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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement


Achievement of Grade 10 Students’ in

Selected Secondary Schools at North Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State

By: Zewdu Nigussie

Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies in Partial Fulfillment

for the Degree of Master of Arts in Educational Leadership

Addis Ababa

JUNE 2014
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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of Grade 10 Students’ in

Selected Secondary Schools at North Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State

By: Zewdu Nigussie

Addis Ababa

JUNE 2014

ii
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

This is to Certify that the Thesis Prepared by Zewdu Nigussie: Factors Affecting the

Academic Achievement of Grade 10 Students’ in Selected Secondary

Schools at North Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State and Submitted in

Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Education

(Educational Leadership) Complies with the Regulations of the University meets the

Accepted Standards with Respect to Originality and Quality

Singed by the Examining Committee

_________________________________ _____________________

Chairman, Department of Graduate Signature

________________________________ _____________________

Advisor Signature

Getnet Tizazu (Ph. D) _____________________

Examiner (Internal) Signature

_________________________________ _______________________

Examiner (External) Signature

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was, to investigate school related factors that affect grade 10

students’ academic achievement in selected secondary schools of North Shoa Zone Oromia

Regional State. A descriptive survey method was employed to conduct the study. The sample

consists of 160 students, 35 teachers 8 principals, 4 secondary school supervisors and 1

zonal educational office supervisor. The data gathering tools employed was questionnaire,

interview, document analysis and observation. The questionnaires were administered to 160

students and 35 teachers, in which 145 students and 30 teachers filled and returned it, while

interview was conducted with 8 principals, 4 secondary school supervisors and 1 zonal

educational office supervisor. The statistical tools used were percentage, mean and weighted

mean. Among other things the study indicates that the content in the syllabus were not

accomplished in a given academic year due to in appropriate allotment of time for the subject

to teach; school instructional resources such as text books and reference books were

inadequate; overcrowded nature of the classroom was also another finding; students poor

English language of instruction; lack of professional guidance and counsel; inadequate

school facilities such as laboratory ,library, toilet chairs/table were inadequate; and

incompetence of school leadership. Based on the finding of the study, it was recommended

that WEO, ZEO and together with REB should build additional classrooms, upgrade those

teachers who do not meet the minimum requirement and in terms of qualification. It was also

recommended that MOE, REB, and the community should strive to make the necessary

instructional materials and school facilities available.

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Acknowledgement

First and for most, I would like to thank God for His underserved mercy that he endowed up

on me and open the opportunity to join the post graduate program.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. Getnet Tizazu, my advisor, for his un

failing intellectual guidance, encouragement, helpful comments, material support and timely

response to every part of the writing in this study. I am grateful to his guidance and

professional advice as well as devotion for the accomplishment of this study.

I am very much obliged to express indebtedness to my wife W/o Aselefech Neda, who

deserves to take credit for carrying the responsibility looking after our beloved children and

encouragement. Her devotion to her children has helped to exclusively focus on my study.

Finally, my gratitude goes to my brother Shiferaw Reta who providing me with the necessary

materials and making his Lap-Top available for writing the thesis.

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Table of Contents
Title page

CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................................ 1


1.1 Back Ground of the study ........................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ......................................................................................................... 3
1.2.1 General objective .............................................................................................................. 6
1.2.2 Specific objectives ............................................................................................................ 7
1.3 Basic Questions........................................................................................................................ 7
1.4 Significance of the study ........................................................................................................ 7
1.5 Delimitation ............................................................................................................................. 8
1.6 Limitation................................................................................................................................. 9
1.7 Definition of key terms. ........................................................................................................... 9
1.8. 0rganization of the Study ........................................................................................................ 10
CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................... 11
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ................................................................................. 11
2.1. Major Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Achievement ............................................. 11
2.2. Instructional Materials and Facilities ...................................................................................... 12
2.2.1. Instructional Material ....................................................................................................... 12
2.2.2. School Facilities ............................................................................................................... 15
2.2.2.1. Library........................................................................................................................... 15
2.2.2.2 Laboratory ...................................................................................................................... 17
2.2.2.3. Classroom Conditions ................................................................................................... 18
2.3 Teacher Related Factors ........................................................................................................... 18
2.3.1 Knowledge of the Subject Matter ..................................................................................... 19
2.4.2 Pedagogical Skills ........................................................................................................... 22
2.3.3 Motivation of teachers ...................................................................................................... 24
2.3.4 Evaluation mechanism ...................................................................................................... 26
2.3.5 Instructional Time ............................................................................................................. 28
2.4 The Influence of Class-size on Teacning Process .................................................................. 29
2.4.1Effects of Large Class-Size ................................................................................................ 30
2.4.2 Benefit of Optimum class size .......................................................................................... 31
2.5 Benefits Guidance and Counseling program in secondary schools ......................................... 33

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2.6 The Impact of School Leader ship ........................................................................................... 35
2.7 Language of Instruction/Medium of Instruction ...................................................................... 37
2.8 The Impact of Curriculum........................................................................................................ 42
CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................................... 46
3. Research Design and Methodology ............................................................................................... 46
3.1 Research design .................................................................................................................... 46
3.2 Data sources ............................................................................................................................. 46
3.3 Sample size and sampling technique ....................................................................................... 47
3.4 Data gathering tools ................................................................................................................. 48
3.5. Procedure of Data Collection .................................................................................................. 48
3.6 Method of Data Analysis ......................................................................................................... 49
CHAPTER FOUR.............................................................................................................................. 50
4. Analysis And Discussion ............................................................................................................... 50
4.1 Characteristics of teachers and student .................................................................................... 50
4.1.2 Characteristics of Student Respondents ............................................................................ 51
CHAPTER FIVE ..........................................................................................................................................77
5. Summary Conclusion And Recommendation ...................................................................................77
5.1 Summary Of The Finding ....................................................................................................................78
5.2. Conclusions .............................................................................................................................................80
5.3 Recommendation....................................................................................................................................83
References
appendics

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List of table

Content Page
Table1: Table1: Respondents Profile in Terms of Sex, Academic Qualification, and
Week teaching Loads ................................................................................................50
Table2: Respondents Profile in Terms of Sex and Average Distance from Their Home

to School ...................................................................................................................51

Table 3: grade 10 students’ national examination from year 2002-2005 E.C in North Shoa

Zone Oromia region ..................................................................................................52

Table 4: the Response of Teachers and Students Concerning Instructional Materials- .......54

Table 5: Respondents Response on the Adequacy School Physical Facilities ......................56

Table 6: the view of teachers and students concerning the availability and
capacity of library Services .......................................................................................58
Table 7: the views of Teachers and Students Concerning Teacher related factor ................60

Table 8: the Responses of teachers and students with regard to assessment

of students’ academic achievement ..........................................................................61

Table 9: the Response of Teachers and Students regarding to use of Instructional

Time by class room Teachers ...................................................................................62

Table 10: the Response of Teachers and Students Concerning class size ............................64

Table 11: the Response of Teachers and Students with regard to Guidance and
Counseling Services .................................................................................................66
Table 12: the view of teachers and students concerning impact of leader ship ....................68
Table 13: the view of teachers and students with regard to the proficiency of

students and teachers in medium of instruction/English language .........................70

Table 14: the view of teachers and students concerning relevancy and difficulty

of curriculum ............................................................................................................72

Table 15: Respondents Opinion on Major Factors Affecting the Teaching Learning

Process ..................................................................................................................75

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

EGSSCE Ethiopian General Secondary School Certificate examination

ESD Education Sector Development program

ICDR Institute of Curriculum Development research

MOE Ministry of Education

PHRD Policy and Human Resource Development Project

NSEO North Shoa Education Office

NSZORS North Shoa Zone Oromia Regional State

REB Regional Education Bureau

TGE Transitional Government of Ethiopia

WEO Woreda Education Office

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Back Ground of the study


Students’ academic achievement tends to have a direct relationship with the degree of

available input of the school. In support of this idea, (Philip, 1969) indicates that factors such

as qualified teachers, facilities like adequate and conducive classrooms, textbooks, furniture,

curriculum relevance, infrastructure, learning process (monitoring and evaluation ),and

adequate funding have great influence on the successful achievement of the educational

objectives and enhancing students’ academic performance level. Thus it is important to

consider and examine the influence of these major factors on students’ academic

performance. Now adays, teaching is more than imparting knowledge. It includes helping

learners to learn by themselves, to acquire skills and develop attitudes in changing social

context. This situation creates the need for qualified teachers for each of the specified

education level (Philip, 1969).

The availability of effective and qualified teachers is considered as one of the major

prerequisites that ensure success of the student’s academic performance. To show the

importance of the qualified teachers, (Ayalew, 1991) has indicated that whatever curriculum

changes are introduced and whatever reforms are made, all will be of little or no avail without

qualified and committed teachers. Hence, the quality of education at all levels depends on

qualified and devoted teaching personnel (that is the teacher). Moreover, the quality of

education and the learning achievements of student depend heavily on the competence

personality and education of the teachers (Coombs, 1985).

By comparing qualified teachers with un qualified teachers for a specified level of education,

(Waxman & Walberg, 1991) indicate that qualified teachers were rated significantly higher

than unqualified ones in describing objectives and lesson contents to the students clearly, in

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the efficiency and appropriateness of class room procedures, in being consistent with

managing students behavior and more task oriented classroom focus besides, qualified

teachers paced lessons more appropriately and had higher student engagement in classroom

activities(Philip, 1969). Thus, student’s academic achievement may be affected by the

teacher’s level of education, subject matter knowledge, experience and commitment.

Class size is also among the major factors that influence the teaching learning process.

Several school tend to suggest that teaching and learning in relatively small class is more

effective in terms of student academic achievement than large class or in an overcrowded

classroom. Among other things, according to (Tekeste, 1990), overcrowded classes are the

fundamental causes for the decline in quality of education in Ethiopia today. In a large class

size, there is little time to give the student’s individual help and for sharing experience.

Moreover, classroom activities become limited and in grouping of students. In general,

progress of the whole class could be slowed down (Harrison, 1962). Hence overcrowded

classrooms have negative influence so far as the academic performance of students is

concerned on the part of the teacher, to recognize individual differences in the classroom and

assist students according to their pace, optimum size of student population in a classroom is

essential for providing equality of educational opportunities to students at the classroom

level as indicated by (Azeb, 1984).

According to her, this is realized when the teacher notices that each students is entitled

to the teachers` attention, help and guidance according to his/her needs and acts accordingly.

In a large class size making homework and class work becomes difficult. Thus class size may

have inverse relationship with the academic performance of students.

Another factor that should be given due consideration is the adequate availability of

instructional materials. The quality of education and the learning achievement depend not

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only on the competence, personality and education of the teacher, but also on whether there is

a sufficient supply of equipment, text books and other learning materials (Coombs, 1985).

Moreover, as depicted by (Lockheed& others 1991) the availability of text books and

other instructional materials are reported to have consistently positive effect on students`

achievement. Keeping the importance of these factors in mind, the present researcher is

interested in general secondary school students, because students at this level are assumed to

engage in stiff academic competition so as to successfully pass the Ethiopian General

secondary Education Certificate examination (EGSECE) that paves away to join the higher

institutions (colleges and universities) after two years of education in the preparatory schools.

Since this is like a turning point in the lives of students, understanding of how much and in

what manner the above mentioned non cognitive variables contribute to academic

performance will have useful practical application.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students’ academic achievement is a function of school inputs and family background

(Philip, 1969). Educational inputs that may affect the academic performance of students.

Educational inputs may include: the qualification of teachers, availability of instructional

materials, class size, relevance and appropriateness of the school curriculum, management

and school leadership situation, teacher motivation and commitment, and conduciveness of

the school compound for smooth running of the general teaching and learning process (Philip,

1969).

Regarding the importance of instructional materials and class size (Adam

&GebreMeskel1989) have noted that text books, supplementary materials and class size are

considered as potentially influential variables that may have profound effects on student’s

academic performance.

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According to (MOE, 2004), there are secondary schools those that do not have libraries

and laboratories and even those that have libraries and laboratories do not have the necessary

facilities. Regarding class size, the current standard set for secondary schools recommends a

class size of 40 students in a room with total area 46.08m2. But in practice, the number of

students in a class is far more than stated number. For example average class size of North

Shoa Zone of Oromia regional state of secondary schools (9-12) in 2006 E.C. was 70,

(NSEO, annual abstract 2006 E.C. ). This is the result of the inability of the country, the

region as well as the Zone to provide the system with adequate school facilities proportional

to the size of enrollment, which in turn affects academic achievement of students.

More over shortage of qualified teachers may also be another problem that our educational

system at different levels has been suffering from. There is some shortage qualified teachers

in secondary schools of the country in general and the study area in particular. The required

and specified minimum level of qualification for a teacher who is assigned at secondary

school is at least first degree (MOE 1995). However, 11% teachers who were teaching in

secondary schools of the under study (i.e. in North Shoa Oromia regional state secondary

schools) do not have the required and specified educational qualification. As (Seyoum, 1996)

states that there was shortage of qualified teachers in secondary schools. This condition may

affect the academic achievement of students negatively

(Lockheed, Bloch & Verspoor,1990) indicate that school related inputs such as

curriculum learning materials instructional time, educational management (principals, vise-

principals and unit-leaders),teacher’s qualification and motivation, and teaching methods

have the most significant effect on students’ academic achievement.

Moreover, factors such as qualified teachers, facilities like adequate and conducive class

rooms, text books, furniture, curriculum relevance, infrastructure, learning process, and

4
adequate funding have great influence on the successful achievement of the educational

objective and enhancing students’ academic performance level (Philip, 1969) other evidence

also suggests that factors like class size teacher qualifications, and other school factors may

play an important role in what students learn (Hammond, 1999).

A major issue that should be taken into consideration in relation to students’ academic

achievement is the relevance and appropriateness of the curriculum. This attention should be

given to students’ experience and knowledge of their subject matter during preparation of the

curriculum. It is difficult to achieve educational objective as needed unless each student has

his/her own text book. For example Text book /pupil ratio was, on average 1:2 (MOE, 2004

and North Shoa education office annual abstract 2006 E.C).

Supporting to the above idea (Abebe, 1991) states that if the curriculum is not designed based

on the life experience and needs of student, it will negatively affect the academic

performance of the learners. Because, in most cases, poor performance is related to poor

curricula, that tend to be theoretical.

Concerning the language of instruction (medium of instruction), it is clear that effective

communication between the students and the teacher is necessary in order to impart

knowledge and experience. However the majority of the secondary school students are very

week in terms of language of instruction. Supporting this idea, (Tekeste, 1990) has noted that

the greater number of senior secondary, school teachers has explained that there were poor in

the language instruction. The problem in the language of instruction does not seem to be the

problem of the students only. It is also the problems of the majority of teachers as well.

As(Tewelde,1988) stated language of teachers was very poor and full of errors. This adds

complication of existing language problem of the students and it has great influence on the

academic achievement of student.

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Generally all factors that affect the academic performance of students can be grouped in to

school related and out of school factors. School related factors such as adequate availability

of school facilities, instructional materials, quality of teachers have more impact of academic

achievement than the out of school factors (Haile, 2002).

Despite the availability related studies on the issue in other parts of Ethiopia (e.g.,Haile

2002) factors affecting students’ academic achievement in North Shoa Zone, to the best

knowledge the researcher, have not been investigated. What we have is some worrisome

evidence the poor academic achievement of students in the Zone (e.g, statistical abstracts

released by Zone, teachers’and parents’ complaints on students’ poor results on national

examination).

More specifically, even though the number of secondary school students in North Shoa

Zone has increased from 7780 in2002 E.C to 8520 in 2005 E.C. But their academic

achievement in Grade 10 national exams was very low. The data obtained from North Shoa

Zone education office show that more than 68.74% (on average) from year 2002-2005E.C of

students who sat for grade 10 national examination could not get a chance to join higher

learning institutions either because of school factors or out of school factors or both of the

factors. That is very worrisome by any standard and it warrants investigating factors that are

the cause for such poor academic achievement.

1.2.1 General Objective

The general objective of this study isto examine the major school factors that may affect

grade 10 students’ academic achievement in selected secondary schools of North Shoa Zone

of Oromia regional state.

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1.2.2 Specific Objectives

1. To assess the relevance, appropriateness and coverage of the grade 10 curriculum in

selected secondary schools

2. To examine the availability and adequacy of instructional materials, facilities and

assess the current situation of class size in secondary schools under study.

3. To examine the status of academic staff profile in selected secondary school of North

Shoa Zone of Oromia regional state.

4. To assess the views of principals, teachers and students with regard to the proficiency

of students in the medium of instruction/English Language/.

1.3 Basic Questions

1. To what extent the grade 10 curriculum is relevance, appropriateness and covered

with in the academic year?

2. What is the competence and experience of teachers and principals, as well as the

proficiency of students in instructionallanguage in selectedsecondary schools?

3. To what extent the classroom conditions are adequate and conducive for effective

teaching learning process in selected secondary schools.

4. To what extent selected secondary schools have adequate supply of instructional

materials and facilities to run educational activities effectively as expected?

1.4 Significance of the study

The effectiveness and efficiency of academic achievement my partly depend of the problems

that affect the attainment of the educational goals and objectives. Therefore the present study

may be important in various aspects. Such as:

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1. It may help educational leaders and policy makers to examine and evaluate the

relevance of curriculum and its appropriateness to the grade level and review it

accordingly

2. It will provide necessary information for School principals, teachers, and other

concerned bodies to realize the magnitude of the problem so as to enable them to

make immediate remedial actions.

