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One Day Seminar on

JACK-IN FOUNDATION PILES –


GOOD PRACTICES AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Organized by Geotechnical Society of Singapore (GEOSS)

DESIGN AND EXECUTION OF


JACK-IN PILES IN MALAYSIA
Ir. Chow Chee Meng
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd (Malaysia)
31st August 2015
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
Bored Pile Contractors/Engineers
working with Bored Pile
Contractors?

PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND!!!


Jack-in Pile Contractors/Engineers
working with Jack-in Pile
Contractors?

PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND!!!


Engineering consultants /
Government engineers?

PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND!!!


SCENARIO A SCENARIO B

PROCEED WITH
PRESENTATION!
Are we a victim of confirmation bias
on selection of foundation system?

In psychology and cognitive science,


confirmation bias (or confirmatory
bias) is a tendency to search for or
interpret information in a way that
confirms one's preconceptions, leading
to statistical errors.
Good girl?

Good
academic
results?

Good wife
material?
What is our
immediate
opinion?

We like this
picture
more!!!
INTRODUCTION

Jack-in pile has been adopted in Malaysia


since early 1990s

Currently, 600mm diameter spun pile with


working load up to 3000kN adopted for high-
rise developments up to 45-storeys

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HIGH CAPACITY
JACK-IN PILE MACHINE

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HIGH CAPACITY JACK-IN MACHINE

•Maximum jack-in force up to 7000kN

•Width of machine up to 13.5m

•Required clearance for piling works:


5.5m to 6.9m (centre jacking)

•Clearance can be reduced to 1.5m to 2.0m for side


jacking but maximum jack-in force reduced to
approx. 3500kN
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G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
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Typical schematic of high capacity jack-in pile machine

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SMALLER CAPACITY
JACK-IN PILE MACHINE

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Maximum Jack-in Force = 700kN
Size = 4.8m x 3.6m
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Maximum Jack-in Force = 1500kN
Size = 6.6m x 5.0m
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PROS & CONS

PROS:

Low noise and vibration

Faster construction rates (vs. bored piles)

Cleaner sites (vs. bored piles)

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Relatively clean
site compared to
bored piles!
PROS & CONS
CONS

Strong and flat piling platform required

Larger working area required (vs. driven


piles/bored piles)

Limited pile size (vs. bored piles)

Unable to go through intermittent hard


layers/boulders (vs. bored piles)
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
Comparisons
JACK-IN PILE DRIVEN PILE BORED
PILE
Cyclic load Less cycles Number of cycles N.A.
during pile compared to more especially
driven pile for long piles
installation
Termination Static (pseudo) Dynamic load Based on SI
criteria load imposed onto imposed onto pile information
pile head head
Variables 1. Hydraulic 1. Efficiency of N.A.
affecting system of hammer,
jacks helmet, etc.
efficiency of
2. Calibration of 2. Hammer
load transfer pressure drop height
during pile gauge 3. Cushion
installation properties
4. Eccentricity
of
pile/hammer
Verification of Relatively Indirect N.A.
geotechnical straightforward verification based
as loading rate is on dynamic
capacity during
slow analysis. Often
installation unreliable.
Probability of Low High Depends on
pile damage workmanship
during
installation
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GEOTECHNICAL CAPACITY OF PILES

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GEOTECHNICAL CAPACITY OF PILES

Ultimate shaft resistance,


fsu = Ksu x SPT-N (in kPa)

Ultimate base resistance,


fbu = Kbu x SPT-N (in kPa)

Typically,
Ksu = 2.5 to 3.0
Kbu = 200 to 400 (clay to sand)
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GEOTECHNICAL CAPACITY OF PILES

Design based on driven piles experience

Valid for jack-in pile design?

