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Human Rights

1. Civil Service Commission Formulate policies and regulations for the

Mandate administration, maintenance and
Help us improve our service by answering implementation of position classification
this quick survey. and compensation and set standards for
The Civil Service Commission was the establishment, allocation and
conferred the status of a department by reallocation of pay scales, classes and
Republic Act No. 2260 as amended and positions;
elevated to a constitutional body by the
1973 Constitution. It was reorganized Render opinion and rulings on all
under PD No. 181 dated September 24, personnel and other Civil Service matters
1972, and again reorganized under which shall be binding on all head of
Executive Order no. 181 dated November departments, offices and agencies and
21, 1986. With the new Administrative which may be brought to the Supreme
Code of 1987 (EO 292), the Commission is Court on certiorari;
constitutionally mandated to promote
morale, efficiency, integrity, Appoint and discipline its officials and
responsiveness, progressiveness, and employees in accordance with law and
courtesy in the Civil Service. exercise control and supervision over the
activities of the Commission;

Control, supervise and coordinate Civil

Mandated Functions Service examinations. Any entity or
official in government may be called upon
Under Executive Order No. 292, the Civil by the Commission to assist in the
Service Commission shall perform the preparation and conduct of said
following functions: examinations including security, use of
buildings and facilities as well as
Administer and enforce the constitutional personnel and transportation of
and statutory provisions on the merit examination materials which shall be
system for all levels and ranks in the Civil exempt from inspection regulations;
Prescribe all forms for Civil Service
Prescribe, amend and enforce rules and examinations, appointment, reports and
regulations for carrying into effect the such other forms as may be required by
provisions of the Civil Service Laws and law, rules and regulations;
other pertinent laws;
Declare positions in the Civil Service as
Promulgate policies, standards and may properly be primarily confidential,
guidelines for the Civil Service and adopt highly technical or policy determining;
plans and programs to promote
economical, efficient and effective Formulate, administer and evaluate
personnel administration in the programs relative to the development
government; and retention of qualified and competent
work force in the public service;

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Human Rights

Commission as well as the conduct of the

Hear and decide administrative cases officials and the employees in these
instituted by or brought before it directly offices and apply appropriate sanctions
or on appeal, including contested whenever necessary;
appointments, and review decisions and
action of its offices and of the agencies Delegate authority for the performance of
attached to it. Officials and employees any functions to departments, agencies
who fail to comply with such decisions, and offices where such functions may be
orders, or rulings shall be liable for effectively performed;
contempt of the Commission. Its
decisions, orders or rulings shall be final Administer the retirement program of
and executory. Such decisions, orders, or government officials and employees, and
rulings may be brought to Supreme Court accredit government services and
on certiorari by the aggrieved party evaluate qualification for retirement;
within thirty (30) days from receipt of the
copy thereof; Keep and maintain personnel records of
all officials and employees in the Civil
Issues subpoena and subpoena duces Service; and
tecum for the production of documents
and records pertinent to investigations Perform all functions properly belonging
and inquiries conducted by it in to a central personnel agency such as
accordance with its authority conferred other functions as may be provided by
by the Constitution and pertinent laws; law.

Advise the President on all matters

involving personnel management in the Historical Highlights
government service and submit to the Help us improve our service by answering
President an annual report on the this quick survey.
personnel programs; The civil service system in the Philippines
was formally established under Public
Take appropriate actions on all Law No. 5 ("An Act for the Establishment
appointments and other personnel and Maintenance of Our Efficient and
matters in the Civil Service including Honest Civil Service in the Philippine
extension of service beyond retirement Island") in 1900 by the Second Philippine
age; Commission. A Civil Service Board was
created composed of a Chairman, a
Inspect and audit the personnel actions Secretary and a Chief Examiner. The
and programs of the departments, Board administered civil service
agencies, bureaus, offices, local examinations and set standards for
government including government- appointment in government service. It
owned or controlled corporations; was reorganized into a Bureau in 1905.
conduct periodic review of the decisions
and actions of offices or officials to whom The 1935 Philippine Constitution firmly
authority has been delegated by the established the merit system as the basis

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for employment in government. The developed at the Harvard University

following years also witnessed the Business School. PGS translates vision to
expansion of the Bureau’s jurisdiction to actionable strategies and commitments
include the three branches of that lead to breakthrough results.
government: the national government, Working under the tenet of true and
local government and government genuine governance, these breakthrough
corporations. results make the agency more sustainable
and responsive to its purpose. Inherent in
In 1959, Republic Act 2260, otherwise the design of the system are the strategic
known as the Civil Service Law, was private-public partnership of the
enacted. This was the first integral law on organization and the sectors it closely
the Philippine bureaucracy, superseding interacts with, as well as transparent
the scattered administrative orders executive leadership. This revolutionary
relative to government personnel system institutionalizes a new culture of
administration issued since 1900. This Act governance that can produce tangible
converted the Bureau of Civil Service into results within two to three years.
the Civil Service Commission with
department status. The Institute for Solidarity in Asia (ISA), as
the institutional partner of the Palladium
In 1975, Presidential Decree No. 807 (The Group (creators of the Balanced
Civil Service Decree of the Philippines) Scorecard), is the recognized feeder of
redefined the role of the Commission as Philippine public institutions to the world-
the central personnel agency of renowned Balanced Scorecard Hall of
government. Its present mandate is Fame for Executing Strategy.
derived from Article IX-B of the 1987
Constitution which was given effect
through Book V of Executive Order No.
292 (The 1987 Administrative Code). The THE GOVERNANCE PATHWAY
Code essentially reiterates existing
principles and policies in the The PGS is divided into four (4) stages:
administration of the bureaucracy and Initiation, Compliance, Proficiency, and
recognizes, for the first time, the right of Institutionalization.
government employees to self-
organization and collective negotiations Initiation
under the framework of the 1987 The Initiation stage entails development
Constitution. of a strategy and translating it into a set
of measurable targets for learning and
About the Performance Governance growth, operational efficiency, financial
System (PGS) viability and social impact on the
Help us improve our service by answering constituency.
this quick survey.
The PGS is hinged on the Balanced Compliance
Scorecard technology (BSC), a This stage is centered on alignment of
performance management tool resources and people to the strategy. A