3. The findings may serve as a bridge for other researchers to conduct depth study of a

wider scope on the same or related issues

1.5 Delimitation

Low academic achievement of grade 10 students of the region and at zonalwas the serious

problem. However, to make the study manageable, it has been delimited to government

secondary school at North Shoa Zone of Oromia regional state only. It was delimited to five

selected secondary schools: Ejersa Kawo, Fitche No2, Dagam, Salyish Harbumeskele and

Fital secondary schools. Moreover, the study delimited with the grade level (i.e. grade 10

students’). That is because these students were believed to providebetter information for the

purpose of the study owning to their long stay and experience in the secondary schools. In

terms of time dimension the study is delimited to cover 4 (four) successive academic years.

That means, from 2002 E.C to 2005 E.C of students, academic achievement in national exam.

Furthermore, investigating student’s academic performance and the factors that affect it are

very wide area of study. It is related to many factors that include general external factors such

as political, cultural, economic, demographic and global conditions, and internal factors such

as inputs like curriculum, students, teachers, school facilities school leader ship and the like.

Understandably it was very difficult to include all these factors that directly or indirectly

affect student’s academic achievements in this study. Therefore to make the study

8
manageable it was attempted to focus on major school relatedfactors that directly affect the

student’s academic achievement. Thus, the factors considered for the study encompass:

qualification and experience of teachers, relevance and appropriateness the curriculum,

availability of instructional materials and facilities, class size, language of instruction, the

school leadership, Evaluation mechanisms of student’s achievement and the availability of

professional guidance and counseling service in secondary school

1.6 Limitation

While conducting the study, a number of difficulties were encountered including

shortage of sufficient finance and time; lack of interests to respond interview questions and

questionnaires by some respondents and lack of sufficient transportation to go far woredas.

However it has been possible to conduct the study complete the work despite these

difficulties

1.7 Definition of key terms

Academic Achievement: It refers to a successful accomplishment or performance in

particular subjects, areas, or courses, usually by reasons of skill hard work and interest

(Good, 1973)

Academic performance: This refers to the actual accomplishment as distinguished from

potential ability (Good, 1973).

Class size-: Refers the number of students assigned to and enrolled in specific class under the

direction a specific teacher (Delighton, 1971).

Curriculum: refers to the body of knowledge which is classified recorded and documented to

the transmitted to the young (World Bank, 1995)

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Instructional materials: refers to the tools used in the instructional processes and they range

from piece of chalk to computer

Secondary schools: refers to school offering a post elementary school program which

includes middle schools, Junior high schools and senior high schools (Dejnzka, 1983). In this

study it refers to first cycle of secondary schools having grades (9-10)

1.8. Organization of the Study

This study has five chapters, Chapter one focuses on the back ground, statement of the

problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation

of the study and definition of key terms; Chapter two reviews related literature presented. In

the third chapter research design and methodology; the fourth chapter deals with the

presentation and analysis of the data. Chapter five providesthe summary of the findings, the

conclusions and recommendation

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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1.Major Factors Affecting Grade 10 Students’ Academic Achievement

Students’ academic achievement tends to have a direct relationship with the degree of

available input of the school. In support of this idea, (Philip, 1969) indicates that factors such

as qualified teachers, facilities like adequate and conducive classrooms, textbooks, furniture,

curriculum relevance, infrastructure, learning process (monitoring and evaluation), and

adequate funding have great influence on the successful achievement of the educational

objectives and enhancing students’ academic performance level.

Supporting this idea, (Fuller, 1987) has suggested that, a research had conducted on third

world schools to examine the influence of family background and school related factors on

students’ academic achievement. The findings of research from 16 developing countries

showed that various in school variables such as availability of textbooks and school libraries,

teachers, school management and length of the instructional program were the main causes as

a block of school qualities.

In general, there are several school related factors that affect smooth running of teaching

and learning process. However, for sake of manageability let us deal with some: Instructional

materials and facilities, teacher related factors, influence of class size, guidance and

counseling, school leadership, language of instruction and irrelevance and inappropriateness

of curriculum amount the major factors within school that contribute to students’ low

academic achievement in secondary schools.

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2.2. Instructional Materials and Facilities

2.2.1. Instructional Material

The academic performance of students can be affected by number of factors in secondary and

tertiary schools. Among them is the availability of instructional materials. Different research

findings reveal that instructional materials such as text books, newspapers, audio-visual aids,

pedagogical center, modules, reference books, magazines, and other equipment are very

crucial in facilitating effective learning.

Moreover, instructional materials are critical ingredient in learning, and the intended

curriculum cannot easily implement without them. They provide information, 0rganize the

scope and sequence of information presented, and provide opportunities for students to use

what they have learned (Lockheed, 1991).

It has been noted that instructional materials are among the important variables that enhance

instructional outcome. However, it does not mean that adequate availability of these materials

alone guarantee effective learning outcome. But, the quality and relevance of these materials,

and effective and efficient utilization of them determine their positive association with

students’ achievement. Provisions of sufficient, quality and relevance of textbooks, modules

and other reference materials in schools is one of the most consistent factors leading to

improve the quality, of education. However, in this thesis, only textbooks will be examined.

After black boards and chalk, textbooks are the most common and most significant

instructional materials in most countries. Almost all studies of textbooks in low-and middle-

income countries show that the books have a positive impact on student achievement

(Heyneman, Farrel & Sepulveda-Stuardo, 1988), (Fuller &Clake, 1994) cited in (World

Bank, 1995).

Textbooks are the single most important instructional tool in the classroom. They have had

the largest and most obvious influence on curriculum to the extent of standardizing teaching

12
and instructional practices (Reed & Verna, 1995). They furnish an outline which the teacher

may use in planning the work of the semester of the year.

Moreover, text books usually contain some serviceable teaching aids, such as pictures,

charts, diagrams, questions, problems, maps, summaries, outlines, headings exercise and

table of contents. Hence, many teachers refer to the textbook, the teacher’s guide and other

instructional materials as a curriculum package; acknowledge its impacts, (Lockheed, 1991)

indicate the key role of textbooks in the quality of education as follows:

Because textbooks deliver the curriculum, they are the single most important

Instructional materials. Nothing has ever replaced the printed word as the key

Element in the educational process and, as a result, textbooks are central to

Schooling at all levels, when textbooks are available, instructional times is not

wasted while, teachers and students copy text on and off the blackboard(p:48).

(Lewy, 1977) also states that textbooks have a major influence on the nature of

classroom activity. Teachers’ lectures are devoted to explaining difficult issues contained in

the textbooks, and students are asked questions in class that could be answered simple by

quoting bits of information stated in their school books, teaching methods are also dominated

by the textbooks. Teachers rely heavily on textbooks for instructional content, 0rganization

and evaluation, without question, textbooks and other published instructional materials

influence what is taught and learned in the classroom.

Along with provision of textbooks, due consideration should be given to the quality of the

textbooks in terms of relevance and usefulness develop higher knowledge and better problem

solving capacity.Teacher guides also the other instructional materials which can have positive

influence in teaching learning process. With regard to the impact of teacher guides on

students out comes, (Lockheed, 1991) state teacher guides that are well integrated with the

textbook or other instructional materials can have a positive impact on students’ academic

13
achievement particularly effective guides that include information on what to teach and on

how to teach it, diagnostic tests that help teachers monitor student learning and modify the

daily lesson accordingly, suggestion on how to manage the classroom, and activities for

classroom use.

It is already stated that text books are one of the most important instructional materials to

enhance effective learning. This can be practiced through provision of adequate and quality

(relevant) instructional materials, Improving the qualitative output of education implies

improving and availability of school inputs; curriculum, teachers, and teaching materials

(books, maps, reference, and the like). However, developing countries devoted a very small

proportion of school expenditures to teaching resources, including books, maps or visual aids

Psacharopoulos & Woodhall, 1985)

The lack of textbooks was the most serious educational deficit in developing countries

including Ethiopia in the past, even at present time.

Regarding the shortage of instructional materials, (TGE, 1994) also states that the supply of

educational inputs such as teaching materials, textbook, educational technology and

educational facilities are very inadequate. It is clear that, the type of the lesson and the nature

of the students call for adequate teaching materials so as to motivate students to deserve the

desired learning outcomes. When the teaching materials used are not adequate and unsuitable,

to the needs, interest and solving the problem of the students, the educational program

designed to that particularly class will not be successful.

In this case, secondary schools of Ethiopia are characterized by shortage of instructional

materials and other teaching equipment. Concerning these problems, (Tekeste, 1990)has

stated the following

In Ethiopia, School teachers have no teaching manual designed to assist them,

textbooks which are loaned to students against payment, are always In short

14
supply. In most cases, several students share the textbooks. This reveals that,

one of the major problems in secondary school is shortage of instructional

materials which could affect both the work teachers and students (p: 49).

Moreover, a study conducted by ( Amare, 1998) indicates that, one of the major problems of

secondary school in this country is shortage of textbooks, school pedagogical centers,

reference books, teacher’s guide, etc. which affect students learning out comes. Thus, such a

situation is indeed to affect the scholastic achievement of the students and the teaching

learning process cannot done properly due to lack of appropriate support of instructional

materials.

2.2.2. School Facilities

Physical environment in which the formal teaching - learning occur ranges relatively from

modern and well-equipped to open air-gathering places (Phlip, 1969). Thus, the school

infrastructure includes the classrooms, study rooms, offices, toilet rooms, water supply,

electricity service, health service, etc: According to the (MOE, 2003), school facilities

include water, latrines, clinic, library, pedagogical center, and laboratories. These facilities

are required to be proportional to the number of teachers and students in the school for the

provision of quality education in school

2.2.2.1. Library

A library is regarded as a reception center for the assembly of communication of every

description covering books, pamphlets, newspapers, periodicals, maps, microfilms and

photographic slides, audio and video tapes (Dean,1972). These materials are systematically

organized and arranged to enable users to easily identify the needed documents.

A school library is one of instructional resource that may significantly affect student

achievement. It serves a school’s needs in that it is the working tool of education.

15
Furthermore, it is described as center intellectual life, and it is there to serve and make

possible the school’s teaching program. A lively and effective teaching program in a school

depends on a well-organized library.

According to (Rossoff, 1992), an academic library is the heart of the school anatomy

and the library in high school teaching reaffirms the fundamental role of the classroom

instruction. Since the role of the school is essentially curriculum enrichment. It follows that it

is intensively concerned with course of study content. Hence, the essential purpose of the

school library is help students to find the media of information which they need to carry out

classroom assignments and to satisfy their own personal interests.

To achieve this purpose, a secondary school library will need first of all an adequate, up-to-

date and comprehensive stock. Furthermore, the secondary school library needs to have

enough space to accommodate students at any given time. Besides, trained personnel are

necessary to promote effective service of the library and encourage students to develop a life-

long reading habit.

It has been explained that adequate availability of library service is one of the instructional

resources that significantly affect students’ academic achievement. Similarly some research

findings reveal that, the presence or absence of pertinent school facilities in one library

service contributes to the appearance of substantial differences in students’ performance.

For instance, a study result obtained by international educational achievement (IEA) in seven

Latin American countries indicates that the number of books on loan from a school library

was significantly and positively related to students who reported that they used the library

more frequently were performed at high levels than the others (Fuller, 1987).

Thus, well equipped and organized libraries should be available in schools specially both

secondary and tertiary level to support the class room instruction. Books and other materials

16
in a school library have also to be relevant and up-to-date in order to facilitate the learning

out comes.

Regarding this point, (Farrant, 1980) suggests that school libraries provide reference and

borrowing facilities and help student to enjoy the instructional activity. Moreover, school

library should be well staffed and not well organized and equipped they may not be able to

support the instructional as it is desired.

2.2.2.2 Laboratory

Laboratory is a room or other portion of a school building in which teachers and student may

carry on experiments: commonly, a special room in school consisting special apparatus and

equipment for use in performing experiment or exercises and working out problems (Good,

1973). Laboratory is another facility that’s useful particularly for science teaching. To acquire

specific knowledge systematically in depth, the most important means of teaching is a

laboratory work that it gives an increased emphasis in enhancing student involvement in

scientific investigation. The emphasis arises from the view that science cannot be effectively

learnt from books and lectures alone and neither can it be taught by simply telling students

about science. A laboratory learns has dual purpose. It givens the students the subject

knowledge, on one hand, and it provides the student some understanding of scientific

investigation, on the other hand.

Course that require laboratory experiment are physics, chemistry and Biology. Hence, in

order to administer laboratory experiment of those subjects, there should be adequate

laboratory room, which encompasses separate demonstration, store and preparation rooms,

and equipped with different instructions and reagents as well.

In Ethiopia, the secondary school standard set by (MOE, 1995) has recommended that three

laboratories each comprises separate demonstration, store and preparation.Moreover,

furniture for laboratory, such as stool, teacher’s chair and table, teacher’s demonstration

17
table, students’ workbench, laboratory cupboard were recommended (MOE, 1995). The MOE

has also stressed the importance of trained laboratory technician to each secondary school.

On the contrary, problems like the lack of trained laboratory technicians, lank of inadequate

preparation and demonstration rooms etc are currently observed as common characteristics of

several secondary schools.

2.2.2.3. Classroom Conditions

We usually visualize a class as a room with tables, chairs, a blackboard, and removable

furniture in general. If we are lucky, there will be carpets, a white board, and a video set and

if we are not lucky, a bare and unwelcoming rooms with charts on the walls, shelves and

cupboards, a teacher desk, a number of books and characteristic smell in general. We know a

class room by its architecture and furniture, and even by its atmosphere. But a classroom is

much more it is a setting, an arena or stage, if we like, for action, a place where teaching and

learning are supposed to be going on, but where much else occurs as well. What really makes

a class-room a place where teaching and learning are supposed to happen in the conjunction

of teacher, student and activities (Henry, 1988).

However, when we take the classroom within the context of the physical, it is a room that

enables to catch up 40 students in one for the Ethiopian secondary schools case. It is a room

that is adequately ventilated, adequately lightened, and only spaced for 40 students at once

(MOE, 1995). Moreover, a well building with transparent glasses and a cemented floor is the

minimally standardized classroom to keep quality of education in the Ethiopian secondary

schools.

2.3 Teacher Related Factors

Of all inputs required to carry out an educational activity effectively, teachers are the major

component in successful accomplishing thetas, Even, the quality of educational program,

more than other resources, is largely dependent on teachers. They occupy almost a crucial

18
position in modern society and the educational system (UNESCO, 1973).This is to say that

the major actors who play very significant role in secondary education are, obviously

teachers. However, teachers could play the aforementioned role, if they qualified for each

educational level.

Currently teaching is more than just presenting material:it is about infusing curriculum

content with appropriate instructional strategies that are selected in order to achieve the

learning goals (Harris, 2003).

Successful teachers are not simply charismatic, persuasive and expert presenters: rather, they

create powerful cognitive and social tasks to their student and teach the students how to make

productive used of them. The success of such effort requires effective teaching and other

educational inputs.

Effective teaching is determined by the individual teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter

and mastery of pedagogical skills which create a strong positive effect on student

achievement. In connection to this, Lockheed, Bloch and (Verspoor, 1990) identified three

critical determinants of effective teaching: knowledge of subject matter, pedagogical skills,

and motivation to teach.For this to happen, adequate preparation is required. A teacher needs

professional training that enables him/her understand the needs of his /her students for

assisting them expertly in a more effective way

2.3.1 Knowledge of the Subject Matter

Teachers are central to the delivery as well as the quality of education. The academic and

professional training of teachers has a direct and positive bearing on the quality of their

performance and consequently on the academic achievement of student (Lockheed, 1991).

Evidence from development countries shows, the teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter

has a strong positive effect on student’s academic achievement.

19
Moreover, study conducted in Colombia by the national center for education statistics (1991)

contend that seniority of the teachers, motivation, teachers educational level, gender of

teacher (female) have a positive relation to student academic achievement (Jimenz &

Pinzon,1999).Thus, the quality of teachers is the key to the effectiveness of education.

According to(World Bank, 1995), teachers’ subject knowledge, an intended outcome of

pre-service training, is strongly and consistently related with student performance. The most

effective strategy for ensuring that teachers have adequate subject knowledge is to recruit

suitably educated teachers whose knowledge has been assessed and well-designed continuous

in service training is a second strategy for improving teacher subject knowledge and related

pedagogical practices.

It is impossible to expect quality secondary education in the absence of qualified teachers.

Thus, teachers in secondary schools are responsible to bring a large number of knowledge to

their pupils. For this reason, they are required to take a greater amount of advanced work in

one or more subject areas than do elementary schools teachers. Concerning this view,(

Meyer& Gayu, 1996) note the following:

Secondary school teachers must be well educated and competent in their

professional skills. These skills are necessary to lead effectively with students

in the teacher’s classroom. That is they must possess valid credential or

license before they are qualified to teach (p: 43).

What is emphasized above is need for an adequate preparation in the subject or subject to be

taught by secondary school teacher. Mastery of the subject gives the teacher satisfaction

when this mastery is transmitted to his students. Hence, secondary schools teachers need to

have command of the specialized knowledge and subject matter needed in carrying forward

their duties in school.

20
In addition to this, teachers must know what to teach and how to teach to be competent

professional. They must know the methods of teaching besides their knowledge of the subject

matter. In connection to this,( Azeb, 1984) states that, one cannot be a qualified teacher by

subject matter knowledge alone unless he is adequately prepared through training in methods

of teaching. This indicates that teacher should be adequately prepared through in both the

subject matter and methods of teaching if he/she is to be qualified in the profession. To make

teaching-learning process effective, the availability of knowledgeable and skillful teachers in

the class rooms are necessary.In revealing the role of knowledgeable teachers and their

qualification in the process of instruction, (Zenebe & Wossenu, cited in Adenew, 2003) state:

Besides introducing the appropriate changes in the in the curriculum, the

supply of teachers with the desired quality and profile remains to be the

primary inputs factor for any education system. Besides, in order to make any

educational level a functioning system it must be have an adequate and

qualified man power. In other words teacher supply must be ensuring d in all

level at all times. This is because even when a more relevant curriculum is

designed or the School management provides unreserved support, school out

comes depend on greater extent all the availability and motivation of qualified

teaching staff (p: 45).