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BEHAVIOUR OF
JACK-IN PILES

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BEHAVIOUR OF JACK-IN PILES
Rankine Lecture by Prof. Mark Randolph
(2003):

•Bored piles – zero residual pressures

•End-bearing can only be mobilised at


relatively large displacement

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


BEHAVIOUR OF JACK-IN PILES

Driven and jacked in piles - significant


residual pressures are locked in at the pile
base during installation

Higher end-bearing can be mobilised at


working load

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


BEHAVIOUR OF JACK-IN PILES

White & Lehane (2004):

Greater number of cycles during pile


installation
larger reduction in shaft friction

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White & Lehane, 2004

Reduction in
shaft
resistance!!!

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BEHAVIOUR OF JACK-IN PILES

Deeks, White & Bolton (2005):

The measured jacking force during


installation indicates plunging capacity
of the pile

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BEHAVIOUR OF JACK-IN PILES

Jacked piles have a high base stiffness

Stiffness of jacked piles


> 2 times stiffness of driven piles
> 10 times stiffness of bored piles

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CASE HISTORIES

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1st Site

• Starting of Jack-In Pile system using large


size pile in Malaysia (Year 1999)
• Installed through municipal dumping site with
mine tailings overlying Karstic Kuala Lumpur
Limestone bedrock.
• Adopted 450mm Spun Pile with Working
Load of 1500kN

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


1st Site

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1st Site

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1st Site

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CASE HISTORIES

GRANITE FORMATION
Case Histories

Four sites in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor,


Malaysia :

•Site A: 31-storey apartment


•Site B: 45-storey apartment
•Site C: 40 to 43-storey apartment
•Site D: 15-storey apartment

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Case Histories (Sites A to D)
• Pile size: 400mm to 600mm

• Pile working load: 1520kN to 3000kN

• All piles generally jacked to 2.0 times


working load with holding time of 30-
seconds (2 cycles)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Case Histories (Sites A to D)

• Silty SAND / sandy SILT overlying Granite


Formation (weathered granite)

• Boulders encountered
- Some piles installed after preboring

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Site A

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Site A

Granite Formation

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Site C

Target Completion Mid 2011

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Site D

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Site B

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Site B

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Site B
Pile toe at hard weathered
granite layer

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Static Load Tests
Total of 22 static load tests carried out for the
4 sites

All piles selected for testing achieved


minimum 2 times working load!!!
(No pile failed!)
•No signs of plunging failure of pile
•Settlement at working load: 3.04 – 9.88mm
•Settlement at 2*WL: 6.96 – 22.22mm

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Static Load Tests

• Pile as short as 6.5m tested with settlement


at working load and 2*WL of 8.32mm and
19.73mm respectively

• Pile performance are satisfactory for piles


where preboring have been carried out

• Termination criterion adopted adequate

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Preboring through boulders

Boulders
exposed after
preboring

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Static Load Tests
4600
4400 500mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 6.5m Site B
4200
4000
3800
3600
APPLIED LOAD (kN) 3400
3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
PILE TOP SETTLEMENT (mm)
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Static Load Tests
Site B

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Static Load Tests

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Termination Criteria

Termination criterion for jack-in piles in


weathered granite:

“Jack the pile to 2.0 times of the


design load for a minimum of two cycles.
The corresponding pressure has to be held
for minimum 30 seconds with settlement
not exceeding 2mm”

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised Resistance

Instrumented test piles


Site C (3 Nos.)
Site D (2 Nos.)

Piles instrumented using the Global Strain


Extensometer method

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Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance
150
140 600mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 21.4m
(Nearest borehole, BH-20)
MOBILISED SKIN FRICTION (kN/m2)

130
0.5m to 10.7m
120
10.7m to 20.9m
110
100
90
80
70 fsu = 5 x SPT-N (in kPa)
60
50
- conservative!!!
40
30
20
10
Site C
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Base) Resistance
 MOBILISED END-BEARING RESISTANCE (kN/m2 ) 9000
8500
8000 600mm Spu n Pile, Pile length = 21.4m
(Nearest boreho le, BH-20)
7500
7000
6500 End-bearing not fully
6000
5500 mobilised
5000
4500
4000
3500
Stiff end bearing
3000 response observed –
2500
2000
end-bearing mobilized
1500 with small toe
1000
500
displacement
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance
300
500mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 24.7m
275 (Nearest borehole, BH-18)
MOBILISED SKIN FRICTION (kN/m2)