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Compliant status is granted after the

organization has formally organized
internal and external stakeholders (also
known as Multi-Sector Governance
Coalition) to be part of the governance
process, and consequently passed an
audit review.

Proficient status is granted after an audit
review of the partner’s strategic
performance as measured by its
scorecard. Mechanisms for reporting
actual performance against targets must
be in place. An Office for Strategy
Management in charge of strategy
execution must be fully functional at this

Institutionalized status is granted after an
audit review of a partner’s performance
for at least two years of implementing its
PGS strategy. The scorecard must show
breakthrough financial results and high
social impact.

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(NBI) and the National Prosecution Service

(NPS), respectively. Likewise, the DOJ
2. Department of Justice
administers the probation and correction
system of the country through the Bureau of
Corrections (BuCor), the Board of Pardons
Vision and Parole (BPP) and the Parole and Probation
A just and peaceful society anchored on the Administration (PPA).
principles of transparency, accountability, fairness 2. Legal Counsel of Government
and truth. The DOJ, through the Office of the Solicitor
General (OSG) and the Office of the
Mission Government Corporate Counsel (OGCC), acts
as the legal representative of the Government
Effective, efficient and equitable administration of of the Philippines, its agencies and
justice. instrumentalities including government
owned and controlled corporations and their
subsidiaries, officials and agents in any
We undertake to provide every person equal proceeding, investigation or matter requiring
access to justice, to faithfully safeguard the services of a lawyer.
constitutional rights and to ensure that no one is EO 292 specifically designates the Secretary
deprived of due process of law. as Attorney-General and ex-officio legal
adviser of government-owned or controlled
Our commitment is to advocate for reforms in corporations (GOCC) and their subsidiaries.
partnership with our stakeholders, to simplify The Secretary exercises administrative
processes and re-engineer systems to best serve adjudicatory powers over all controversies
our constituents. between/among government agencies,
including government owned and controlled
We shall work with honor and integrity for the corporations including their subsidiaries. This
institution, for God and country. power of adjudication of the Secretary
Mandate originally stemmed from Presidential
Decree No. 242, and is now embodied
The Department of Justice (DOJ) derives its
in Sections 66 to 71, Chapter 14, Book IV
mandate primarily from the Administrative Code
of E.O. 292.
of 1987 (Executive Order No. 292). It carries out
this mandate through the Department Proper and The Secretary is likewise empowered to act on
the Department's attached agencies under the all queries and/or requests for legal advice
direct control and supervision of the Secretary of and guidance from private parties and other
Justice. officials and employees of the government.
Under Executive Order (EO) 292, the DOJ is the 3. Regulation of Immigration
government's principal law agency. As such, the The DOJ provides immigration and
DOJ serves as the government's prosecution arm naturalization regulatory services and
and administers the government's criminal justice implements the laws governing citizenship
system by investigating crimes, prosecuting and the admission and stay of aliens through
offenders and overseeing the correctional system. the Bureau of Immigration (BI). Also,
under Administrative Order No. 142 dated
The DOJ, through its offices and
August 23, 1994, the Secretary or his duly-
constituent/attached agencies, is also the
authorized representative is authorized to act
government's legal counsel and representative in
on immigration matters, including waiver of
litigations and proceedings requiring the services
visas and admission of aliens, except
of a lawyer; implements the Philippines' laws on
deportation matters.
the admission and stay of aliens within its
Likewise, the DOJ, through the DOJ Refugee
territory; and provides free legal services to
Processing Unit (DOJ-RPU), processes
indigent and other qualified citizens.
applications for refugee status of persons
Functions pursuant to the obligations of the Philippines
1. Administration of the Criminal Justice as signatory to the 1951 Convention and 1967
System Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees.
The DOJ investigates the commission of 4. International Cooperation
crimes and prosecutes offenders through The DOJ is the central authority of the
the National Bureau of Investigation Republic of the Philippines relative to