In addition to this, to show importance of competent and qualified teachers (Zaudineh,

1987) also states that teachers in higher cognitive complexity more likely to be flexible,

adaptive, creative and innovative.

Thus, the effective and efficient educational goal attainment in general and student`s

academic achievement in particular may be determined by its teacher`s qualification.

Moreover, whatever curriculum changes are introduced and whatever reforms are made,all

will be of little or avail without qualified and committed teachers (Ayalew, 1991).

21
Furthermore, as stated by (Coombs, 1985), the quality of education and the learning

achievement of the student depend heavily on the competence, personality and education of

teachers.This show the contribution and importance of qualified teachers in enhancing the

student`s achievement as well as in attaining the educational objective efficiently

2.4.2 Pedagogical Skills

In addition to his academic ability and preparation an effective secondary school teacher

requires a good deal of pedagogical training and experience. In general, pedagogical skill is

essential in guiding the growth and development of students. This ability to guide human

growth and development is the thing that primarily distinguishes the teacher from the parent

who also teaches the child, and from any well educated person. Hence, mastering the subject

does not guarantee effective teaching (Linda, 1992)

Supporting the above idea, (Goble & James, 1977) stared good teachers have learned

many skill, techniques, and methods for helping children learn and for teaching children

certain subject matter knowledge, values and skill. How to manage classroom routines, how

to plan curriculum programs, how to motivate students, , how to introduce new concepts,

how to deal with the logical structures of certain subjects in psychologically appropriate

manner, how to diagnose learning difficulties are all important equipment for teacher apart

from the knowledge of the subject matter.

Thus, a well-qualified and an effective teacher combines the best of human relations,

intuition sound judgment ,knowledge of subject matter, and knowledge of how people learn

all in one simultaneous act .As effective teachers make the very difficult task of teaching

appear easy they are able to teach all kinds of students so effectively that children in

fact, do learn . This reveals that better qualified and motivated teachers provide better

methodology of teaching and guidance, which may help to improve students’ academic

performance.

22
In addition to qualification and pedagogical skills, experience of teachers is another important

factor that creates favorable condition in teaching. Regarding this (Caillods, 1989) has noted

that, the development of stronger instructional and class room management is gained through

experience. Those teachers with long teaching experience can minimize the amount of time

needed for administrative procedure matters in the classroom.Experienced teacher introduce

appropriate methods and techniques of teaching that can relate the learning activity with

pleasant event and consequence. They are also able to create an environment that assists

students to feel good about them.

Once the teacher` qualification is fit to the standard i.e. knowledgeable and well selected with

sufficient experience, their working condition which include remuneration, professional

development, availability of learning materials, effective and democratic leadership, free

from stress, etc affect their ability to provide quality education.

However, according to research findings, majority of developing countries including

Ethiopia, have faced serious shortage of well qualified and experienced secondary school

teachers.

The problem of lack of adequate number of qualified teachers at any level of educational

institutions may be a universal casein any nation. However, it may be sound in developing

countries where there is a higher likelihood of being with the shortage of educational

resources. Other writers like (Forojala, 1993)note the following points concerning a cause of

teacher’s shortage. These include low salaries, employment of unqualified teachers, increase

of school population, unfavorable environment and working condition and the decline of

status of teaching profession.

Nearly all countries may have definite standards to be attained by teachers at each level of

educational system, although there may be variations in requirements. In Ethiopia, according

to national standard the minimum required qualification to each at the secondary level is at

23
least a first degree (MOE, 1995). However, according to the annual abstract 2006 E.C only

89%qualified teachers have been serving in secondary schools of North Shoa Zone of Oromia

Regional State (NSEO, 2006).

2.3.3 Motivation of Teachers

Adequately qualified teacher with a significantly high work experience would not guarantee

to a high quality of education. Qualification and experience alone will not necessary bring the

desired quality in education. Further there is one big element that every planner and policy

makers should keep in mind when quality in education is remembered. That is motivation.

According to ( Good, 1973) motivation is the process of arousing, sustaining, and regulating

activity, a concept limited to some aspect such as the energetic of behavior or purposive

regulation. It is practical art of applying incentives and arousing interest for the purpose as

causing one to perform in a direct way.

It is already stated that teaching quality and teaching time are key determinates of student

achievement. Teaching time largely determined by teacher motivation. Motivation is a

critical determinant of performance (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). This implies that better

motivated teachers provide better methodology of teaching and guidance services. Hence, to

help teachers exert effort in a manner appropriate to their specific jobs, motivation is

necessary. If motivated, a teacher might show greater effort by developing various types of

media and other supplementary materials to accompanying the text used for a course.

Therefore, emphasis is necessary to enhance motivation of teachers for school improvement

where by teachers play an active role in the operation of the school. Accordingly, the

motivation of teachers lies at the heart of change for the better and sustaining motivation

deserves greater attention. However, the teaching force in many developing countries is

neither motivated nor trained.

24
In relation to this, (Brown, 1991) states that the condition of the teachers in developing

countries ranges from unsatisfactory to catastrophic in terms of working conditions, salaries

and training. This leads to low morale, dropouts from the profession or preoccupation with

learning income outside teaching, leading to absenteeism and poor performance.Even

competent teachers who are well prepared cannot teach effectively under adverse conditions.

Poor motivation, which translates into teacher absences, in different classroom practices, and

easily departure from the profession, impedes as a teacher’s ability to teach.

This implies that lack of motivational and professional commitment produce poor attendance

and unprofessional attitudes towards students. Thus, students obviously cannot learn from a

teacher who is not present, and absenteeism among students.

Several factors promote absenteeism among secondary school teachers that discourage new

teachers remaining in the profession and drive out experienced teachers.

One of the major factors for these critical problems: low salaries and benefits. Regarding

this, (Locheld, 1991) state that due to financial difficulties and low salaries many rural

districts face recurrent problems in attracting and retaining qualified teachers. Motivation and

commitment of teachers are not only conceptualized in monetary terms but in areas such as

provision of social facilities, good school environment recognition for extra workload, and

facilities for career progression development.

In addition to this, cultural and social isolation was noted frequently as the main reason for

high rates of turnover and insufficient number of candidate for teaching position in

developing countries. The same is true in Ethiopia that is a number of qualified secondary

school teachers leave the teaching profession to search better job and salary.

According to (Tekeste, 1990) more than 50%of the secondary school teachers prefer to be

engaged in professions other than teaching. Numbered secondary school teachers feel that,

they are working in profession that they do not appreciate. As the result of this problem, most

25
of them lack commitment.This situation may affect the quality of education in general and

student `academic performance in particular.

Poor working condition also the other major reasons which affect the commitment of the

teachers on their profession. Besides, conditions within the classroom discourage potential

candidates from becoming teacher’s and force incumbent teacher’s to leave the

profession.Teachers cannot do their job efficiently without basic instructional materials

(Lockheed, Bloch &Verspoor, 1990).

Moreover, in developing countries, school buildings are often poorly painted and facilities are

inadequate. These conditions demoralize teachers, weaken professional commitment, and it

can affect students’ academic achievement. Thus for etchers to be effective they must be well

trained, motivated , have a decent work environment, good pay and an attractive career path

(Ayalew, 1991).

2.3.4 Evaluation mechanism

Good teachers are skilled not only in instructional methods, but also in evaluation and

assessment practices that allow them guide individual student learning and adopt activities

according to students’ needs (UNICEF, 2000). Supporting this (Lockheed, 1991) states

thatteachers discover what students already known and what they still need to learn by

monitoring student work through essays, quizzes and tests, homework, classroom questions

and standardized tests.Moreover, evidence shows that the quality of assessment techniques

employed in school determines, largely, the quality of students learning. This seems to be

true since assessment by itself is an integral part of the instructional process. Moreover,

assessment usually starts with learning and ends along with it. In addition, the nature and the

type of continuous assessment instruments as well as the procedures to be employed in school

decisively determine the level of motivation an attention.

26
Any kind of assessment influences instruction. Supporting this,( Nitko, 1996)states that any

test is likely to influence the behavior of students and teachers provided by they know about

in advance. Assessment influences instruction positively when assessment methods are

suitable for a particular task or content. On other hand, assessment influences instruction

negatively when assessment methods are not suitable for the content.

The negative influences of assessment on instruction may also lead to the following

undesirable results:

• Teachers and students might be misinformed about students learning progress

and learning difficulties.

• Students’ motivation for learning could be decreased.

• Dangerous decisions about students might be made unfairly.

• The effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated incorrectly

Educators in general and teachers in particular should know something about assessment

methods and practices, and the negative and positive influences of assessment on instruction.

Teachers must assess, evaluate, and report students’ progress in relation to the learning

outcomes in the prescribed curriculum. Teachers have professional autonomy, in deciding

what methods to use assess and evaluate students’ progress in their classroom observation,

tests, portfolios, written assignment, and projects but if teachers are not trained, they found it

difficult to identify different methods as assessment to assessing students’ performance.

Teachers will be expected to employ various techniques of assessment, properly record the

learner’s achievement. To support the learners and to put these in to practice the number of

students in a class should be manageable.A large class size may hinder teachers from a proper

implementation of continuous assessment. It would require them to spend more time to assess

and record and students’ achievement. Thus, large class size has a negative impact in using

different methods of assessment and in frequently giving feedback to student( Nitko, 1996).

27
2.3.5 Instructional Time

Whether a teacher uses traditional or more current methods of instruction, efficient use of

school time has a significance impact on student learning occurs when teachers engage

students in instructional activities, rather than attending to administrative or other non-

instructional process (UNICEF,2000). The opportunity to learn and the time on task have

been shown in many international studies to be critical for educational quality. The amount of

actual time for learning is consistently related to achievement. More time spent on wider

coverage of the curriculum results in increased learning (World Bank, 1995).This means that

longer school time is directly related to student achievement.Research from a number of

countries has shown that the amount of time available teaching and learning academic

subjects, and how well that time is used by students and teachers, is consistently related to

how much children learn while they are in school(Lockheed, Bloch &Verspoor, 1990).

In general, when teachers devote more time to instruction, students learn more.However, the

annual number of hours available for children to study a given subject in school is determined

by three factors: the hours in the official school year, the proportion of these hours assigned

to the subject, and the amount of time lost because of school closings, teacher absence,

student absences, and miscellaneous interruptions. Additional time can be provided for study

through various ways. The first strategy for increasing the amount of instructional time is to

increase the length of the official school year, if it falls significantly below the norm. The

second strategy for increasing learning time is to assign homework, an approach that has been

effective in OECDcountries (World Bank, 1995). In general, how, and how much time is

used for both in-school and out-of-school learning may be extremely important.

28
2.4 The Influence of Class-size on Teaching-Learning Process

Class size is the number of students’ to be taught in given class. Now a day in most nations of

the world, class size are growing larger and larger to the extent of running out of manageable

size.

This tremendous growth in school population has made the class size a matter of wide

discussion among many scholars and the people concerned about education though no

universal agreement was arrived at. This is because different countries have their own ways

of arranging class size based on their economic development and kind of program. But all

agree that the smaller the class size, the better the learning (Wade, 1980).What constitutes a

desirable size for classes in the secondary school is a controversial matter. Some aspects of

the secondary program can probably be carried out under highly skilled teacher as effectively

in classes of forty. Fifty pupils as they can be done in classes of twenty or thirty (Lockwood,

1984). However, other activities should not be carried in class of more than twenty-Five or

thirty pupils.

Classes or groups in which activities designed primarily for social and emotional

development are carried on, should undoubtedly be quite small, so that teachers in charge

may become thoroughly familiar with each pupils, his needs, his personal qualities and his

problems (Steven ,1994).

Large number of students in a class requires more time and energy of the teacher, and this

may in turn affect the effectiveness of the teacher. It is obvious that class size has a direct

effect in the teaching and learning process. This means that class size has a direct bearing on

the rate and number of communication between the teacher and the student which in turn has

a direct effect on the desired outcome of the instruction. Thus, large classes have adverse

effect on instructional program where as small class is favorable.

29
2.4.1 Effects of Large Class-Size

The availability of instructional materials only cannot be the major determinant of the quality

of education. The number of students attending a class under the presentation of a lesson by a

teacher also plays a crucial role (Tirussew, 1998).

This is because of the fact that for better communication between students and teachers when

a class is conduct will be effective only when students in the class are small in number. Thus,

the larger the size of students’ number in a class, the more difficult communication between

the teacher and students becomes, the more the effectiveness of teaching will be hindered,

and the lower the quality of education will result.

According to (Gorton, 1988) teachers view that the quality of their teaching and their

interaction with their students decline with an increase in the size of the class. Various studies

emphasize the disadvantages of larger class size for both teachers and students. A study

conducted by (Bennet, 1996) indicates that as class size increases the volume of work in

marking and preparation increase. Furthermore, (Cololugh & Keith, 1993) confirm that as

class size increases, it would be very difficult in getting to know students.

Large class means more paper to correct, more records to keep more seat work to plans to

make, and more individual different to meet. Thus, large groups not only use up more

nervous energy of the teacher, but require more time as well. This reveals that large class

impacts the effectiveness of teaching-learning process by creating a wide gap between the

teacher and students.

(Tozedr,Viollas& Seness, 1993) summarize the effect of large class size on

instructionalprocess as follow

Large class size leads to discipline problems, less involvements of students in

classroom activities and little or no support to individual students. As result of

30
this, students may develop on atmosphere of disinterest in their learning

because they don’t know whether they did good or not(P:298).

Generally large class size is not convenient for the teachers as well as the students with

special problems, etc in class which is relatively large.

2.4.2 Benefit of Optimum class size

Most researchers, teachers and students prefer relatively small class size for effective

teaching learning process. Reasonable class size is important at any levels of education

particularly secondary schools

According to (Douglas, 1954), class rooms should be convenient enough for students to

learn comfortably. as to him, they must have sufficient space between one student and

another .Therefore, the typical class room should not accommodate more than 35 to

36students .

Another empirical support, which states in favor or small class-size conducted by (Fuller,

1987), reveals that, study on Malaysian secondary schools found significant effect on

students in language achievement. This implies that effective teaching and learning process

take place in relatively small class size.

Other writers like Lindgren and (Suter, 1985) also identified the following advantages of

small class

Both teachers and students get the opportunity of employing greater variety of

educational materials, methods and activities.

The climate of class room will be friendlier.

Students volunteer more frequently to participate in learning –related

activities.

Teacher’s behavior will be more relaxed and good nature

31
Small class students permit to get better opportunity of being recognized by their teachers and

hence receive necessary attention and supports.

In general the optimum class room student ratio is the key factor providing appropriate

instructional opportunity.

Many developing countries including Ethiopia significantly expanded access to primary

education during 1990s, but the building of new school has often not kept pace with increase

in the student population (UNICEF, 2000). In these cases, schools have often had to expand

class size s to accommodate large number of students. Now these poorly taught students go to

the secondary education.

In Ethiopia, even though the participation rate of school age children at the secondary school

level is low, the school system is characterized by large class size, especially the secondary

schools found rural areas of the country. The current standard set for secondary schools

recommends a class size of 40students in a room with total area 46.08m2.but in practice the

number of students in a class the is far more than stated number. For example the recent

average class size in North Shoa Zone Oromia regional state of secondary schools (9-12) is

70 (NSEO 2006 E.C).

The situation may affect quality education in general and students’ academic achievement in

particular. The main reason for this problem is the inability of the country to provide the

education system with adequate class rooms and other facilities proportionate to the size of

enrollment.

Regarding this problem, (Tekeste, 1990) has identified that:

The imbalance between resources for education and the number of students

in schools is one of the central problem s affecting the quality of education. In

the Ethiopian case, is one of the most important factors that brought the crisis

of education to the fore is, on the one hand ,the desire of the state to expand

32
the educational system, on the other hand ,the inability of state to provide

adequate financing for proper implementation of the educational program( p:

34-35).

Moreover, (Amare, 1998) indicate that, overcrowd-ness of class rooms was one of the

observed critical problems of the education system in this country. At the result of this,

problems related with students follow up, student participation; teacher-student

communication and feedback system were some of the major consequences of overcrowded

class rooms.

In general the optimum class room student ratio is the key factor for providing appropriate

instructional opportunity. The larger enrollment, the more difficult the teaching and learning

programs will be.

2.5 Benefits Guidance and Counseling program in secondary schools

Different Scholars based on the service it tends to provide, define guidance and counseling in

many ways. According to ( Garton, 1988) guidance and counseling is a process in which a

professionally certified counselor works with students individually or in groups to assist

them in solving educational, Vocational and professional and social concerns of the learners

in order to become mentally health and effective individuals who function at optimal levels

to achieve full potential. Moreover, (UNESCO, 1994) defined guidance and counseling as a

service designed to assist students to adjust their environment, developing an ability to set

realistic goals for themselves and improve their total progress.

Every school should provide and keep a file of prominent records of learning, a complete

statement of the final marks of every student for every Subject. This would help to follow up

the individual student and provide him assistance and guidance and this is mostly the

responsibility and task of the counselor in the school (Ukje, 1992). The main purpose of

guidance and counseling is providing students counseling and the opportunity to discover

33
their interest, abilities and capacities in various studies, assisting them in away studies will

contribute best to realization of their educational plan and where such studies may be best

pursued.