250

225 0.5m to 5.75m


5.75m to 14.75m
200
14.75m to 20.75m
175 20.75m to 23.0m

150
fsu = 5 x SPT-N (in kPa)
125
- conservative!!!
100

75

50

25

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
DISPLACEMENT (mm)
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
Mobilised (Base) Resistance
MOBILISED END-BEARING RESISTANCE (kN/m2)
8000
7500
7000
6500
6000
5500 End-bearing not fully
5000
mobilised
4500
4000
3500
Stiff end bearing
3000
2500 response observed –
2000 end-bearing mobilized
1500
with small toe
1000
500
displacement
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance
300
600mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 34.8m
275 (Nearest borehole, BH-5)
MOBILISED SKIN FRICTION (kN/m2)

250
0.82m to 6.53m
225 6.53m to 17.43m
17.43m to 26.43m
200 26.43m to 31.43m
31.43m to 33.93m
175

150

125

100

75 fsu = 5 x SPT-N (in kPa)


50 - conservative!!!
25
Site D
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
DISPLACEMENT (mm)
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
Mobilised (Base) Resistance
MOBILISED END-BEARING RESISTANCE (kN/m2)
400
380 600mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 34.8m
360 (Nearest borehole, BH-5)
340
320
300
280 End-bearing not fully
260
240
mobilised
220
200
180 Stiff end bearing
160
140 response observed –
120
100
end-bearing mobilized
80 with small toe
60
40 displacement
20
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DISPLACEMENT (mm)
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
CASE HISTORIES

LIMESTONE FORMATION
Static Load Tests
Load-Settlement Curve for Pile Static Load Test

7000
500mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 31.5m
3*WL
6500

6000
Legends:
1st Cycle
500mm diameter
5500 2nd Cycle spun pile
3rd Cycle
5000
2*WL Pile working load =
4500
2,300kN
4000

3500

3000

2500
1*WL
2000

1500

1000

500
8mm 16.5mm 28.5mm
0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
PILE TOP SETTLEMENT (mm)

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Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance
Mobilised Shaft Friction (Sunway)

200
190 500mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 31.5m
180 (Nearest borehole, ABH-4)
170
160 Legends:
150 1.0m to 9.0m
MOBILISED SHAFT FRICTION (kN/m 2)

140 9.0m to 19.5m


19.5m to 27.5m
130
27.5m to 31.0m
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
fsu = 5 x SPT-N (in kPa)
50
40
30
- conservative!!!
20
10
0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Base) Resistance
Mobilised End-Bearing Resistance (Sunway)

7000

6500
500mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 31.5m
6000 (Nearest borehole, ABH-4)

5500

5000

4500
End-bearing not fully
4000 mobilised
3500

3000

2500
Stiff end bearing
2000
response observed –
1500 end-bearing mobilized
1000 with small toe
500 displacement
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


CASE HISTORIES

ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS
Static Load Tests
3*WL
500mm diameter
spun pile

2*WL Pile working load =


2,300kN
APPLIED LOAD, kN

1*WL Sudden structural


failure of pile head!

23mm
11mm 44mm

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MOBILISED SHAFT FRICTION (kN/m2)
Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance

fsu = 5 x SPT-N (in kPa)

- conservative!!!