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extradition and mutual legal assistance of Claims created under the DOJ (RA 7309);
treaties (MLAT) on criminal matters and is
involved in several aspects of international  Administrative Order No. 99 (1988),
cooperation such as the drafting and designated DOJ as lead implementor
implementation of legislation and agreements of Justice System Infrastructure Program
as well as the negotiation of extradition and (JUSIP) that was tasked to
MLAT. Moreover, under Philippine construct/rehabilitate decent office buildings
Extradition Law (P.D. 1069), the DOJ for judges, prosecutors, public attorneys,
handles requests for extradition and/or probation officers, and registers of deeds;
mutual legal assistance and represents treaty
partners in Philippine courts.  Executive Order 180 (1987), which
The Department is also involved in the created the Public Sector Labor Management
negotiation of various investment and trade Council, of which the Secretary is a member,
agreements with other foreign countries. The to provide guidelines for the exercise of the
Secretary is also the ex-officio Co-Vice right of government employees to organize;
Chairman of the Commission on Maritime and
Ocean Affairs (CMOA) pursuant to EO  The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs
612 and EO 612-A (2007), which is Act of 2002 (RA 9165), which created
involved in the identification of the Philippine the Dangerous Drugs Board to see to policy-
baselines and in the preparation of the making and strategy-formulation on drug
submission to the United Nations of the prevention and control and designated the
country's claim for extended continental shelf. Secretary or his representative as ex-officio
5. Provision of Free Legal Assistance member of such Board;
The DOJ provides free legal
assistance/representation to indigents and  The Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2001
poor litigants as well as other qualified (R.A. 9160), which created the Anti-Money
persons in criminal, civil, and labor cases, Laundering Council (AMLC) to which the DOJ
administrative and other quasi-judicial is a support agency through the investigation
proceedings and non-commercial disputes of money laundering offenses and the
through the Public Attorney's Office prosecution of offenders. With the DOJ Anti-
(PAO) pursuant to RA No. 9406. Money Laundering Desk (DOJ-AMLD), the
6. Alternative Dispute Resolution DOJ works in close coordination with the
With regard to conciliation and mediation, AMLC in its task of combating money
the Alternative Dispute Resolution Act of laundering and financing of terrorism;
2004 (RA 9285) created the Office for
Alternative Dispute Resolution (OADR), which
 The Human Security Act of 2007 (RA
is an agency attached to the DOJ and which is
9372) which created and designated the
tasked to promote, develop and expand the
Secretary as ex-officio member thereof.
use of alternative dispute resolution in civil
Relative to this and under EO 292, the
and commercial disputes.
Secretary is also an ex-officio member of the
7. DOJ functions under other laws and
National Security Council (NSC), which
other executive issuances:
advises the President with respect to the
In addition to performing its mandate under integration of domestic, foreign, military,
E.O. 292, the Department is significantly political, economic, social, and educational
involved in the implementation of the policies relating to national security;
following penal, national security, and social  The Rape Victim Assistance and
welfare laws: Protection Act of 1998 (RA 8505), which
mandated the DOJ to participate in inter-
 The Witness Protection, Security and agency efforts to establish Rape Crisis
Benefit Act (R.A. 6981), which mandates Centers in every city or province for the
the DOJ to formulate and implement a purpose of rendering assistance to rape
Witness Protection, Security and Benefit victims;
Program for the admission and protection of  The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of
witnesses; 2003 (R.A. 9208), which mandates the
prosecution of persons accused of human
 Implementation of the Victims trafficking and for that purpose, created
Compensation Program through the Board the Inter-Agency Council on Trafficking
(IACAT), of which the Secretary is Chairman;

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 The Anti-Violence Against Women and empowered to authorize the employment of

Their Children Act of 2004 (RA 9262), aliens as technical personnel in the
which designated the Department as a management of a franchise, business or
member agency of the Inter-Agency Council enterprise expressly reserved by law to
on Violence Against Women and their Filipino citizens or corporations or
Children (IACVAWC), the monitoring body of associations whose equity at least 60% of
government initiatives to counter violence which is owned by Filipinos;
against women and children;  The Local Government Code (Section
 Executive Order 53 (2011) amending EO 187 of RA 7160) which vests in the
No. 275 pursuant to the Special Protection Secretary appellate jurisdiction over the
of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, constitutionality or legality of municipal tax
and Discrimination Act (RA 7610), ordinances and revenue; measures;
designating the DOJ Secretary as the  Executive Order 643 (2007) which vests
Chairperson of the Committee for the Special the DOJ with administrative supervision over
Protection of Children; the Presidential Commission on Good
 Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009 Government (PCGG).
(IRR of RA), designating the Secretary of The Secretary is also an ex-officio
Justice as member of Inter-Agency Council member of the Judicial and Bar Council
Against Child Pornography that is tasked to (JBC) [Section 8(1), Article VIII of the
coordinate, monitor and oversee the 1987 Constitution], the Committee on
implementation of Anti-Child Pornography Privatization [AO 48 (1987)], and
Act; the National Water Resources Board
 Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 (RA (NWRB) (EO 123, series of 2002). He is
10175), the Office of Cybercrime within the also an ex-officio director of the Power
DOJ designated as the central authority in all Sector Assets and Liabilities
matters related to international mutual Management (PSALM) Corporation (R
assistance and extradition; A 9136, otherwise known as Electric
 Executive Order 45 (2011), which Power Industry Reform Act of
designated the DOJ as competition authority 2001). Under EO 648, series of 1981, an
that investigates all cases involving undersecretary of the DOJ is designated
violations of competition laws and prosecute as an ex-officio Commissioner of the
violators to prevent, restrain and punish Housing and Land Use Regulatory
monopolization, cartels and combinations in Board (HLURB).
restraint of trade;