According to ( Aggrawal, 1995),one of the major defects of the present system of

education, particularly secondary school education is that, talents of students are not being

properly harnessed i.e. education is not provided according to the needs and interest of the

students as the result of the absence of guidance and counselor in the school Thus, students

are forced read subject with reference to any goalas a result many students at a loss

understand what subjects to take Soto solve these and other learning problems in secondary

schools the assignment of professional Guidance and counselor is mandatory.

As reviewed by (Ukeje, 1992), one of the objectives of guidance and counseling is to

help students to plan a suitable educational program and make effective use of the program

secondary school students have to develop effective study skills and habit in order to achieve

their academic career successfully addition to this most of the students at secondary school

are at the adolescent stage Due to this they have physical and social problems that hinder

their learning activities therefore, it is the task of the counselor to help these students to solve

the problems related with adolescent stage so far, it had been noted regarding the advantage

of guidance and counseling However the problem with the secondary school in Ethiopia

reveals that, majority of them do not have professional who is able to provide appropriate

guidance and counseling service thus students are deprived of the services, which counseling

service thus, students are deprived of the services which could be gained from guidance and

counseling Regarding this (Sileshi , 2000) states that the ministry of education could not

assign professional counselor for majority of the secondary school in the country due to

professional in the field Based on this experience, Silashi states that, Principals in secondary

schools assign teachers whose teaching loads relatively small as counselor However, the

34
problem is since these teachers are not trained for this purpose, their role as counselors make

the services they provide questionable this can affect students, academic performance A

pointed out by (Tickher , 1971 ) one of the causes for poor academic performance in

Ethiopian secondary school is lack of orientation to various fields of interest and lack of

proper study of students due to shortage of trained counselor.

2.6 The Impact of School Leadership

Leadership is a crucial factor in school effectiveness and the key to organizational success

and improvement. Leaderships helps to establish a clear and consistent lesson for the school,

which emphasizes the prime purposes of the school as teaching and learning and is highly

visible to both staff and students.

Regarding the role of effective principals (Harris, 2003) state as follows:

Effective head teachers are responsible for defining the mission of the schools

and setting goals. These goals emphasized traditional student achievement and

are widely shared both within and outside the school. Besides, they are

responsible for managing the routine factions within the school organization

that support teaching and learning: for example, managing resources, time, the

curriculum and staff. They also required to promote a professional learning

climate by establishing high expectations and standards of student behavior,

and they are expected to develop a strong culture at school that include a safe

and orderly work environment, staff collaboration and cohesion( p: 9).

This implies that quality of head ship matters in determining the motivation of teachers and

the quality of teaching which of teaching which takes place in the classroom.

In the school system, the principal is a key person to organize and mobilize the school`s

human and material resources for the successful realization of the objectives, so as to bring

about quality of education and maximize students` performance.

35
Students` academic achievement is positively related with good school climate and creating

this good climate is mainly the responsibility of the school principals can influence the

teaching activities positively by administrative support and collegial leadership .Therefore,

healthy personal relations in a school (relations among and between students, teachers, and

principal) could facilitate students’ academic achievement.

Moreover, the influence of the principal whether in primary or secondary school and the

extent to which the principal is able to provide teachers with adequate supplies and additional

instructional materials to do their job is related aspects of the principal which are part of the

healthy school environment.

According to (Potter & Powell, 1992 ) effective secondary school principal is aware of

teachers need ,offers feedback in response to performance and encourages teacher`s long

term professional development and uses this development for the benefit of the school . He

provides positive leadership, and sets goal and motivation the staff to be committed to their

achievement.

Thus, the competency and commitment of the school principle and his /her collegiality of

leadership the secondary schools, would have a positive correlation with student academic

achievement. Regarding this, researchers agreed that student’s perform better in schools

having properly qualified and experienced principals than those who do not. But, it does not

mean that all principals fulfill such qualities. Principals having the above qualities are those

who are well qualified and experience in related area.

In connection to this, (Hallak, 1990) has pointed out that, principals or department

heads frequently lack of training or resources to be effective supervisors, administrators or

managers. Thus, principals are tied to supervisory duties that they have neither the time nor

the technical knowledge to carry out effectively, especially in large schools, and it is difficult

36
to see how even a concerned campaign can succeed in raising standards of teaching under

such circumstances.

Generally, in the school system, the school principal is the key person to organize, mobilize

and integrate all the school`s human and non-human material resources so as to bring about

quality of education in that school and enhance students` academic achievement. Thus, to

carry out this responsibility, the school principal should be well qualified, trained, and

experienced in the lead groups in the school, how to keep school discipline, how to

communicate with groups in the school, how to decide quality decision, and how to program

efficient supervision in the school system.

2.7 Language of Instruction/Medium of Instruction/

The main goal of education is to transmit knowledge, values, norms and other elements of

culture to which individual belong. As an instrument of communication exchange of ideas,

language is prime vehicle this endeavor.

Languages play a central role for the acquisition of information, cognitive and personal

development. Besides, it is through language that information is acquired, interpreted or

expressed whatever the mode of learning is (Merew, 1998).

To be successful in the teaching and learning process the command of language of learning

both students and teachers should be good enough .Therefore, in many countries the language

of instruction is often the concern of all teachers and educators. Not simply because it is

through the language of instruction that the content of their subject is delivered to students

and their correct reception of the information checked and evaluated, but also, because, it is

through linguistics instruction that, the students acquired the desired intellectual abilities

which makes a constructive activity possible.

Similarly, language plays a great role in determining the effectiveness of efficiency of

communication network in education.

37
According to (Teshome, 2001) effective teachers not only know their subjects, but also,

communicate their knowledge to students. Without effective communication teachers could

not make help their students learn, and people share knowledge.

Regarding the usefulness of effective communication in teaching- learning process, (Kuper,

1988) citied in (Dereje, 1998) has asserted that:

In general, one of the areas that insure curriculum relevance is the immediacy

of events, ideas and phenomena that are communicated the learner

through the language she/he can understand. Instructional processes are by and

large the acquisition when class room instruction is facilitated. That must be

the relative end of curriculum under taking, since many educators argue that,

low achievement is due to lack of student intelligence, to communication

problems( p:188).

The above idea reveals that, the language of instruction is a key factor either to facilitate or

hinder the quality of education .that is there should be effective communication between the

students and the teacher in order to enhance the teaching learning activity and effective

communication between the two is determined by the language ability of the learners as well

as the teachers.

The current view in education is that learning is enhanced when learners are given

opportunities to talk about ,write about or read about topics in an exploratory or reflective

way that assist them in making senses of new knowledge and ideas. Besides, all school

subjects will require learners to collaboratively work to describe, to compare, to classify, to

sequence etc. In all these efforts, students would be able to use language and learn the content

of school subjects at the same time.

However, majority of secondary school students, for whom, the medium of instruction is

through their second or third language, are very poor in the language of the instruction.

38
Similarly, students in secondary schools of Ethiopia have shared the problems of students of

other counties whose English is their second or third language. That is, students are weak in

the language of instruction (English).

The English language has long established its usefulness in Ethiopia as foreign and second

language both as a medium of instruction at secondary and tertiary levels of modern

education and as a language of international communication for example, as an official

language of diplomacy, international organizations, international contacts and /or transactions

in some national organizations (Teshome,2001). But, there is some dissatisfaction with the

present quality of education in general, the decline the quality of English in particular.

Regarding the problem of language of instruction, Seyoum (1996, p.10) states as follow:

Thought English, has been the language of instruction for quite a long time at

secondary level. Nonetheless the proficiency of most teachers particularly that

of students, was widely believed to have been quite poor. In fact, one expatiate

expert of English has aptly remarked that the English language of obstruction

rather than of instruction.

Moreover, English as the medium of instruction has worsened from time to time. It was in a

crisis in the seventies and an obstruction in the eighties and it has now become as sources of

deterioration in academic performance of students (Marew, 1998). Success in learning relies

basically the ability of learners to understand the teaching learning process and to express

them in the language that is used for learning. Hence, students who lack sufficient languages

skills not only fail to progress in the language but they also fail in other subject areas as well.

Findings of various researches have shown that, English as a medium of instruction has

created difficulties on the teaching learning process. When students do not have language

ability, they cannot understand their teachers as well as the teaching materials written in

English (Caillods, 1989).

39
According to (Caillods, 1989),if the language of instruction and the language in which

the instructional materials are written the language is not vernacular to the learners ,it

creates problems . When even students cannot read and understanding the language, there is

no way of performing adequate results in the schools. Due to this problem students fail to

work hard and face academic deficiency.

Regarding the in efficiency of the students in the medium of instruction, (Tekeste,1990) has

indicated that the greater number of senior secondary school teachers had explained that the

language ability of the learners at this level of education is poor. Besides, teachers further

stated that, English as means of instruction has created problems both for teachers and

students, which in turn influences understanding of the subject matter.

Moreover, (Wakitaui & Vandor,1997) have indicated that, in Kenya, as in other developing

countries, teachers have limited proficiency in English and they find it very difficult to help

students with their academic problems this is because of the fact that for most of the

Kenyan students, English is usually third language. Therefore they face the challenge of

maintaining facility among the three languages. Therefore, they face the challenge of

maintaining facility among the three languages.

Moreover, research findings of (Wanna & Tsion, 1994), and (Genet, 1991) reveal that,

the language problem is in fact the major impediment to students’ educational progress.

Because, the curriculum is taught in a language is different from the ones used at home. It

also shows that, female students in secondary schools of this country repeat grades because of

the problem of the language of instruction (English).

The problem of proficiency in the language of instruction (English) at secondary school level

is not only the concern of students, but it seems the problems of teachers. Regarding the

problem secondary school teachers in the language of instructions, (Tekeste, 1990) has

medium of instruction created great difficulties for themselves as well as their students.

40
According to his argument unlike the decades of the 1960s and the early 1970s when most of

the secondary school teachers were native speakers of the English language, thus, facilitating

the consolidation of English as medium of instruction. However, since the 1974, almost there

are no expatriate secondary school teachers.

Regarding the proficiency in the language of instruction expected from the teachers,

(Bellack, 1996), cited in (Weldu, 1996), asserted that without the use of language only few

classroom activities would be carried out. This is also true with explanations. In teaching

Learning process usually the teachers needs appropriate language in order to give adequate

explanations which are conclude and to the point.

Thus, the English language competence of teachers has been declined and this has its own

influence on academic achievement of students. According to a research finding on this issue,

which was carried out by (Tewelde G/Yohannas, 1988), teachers’ language (English) was

very complex and full of errors. This adds complication to the existing language problem of

the students.

Thus, because of the medium of instruction has great effect on academic achievement of

students, teachers have to be trained very well in medium of instruction (English in the

Ethiopian case).

Generally, because, language as an instrument for thought, languages help us to direct

attention to items or events; it helps us in classifying things in our experiences; it helps to

relate these things to one another, to impose order upon the world, it helps to recall events by

providing a framework to hang our memories around and it helps us to put old information

together new ways and make influences. All these activities are vital for learning across in

curriculum (Corson, 1990).

41
Thus, instructional language problem is among the major impediments to student’s

educational progress in secondary schools of the country in general and study area in

particular.

2.8 The Impact of Curriculum

The Curriculum can be defined more or less as a fact taught in school, a set of subject, set of

content, a set of materials, a set of performance objectives; that which is taught both inside

and outside directed by the school, that which is an individual learner experiences as a result

of schooling or everything that is planned by school personnel (Marsh, 1997).Curricula and

syllabi should be closely linked to performance standards and measure of outcomes.

National goals for education, and outcomes statements that translate those goals into

measurable objectives should provide the starting point for the development and

implementation of curriculum (UNICEF, 2000). Thus, the quality and standard of education

in a given country is mainly determined by the essence of its curriculum and the process of its

implementation.

Curriculum is the most central aspect of an educational system, and it comprises the

opportunities for learning provided by a school. It includes both the classroom and out-of

class room activities deliberately prompted or supported by the school. Moreover, there are

various interactive relationships, attitudes, and styles of behaviors among the members of the

school community which would result in desired educational objectives (Dereje, 1998).

Moreover, curriculum should emphasize problem solving that stresses skills development as

well as knowledge acquisition. Curriculum should also provide for individual differences,

and focus on results or standards and targets for student learning ( UNICEF, 2000).generally,

a curriculum to be relevant, it should emphasizes on problem solving that stress on skills

development and knowledge acquisition, should provide means for individual differences

(special needs of the learners) and focus on results, standards, and targets for students

42
learning ;should be gender sensitive and inclusive all students with diverse abilities,

backgrounds, responsible to emerging issues (such as conflict resolutions);should motivate

the learner, should relate things to the real life of the ,learner ,should provide a means for

future life ; and should provide a means for the development of the society in general.

Therefore, preparation and development of a curriculum should be considered in light of what

has been done to include the interests, needs and educational background of the students and

their level of achievement. The content of the curriculum should be appropriate and

proportionate to the knowledge Levels of the Learners, if the desired quality of education is

to be attained effectively.

In relation to this, (Coombs, 1985) argued that quality of education pertains to the relevance

of what taught and learned to how well it fits the present and future learning needs of the

particular learners in questions, given their particular circumstances and prospective.

The curriculum content should also be appropriate for the learners’ level knowledge. With

regard to appropriateness of curriculum to the learners, abilities and needs (Abebe, 1991) has

indicated that the kind of understanding we have about the learners as a determinant of

curriculum content can be viewed from perspective of Students abilities and needs. He further

states if contents are selected interims of what learners are capable of carrying out their

present stage of development they are not useful, for the possibilities of achieving the desired

aims are at minimal.

Curriculum relevance in the modern context can be addressed through identifying key social

problems, which would be considerate as the core contents of today’s education system. In

other words, the curriculum contents to be selected at various levels of the education system

have to be closer to the present real life Problems so as to give the learner opportunities and

initiatives for the solution of both individuals as well community problems (Dereje, 1998).

43
It is already stated that the preparation and development of a curriculum should start through

emphasizing the needs, interests, and background of the students and their level of

achievement. Any educational system is effective, if its curriculum is considerate to the needs

and aspirations of the students. Thus, to make the curriculum relevant to the specific society

at large, a continuous curriculum reform and innovation must take in the education system.

This is because, Knowledge Changes and truth changes with history and with the application

of the scientific method to social and educational problems. In addition to this, since schools

are the consumers and practitioners of the curriculum, the experts of curriculum have to be

sure that, the schools are ready and willing to receive the new curriculum. Besides, parents

and other community members have to be convinced about the new curriculum.

According to (Arichley, 1977), curriculum developers should examine the acceptance of

the new curriculum by teacher, parents and other community member. The most impotent

factors influencing the implementing of the curriculum is the qualification and experience of

teachers, principals, and instructional materials.

With regarded to the role of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation, (Dereje,

1998) notes that any curriculum innovation has to involve the teachers from the beginning so

as to minimize the likely burdens of incompetence which lead to rejection or inadequate

implementation. To avoid such problems, teachers’ resourcefulness and involvement must be

ensured right at the beginning of curriculum planning and development.

Thus, for a new curriculum to be accepted by teachers, learners as well as the society it

should be relevant to the real life condition and background knowledge of students,

otherwise, their performance would be affected.

One of the major factors which influenced the teaching learning process in the school is the

appropriateness and proper delivery f the curriculum. In this relation, when the Ethiopian

secondary school curriculum is viewed, it has some problems related with relevance,

44
appropriateness and proportionate. Regarding this, TGE (1994, p.3) notes the following

points:

If one examines the content of the curriculum it is clear that it is over loaded by the

theoretical knowledge with little emphasis on practicum that is the curriculum is

irrelevant and with no clearly defined objectives. The lessons lack coordination and

do not cross relate. It does neither inspire creativity nor equip one with sufficient skill.

The science and cultural components are weak and are inadequate to prepare the

learner for useful participation in the community.

Supporting the above idea (Amare, 1998) pointed out that, one of the major problems of

the Ethiopian education system is related with appropriateness and relevance of the

curriculum, i.e. subject difficulty system is related with appropriateness and relevance of the

curriculum, i.e. subject difficulty and unnecessary burdensome number of subject is the major

curriculum related problems. In addition to this, irrelevance of curriculum is the most critical

problem in the education system of this country.

Generally, curriculum to be relevant, it should emphasizes on problem solving that stress on

skill development and knowledge acquisition should provide means for individual differences

/special needs of the learners/and focus on results, standards and targets for students learning;

should be gender sensitive and inclusive all students with diverse

abilities, backgrounds, responsible to emerging issues (such as conflict resolutions);should

motivate the learner should relate things to the real life of the learner, should provide a

means for future life; and should provide a means for the development of the Society in

generally.

45
CHAPTER THREE

Research Design and Methodology

This chapter deals with theresearch design, source of data, sample population and sampling

technique, data gathering tools procedure of data collection and methods of data analysis.

3.1 Research design

A research design is a plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived as to obtain

answers to research questions or problems (Kumar, 1996). It is plan of research practice that

indicates what researcher will do from problem formulation to suggest operational

implications.

The design of this study was dominantly quantitative approach and it made use of descriptive

survey as the major. The researcher employed this design, to assess and reveal factors

affecting the academic achievement of grade 10 students at North Shoa Zoneof Oromia

Regional state. That was done keeping in mind the device that of Kumar (1996) states that;

survey design involves large sample size and is oriented towards the determination of the

status of a given phenomenon. Survey study has also a penetrating power to analyze realistic

Conditions. (Creswell, 2009), also states survey design provides quantitative or numeric

descriptions of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that

population. It is also a relatively cost-effective way of gathering information from a large

number of people. Thus, the design is preferred on this basis.