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Mobilised (Base) Resistance
Mobilised End-Bearing Resistance (GEMA)

2000
1900
1800 500mm Spun Pile, Pile length = 46.0m
1700 (Nearest borehole, BH-4)
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
End-bearing not fully
1100
1000
mobilised
900
800 Stiff end bearing
700
600 response observed –
500
400
end-bearing mobilized
300 with small toe
200
100 displacement
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

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SUMMARY

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SUMMARY

• Termination criterion of jack to 2 times


pile working load and holding time of 30-
seconds (two to three cycles) with
settlement not exceeding 2mm is
satisfactory

• Ultimate pile capacity is a function of jack-


in force during pile installation (consistent
with other findings, e.g. Deeks et al., 2005)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


SUMMARY

• Traditional correlations of skin friction


based on driven piles (e.g. fs = 2.5*SPT-N)
is too conservative for jack-in piles

• Conservative estimate based on


instrumented test results:
- Ultimate skin friction, fs ~ 5*SPT-N
(expected to be even higher – to be
verified with more test results)
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SUMMARY

•Jack-in piles demonstrates higher skin


friction possibly due to:
- Less disturbance during installation -
friction fatigue phenomenon
(e.g. White & Lehane, 2004)

- Locked-in pressure (residual pressure)


effect (e.g. Randolph, 2003)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


SUMMARY

•Jack-in piles demonstrates stiffer end


bearing response

- Consistent with Deeks, White & Bolton


(2005):

Stiffness of jacked piles


> 2 times stiffness of driven piles
> 10 times stiffness of bored piles

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CASE HISTORIES

METASEDIMENTARY
FORMATION
Nusajaya
PROPOSED 4 BLOCKS OF 12 & 24 – STOREY RESIDENTIAL
APARTMENTS (488 UNITS) AT PHASE C1B, EAST LEDANG,
JOHOR

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Static Load Tests

600mm diameter spun


pile

Pile working load =


3,000kN

Prebored depth = 9.0m


Pile length = 9.5m
Mobilisation of
end-bearing?

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Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance

fsu  2 x SPT-N (in kPa) of


original subsoil

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Mobilised (Base) Resistance

End-bearing less stiff compared


to behavior observed in granite
formation, etc. Possibly due to
behavior of weathered
sandstone/siltsone.
End-bearing mobilized still
relatively high compared to
bored piles/driven piles!

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Puteri Harbour
PROPOSED MIXED DEVELOPMENT @ PUTERI HARBOUR ON
LOT CS2, COMMERCIAL SOUTH, NUSAJAYA, JOHOR
3 blocks up to 35-storey high

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Puteri Harbour

Traders Hotel
CS1 – Driven Piles

CS2 – Jack-in Piles

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CS-2
Jack-in Piles

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Static Load Tests
Maximum test load
achieved  8,000kN
(2.7*WL)

2*WL

1*WL

600mm diameter
15mm
spun pile
5.5mm
Pile working load =
3,000kN

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance

Prebored length = 13.0m


Installed pile length = 15.0m

Significant shaft resistance mobilised even after


preboring
fsu = 5 x SPT-N (in kPa)????

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Base) Resistance

End-bearing less stiff compared


to behavior observed in granite
formation, etc. Possibly due to
behavior of weathered
sandstone/siltsone.
End-bearing mobilized still
relatively high compared to
bored piles/driven piles!

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


CS-1
Driven Piles

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Static Load Tests

Maximum test load


achieved  4,700kN
(2.3*WL)
2*WL

1*WL

400mm x 400mm RC
square pile
8.5mm 20mm
Pile working load =
2,000kN

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance

Prebored length = 12.0m


Installed pile length = 14.3m

Shaft resistance still influenced by original subsoil


but magnitude less compared to jack-in piles
fsu = 2 x SPT-N (in kPa)????

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Base) Resistance

End-bearing less stiff compared


to behavior observed in granite
formation, etc. Possibly due to
behavior of weathered
sandstone/siltsone.
End-bearing mobilized still
relatively high compared to
bored piles!