 Administrative Order 35 (2012), which LIST OF FRONTLINE SERVICES

designated the Secretary of Justice as 1. Petition for Review
Chairperson of the Inter-Agency Committee
on Extra-Legal Killings, Enforced 1.1. Filing of Appeal/Petition for Review
Disappearances, Torture and Other Grave 1.2. Walk-in Query on the Status of Case on
Violations on the Right to Life, Liberty and Appeal and Petition for Review
Security of Persons, the body that 1.3. Request for Certification on the Status of
undertakes inventory of cases mentioned Case on Appeal/Petition for Review
perpetrated by state and non-state forces; 1.4. Request for the Issuance of Certified
 Memorandum Circular No. 68 (2014), Photocopy of Resolution (Resolved Cases on
creating an Inter-Agency Task Force to Appeal/Petition Review)
Strengthen the Implementation of RA 8049
otherwise known as the Anti-Hazing Law, 2. Filing of Application as Witness Under the
with the DOJ Secretary as Chairperson. Witness Protection Program (WPP)

Other tasks falling within the multifarious 3. Internal Affairs Unit Services
duties of the executive branch to
administer the laws devolve upon the 3.1. Filing of Administrative/IAU Compliant
Department through the Secretary, to 3.2. Filing of Additional/Supplemental Documents
wit: Subsequent to Filed Administrative/IAU
 The Anti-Dummy Law (Commonwealth 3.3. Follow-up of Administrative/IAU Complaint
No. 108), as amended by Presidential Filed
Decree 715, whereby the Secretary is

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3.4. Request for Certificate of No Pending Permit to carry firearms

Administrative/IAU Case Business Permit Retirement/resignation/registration
4. Legal Services Certification re: Case status Certified true & photocopy of documents
4.1. Filing of Non-Immigrant Visa Application
Under Section 47(a)(2) of the Philippine 9.1.5. Regular Accounts (Refund of cash from
Immigration Act of 1940, as Amended cash advances issued to personnel thru check
4.2. Filing of Anti-Dummy Application (*Authority payment and over payments of salaries and
to Employ Foreign Technicians) emoluments).
4.3. Immigration Look-Out Bulletin Order (ILBO)
and Allow Departure Orders (ADOS)
4.4. Certification of Not The Same Person (NSTP) 9.2. Claiming of Checks (Board of
5. Board of Claims 10. Board of Pardons and Parole
5.1. Filing of Application for Compensation under Follow-ups by prisoners’ family,
Republic Act 7309 (Victims Compensation relatives and other parties-in-
Program) interest on the status of their
5.2. Payment of Compensation under Republic Act petitions or applications for parole or
7309 executive clemency.

6. Records Management Services 11. National Prosecution Service

11.1 Filing of Criminal Complaints

6.1. Request for Certified True Copy/Photocopy of
for Preliminary Investigation (P.I.)
or Inquest Procedings
6.2. Delivery of Documents Addressed to DOJ
11.2 Request for Certifcation of the
Status of Case - Preliminary
Investigation, Automatic Review and
7. Human Resource Services
Petitions for Review (includes motion
for reconsideration) / Clearance
7.1. Filing of Application for Employment
11.3 Request for the Issuance of
7.2. Filing of Application for On-the-Job Trainee
Certified True Copy of Resolution
and or Certified Machine
Copy/Certification as Submitted
8. DOJ Action Center
Records for Case on Preliminary
Investigation (PI), Inquest,
8.1. Legal Counselling
Automatic Review and Petitions for
8.2. Mediation
Review (includes Motion for
8.3. Legal Documents
8.4. Legal Representation
11.4 Walk-in Query on the Status of
the Cases on Preliminary
9. Cash and Disbursement Section
Investigation (PI), Inquest,
Automatic Review or
9.1 Payment for the following:
Appeal/Petitions for Review
(includes Motion for
9.1.1 Legal fees for Non-Immigrant Visa
Application Under Section 47(a)2 of the Philippine
Immigration Act of 1940, as Amended;
9.1.2. Legal fee for Anti-Dummy;
9.1.3. Legal fees for issued certifications from
Legal Staff.
9.1.4. Clearances issued by the National
Prosecution Service for: Local employment Foreign Employment Foreign travel Firearm license

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3. Department of Education

Vision, Mission, Core Our Mandate

Values, and Mandate The Department of Education was established

through the Education Decree of 1863 as the
Superior Commission of Primary Instruction under a
Chairman. The Education agency underwent many
The DepEd Vision reorganization efforts in the 20th century in order to
better define its purpose vis a vis the changing
We dream of Filipinos administrations and charters. The present day
who passionately love their country Department of Education was eventually mandated
and whose values and competencies through Republic Act 9155, otherwise known as the
enable them to realize their full potential Governance of Basic Education act of 2001 which
and contribute meaningfully to building the nation. establishes the mandate of this agency.

As a learner-centered public institution, The Department of Education (DepEd) formulates,

the Department of Education implements, and coordinates policies, plans,
continuously improves itself programs and projects in the areas of formal and
to better serve its stakeholders. non-formal basic education. It supervises all
elementary and secondary education institutions,
including alternative learning systems, both public
and private; and provides for the establishment and
maintenance of a complete, adequate, and integrated
The DepEd Mission system of basic education relevant to the goals of
national development.
To protect and promote the right of every Filipino to
quality, equitable, culture-based, and complete basic
education where:

Students learn in a child-friendly, gender-sensitive,

safe, and motivating environment.
Teachers facilitate learning and constantly nurture
every learner.
Administrators and staff, as stewards of the
institution, ensure an enabling and supportive
environment for effective learning to happen.
Family, community, and other stakeholders are
actively engaged and share responsibility for
developing life-long learners.