3.2 Data sources

Both primary and secondary data were collected from various sources. Primary data

were obtained from sampled woreda general secondary school teachers, principals, students,

supervisorsand zonal education office supervisor. Secondary data were gathered from

46
relevant documents and statistical data (e.g. class/student ratio, national examination of grade

10 students) as additional evidence for the study.

3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique

It is impossible to include every member of the population in the study due to a number

of constraints (time money and others) and effort. To make the sample area manageable and

representative,5 secondary schools were selected purposivelyon the assumption that they are

relevant source for the case under study. That is because the researcher had reasonable

experience in these 5 selected secondary schools in relation to the issue of the present study.

In the sampled schools there were 113 teachers, of which 35 (30.97%) teachers were selected

using simple random sampling technique the sample size of the teacher respondents for each

school is determined by quota sampling technique and in each school, teacher respondents

were selected by simple random sampling technique.

In addition to teachers 8 principals and vice-principals, 4 secondary school supervisors, and

1 zonal education office supervisor were selected with availability sampling technique.

Regarding student respondents, there were 2473 students in sampled schools. For the purpose

of this study, only grade10 students (1315 )were selected purposively. Out of 1315 grade10

students 160 (12.16%) were selected using simple random sampling technique. The number

of respondents for each school was determined by using quota sampling technique, while

simple random sampling technique was used to select each respondent in the sampled

schools.

47
3.4 Data Gathering Tools

In the process of data collection questionnaire, interview, document analysis and observation

were used. The questionnaire was self developed and administered to teachers and students.

Questionnaire administered to teachers has 7 parts and 34 items, while that of students has 7

parts and 35 items. The questionnaire has open ended and close ended questions. Close ended

questions have Yes/No, and Likert scale form. Structured interviews were conducted with

secondary school supervisors, school principals and zonal education office supervisor to have

deeper information on the issue under study. Document analysis was also used as instruments

to gather information for this study. Documents such as: grade 10 national examination

results, student registration file, teachers’ profile, class size were used.

3.5. Procedure of Data Collection

The Preliminary step in collecting the necessary data started with face to face contact with the

directors of the sampled schools to discuss on the objective of the study, to have necessary

information that was needed in the study and to facilitate the data gathering process be

smooth. The researcher performed pilot testing on the draft questionnaire on respondents that

was not included in the sample of the study to check whether it was appropriate for the

intended purposes or need modification. After pilot testing the questionnaires were translated

in to Afan oromo to increase the students respondents understanding on the issues. Then the

researcher arranged place and time with the directors to get teacher respondents to make them

aware about the purpose of the study and to distribute the questionnaires. In addition to this a

convenient time and date was fixed with the supervisors and principals and vice-principals

for the interview.

3.6 Method of Data Analysis

In accordance with the data collecting tools that were employed two types of data, qualitative

and quantitative data were obtained. Thus, the analysis of the data being collected was done

48
in line with the data type. That means, data obtained through the close-ended questionnaire

were analyzed quantitatively while those obtained through open-ended questionnaire,

interviews, document analysis and observation were analyzed qualitatively.

After collecting data through questionnaire the raw data was checked, tallied, numbered,

arranged and organized in tables to make it understandable. Then, the data was analyzed and

interpreted using different statistical tools such as percentage, measures of central tendency

like mean and weighted mean were computed to find average values against each item scores.

The data that was obtained through interviews, open-ended questionnaire and document and

observation were analyzed qualitatively.

49
CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

This chapterdeals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data. 35

questionnaires were distributed to the teachers and 160questionnaires were distributed to

students. 30(86%) teachers and 145(91%) studentswere filled and returnedthe questionnaires.

The presentation and analysis of the data is categorized into two major parts.

The first part deals with the characteristics of respondents. The second part deals with

the analysis and interpretation of factors affecting the academic achievement of secondary

school students’ ofNSZORS.

4.1 Characteristics of Teachers and Students respondents

4.1.1 Characteristics of Teacher respondents

The table below presents some key characteristics of teacher respondents regarding their

profile in terms of sex, academic qualification, weekly academic loads-features that are believed to

have some important implications on students’ academic achievements

Table1. Profile of Teacher Respondents

No Characteristics Teachers N=30


No %
1 Sex
Male 27 90
Female 3 10
2 Academic Qualification
12+1 - -
Diploma - - -
Level 2 - -

Level 3 2 7

First Degree 28 93
Second Degree - -
3 Teaching Loads Per Week
No periods - -
16-20 3 10
21-25 9 30
26-30 18 60

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Table 1 presents the general characteristics of school teachers involved in the study. From

item 1 of the table, 27 out of 30 of the school teachers (i.e. 90%) were male respondents. On

the other hand, 3 of them (i.e. 10%) were female teachers. This shows that there were only

few female teachers in teaching profession.

With regard to their qualification, encouragingly the vast majority of respondents 28 (93%) of

teachers were first degree holders.

In item 3 regarding teachers teaching loads, the majority of respondents 60% and 30% of

teachers were teaching 26-30 and 21-25 periods per week respectively. The rest 10% of

teachers were teaching 16-20 periods per week.

4.1.2 Characteristics of Student Respondents

The table below presents some key characteristics of student respondents regarding their

profile in terms of sex and average distance from their home to school that are believed to

have some important implications on students’ academic achievements.

Table2. Profile of Student Respondents

No Characteristics Respondents
Students N=145

No %
1 Sex
Male 113 78
Female 32 22
2 Average Distance From Home To Schools in
1-6 53 37
7-11 87 60
12-16 5 3
Above16 - -

51
Table 2 presents the general characteristics of school students involved in the study .As it is

shown in item1, 113 out of 145 school students (i.e. 78%) were males, while the remaining

32(22%) of student respondents were female.

Concerning the average distance from their home to school 87 out of 145 students (i.e. 60%)were

traveled between7-11 kilometers, while 53(37%) were traveled between 1-6 kilometers. The rest

5(3%)respondents were traveled between 12-16 kilometers per a day. This shows that the majority of

students’ were traveled long distance that hinders them to use library and attending tutorial classes.

4.2 Achievement of Students in National Examination

The table below presented students sat for national examination, those promoted to

preparatory school and those failed.

Table 3. Grade 10 Students’ National Examination from 2002-2005 E.C

Acade No of students sat for Promoted to % not Promoted to %

mic national exam. preparatory schools preparatory schools

year
M F T M F T M F T

2002 4450 3330 7780 1263 949 2212 28.45 3187 2381 5568 71.55

2003 5594 4913 10507 1503 1261 2764 26.3 4091 3652 7743 73.7

2004 4082 3262 7344 1397 1281 2678 36.46 2685 1981 4666 63.54

2005 4488 4032 8520 1573 1310 2883 33.83 2915 2722 5637 66.16

Source: North Shoa Zone education office exam registration document

52
As it is shown in the table 3, the number of students promoted to preparatory schools from

year 2002-2005 E.C was 2212 (28.45%), 2764(26.3%), 2678 (36.46%)and 2883

(33.83%)respectively. The average number of students promoted to preparatory schools from

year 2002-2005 E.C was 31.26%. On the other hand, the number of students those do not

promoted to preparatory schools were 71.55%, 73.7% 63.54%and 66.16% respectively. The

average number of students those who do not promoted to preparatory schools from year

2002-2005 E.C was 68.74 %. This shows the students performance on the national

examination in the Zone was low which in turn indicates the quality of education was highly

affected in the zone.

4.4 The Role of Instructional Materials in Teaching-Learning Process

The table below presents the availability and adequacy of instructional materials, and the

pupil-book ratio-features that have an impact on the quality of the teaching learning process.

53
Table4. The Respondents Response Concerning Instructional Materials

No Items Teachers Students

N=30 N=145
NO % No %
1 Are instructional materials available in your
Adequately available - - - -
Moderately available 7 23 26 18
Inadequately available 23 77 119 82

Not available at all - - - -


2 If the instructional materials are

inadequately available, the problem created

High 26 87 124 86
Medium 4 13 21 14
Low - - - -
No problem is created - - - -
3 What is the average pupil-book ratio of the

text book in your school?


1:1 16 53 79 54
1:2 9 30 62 43
1:3 3 10 3 2
1:4 2 7 1 1
4 Have the portion for the first semester and

second semester been covered in all


Yes 11 37 32 22
No 19 63 113 78
5 What do your think is the reason for the

portions not to be covered in all subjects?


Shortage of textbooks 9 30 12 8

Voluminous of textbooks 16 53 109 75

Wastage of time due to different 5 17 24 17

reasons

Concerning item 1 the majority of respondents, 23(77%) of teachers and119 (82%) of

students indicated that instructional materials were not adequately available in their

54
respective schools. Some respondents 7 (23%) of teachers and 26 (18%) students replied that

instructional materials were moderately available in their respective schools.

On item 2, the majority of respondents, 26 (87%) of teachers and 124 (86%) of students

rated the problem created due to shortage of instructional materialshigh. On the other hand 4

(14%) of teachers and 21 (14%) of students rated the problem created due to shortage of

instructional materials medium.

Regarding pupil-book ratio, item 3,the majority of respondents, 16 (53%) and 79 (54%)

of teachers and students respectively reported that it was 1:1, while 9 (30%) and 62 (43%) of

teachers and students indicated that it was 1:2. On the other hand 3 (10%) of teachers and 3

(2%) of students reported that pupil book ratio in respective school was1:3.The rest 2 (7%) of

teachers’ and 1(1%) of students responded that pupil book ratio in respective school was1:4.

Most of the interviewees also pointed out that there was shortage of student text books in

some subjects such as: Afan Oromo, Amharic, History, Geography, physical education and

English in secondary schools under study, which is contrary to what is stated in ESDP IV,

which states every student would provide with essential text books.

Regarding item 4 the majority of respondents, 19 (63%) and 113 (78%) of teachers and

students respectively responded that the portion was not covered in all subjects. The majority

of respondents 16 (53%) and 109 (75%) of teachers and students respectively reported the

reason was voluminous of text books. 9(30%) and 12(8%) of teachers and students

respectively indicate that due to shortage of text books the rest 5(17%) and 24(17%) teachers

and students respectively reported that due to wastage of time for various reasons

55
4.5 Adequacy of School Physical Facilities

The table below presents the responses of teachers and students regarding the

availability school physical facilities in sample schools. Non-existence=4.6 and above, very

inadequate=3.6-4.5, inadequate=2.6-3.5, adequate=1.6-2.5, and very adequate= 0-1.5

Table5. Respondents Response on the Adequacy of School Physical Facilities

School Respondents Very Adequat Inadequ Very in Non Mea Weight

physical adequat e (2) ate (3) adequat existence(5) n mean

facilities e(1) e(4)

Teacher(T) N % N % N % N % No %

Student(S) o o o o

School T (N=30) - - 3 10 22 73 5 17 - - 2.16

building S (N=145) - - 19 13 80 55 46 32 - - 3.18 3.00

Class T (N=30) - - 2 7 16 53 12 40 - - 3.33

rooms S (N=145) - - - 91 63 54 37 - - 3.37 3.36

Chairs T (N=30) - - 7 23 17 57 6 20 - - 2.96

/tables S (N=145) - - 39 27 43 30 63 43 - - 3.16 3.12

Laboratory T (N=30) 12 40 - - - 18 60 3.4

S (N=145) 34 23 15 11 - - 96 66 3.54 3.51

Student T (N=30) - 30 100 5

lounge S (N=145) - 145 100 5 5

Latrine T (N=30) 4 13 - - 15 50 11 37 - - 3.1

S (N=145) - - 32 22 57 39 56 39 - - 3.16 3.14

The mean value of teacher respondents about the adequacy of school facilities (school

buildings, tables/chairs, latrine, class rooms, laboratory and student launge) were 2.16, 2.96,

3.1, 3.33, 3.4 and 5; while the men value for student respondent were 3.18, 3.16, 3.16, 3.37,

56
3.54 and 5. The average weighted mean value is also 3.54 which indicate school facilities

were not adequately exists in the schools.

According to the personal observation of the researcher almost in all sample schools,

there was the shortage of instructional materials and facilities. For example all sample

schools were not equipped with laboratory facilities. Some of the schools such as Ejersa

Kawo and Degam used laboratory classes for the purpose of class rooms. As a result this

condition hinders the academic achievement of students’ in secondary schools.

4.6 Availability and Use of Library Services

Library is among facilities that are thought to be very useful with strong effect on students

learning. Students cannot acquire knowledge only through text books of class room lectures.

They should also use libraries and refer to books in order to widen their knowledge. Based on

this, respondents were asked to give their judgment about the availability and library services

in the secondary school under study.

57
Table6. Respondents Response Regarding the Availability and Capacity of Library Service

NO Items Teachers Students

. N=30 N=145

No % No %

1 Is there a library service in your school?

Yes 28 93 118 81

No 2 7 27 19

No knowledge - - - -

2 How the capacity of the library to serve a large number

of students of the school?

High - - - -

Medium 14 47 37 25

Low 16 53 85 59

No knowledge - - 23 16

Not at all - - - -

3 What are the problems related with the library?

Shortage of reference books 5 17 37 26

Lack standardized library hall 3 10 21 14

Lack’ of professional personal (Librarian) 4 13 33 23

The library is not opened when needed 2 7 4 3

all are true 16 53 50 34

4 How frequently do students utilize library?

All the time - - - -

Most of the time 5 17 41 28

Sometimes 21 70 69 48

They do not utilize library 4 13 35 24

58
In table 6 of item 1 the majority of the respondents, 28(93%) and 118 (81%) of teachers and

students respectively confirmed that, there was a library services in their respective secondary

schools.

Concerning the capacity of library services, item 2,nearly half of teacher respondents, 16

(53%) and the majority of student respondents 85 (59%)indicated that the capacity of the

library to serve a large number of students was low. The remaining 14 (47%) and 37 (25%) of

teachers and students respectively responded that the capacity of the library to serve a large

number students was medium..

In item 3 , majority of respondents, 16 (53%) and 50 (34%) of teachers and students

respectively confirmed the shortage of reference books, lack of standardized library hall, the

library is not opened when needed, and lack of librarian/professional personnel/ were the

major problems related to library service. While 5 (17%) of teachers and 37 (26%) of

students pointed out that shortage of reference books was the major problem. Other

respondent 4 (13%) of teachers and 33 (23%) of students responded that lack of professional

personnel/librarian/ was the major problem. On the other hand 3 (10%) teachers and 21

(14%) of students responded that lack of standardized library hall was the major factor. The

remaining 2 (7%) 7%of teachers and4 (3%) of students indicated that the library was not

opened when needed was the main factor that hinders library service in respective schools.

Responses from the interviewees and researchers personal observation also indicate that

libraries of the schools under study were not providing sufficient services due to different

reasons. For example, all the schools under study have shortage of reference books and have

no librarians. Three of them/FitcheNo2, Salayish Harbumaskele and Dedgem secondary

schools have no library hall; instead they use library as classrooms. Thus it is possible to

generalize the school libraries were not providing the required degree of service.

59
4.7. Teacher Related Factors on Academic Achievement of Grade 10 Students

Table7. Respondents Response Concerning Teacher Related Factors

No Items Teachers Students

N=30 N=145

No % No %

1 Are the teachers in your school qualified for

the grade level they are teaching?

Yes 28 93 126 87

No 2 7 19 13

2 The ability of the teachers in mastery of the

subject matter they are teaching

Very high 7 23 20 14

High 8 27 39 27

Medium 9 30 51 35

Low 6 20 35 24

Very low - - - -

With regard to teachers’ qualification, item 1 almost 28 (93%) and 126(87%) of teacher and

student respondents respectively reported that the teachers have the required qualification for

the grade level they were assigned to teach. The rest 2 (7%) and 27 (13%) of teachers and

students responded that the teachers were not qualified for the grade level they teach.

Regarding item 2, the majority of respondents 9 (30%)and 51 (35%) of teachers and

students respectively reported that teachers mastery of the subject matter was medium.

4.8 Evaluation Mechanism of Students on Academic Performance

As stated in review of related literature, teachers evaluate what students acquire knowledge

and what gap they have by monitoring students work through continuous assessment. Based
60
on this respondents were asked to forward their opinion about evaluation methods of

students’ academic performance used by class room teacher

Table8. Respondents Response Regarding Assessment of Students’ Academic

Achievement

Teachers

N=30

No Items students

N=145

No % No %

1 What methods do teachers use in evaluating

students’ activities most of the time?


Mid-term exam 19 63 76 53

final exams 6 20 54 37
Continuous assessment 5 17 15 10

Others (if any) - - - -

2 Do teachers check the students’ class work and

homework regularly?
Yes 7 23 38 26
No 23 77 107 74
3 If teachers do not check the students’ work, why?

The number of students is very high - - - -

Lack of time - - - -

. Due to large number of students and 30 100 145 100

lack of time
Others - - - -

As indicated in item 1 the majority of respondents 19 (63%) and 76 (53%) of teachers and

students respectively responded that teachers evaluate their students’ academic performance

61
by giving mid-term. On the other hand 20% and 37% of teachers and students respectively

stated that teachers evaluate their students’ academic performance by providing final exam.

The remaining few respondents, 17% and 10% of teachers and students evaluate their

students’ academic performance by giving continuous assessment. This indicates that the

assessment practice of schools under study contradicts with what MOE recommended which

states that the student’s classroom performance should be assessed 70 % with continuous

assessment and 30% with final exam.

Regarding item 2, the majority of respondents 23(77%) and 107(74%) teachers and students

respectively stated that teachers do not check students’ class work and home work regularly.

In item 3 almost all 30(100%) and 145(100%) of teachers and students respectively stated that

teachers do not check students work due to large number of students in the class and lack of time.

