessment Sign. of
No No. Perfor- submis- Max. Marks teacher &
mance sion 15 Remarks

1 Trial on Vapor compression


Refrigeration Test rig. 1

2 Trial on Ice Plant Test rig. 7

3 Trial on Air Conditioning Test rig. 13

4 Trial on Water Cooler Test rig. 20

5 Dismantling and assembly of


hermetically sealed compressor. 25

Visit to repair and maintenance


workshop of Refrigeration and Air
6 conditioning machine for study and use 31
of different tools.

7 Visit to a central Air-conditioning plant in


view of cooling load calculations 39

Study of insulating materials used in


8 Refrigeration and Air conditioning 47
applications with properties.

9 Study of window / split Air-conditioning


unit 52

10 Visit to Cold Storage Plant 58

Study of Domestic Refrigerator to


11 identify various controls and elements 66
used in it.

Total
Marks
…………
Average
Marks
out of
15…… *

* To be transferred to proforma of CIAAN- 2004 (Proforma -I-1)

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦♦ 13


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