Our Core Values


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Human Rights

In the early days of the Katipunan, Andres Bonifacio, as

Supremo of the revolutionary society, had picked
4. Department of National Defense Teodoro Plata, his brother-in-law, as his Secretary of
War. When Emilio Aguinaldo was elected President in the
MISSION Tejeros convention on March 22, 1897, and succeeded
Bonifacio as leader of the Katipunan, Emilio Riego de Dios
To maximize its effectiveness and efficiency for was also elected as Director of War.
guarding against internal and external threats to
national peace and security, promote the The war against Spain demonstrated for the first time the
welfare of soldiers and veterans, and provide Filipino people’s capability to organize an army to fight
support for social and economic foreign colonial masters. Aguinaldo’s two high-
development. (Sec 1, Executive Order 112) ranking military officers during the Spanish-Filipino war
were Artemio Ricarte as Captain-General and Mariano
Llanera as Lieutenant-General. Other officers of general
VISION 2028 and MILESTONES rank included Vito Belarmino, Mariano Noriel, Pio del
2028 – A credible defense organization that Pilar, Pascual Alvarez, Manuel Tinio, Tomas Mascardo,
ensures Philippine security, sovereignty and Jose Salvador and Pantaleon Garcia.
territorial integrity; a reliable partner in national The capture of Aguinaldo on March 23, 1901 at Palanan,
development; Isabela, tolled the death of a struggle by the Filipinos for
and a strategic player in the Asia Pacific independence against the powerful United States of
Region. America.

2022 – A defense organization equipped with Civil Government

enhanced capabilities to address current and
evolving defense and security challenges. Two weeks after the establishment of the American civil
government on July 4, 1901, the Philippine Commission
2016 – A responsive, values-driven, modestly adopted a measure, Act No. 175, which called for the
equipped, and cyber-secured defense creation of an insular police force charged with the
organization with capabilities that will address function of maintaining peace and order as well as to
current defense and suppress crime. The Philippine Constabulary was officially
security challenges. constituted on August 1, 1901.

Actually, the national police force, composed of 6,000

men, was led by American officers and former members
CORE VALUES of the Spanish Guardia Civil. It functioned as a bureau,
known as the Bureau of Constabulary under the
 Patriotism Department of Commerce and Police, but controlled to
 Professionalism certain extent by the Bureau of Insular Affairs in the War
 Good Governance Department of the United States of America.

The Philippine revolution continued in the form of guerilla

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF resistance groups organized under different leaders,
NATIONAL DEFENSE many of them former officers in the Revolutionary Army.
Among them were General Luciano San Miguel, Faustino
Long before the official creation of the defense
Guillermo, Macario Sakay, Julian Montalan, Cornelio
department in 1939 by President Manuel Luis Quezon,
Felizardo, Simeon Ola, Lazaro Toledo and Roman
the country has had a semblance of a defense
organization dating back to the pre-Spanish period when
Some resistance groups had acquired quasi-
our barangays had an organization of able-bodied men of
religious overtone, like the movements led by Ruperto
the village charged with the protection of the community
Rios, Felipe Salvador, Dionisio Magbuelas, Quintin and
from hostile forces. This organization was the forerunner
Anatalio Tabal, Pablo Bulan, Antonio Anugar, Pedro dela
of what we now call our armed forces.
Cruz and Isidro Ompoc. The Constabulary and the U.S.

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Army had their hands full organizing military campaigns to weapons, and even such rudimentary supplies as
to track down the guerilla leaders and other remnants of shoes and tents. Lack of properly-trained officers,
the Revolutionary Army. Aside from the above military arms and ammunition, equipment, and money for
campaigns, the constabulary was kept busy by the conducting even limited field exercises seriously
Mindanao outlaws which gave military authorities a big handicapped MacArthur’s effort. It was impossible
headache then as it is now. In addition, the constabulary in the original short 5-1/2 month periods
had to take care of the Oto campaign in Panay in 1916; complicated by schooling in hygiene and physical
the Colorums of Surigao in 1925; the Colorums of Tayug, and moral improvement, to give the draftees more
Pangasinan in 1925 and 1931; the Asedillo campaign in than the most rudimentary instruction in soldiering.
Laguna in 1934; the Intrencherrado campaign in Negros;
and the Sakdalista suprising in the provinces around In most cases, there was no training for units larger
Manila in 1935, on the eve of the elections of the than a company. MacArthur had believed that at the
Commonwealth government. end of the Commonwealth period, the Philippines
would have at least 400, 000 reserve citizen-
Military Mission soldiers. By 1938, however, only 69,848 had been
given intensive military training, as against the
On November 19, 1934, Senate President Manuel L. projected 120,000 for a three-year period at the
Quezon requested the U.S. Secretary of War to rate of 40,000 a year.
recommend amendment of an Act passed on May 19,
1926 which provided for the detail of U.S. Army, Naval Early in 1938, Quezon got the National Assembly to
and Marine Corps to assist the other American republics pass an Act separating the Constabulary from the
in military and naval matters, to make it equally Philippine Army. The seriously depleted the number
applicable to the Philippines. The Act was duly amended and quality of training officers since MacArthur had
by the U.S. Congress thereby authorizing a military been drawing on the Constabulary experience.
mission to the Philippines which Quezon immediately
requested from the United States after his election as Formal Creation
President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
The first bill that President Quezon presented to the With the formal creation of the Department of
Assembly of his new Commonwealth government was the National Defense on November 1, 1939, MacArthur
National Defense Act which had been formulated by could no longer order munitions, enroll trainees,
General Douglas MacArthur. The hard core of the land nor enter into contracts for the construction of
defense rested on a small, professional Philippine regular military facilities without the approval of Quezon
army of some 350 officers and 5,000 enlisted men, with and Teofilo Sison, the Secretary of National
a permanent army headquarters and staff. Defense. Before this date, MacArthur had a free
hand in the formulation of policies for the Philippine
Through Executive Order No. 11 dated January 11, 1936, defense system.
President Quezon appointed Brig Gen. Jose delos Reyes
as acting Chief of Staff of the Philippine Army. In that From the start of his mission to the Philippines,
same order, the Philippine Constabulary consisting of MacArthur’s plan had revolved around the theory
some 6,000 officers and men, was transferred to, and that his task was to provide manpower capable of
made a part of, the regular force of the Army of the assisting in defense during the period of transition
Philippines. from the Commonwealth to a Republican
government. Until that date, the main responsibility
The real defense of the country would ultimately lie in the for the defense of the Islands was definitely
troops of the reserve divisions, to be drafted and trained American but Washington had failed to honor this
at the rate of some 40,000 recruits each year. Half of this obligation, refusing MacArthur real help of any kind.
number would enter the training camps for 5-1/2 months
training each six-month period.
On August 15, 1941, the small Philippine Army Air
Corps (PAAC) was personally inducted into the U.S.
The defense preparations were beset by many
service by MacArthur. “Only those are fit to live who
difficulties, among them the problems posed by the
are not afraid to die,” he told the little group of
illiteracy and ignorance of many trainees, the
Filipino pilots and ground crewmen.
variety of dialects which hindered communication,
the serious of lack everything, from funds to officers