However, without checking students work (activities)regularly one cannot expect that students’

learning difficulties can identified properly and in turn attain the required academic achievement.

4.9 Effective Use of Instructional Time

Table9. Respondents Responses Regarding the Use of Instructional Time

No Items Teachers Students

N=30 N=145
No % No %
1 How school teachers use instructional time properly?
Very high - - - -
High 8 27 - -
Medium 15 50 76 53
Low 6 20 38 26
Very low 1 3 31 21
2 What is the reason for the wastage of instructional time?
Teachers absenteeism 11 36 31` 21
Student absenteeism - - 11 8
Different training /meeting/at school or 5 17 42 29
All are possible reasons 14 47 61 42

62
Research from a variety of countries has shown that when teachers devote more time for

instruction, students learn more. Based on this fact the respondents asked to rate whether

class room teachers use instructional time properly or not. Accordingly, the majority of

respondents 15 (50%) and 76 (53%) of teachers and students respectively indicated that class

room teachers were medium in their instructional time utilizations, item 1. However 6(20%)

teacher and 38 (26%) student respondents responded low. The remaining 3% 21% of teachers

and students responded that class room teachers were very low in their instructional time

utilization.

Concerning item 2, the majority of respondents 14 (47%) teacher and 61 (42%) student

reported that teacher’s and students’ absenteeism, different training and meeting at school or

woreda level was the main reasons for wastage of instructional time.

63
4.10 The Effect of Over Crowded Classes on Academic Achievement

Table 10. Respondents Responses Concerning Class Size

Items Teachers Students

N N=30 N=145

o
No % No %
1 The average number of student in a class in your school
Below 40 - - - -
41-50 4 13 15 10
51-60 6 20 54 37
61-70 20 67 76 53

71-80 -- - - -
Above 80 - - - -
2 If the number of the students in the class is above 40, the

problem created during teaching learning process as the

result of large class-size is:


Very high 22 73 112 77

High 8 27 33 23
Medium - - - -
Low - - - -
Very low - - - -

3 What type of problems is created during teaching learning

process as the result of over-crowded class rooms?

Lack of effective communication 3 10 23 16

Difficulty to identify students with special needs 8 27 31 21

Problems of class room management 4 13 14 10

Problems of test administration - - - -

Teachers getting less time to correct students work - - - -

All are true 15 50 77 53

64
The average class size widely accepted in our country under favorable conditions is forty

students. Accordingly, respondents were asked to rate the average class size in their schools.

As it is seen in item 1 the majority of respondents 20(67%) and 76 (53%) teachers and

students respectively reported that the average class size in their school was between 61 and

70. Others 6 (20%) of teachers and 54 (37%) of students’ respondents indicated that the

average class size in their school was between 51 and 60. According to North Shoa Education

office (NSEO 2006 E.C) the class sizes for secondary schools were very large (70) as

compared to the standard class size per class room (MOE 1995:10) which is 40.

In item 2 of the table majority of respondents 22(73%) and 112 (77%) of teachers and

students respectively replied that due to overcrowded class room, very high problem is

created in teaching learning process. The rest 8 (27%) of teachers and 33 (23%) of students

responded that high problem was created due to overcrowded class room.

In items 3 of the table majority of respondents 15 (50%) and 77 (53%) of teachers and

students respectively reported that lack of effective communication, difficulty to identify

students with special needs and problems of class room management were the major

problems created as a result of overcrowded class rooms .Most of the interviewees also

pointed out the same idea. This finding indicates that the student population and the supply of

school physical facilities such as class rooms; tables/chairs etc. were not balanced.

65
4.11 Importance of Guidance and Counseling Service

Table11. The Response of Teachers and Students with Regard to Guidance and Counseling Services

Teachers Students
No Items N=30 N=145

No % No %

Do you have professional guidance and counseling

in your school?

Yes - - - -

No 30 100 145 100

2 The contribution of guidance and counseling

service to enhance student’s academic

achievement:

High 30 100 121 83

Medium - - - -

Low - - - -

No knowledge - - 24 17

Not at all - - - -

The main purpose of guidance and counseling service in secondary schools is very crucial in

providing students counseling and the opportunity to discolor their interest, abilities and

capacities in various fields.

Based on this fact respondents were asked to respond whether guidance and counseling

service available in their secondary schools or not. Thus all Respondents 30 (100%) teachers

66
and 145 (100%) students responded that there were no guidance and counseling services in

the secondary schools under student

Regarding the contribution of guidance and counseling service to enhance academic

achievement of students 30 (100%) teachers and 121(83%)students responded that high

contribution. The rest 17% of students have no knowledge about guidance and counseling

services.

Many scholars such as (Soetan,1988), (Haregewoyin and Yosuf,1994) suggested that

implementing guidance and counseling services in the schools will help the students to

identify their abilities, maximize individual potentially and utilize available resources

effectively. Thus absence of professional guidance and counseling services in the schools

could hinder the desired students’ academic achievement.

67
4.12 The Impact of Instructional Leadership on Students Academic Achievement

Table 12.The View of Respondents Concerning Impact of Leader Ship

No Items Teachers Students

N=30 N=145

No % No %

1 How frequently your schools implement instructional leadership

to build satisfactory teaching- learning process in your school?

Very frequently 11 37 45 31

Frequently 12 40 81 56

Least frequently 7 23 19 13

Not at all - - - -

2 The principal in your school motivate and appreciate teachers

work. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Strongly agree - - - -

Agree 11 37 - -

Undecided - - - -

Disagree 19 63 - -

Strongly disagree - - - -

3 How much competent enough is the principal to lead the school

management system in your school?

Very competent 2 7 22 15

Competent 4 13 29 20

Moderately competent 11 37 22 15

Incompetent 13 43 72 50

In items1 of table 12 majority of respondents (40%)and (56%) of teachers and students

respectively indicated that their school leadership frequently implementing instructional

leadership.

68
In item 2 of the table teacher respondents were requested to give their opinion whether school

principals motivate /encourage/ teachers and appreciate their work or not. Thus 19 (63%) of

teachers disagree with the idea, whereas 11 (37%) of the teachers agree with the idea.

Regarding the competence of principals to lead the school, the respondents responded that 13

(43%) of the teachers and 72 (50%) of the students, the principals in secondary schools under

study were in competent.

In general the analysis of above data indicates the existence of some problems in the

principals’ competence to accomplish the academic tasks in the secondary schools under

study. More over from the personal data collected 88% of the school principals in the schools

were first degree holders. In addition to this except 12%of the principals in the secondary

schools under study were trained in subject area other than educational leader ship. Thus,

from this it can be concluded that, lack of effective leader ship in the schools was one of the

major factors that affect student’s academic achievement

69
4.13 The Influence of Medium of instruction/English/on Academic performance

of Students

Table13. The Response of Respondents Regarding the Proficiency of Students in Instructional Language

Items Teachers Students


No N=30 N=145

No % No %
1 The degree of proficiency of students in the language of instruction

High - - - -

Medium 2 29 43 30

Low 28 71 102 70

No knowledge - - - -

2 If your answer to question number 29 is “Low”, to what extent the

students; inability in the language of instruction can affect their

academic performance

Highly 27 90 98 68

Moderately 3 10 47 32

Minimally -- - - -

Not at all -- - - -

3 If you believe that your students’ ability in the language of instruction

is low in general, what do you think the reasons for this? (More than

one answer is possible).

Lack of knowledge of English in Previous educational level. 22 73 89 62

Lack of interest to wards English - -

The teacher teaches by using Afaan Oromo /Amharic / to clarify the 8 27 56 38

subject he/she teaches

English language is difficult to understand - - - -

Other(if any) - - - --

Instructional language is a key factor either to facilitate or hinder the quality of education.

There should be effective communication between the student and the teachers in order to

enhance teaching learning activity. Effective communication between the teachers and
70
students was determined by the language (English) ability of the learners as well as the

teachers.

Concerning this majority of respondents, 28 (71%) and 102 (70%) of teachers and students

respectively indicated that the ability of students in medium of instruction (English) is low or

weak In item 2 of table 13 majority of respondents 27 (90%) and 98 (68%) of teachers and

students respectively indicated that low /weak proficiency of students in medium instruction

(English) highly affect the students’ academic achievement in secondary schools under study

In item 3 the majority of respondents 22 (73%) and 89 (62%) of teachers and students

respectively responded that the main reason for the students in ability of the medium of

instruction was lack of knowledge of English in previous educational level. The remaining 8

(27%) of teachers and 56(38%) of students indicate that while the teacher teaching the

subject he/she teaches using Afaan Oromo or Amharic instead of using English is another

reason. Different researchers also argue that prior academic achievement is one of the key

factors in determining the future or late performance of students at various levels of learning.

This implies that effective teaching learning process is not under taken in the secondary

schools of understudy, since teachers and students do not communicate effectively

However as states in education and training policy the medium of instruction in secondary

school is English language besides text books and other material are prepared in English with

an assumption that students and teachers can read and understand the content. The finding of

the study contradicts with facts. One could not expect effective teaching learning process in

this situation. Hence the low performance in medium of instruction seems to be contributing

to the low academic achievement of the students.

71
4.14 Effect of Curriculum on Smooth Running of Teaching Learning Process

Table14. The Respondents’ Response Concerning the Relevancy and Difficulty of Grade 10 Curriculum

No Items Teachers Students

N=30 N=145

No % No %

1 How much do you agree that the curriculum is relevant to

the respective grades in terms of students’ needs?


Strongly agree 4 13 15 10
Agree 3 10 51 35
Undecided - - - -
Disagree 23 77 79 55
strongly disagree - - - -
2 What is your opinion regarding the difficulty of the

curriculum for secondary education as compared to

student’s previous knowledge and ability?


Very difficult 12 40 78 54
Difficult 11 37 35 24

Medium 7 23 32 22
Simple - - - -
Very simple - - -- -
3 Can the curriculum for respective grades be properly

covered with in the academic year?


Yes 11 37 52 36
No 19 63 93 64
4 What is reason for the curriculum not to be covered

properly within the academic year?


The time allotted and the curriculum is not 4 13 12 8
Instructional time is wasted for various reasons 3 10 14 10
Student’s previous knowledge and ability is 5 17 52 36

not mismatch with curriculum

All are the reasons 18 60 67 46

72
Designing and implementing relevant curriculum in the education system greatly avoids

learning difficulties in different fields of study. Thus the content of the curriculum should be

appropriate and proportionate to the knowledge levels of the learners. Based on this idea,

respondents were asked to give their opinion whether curriculum for respective grade

relevant or not, in terms of student’s needs. As it is seen in item 1 the majority of respondents

23(77%) and 79 (55%) of teachers and students respectively stated that the curriculum was

not relevant to the students’ needs.

In item 2 the respondents were asked to give their opinion whether the curriculum for

secondary schools is difficult or not as compared to student’s previous knowledge. As it is

noticed that, the majority of respondent 12 (40%) and 78 (54%) of teachers and students

respectively stated that as compared to students’ previous knowledge and ability, the

curriculum for the grade level is very difficult. In item 3 of the table the respondents were

asked to give their opinion whether the curriculum for the respective grades was properly

covered with in the academic year or not. As it is seen in the table majority of respondents 19

(63%) and 93 (64%) of teachers and students respectively responded that the curriculum of

the respective grade was not covered with in the academic year.

Regarding the reasons for the curriculum not to be covered properly within the academic

year, the majority of respondents 18 (60%) and 67 (46%) of teachers and students

respectively stated that the time allotted and the curriculum was not mismatch/not balanced/,

instructional time wasted for various reasons and students’ knowledge and ability is not

match with the curriculum were the main reasons

In general the difficulty of academic subjects, unproportional time allotment and irrelevance

of the curriculum could affect teaching learning process. This may reduce the interest of

students toward teaching learning process and consequently it affects students’ academic

achievement.

73
4.15 Major Factors that Affect Teaching and Learning Process

In table 15, the respondents were requested to rate what they think are the most serious

factors according to their contribution for low academic performance of the students.The

respondents rate with the rating scale:

Very Low=4.6 and above

Low =3.6-4.5

Medium=2.6-3.5

High=1.6-2.5, and

Very High= 0-1.5

74
Table15. Respondents Opinion on Major Factors Affecting the Teaching Learning

Process

NO Items Respon very high(1) high (2) medium low(4) Very Mean Weigh
dents (3) low(5) t mean
No % No % No % No % N %
o
1 Shortage of T=30 - - - - - - 12 40 1 6 4.6
qualified and 8 0 3.6
experience S=145 - - 23 16 36 25 86 59 - - 3.4
teachers
2 Over T=30 9 30 12 40 9 30 - - - - 2
crowdedness of S=145 24 17 86 59 35 24 - - - - 2.07 2.05
classroom
3 In ability of the T=30 15 50 7 23 8 27 - - - -- 1.7
students in S=145 78 54 29 30 36 25 - - - - 1.68 1.68
medium of
instruction
4 Shortage of T=30 3 10 25 83 2 7 - - - - 1.99
instructional S=145 52 36 49 34 44 30 - - - - 1.94 1.94
materials and
facilities
5 Lack of T=30 30 100 - - - - - - - - 1
Guidance and S=145 145 100 - - - - - - - - 1 1
counseling
services
6 Lack of T=30 8 27 9 30 11 37 2 6 - - 2.23
motivation and S=145 22 15 41 28 74 51 8 6 - -- 2.46 2.23
interest of the
teaches in
teaching
7 Lack of T=30 - - 12 40 5 17 13 43 - - 3.03
adequate library S=145 39 27 61 42 24 17 21 14 - - 1.97 2.15
service
8 Poor students T=30 7 23 16 53 5 17 2 7 - - 2
evaluation S=145 42 29 36 25 35 24 32 22 - - 2.39 2.32
system
9 In T=30 - - 17 57 13 43 - - - - 2.43
appropriateness S=145 38 26 35 24 40 28 32 22 - - 2.45 2.44
of the
curriculum

75
The weighted mean of item 4 and 5 was 1.94 and 1.0 respectively, which shows shortage of

instructional materials and facilities, and lack of guidance and counseling service were the

most serious problems. As the weighted mean value for item 2,3,6,7 and 9 were 2.05, 1.68,

2.23, 2.15 and 2.44 which indicates over crowdedness of classrooms, inability of the students

in medium of instruction, lack of motivation and interest of the teaches in teaching, lack of

adequate library service and inappropriateness of the curriculum were also the next serious

problems

In general lack of guidance and counseling, Shortage of instructional materials and in

ability of the students in medium of instruction/English, over crowdedness of the class rooms,

lack of adequate library service, poor student evaluation system, in appropriateness of the

curriculum and shortage of qualified and experienced teachers are considered as major factors

that affect students academic performance in secondary schools under study. This finding has

got the support of Amare (1995) and Tekeste (1990).

76
CHAPTER FIVE

5. Summary, conclusion and recommendation


The main purpose of this study was to examine the major factors that affect students’

academic achievement in the secondary schools, of North Shoa Zone of Oromia regional

state, and to forward alternative solutions that might help in alleviating the problem

understudy. In order to achieve this purpose, a descriptive survey method was designed and

employed. The study has attempted to get answers for the following basic questions.

1. To what extent the grade 10 curriculum is relevance, appropriateness and covered

with in the academic year?

2. What is the competence and experience of teachers and principals, as well as the

proficiency of students in instructional language in selected secondary schools?

3. To what extent the classroom conditions are adequate and conducive for effective

teaching learning process in selected secondary schools.

4. To what extent selected secondary schools have adequate supply of instructional

materials and facilities to run educational activities effectively as expected?

The study was carried out in five government secondary schools. School principals, teachers,

students, secondary school supervisors and zonal education office supervisor were the

subjects of the study. Questionnaires and interview were used as the instrument for the data

gathering tools. In addition some document analysis and personal observation were made to

get additional evidence to the study.

The data obtained from the respondents were systematically tabulated discussed using

percentage mean and weighted mean.

77
In this chapter the major findings of the study, have been summarized, conclusions on the

basis of the findings have been drown, and then recommendations that are thought to

operational to alleviate the problems have been forwarded.

5.1 Summary of the finding

In this part of the study an attempt is made to provide a summary of the major findings,

which would answer the basic question.

5.1.1 The achievement of secondary schools was low when compared to the number of

students sat for national examination from year 2002-2005 E.C. the average

number of students promoted to preparatory from 2002- 2005 was only 31.26% in

the Zone.

5.1.2 Instructional materials were found to be insufficient in providing the necessary

services in all secondary schools under study. More specifically student text books

are not available adequately in some subjects such as: Afan Oromo, English,

Amharic, Geography, History and Physical education which is contrary to what is

stated in ESDP IV which, states every student should provide with essential text

books.

5.1.3 School facilities such as school building, classrooms, chairs/tables, laboratory,

latrine, student lounge and library were found to be in sufficient in providing the

necessary services in most schools under study. For example, the laboratory of the

secondary schools under study was not fulfilling the standard set by MOE (1995)

which recommended three laboratories each comprises separate demonstration,

store and preparation. Three of the schools under study (Salaysh Harbumaskale,

Fital and Fitche No2 had no laboratory classes. The rest those who have also

laboratories has no functional due to lack of laboratory technicians, chemicals and

apparatus. Instead it was served as classrooms.

78
5.1.4 Moreover, as compared to the number of students, the capacity the libraries to

serves many students as possible at once was low. In addition to this most of them

are not standardized library hall /they were class rooms, do not have trained

librarians and reference books were not adequately available in secondary schools

under study.

5.1.5 In the study it was found out that there was some shortage of qualified teachers.

The data from the document of North Shoa education office also indicated that

teachers teaching in the secondary schools in the Zone, from 759 teachers87/11%/

were below the minimum requirements.