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Static Load Tests

Maximum test load


achieved  3,000kN
(1.2*WL)

1*WL

450mm x 450mm RC
square pile
12mm
Pile working load =
2,500kN

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Shaft) Resistance

Prebored length = 12.0m


Installed pile length = 13.1m

Shaft resistance influenced by original subsoil


but significant less compared to jack-in piles
fsu = 2 x SPT-N (in kPa)????

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Mobilised (Base) Resistance
End-bearing less stiff compared
to behavior observed in granite
formation, etc. Possibly due to
behavior of weathered
sandstone/siltsone.
End-bearing affected by softer
layer beneath toe?
Re-testing carried out on
another pile with deeper
preboring length of 15m (pile
length 18m) but still failed at
1.3*WL

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SUMMARY

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SUMMARY

• Noticeable differences in jack-in pile behavior


between granite/sandy soil vs. metasedimentary
formation (sandstone/siltsone) with preboring

• End-bearing response stiffer in granite/sandy


soil without preboring

• End-bearing response for jack-in piles in


metasedimentary formation still stiffer compared
to bored piles and driven piles

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


MOBILISED END-BEARING RESISTANCE (kN/m2) 8000
7500
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DISPLACEMENT (mm)

Granite formation Metasedimentary formation


(without preboring) (with preboring)

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SUMMARY

• Due to heterogeneous characteristics of


metasedimentary formation and effect of
preboring, end-bearing resistance highly
variable. Conservative assumptions of ultimate
end-bearing resistance of 10,000kPa for pile
design in metasedimentary formation with
preboring
– As opposed to granite formation where pile
capacity is a function of jack-in force during
pile installation

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SUMMARY

• Any difference between jack-in pile and driven


pile?

• Results indicate shaft friction for jack-in pile


higher than driven pile (approximately 2 times
higher)

• Possibly affected by bigger prebored zone in


driven square piles

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Jack-in Pile

Prebored length = 13.0m


Installed pile length = 15.0m

Significant shaft resistance mobilised even after


preboring
fsu = 5 x SPT-N (in kPa)????

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


Driven Pile

Prebored length = 12.0m


Installed pile length = 14.3m

Shaft resistance influenced by original subsoil


but significant less compared to jack-in piles
fsu = 2 x SPT-N (in kPa)????

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


SUMMARY

• Shaft friction after preboring very low or


negligible?

– Shaft friction is a function of original subsoil even


after preboring

– For jack-in pile, mobilized shaft friction still


significant and fs ranges from 2*SPT-N to 5*SPT-N!

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CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION

• Jack-in pile can be an economical foundation


system for high-rise buildings

• Behaviour of jack-in piles and driven piles


different
– Pile length for driven piles would have to be longer to
mobilize similar geotechnical capacity due to lower
shaft friction and lower base stiffness
– Shaft friction mobilized in granite formation/sandy
subsoil for jack-in pile can be conservatively
assumed to be 5*SPT-N (likely to be higher subject to
further test results)
G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd
CONCLUSION

• For granite formation/sandy subsoil:


– Termination criterion of jack to 2 times pile
working load and holding time of 30-seconds
(two to three cycles) with settlement not
exceeding 2mm is satisfactory

– Ultimate pile capacity is a function of jack-in


force during pile installation (consistent with
other findings, e.g. Deeks et al., 2005)

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


CONCLUSION

• For metasedimentary formation:


– Due to heterogeneous characteristics of
metasedimentary formation and effect of preboring,
end-bearing resistance highly variable. Geotechnical
capacity checks should be carried out with ultimate
end-bearing resistance of 10,000kPa

• Significant shaft resistance is still


mobilized after preboring for jack-in pile
and it is still a function of original subsoil

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


QUESTIONS TO PONDER

• Jack-in Piles not suitable in soft ground?

• Jack-in Piles not suitable in limestone?

• Jack-in Piles not suitable for high-rise?

• Jack-in Piles less reliable compared to


bored piles?

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd


THANK YOU

G&P Geotechnics Sdn Bhd