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Pacific War investigating collaboration charges with the help of

Tomas Confessor, wartime civil governor of Iloilo
On December 7, 1941 (Hawaii time), the Japanese and a guerilla leader of Panay, who had become his
treacherously bombed Pearl Harbor. World War II interim Secretary of Defense Eventually, all the
had begun. The Filipinos were now drawn into a accused were granted amnesty.
war not of their own making, nevertheless, they
fought One of the Osmeña’s first acts was to issued
valiantly at the side of the Americans, only to be Executive Order No. 21 which stated, among
abandoned in their hour of greatest need because others, that all persons serving with recognized
of the guerilla units are considered on active duty with the
“Europe First Policy” of the high command in Philippine Army. Osmeña also ordered the
Washington. reestablishment of the Headquarters Philippine
Army in Tacloban, Leyte effective October 23, 1944,
The story of the epic Battle of Bataan can never be with Maj. Gen. Basilio J. Valdes, pre-war chief of
given full justice in writing for the hallowed voices staff, assuming his old role. When valdes was
of those who had sacrificed their lives for the sake appointed member of the War Crimes Commission
of peace and freedom are mute and their lips are for the trial of Japanese war criminals in the
sealed forever. Only the living, the survivors, can Philippines, Brig. Gen.Rafael Jalandoni was
speak of the agony and suffering of fighting a war designated as the chief of staff, with Brig. Gen.
which was lost even before the first firing of the gun Macario Peralta, Jr. as his deputy.
has started. It was a tribute to the indomitable
fighting spirit of the Filipino and American Military Police
defenders in Bataan and Corregidor that they To promote peace and security throughout the
fought to the last ounce of strength, despite liberated areas of the country, Osmeña issued
insurmountable odds, and even if they knew Executive Order No. 51 which activated the Military
beforehand Police Command, PA effective June 7, 1945. The
that it was a losing battle, that it was not a question MPC’s mission was to enforce military regulations
of winning, but how long they could delay the and assist civil authorities in enforcing the law
eventual surrender to the enemy forces. throughout the Philippines, except in combat areas.
It also performed the additional task of supervising
As a consequence of the far-flung deployment of police activities and assisting in the reorganization
troops required by MacArthur’s beach-defense plan of all civil police forces.
and the last minute return to War Plan Orange,
many USAFFE units in Luzon were cut off and were The proliferation of loose firearm in the hands of
unable to join the retreat to Bataan. Some managed guerillas and civilians alike immediately after the
to escape from Bataan prior to its surrender, and war had posed a new peace and order problem to
others had refused to obey General Wainwright’s the government. In Central Luzon, a strong war-
surrender order after the fall of Corregidor. These time guerilla force, known as the Hukbalahaps, had
and other units became the nuclei of most guerilla held unto its power, and opposed the government.
groups. The Huk organization had its beginning in
the peasant-landlord feuds of the pre-war days
On September 14, 1944, General MacArthur and its leadership was heavily laced with Socialists
received a directive from the Join Chief of Staff and Communists. From July 1950 to June 1951, the
instructing him to proceed with the reconquest of HMB had increased its regular cadres from 3,600 to
Luzon. The campaign for the liberation of the 56,000 and reached peak strength of 172,000 from
Philippines was concluded on July 5, 1945. On that an original ceiling of 10,000 and a mass base of
day, MacArthur officially declared that the War, as 2,430,000. Because of the rapidly growing strength
far as the Philippines was concerned, was ended. of the HMB, a Pentagon State Department survey
team, the Melba Mission, was sent to the Philippines
Early Postwar to look into the military
MacArthur formally turned over on February 27, equipment needs of the Philippine Armed Forces
1945 the powers and functions of the government and to set up a program for improving its
to President Sergio Osmeña. Osmeña set to work counterinsurgency capability.