5.1.6 The findings of the study indicated that the teachers in secondary schools under

study were used midterm tests quarterly and final exam at the end of semester

most of the time. They have no awareness about continuous assessment in

secondary schools under study. Due to this they could not implement continuous

assessment. More over teachers do not check students’ class work and home work

due to large number of students and lack of time.

5.1.6 The instructional time was wasted due to teachers’ absenteeism, different training

and meeting. As a result the portion of the curriculum was not covered in the

academic years.

5.1.7 The class size of secondary schools under study was large when compared to the

standard set by the (MOE, 1995) which is 40 per classroom. About 67% of teachers

and 53% of the students indicated that the average class size in their school was 70.

As a result, the teaching learning process was highly affected.

5.1.8 In the study, it was found out that there was no guidance and counseling service in

secondary schools under study that can provide professional assistance to the

students.

79
5.1.9 The findings of the study indicated that 88% of the principals in secondary schools

under study were found to be trained in subject areas other than educational

leadership. Furthermore as it is indicted in the study, the principals were not

competent enough to, accomplish the academic tasks of the schools.

5.1.10 The findings the study indicated that the proficiency of students in medium of

instruction/ English language/ was low. And this was one of the major factors that

hinder the academic achievement of the students in national exams.

5.1.11 In the study it was found out that the curriculum for grade 10 was weak in terms of

relevance and appropriateness to the grade level moreover, difficulty level of some

subjects seems to be beyond previous knowledge and ability of the students, and it

had the problem of coverage.

5.2. Conclusions

Based on the major findings of the study, the following major conclusions were drawn.

5.2.1 Instructional materials and facilities are the determinants of quality education.

However, it has been found that these ingredients were inadequately available in the schools

under study. Text books are found to be scarce in some subjects /Afaan Oromo, English,

Amharic Geography, History and Physical education in the secondary schools. All the

libraries were found that they were inadequate to serve the needs of their respective schools

in preparing students for life. Furthermore, school facilities such as school building,

classrooms, laboratories, student lounge and latrines were found to be insufficient in

providing the necessary service in most schools. This condition leads to conclude that very

little attention was given for the provision of the instructional materials and school facilities

by concerned bodies in the zone.

80
5.2.2 The findings of the study also indicated that, there was some shortage of qualified

teachers in the schools. The unqualified teachers can hardly satisfy the academic thirsty of

their students. As a result, students do not get the required skills and hence their achievement

in the subjects taught by teachers will be unsatisfactory. Therefore, it can be concluded that

some shortage of qualified teachers in the schools might be one of the major factors affecting

the students’ academic performance negatively.

5.2.3.The study further revealed that the secondary schools were failed to implement

appropriate evaluation system that enable to employ good instructional process; despite the

existence of varied student evaluation techniques. Students failed to increase instructional

time by providing different individual and group work; the students were bounded in limited

midterm test and final examinations were predominately used in secondary schools.

5.2.4 The study further revealed that the secondary schools were failed to implement

appropriate guidance and counseling services that can provide professional assistance to the

students. Therefore, it can be concluded that failed to implement guidance and counseling

services might be one of the major factors affecting the students’ academic performance

negatively.

5.2.5 The finding of the study revealed that, there was a shortage of classrooms in the

schools. As the result of this, the class size in the schools was found to be very large. This has

its own contribution to affect the desired academic performance of the students. This is

because of the fact that when the number of students in a classroom is more than the standard

class size, it will be very difficult for the teachers to manage the teaching learning process

effectively. In other words, there will be low effective communication between the teachers

and students. In addition to this, students will have little involvement in the classroom

81
activities. Thus, it can be concluded, that this situation could reduce the interest of the

teachers as well as the students towards teaching learning.

5.2.6 The findings of the study revealed that the majority of the school principals were

trained in subject areas other than educational leader ship. Moreover, as it is indicated in the

study that the school leader ship was not competent enough to accomplish the academic tasks

of the schools. Such as planning, organizing, coordinating and decision making capacities

which are essential skills for school improvement. Therefore, principals’ lack of the required

qualification and training in the field could be one of the problems that caused low level of

students’ academic achievement.

5.2.7 It was found that the majority of the students in the sample schools were weak in the

language of instruction, which is English. The main reason for this weakness was due to their

previous low-level knowledge and skill in English. That could be due to lack of appropriate

teaching method and lack of competent teachers, who teach English in the primary schools.

Thus, from this it could be concluded that due to their low-level ability in the language of

instruction, the students’ academic achievement might have been affected negatively.

5.2.8 The findings of this study disclosed that the curriculum for secondary schools was weak

in terms of relevance and appropriateness to the grade level. Moreover, difficulty level of

subject seems to be beyond the background knowledge of the students. Furthermore, it has

the problem of coverage. If the books are not covered in the period and year allotted for them,

students pass from one grade to other without fully acquiring the skill, attitude and well

defend scientific and historical truth contained in their text books.

Thus, irrelevance and inappropriateness of the curriculum, the difficulty of academic subjects

and un proportional time allotment could affect the teaching-learning process. And this could

be one of the major factors hindering the students’ academic achievement.

82
5.3 Recommendation

In view of the findings of the study and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations

were forwarded.

5.3.1 It was found out that the instructional materials were inadequately available in the

respective schools under study. Specifically, textbooks were found to be scarce in secondary

schools. This problem should be tackled by concerned bodies as suggested below.

The MOE and OEB together should strive to make available the necessary

instructional materials which are very important for teaching and learning process.

The Ministry of Education and Oromia Education Office should jointly work to

produce enough copies of text books.

MOE, OEB ZEO and Woreda Education Office, should due attention the distribution

of text books.

5.3.2 In the schools, there was shortage of classrooms, library service, laboratory,

tables/chairs, student lounge latrine and other school facilities. Thus, it is recommended that

the REB and ZEO in collaboration with MOE and NGOs.

The REB needs to provide the required laboratory chemicals, apparatus and should

assign laboratory technicians.

Build standardized libraries and laboratories in the schools for those who have no

libraries and laboratories.

Fulfill the required classroom facilities to keep the standard.

The MOE should train laboratory technicians in required number and qualification

The woreda education offices and the schools need to mobilize the community and

invite NGOs to equip the libraries with the necessary facilities, and provide those

schools with reference books and materials. through purchasing and or use donations

83
5.3.3 Shortage of qualified teachers in secondary schools of the study area was found to the

major problems affecting the students’ academic performance. Thus to solve these problems

ZEO and REB in collaboration with MOE should take the following measures:

Widen the scope of the in service summer training provided for secondary school

teachers.

Provide in-service training opportunity to those teachers whose qualification is

below the minimum required standard. I.e. widening the existing program as well

as upgrade the qualification of them through correspondence course.

The above concerned bodies need to design different incentive mechanisms such

as providing them with hose allowance, the opportunity to upgrade their

qualification to retain the already existing qualified teachers.

3.3.4. According to the policy of the Ethiopian education system MOE recommended

that 70 % continuous assessment and 30% exam. However the secondary schools

under study were failed to implement appropriate evaluation system that enable to

employ good instructional process. This situation might be the major problems

affecting the students’ academic performance negatively. Thus to solve these

problems the following measures should be taken:

Seminars as well as workshops should be organized and conducted by concerned

bodies /WEO, ZEO and OEB for teachers to create adequate awareness about

continuous assessment.

The higher commit ions should give intensive training about continuous assessment

for unemployed teacher while they are in the universities

5.3.5 Large class size was found to be one of the major factors for students’ academic

achievement. Teachers might ignore individual differences and students who need

84
special assistance when they teacher large class. However, the average class size of

the secondary schools under study was large when compared to the standard set. The

undesirable class size was one major obstacle to the provision of quality education.

Thus, different stakeholders should play their part to minimize the problems.

Accordingly:

WEO, ZEO together with OEB should plan to build additional classrooms.

MOE and OEB should design system to train teachers by emphasizing the

methods and techniques that enable them to handle larger class.

WEO in collaboration with ZEO should encourage communities as well as Non-

Governmental Organizations to build additional classes for secondary schools.

5.3.6 The availability of proper guidance and counseling services for students in secondary

schools is likely to be beneficial to help them in their academic and personal

difficulties. Therefore OEB ZEO should assign guidance and counseling personal

which provided guidance and counseling services for students to improve their

academic performance.

5.3.7 The findings of the study also indicated that the majority of school principals (88%)

were trained in subject areas other than educational leader ship and were not competent

enough to; accomplish the academic tasks of the schools. This situation affects the

efficiency and effectiveness of the school principals. Thus, to address this problem:

ZEO, OEB in collaboration with MOE assigns competent principals and trains them

by educational leadership.

WEO, ZEO and OEB should provide appropriate training, seminars and workshops to

the school principals and minimize, turnover of the trained experienced school

principals.

85
5.3.8 The inefficiency of the students in medium instruction (English language) was one of

the major factors that negatively affect achievement of the students. Thus to address

this problem:

The English teachers should encourage the students to practice conversation inside

and outside the class rooms.

Teachers should only use English language while they are teaching different subjects

rather than Afaan Oromo and Amharic

Training institutions should change English teaching methodology for primary school

teachers and provided intensive on job training on how to teach English effectively

on continuous basis

5.3.9 In the study it was found that the curriculum for secondary schools was weak in its

relevance and appropriateness. Besides it has the problem of coverage. Therefore:

Broad and intensive research by the concerned body (probably the ICDR) is

recommended to examine the relevance and appropriateness of secondary

school curriculum with respect to the needs knowledge and abilities of the

learner

86
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APPENDICS 1

Addis Ababa University

School of Graduate Studies

95
Faculty of Education

Department of Educational planning and management

Research questionnaire to be filled by secondary school Teachers/grade9-10 teachers/

Dear respondents! The purpose of this questionnaire is to examine “Factors Affecting the

Academic Achievement of Grade 10 Students’ in Selected Secondary Schools of North

Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State”. To this effect, the response that you give as a

respondent has a great value, and it will be kept confidential and utilized only for academic

purpose.

General direction

1. Fill in blank spaces and encircle the choice you thought to be the answer,

2. Give short answers for question items that are open-ended.

Thank you in advance for your cooperation

Part One: - General Information

1. Your school ________________woreda /administrative city/ _________________

2. Sex:____________________

3. Academic qualification __________

5. Your service in teaching profession

6. Your Weekly teaching load _______________

Part Two: - Classroom conditions.

1. The average number of student in a class in your school?

A. Below 40 B. 41-50 C. 51-60

D. 61-70 E.71-80 F. Above 80

96
2. If the number of the students in the class is above 40, the problem created during

teaching learning process as the result of large class-size is:

A. Very high B. High C. Medium D. Low E. Very low

3. What type of problems is created during teaching learning process as the result of

over-crowded class rooms?

A. Lack of effective communication

B. Difficulty to identify students with special needs

C. Problems of class room management

D. Problems of test administration

E. Teachers getting less time to correct students work

F. All are true

Part Three: - Instructional materials and Facilities.

4. Are instructional materials available in your school?

A. Adequately available B. Moderately available

C. Inadequately available D. Not available at all

5. If instructional materials inadequately available, the problem created on teaching-

learning process due to this is

A. High B. Medium C. Low D. No problem is created

6. Is there shortage of text book in your school? A. Yes B. No

7. What is pupil-book ratio of the text book in your school?

A. 1:1 B. 1:2 C. 1:4 D. 1:5

8. Have the portion for the first semester and second semester have been covered in all

subject?

97
A. Yes B. No D. No Knowledge

9. What do you think is the reason for the portions not to be covered in all subjects?

A. Shortage of textbooks B. Voluminous of textbooks

C. Wastage of time due to different reasons

10. Is there a library service in your school?

A. Yes B. No C. No knowledge

11. The capacity of the library to serve a large number of students of the school:

A. High B. Medium C. Low D. No knowledge E. Not at all

12. What are the problems related with the library?

A. Shortage of library personnel B. Lack of standardized library hall

C. Lack of reference book D. the library is not opened when needed

E. all are true

13. How frequently do students utilize library?

A. All the time B. Most of the time C. Sometimes D. They do not utilize library

14. Indicate the adequacy of educational facilities by putting“√”mark under each

number

1. Very adequate 2. Adequate 3. Inadequate 4.Very inadequate 5.Non

existence

Item 1 2 3 4 5

98
A. School building

B. Classrooms

C. Chairs /tables

D. Laboratory

E. student lounge

F. Latrine

15. Do you have professional guidance and counseling in your school? A. Yes B. No

16. The contribution of guidance and counseling service to enhance student’s academic

achievement? A. High B. Medium C. Low D. No knowledge E. Not at all

Part Four: - Competence and Experience of Teachers, and School Leaderships

17. Are the teachers in your school qualified for the level they are teaching? A. Yes B. No

18. Are you teaching at grade level of which you are not qualified?

A. Yes B. No

19. What methods do teachers use in evaluating students’ activities most of the time?

A. Midterm exam B. final exams C. Continuous assessment

D. Others (if any) __________________________

20. Do teachers check the students’ class work and homework regularly?

A. Yes B. No

21. If teachers do not check the students’ work, why?

A. The number of students is very high B. Lack of time C. Due to large

number of students and lack of time D. Others _________________

99
22. How frequently your schools implement instructional leadership to build satisfactory

teaching- learning process in your school?

A. Very frequently B. Frequently C. Least frequently D. Not at all

23. The principal in your school motivate and appreciate teachers work. To what extent do

you agree with this statement?

A. Strongly agree B. Agree C. undecided D. Disagree E. Strongly disagree

24. How much competent enough is the principal to lead the school management system

in your school?

A. Very competent B. Competent C. Moderately competent D. incompetent

Part Five: Instructional Language/medium of instruction/

25. The degree of proficiency of students in the language of instruction?

A. High B. Medium C. low D. No knowledge

26. To what extent the students’ inability in the language of instruction can affect their

academic performance?

A. Highly B. Moderately C. Minimally D. Not at all

27. If you believe that your students’ ability in the language of instruction is low in

general, what do you think the reasons for this (More than one answer is possible).

A. Lack of knowledge of English in previous educational level.

B. Lack of interest to wards English.

C. Shortage of qualified and experienced teacher in English

D. English language is difficult to understand E. other(if any) __________

100
28. What should be done to improve the proficiency of students in the instructional

language? A. _______________________________B______________________

Part Six: - School Curriculum

29. How much do you agree that the curriculum is relevant to the respective grades in terms

of students’ needs?

A. Strongly agree B. Agree C. Undecided D. Disagree E. strongly disagree

30. What is your opinion regarding the difficulty of the curriculum for secondary education

as compared to student’s previous knowledge and ability?

A. Very difficult B. Difficult C. Medium D. Simple E. Very simple

31. If you believe that the curriculum for respective grades is not relevant and inappropriateto

the knowledge and ability of the students, the problem created as a result of this is?

A. High B. Medium C. Low D. unknown E. Not at all

32. Can the curriculum for respective grades be properly covered with in the academic year?

A. Yes B. No

33. What are learning problems faced by the students?

A.__________________________B._______________________C._______________

34. What measures should be taken to improve the academic performance students in

secondary schools?

A.________________________B.______________________C._______________

Part Seven: - The following are educational problems mostly affecting academic

achievement of students’ in secondary schools. According to their contribution for low

101
academic performance of the students, indicate by putting “√” mark in the corresponding

numbers.

1. Very high 2. High 3.Medium 4.Low 5. Very low

No Items 1 2 3 4 5

1 Shortage of qualified and experienced teachers

2 Over crowdedness of class rooms

3 Shortage of instructional material and facilities

4 Your inability in the medium of instruction

5 Lack of guidance and counseling service

6 Lack of motivation and interest of the teachers in teaching

7 Lack of adequate library service

8 Inefficiency of school leader ship

9 Inappropriateness of the curriculum

10 Poor students evaluation system

11 Wastage of instructional time due to various reasons

APPENDICS 2

102
Addis Ababa University

School of Graduate Studies

Faculty of Education

Department of Educational planning and management

Research questionnaire to be filled by grade 10 students

Dear respondents! The purpose of this questionnaire is to examine “Factors Affecting the

Academic Achievement of Grade 10 Students’ in Selected Secondary Schools of North

Shoa Zoneof Oromia Regional State”. To this effect, the response that you give as a

respondent has a great value, and it will be kept confidential and utilized only for academic

purpose.

General direction

1. Fill in blank spaces and encircle the choice you thought to be the answer,

2. Give short answers for question items that are open-ended.

Thank you in advance for your cooperation

PAET ONE; - General information

1. Your school name______________2.woreda /administrative city/ __________

3. Sex: ___________________

4. Age: __________________

5. The average distances from your home to the secondary school in Kilometers

A. 1-6 B. 7-11 C. 12-16 D. Above 16

103
Part Two: - classroom conditions

1. What is the average class size for grade 10 in your school?

A. below 40 B. 41-50 C.51-60

D. 61-70 E. 71-80 F. Above 80

2. If the numbers of students are above the standard/above40/ the problem created as result of

large class-size is:

A. Very high B. High C. medium D. low E .very low

3. The problem created as result of class- size is

A. Lack of effective communication

B. Difficulty to identify students with special needs

C. Problems of class size management

D. Problems of test administration

E. Lack of adequate time for teachers to correct students work

F. Other (if any) _____________________________________________

Part Three: - Instructional Materials and Facilities

4. Do instructional materials available in your school?

A. Adequately available B. Moderately

C. Inadequately D. Not available at all

5. How is the availability of text books in your school?

104
A. Very high B. High C. Medium

D. Low E. Very low

6. What is the pupil book ratio of the text books in your school?

A. 1:1 B. 1:2 C. 1:3 D. 1:4 E. 1:5

7. As a result of shortage of text books, is instructional time wasted in your School?

A. Yes B. No

8. Have the portion for the first semester been covered in all subjects with in the allotted

time? A. Yes B. No

9. If the portion for the first semester is not covered in all subjects, what do you think is the

reason?