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The Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG)

was assigned the task of implementing the Melby
Mission’s recommendation and it became the
agency that coordinate the re-organization of
the anti-Huk campaign.

On August 31, 1950, President Elpidio Quirino

appointed a new Secretary of Defense, Ramon
Magsaysay, to tackle the Huk problem. Magsaysay
developed a plan to both attack and attract the

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5. Departmetn of Social Welfare and


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change in the form of government, from presidential

History of DSWD to parliamentary.
1987 – The MSSD was reorganized and renamed
Social welfare as a basic function of the state was a Department of Social Welfare and Development
concept that materialized only after the Second (DSWD) under Executive Order 123 signed by
World War, although different groups were President Corazon C. Aquino. Executive Order No.
undertaking pockets of social work in the first 292, also known as the Revised Administration Code
decade of the American occupation in the country. of 1987, established the name, organizational
After the war, the Philippine government gradually structure and functional areas of responsibility of
assumed the major responsibility for social welfare. DSWD and further defined its statutory authority.
1915 – The Public Welfare Board (PWB) was 1991 – The passage of Republic Act 7160 otherwise
created. Its functions were to study, coordinate and known as the Local Government Code of 1991
regulate all government and private entities engaged effected the devolution of DSWD basic services to
in social services. local government units.
1921 – The PWB was abolished and replaced by the 1998 – President Joseph Ejercito Estrada issued
Bureau of Public Welfare under the Department of Executive Order No. 15 “Redirecting the Functions
Public Instruction. and Operations of the Department of Social Welfare
1939 – Commonwealth Act No. 439 created the and Development” to strengthen the DSWD’s
Department of Health and Public Welfare repositioning efforts that began soon after the
1941– The Bureau of Public Welfare officially implementation of the Local Government Code of
became a part of the Department of Health and 1991.
Public Welfare. In addition to coordinating services 2003 – President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo issued
of all public and private social welfare institutions, Executive Order No. 221 amending Executive Order
the Bureau also managed all public child-caring No. 15 which defined the mandate, roles, powers and
institutions and the provision of child welfare functions of the DSWD.
services. 2005 – The Department of Budget and Management
1947 – President Manuel A. Roxas abolished the (DBM) approved the DSWD’s Rationalization and
Bureau of Public Welfare and in its place created the Streamlining Plan (RSP) on January 28, 2005 for
Social Welfare Commission (SWC) under the Office implementation over the next five years. The RSP
of the President. emphasizes the Department’s shift in policy,
1948 – President Elpidio Quirino created the functions and programs in line with its steering role.
President’s Action Committee on Social
Amelioration (PACSA) to effect socio-economic
reforms in the countryside to counteract social
1951 – The SWC and PACSA were merged into the
Social Welfare Administration (SWA) which marked
the beginning of an integrated public welfare
1968 – Republic Act 5416 known as the Social
Welfare Act of 1968 elevated the SWA into a
Department, placing it under the executive branch of
government in equal status with other social agencies
like health and education.
1976 – The Department of Social Welfare was
renamed Department of Social Services and
Development (DSSD) with the signing of
Presidential Decree No. 994 by President Ferdinand
E. Marcos. It gave the Department a more accurate
institutional identity, in keeping with its productivity
and developmental thrusts.
1978 – The DSSD was renamed Ministry of Social
Services and Development (MSSD) in line with the

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Human Rights

2.A minor traveling to a foreign country

accompanied by a person other than
FRONTLINE his/her parents.


SERVICES 1.For a Minor/s Traveling Alone to a
Foreign Country for the First Time

a.Duly accomplished application form;

b.Assessment Report from Local Social

Welfare and Development Office
(LSWDO) OR SWOII of the Social
Welfare and Development (SWAD) Team
when necessary;

c.Birth Certificate on security paper

(SECPA) from PSA

d.A photocopy of the marriage contract on

security paper (SECPA) of the minor’s
parents or the Court Decision on Legal
Guardianship of the minor, or Tallaq or
Fasakh certification from the Shariah Court
or any Muslim barangay or religious

PROCESSING OF APPLICATIONe.In the case of illegitimate minor, a certificate of

FOR TRAVEL CLEARANCE FOR no marriage (CENOMAR) of the minor’s
mother from the Philippine Statistics
Security paper (SECPA);
I.SCHEDULE OF AVAILABILITY OF f.Notarized (notarized at the place of residence)
SERVICE affidavit or written consent of both parents,
Monday – Friday, 8:00 a.m. – 5:00p.m. the solo parent and the legal guardian,
whichever is applicable, permitting the minor
II.WHO MAY SECURE TRAVEL to travel to a foreign country. In the absence
CLEARANCE of both parents or an appointed legal
guardian, the relative’s consent in the order
of preference provided under Article 216 of
1.A minor 13 years old and above traveling the Family Code of the Philippines
alone to a foreign country. (Executive Order No. 209 as amended) shall
prevail and in which case, an Assessment