A. Shortage of textbooks B. Voluminous of textbooks

C Wastage of time due to different reasons D. Others if any___________________

10. Is there library in your school? A. Yes B. No

11. If there is a library in your school what is the capacity to serve large no of students

A. High B. Medium C. Low D. No knowledge E. Not at all

12. What is the problem related with the library?

B. Shortage of library personnel B. Lack of standardized library hall

C. Lack of reference book D. the library is not opened when needed. E. All are true

13. How frequently do students’ utilize library?

A. All the time B. Most of the time

105
C. Sometimes D. They do not utilize at all

14. Indicate the adequacy of educational facilities in the table below in accordance to the

following table by putting“√”mark.

1. Very adequate 2.Adequate 3.Inadequate 4. Very inadequate 5. Not at all

Item 1 2 3 4 5

A. School building

B. Class rooms

C. Chairs/Tables

D. Laboratory

E. Student lounge

F. Latrine

15 Do you have professional guidance and counselor in your school A. Yes B. No

Part Four:-Competence and Experience of Teachers and school Leadership

16 .school teachers use instructional time properly in your school?

A. Yes B. No

17. What are the reasons for wastage of instructional time?

A. Teachers absenteeism B. Student absenteeism

C. Due to different training at school/Woreda level D. All are possible reasons

18. Are the teachers in your school have proper qualification to your grade

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A. Yes B. No

19. The ability of teachers in mastery of subject matter they are teaching

A. Very high B. High C Medium D. Low E. very law

20. Do you get appropriate academic support from your teacher?

A. Yes B. No

21 What do you think is the reasons for the teachers not to support students?

A. Due to large number of students in a class.

B. Teachers and students, have no time.

C. Teachers have no interest to support students.

D. students do not need all support.

22. Do teachers cheek the home work and class work regularly?

A. Yes B. No

23. What do you think is the reasons for the teachers not to check students’ class work and

homework?

A. due to large numb of students in class B. Lack of time

C. Both A and B D. Other___________________________

24. The competence and commitment of the school principal to facilitate instructional

program is:

A. High B. Moderate C. Low D. No knowledge

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25. If the competence and commitment of the school principal is low what is its effect on

student’s academic achievement?

A. High B. Moderate C. Low D. No knowledge

Parte Five: - instructional language

26. What is your degree of proficiency in the medium of instruction?

A. High B. Moderate C. Low D. No knowledge

27. The low proficiency in the medium of instruction dose affected your learning of other

subject?

A. High B. Moderate C. Low D. No knowledge

28. The language /s/ used by majority of the teachers while they teaching you were:

A. English B. Amharic C. English and Amharic

D. Afaan oromoo E English & afaan oromoo

29. The reason for low proficiency of the student in English language is:

A. Lack of back ground of English in previous educational level

B. Lack of interest in English C. the teacher teaches by using Afaan Oromoo/Amharic

D. English is difficult by nature

Part Six- school curriculum

30 The curriculum is relevant to the respective grade in terms of students needs /i.e. grade

10/:

A. Strongly agree B. Agree C. Undecided

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D. Disagree E. strongly disagree

31. What is your opinion regarding the difficulty of the curriculum for secondary education

as compared to your previous knowledge and ability?

A. Very difficult B. Difficult C. Medium D. Simple E. Very simple

32. If you believe that the curriculum for respective grade is not relevant and inappropriate to

the knowledge and ability of the students, the problem created as the result of this is:

A. High B. Medium C. Low D. No knowledge E. Not at all

33. Can grade ten curriculums properly covered in the academic year

A. Yes B. No

34. The curriculum is not proportional to the time allocated:

A. Strongly agree B. Agree C. Undecided D. Disagree E. strongly disagree

35. What measures should be taken to improve the academic performance of grade 10

Part Seven: - The following are educational problems mostly affecting your academic achievement in

secondary schools. According to their contribution for low academic performance, indicate them by

putting “√” mark under the corresponding numbers.

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1. Very high 2. High 3.Medium 4.Low 5. Very low

No items 1 2 3 4 5

1 Shortage of qualified and experienced teachers

2 Over crowdedness of class rooms

3 Shortage of instructional material and facilities

4 Your inability in the medium of instruction

5 Lack of guidance and counseling service

6 Lack of motivation and interest of the teachers

in teaching

7 Lack of adequate library service

8 Inefficiency of school leader ship

9 Inappropriateness of the curriculum

12 Poor students evaluation system

13 Wastage of instructional time due to various

reasons

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APPENDICS 3

Addis Ababa University

School of Graduate Studies

Faculty of Education

Department of Educational planning and management

Interview questions to be filled by secondary school principals, supervisors, and zone

supervisors

Dear respondents! The purpose of this interview question is to examine “factors Affecting

Academic Achievement of students' in secondary schools of North Shoa Zone Oromia

region” .To this effect, the response that you give as a respondent has great value and it will

be kept confidential and utilized for academic purpose only.

Thank you in advance!

Part I –personal information

1. Work place______________ 2 .age___________3.sex___________

Part II- guiding Questions

1. Are secondary school teachers in North Shoa Zone Oromia region well qualified and

experienced for the grade and subjects they are teaching?

2. How many teachers were there in secondary schools below the minimum required

qualification?

3. If the teachers are not well qualified, do you think that students acquire necessary skills

and knowledge they expect from their teachers?

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4. What solutions do you suggest to overcome this problem?

5. What is the maximum and minimum number of students in class of secondary schools?

7. What do you suggest in order to solve this problem?

8. Are there enough reference books and text books in the secondary schools?

9. What solution do you suggest?

10. . Have all secondary school students obtained text books in core subjects?

11. According to your opinion, what are the consequences of not having textbooks for core

subjects?

12. What solutions do you suggest to minimize problems?

13. Does the content of curriculum of secondary education go with maturity level of

secondary school students?

14. If your response to the above question is “No” what solutions do you suggest to

minimizing the problems

15. Do students complain about difficulty of instructional language?

16. If the students do not understand the instructional language, do you believe that students

are receiving adequate knowledge from their teachers?

17. What solutions do you suggest to minimize the problem?

18. What are other learning difficulties faced by secondary school students?

19. What solutions do you suggest to minimize the problems?

20. What is your principals’ field of specialization?

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Appendics 4

Yunvaristii Finfinnee

Kooleejjii barnootaa

Mummee hoggansaa fi karoora barnootaa

Gaafannoo Quannoo fi qorannoo barattoota kutaa 10ffaatiin guuttamu

Kabajamttoota deebii kennittootaa! kaayyoon gaafannoo kanaa ragaa qoannoo fi

qorannoo”Naannoo Oromiya Godina Sh/Kaabaatti waanttoota raawwii beekkumsa

akkadaamii barattoota m/b sad.2ffaa irratti dhiddaa qaban” adda baasuufii fala

barbaaduun gahumsa barattootaa fooyyeessuufi.

Kallattii walii galaa

Filannoo kennamee keessaa kan deebii ni taa jettetti marii,bakka duwwaa kenname irratt

deebii ni taa kan jette barreessi,yoo iddoon si hanqate karaa duubaa lakk. tuqii bareessi.

Garggarsa naa gootaniif duurseen isin galateeffadha

Kutaa1ffaa: -Yaadawaliigalag

Maqaa m/b keetii _______________Aanaa_______________________

1. Saala : __________

2. Umurii:_________

3. Fageenyii mana keetii amma m/btti kiloomeetiraan meeqa?

A. 1-6 B. 7-11 C. 12-16 D. 17 ol

Kutaa 2ffaa:-Haala daree barnootaa

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1. Baay’inni barattoota kutaa 10ffa daree keessatti gedugalessaan meeqa?

A. 40 gadi B. 40-50 C. 51-60 D. 61-70 E. 71-80 F. 80 ol

2. Rakkoon baayinaa barattotattiin daree tokko keessatti dhufu hammami?

A. Baay’ee olanaa B. Namusua barattootaa eegsiisuun rakkisadha

C. Hoji daree fi manaa soroorsuuf barsiisaan yeroo gahaa hin argatu.

D. Barsisu fi barataan waliigaluu dadhabuu.

E. Kan biroo (yoo filate)___________________________________________

Kuttaan 3ffa:- meeshaalee baruu barsisuu fi ciccatoota

3. Meeshaaleen baruu barsiisuu haalaa gahaan m/b keetittii argamuu?

A. Haala gahaan argamuu B. geddugaleessan argamuu

C. Haala gahaan hin argaman D. Sirumaa hin jiran

4. Kitaabileen barnootaa gosa barnoota hundaanuu haala kamiin argamu?

A. Baay’eeol’aanaa C. G/galeessa

B. Ol’aanaa D. Xiqqaa E. Hin jiran

5. Reeshoon kitaabaa gara barataatti kan m/b keetii meeqa?

A. 1:1 B. 1:2 C. 1:3 D. 1:4 E. 1:5

6. Sababa wal-hanqachuu kitaabaatiin wayitiin barnootaa m/b keessanii manca’ee jiraa?

A. Eyyee B. lakkii

7. Poorshiin barnootaa semisteera 1ffaa gosa barnoota hundaanuu uwifameraa?

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A. Eyyee B. Lakkii

8. Yoo hin xumuramne sababiin issaa maali?

A. Hanqina kitaabaa B. Qabiyyeenkitaaba beabaay’chuu

C. wayitiinbarnootaa sababa adda addatiin mance’u

E kan biroo____________________________

9. m/b kee mana dubbisa kitaabaa qabaa? A. Eyyee B. Lakkii

10. yoo jiraate laayibrariin kun barattoota hammam tajaajila?

A. Ol’aanaa B. G/galeesse C. Xiqqoo D. Hinbeeku

E. Sirumahintajajjilu

11. Barattotni hammam walittifufiinsaan mana dubbisa kitaabatti fayyadamu?

A. Yeroo hunda B.Iirracaalaa C. Yeroo tokko tokko D. Sirumaa hin

fayyadaman

12. Haala armaan gaditti kenname irratti hundaahun jiraachuu leeecaloo barnoota

mallattoo “√”agarsiisi

1. Gahaadha ol 2. Gahaa 3.Gahaa miti 4. Xiqqaa 5.Sirumaahin jir

leecaloo 1 2 3 4 5

Gamoo m/b

Teessowwan/minjaalawwan

laabiraatorii
Mana bashannanaa

Mana fincaanii

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13. Ogeessi qajeelchaa fi gorsaa m/b keessaan jiraa? A. Eyyee B. lakkii

Kutae 4:-Gahhumsas fi muxannoo barsiisootaa akkasumas hoggantoota m/b

14. Barsiisootni sa aatii baruu barsiisuu seeraanitti fayyadama jiruu? A. eyyee B. lakki

15. Yoo hin fayyadamne ta’e sababiin isaa maali?

A. B/saan hojii hogganse addaa ddaan qabamuu.

B. Barattootas m/b irraa waan hafaniif

C leejiin adda addaa baay’achuu.

D. Hundu deebii ni tahu.

16. M/b keessanitti barisoota sadarkaa barumsa kutichaaf barbaachisu qabu?

A. Eyyee B. Lakkii

17. Gahumsi barsiisotaa danddeettii fi gahumsa barattoota fooyyeessuu keessatti gahee

guddaa qaba A.sirrittaanwaligala B.walii hin gala C. hinimurteessine

D. malii hingalu E. sirumaawaliihingolu.

18. Barsiisootni hammam gosa barnootaa barsiisaan irrattii danddeettii gonfataan?

A.Baay’ee ol’aanaa B. Ol’aanaa C. G/galeesse D. Gad-Aanaa

E. Baay’ee gad Aaanaa

19. Barsiisootni gosa madaallii kamitti fayyadamanii ijoollee madaalu?

A. battallee mid tarmii B. qorumsa xumuraa C. madaalliiwalittifufaa

D. abbaltii

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20. Barsiisootn hojii daree fi manaa yeroo hunda ni to’aatu? A.eyyee B.lakkii

21. Gaafii lakk 20f deebiin kee ‘B’yoo ta’e sabebiin isaa maali jettee yaadda?

A. Baay’achuu barattootaa daree keessatti B. Hanqina yeroo

C. A fi B D. Kan biraa________

22. Ga,umsi fi kutanoon I/G/M/B baruu barsiisuu mijeessuurratti qabu

A. Ol’aanaa B. G/galeessa C. Gad aanaa D. Hin beeku

23. Gaafii22 tiif deebiin kee gad aanaa yoo ta’e rakkoon barattootarra gahu

A. Ol’aanaa B.Geddu galeessa C. Gad- Aanaa D. Hin beeku

Kutaa 5:- Afaan barnootaa/ingliffa/

24. Ga’umsi afaan barnootaa (ingliffa) irratti qabdu hammami?

A. Ol’aanaa B. G/gala C. Gad aanaa D. Hin beekamu

25. Barsiisootni afaan barnootaa barnootni itti kennamu kanarratti hammam

ga’umssaqabu?

A. Baay’ee baay’ee gaarii B. Baay’ee gaarii C. Gaarii D. Gad aanaa

26. Gaafii lakka. 25 deebiin kee ‘D’ yoo ta’e hammam gosa barnootaa kana barachurratti

rakkoo sitti uume?

A. Guddaa B. G/galessa C. Gad aanaa D. Hin uummamu

27. Barsiisootni irraa caalaan yeroo baayee qooqa kamitti fayyadamani barsiisuu?

A. Ingliffa B.Afaan Amaaraa C. Afaan Oromoo D. Afaan oromoo fi ingliffa

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E. Afaan amaaraa fi ingliffa.

28. Barsisaan qoqaa Ingliffaarra qooqa beekaan filatuu maalifi?

A. Barataan qooqa Ingilfaa waan hin bekneef. B. Barsisaan waan bekumsaa

qooqa Inglifaa hin bekneef C. hunda D.kan biroo____________________

29. Sababin barataan qooqa Afaan Ingliffaa irratti danddeettii dhabeef maalii?

A. kana duraa sirriitti waan hin baranneef B. Afaan Ingilfaarratti fedhiidhabau

C. Ingliffi waan ulffaatuuf D. Hunduu sirrii dha

Kutaa:- 6 sirna barnootaa

30. Sirnii barnataa /kitaabni/danddeettii fi fedhii barattotaa geddu galeeffatee qophaaheera

A. Baayeen waliigala B Waliingala C. Hin murteesine

D. Walii hin galu E. Bayee wal-hinga

31 Danddeettii kana dura qabduu waliin kitaaba barnoota sad.2ffaa yoo madaaltu:

A. Baayee ulfaataa B. Niulfaata C.G/Galeessa

D.Salphadha E. Baayeesalphaadha

32. Sirni barnootaa yeroo qophaahuu fedhii fi danddeettii barattootaa yoo madaaluu

baatee rakkoon inni uumuu:

A. Olaanaa B. G/galeessaa C.xiqqaa D. hin beeku

33. Kitaabileen barnootaa kutaa 10ffaa yeroo kenname keessatti ni xumuuramuu?

A. Eyyee B.Lakkii

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34. Kitaabootni kutaa 10ffaa bifa barattootaa galuun qophaayee jira .

A. Sirrttaanirrattiwaliigala B. Waliin gala C. Hin murteessine

D. Irratti waliihingalu

Kutaa torba; kanneen armaan gadii beekumsa akkadaamii barattoota irratti gahee ol-aanaa kan qabaniidha. akka m/b

keessanitti barattootni qabxii gad-aanaa akka fidan kan godhan malllattoo “√” kahuun agarsiisi.

1. baayyee olaanaa 2. olaanaa 3. G/galeessa 4.Gadaanaa 5.baayyee gadaanaa

lakk wantoota dhibbaa barnoota irratti dhibbaa geessiisan

1 2 3 4 5

1
Dhiphachuu daree barattootaa
2
Rakkoo hanqina kitaabaa fi teessoo barattoota
3
Rakkoo afaan barnoonni ittiin kennamu
4
Barattoonni bakka tajaajila gorsaa fi sireeffamaaaman

dhabuu
5
Barsiisoonnii kaka’uumsaa fi jaalala ogummaa dhabuu
6
Rakkoo dhabiinsa tajaajila laayibrarii
7
Haggansii m/b dandeetii dhabu
8
Rokkoo sirna barnootaa
9
Bulchiinsi m/b laaffaa ta’uu
10
Barsiisaan hanqina qooqa afaan ingliffaa qabaachuu
11
Barataan hanqina qooqa afaan ingliffaa qabaachuu
12
Madaallii barattootaa sirrii hin taaneetti fayyadamuu
13
Sababa adda addaatiin weyitiin barnootaa gubachuu

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Appendices 5

Observation check list

Name of this ______________________ woreda (City) _________________

5. Very good 4. Good 3. Medium 2.Poor 1.Very good

1. Instructional materials 5 4 3 2 1

students text book in each subject

Reference books

Syllabus

Teachers quid

Audio visual materials

2.Educational facilities

Class rooms

Laboratories

Tables/chairs

Latrines

Libraries

3.students assessment method

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Declaration

Name Zewdu Nigussie Beyene

I, the under signed, declare that this thesis is my original work and that all sources of

material used for this thesis have been duly acknowledged.

Signature ________________________

Place: Department of Educational Planning and Management

Addis Ababa University

Date Submission ________________________________

Advisors Approval

This thesis has been submitted for examination with my approval as a university

Advisor

Name Dr. Getnet Tizazu

Signature _____________________

Date __________________________

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