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Human Rights

Report by the Social Worker of the LSWDO a.Duly accomplished application form.
should also be submitted with a copy of the
b.Notarized affidavit or written consent of
8 both parents, the solo parent and the legal
guardian, whichever is applicable, with a
parent/s/legal guardian’s valid
copy of the valid identification card with
identification card with specimen
specimen signature;
signature, and visa of parents if working
abroad (for legitimate children, both
grandparents who have the custody of the c.Original copy of the previous Travel
minor. For illegitimate or non-marital child, Clearance issued;
consent of maternal grandparents).
d.Two (2) original colored passport size
photos (white, red or blue background) of
g.Two (2) original colored passport size
the minor taken within the last six (6)
photos (white, red or blue background) of
months from the time of application. No
the minor taken within the last six (6)
scanned pictures will be accepted.
months from the time of application. No
scanned picture is allowed.
e.Unaccompanied Minor Certificate from
the Airlines
h.Affidavit of Support and certified copy of any
evidence to show financial capability of
sponsor (parents/legal guardian or other f.Waiver from the parents releasing DSWD
person/agency shouldering the expenses) from any liability/responsibility in case of
untoward incident during the travel of the
such as;
h.1 Certificate of Employment
h.2 Latest Income Tax Return 9
h.3 Bank Statement, etc.
3.Minor/s Traveling for the First Time with a
i.In case either or both parents of the minor Person other than the Parents or Legal
are deceased, certified true copy of the Guardian:
Death Certificate/s of each of the parents
on security paper (SECPA) a.Duly accomplished application form;

j.Unaccompanied Minor Certificate from b.Photocopy of birth certificate of minor

the Airlines (SECPA).

k.Waiver from the parents releasing DSWD c.Notarized affidavit or written consent of
from any liability/responsibility in case of both parents or solo parent or legal
untoward incident during the travel of the guardian, attached with valid identification
child. card with specimen signature;

d.Photocopy of the marriage certificate

2.For a Succeeding Travel of Unaccompanied (SECPA) of the minor’s parents or a
or Traveling Alone Minor to a Foreign certificate of legal guardianship, in the case
Country: of solo parent, a solo parent identification
card from the LSWDO or a certification of

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Human Rights

being a solo parent (assessment report of A.For Filipino minor migrating to another
the LSWDO as attachment), a court decree country
of separation, annulment or divorce, in case
of illegitimate minor, a certificate of no Visa petition approval
marriage from the PSA, if applicable; in case
of deceased parent, a photocopy of the B.For a minor who will study abroad
death certificate;
Acceptance or certificate of Enrollment or
e.Two (2) original colored (white, red or blue
Registration from the school where minor
background) passport size photos of the
is to be enrolled
minor taken within the last six (6) months,
No scanned pictures will be accepted;
C.For a minor who will attend conference,
study tours, Competition, Student
f.Photocopy of the passport of the traveling
Exchange Program, Summer Camp,
Pilgrimage, World Youth Day and Other
related activities:
4.Minor/s Traveling Subsequently with a Person
other than the Parents or Legal Guardian
Certification from sponsoring organization
a.Duly accomplished application form Affidavit of undertaking of companion
indicating the safety measures undertaken
b.Original copy of the Travel Clearance by the sports agency (for sports
previously issued by DSWD Field Office. competition)
Signed invitation from the Sponsoring
c.Notarized affidavit of consent from agency/organization abroad with itinerary
biological parent/s guardian authorizing a of travel and list of participants and
particular person to accompany the child in duration of the activity/travel
his/her travel abroad, with a copy of the
valid identification card with specimen D.For minor going abroad for medical
signature; purposes

d.Two (2) original colored (white, red or blue Medical Abstract of the minor
background) passport size photos of minor Recommendation from the attending
taken within the last six (6) months, No physician that such medical procedure is
scanned pictures will be accepted; not available in the country, letter from
e.Photocopy of the passport of the
traveling companion; E.For a minor going abroad for inter-
country adoption

Placement Authority issued by the ICAB

10 Authority to Escort issued by the ICAB

Additional requirements for minor/s – F.For a minor under Foster Care

under special circumstances.

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Human Rights

Notarized affidavit of undertaking by the Social Case Study Report executed by a

Foster Parents indicating purpose of travel, licensed social worker of the local
destination, duration of travel and a government unit.
provision stating the commitment of the Blotter report from either the local police or
Foster Parent on the personal appearance barangay certification from the locality or
of child and foster parents to the Regional the last known address of the alleged
Director or his/her duly authorized missing; and
representative, within 5 days upon return One (1) returned registered mail to the last
to the country; known address of the alleged missing
Notarized Affidavit of Consent from the parent(s) or known relative(s).
Regional Director or authorized

1.Php 300.00 for Travel Clearance with

11 validity of one (1) year
Photocopy of Foster Placement Authority; 2.Php 600.00 for Travel Clearance with
(original copy to be attached for validity of two (2) years
Photocopy of Foster Care License of the V.PROCESSING TIME
family; (original copy to be attached for
verification) The travel clearance may be released to
DSWD Certification of Child legally within three (3) days, upon application.
available for adoption (CDCLAA),
EXCEPT those under Kinship Care
wherein their parents did not relinquish the
minor for adoption.
Return Ticket/s

G.For a minor under legal guardianship

Certified true copy of Court Order on Legal


H.For minor/s whose parent/s are


A certification from the manning agency

attesting to the parent’s employment
Photocopy of the Seaman’s Book

I.For abandoned minor with alleged

missing parent, if parents are married, the
following shall be the requirements:

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Human Rights



Steps Person-in-charge Location

1. Get Service Sequence Number Security Guard on duty DSWD Field Offices
from the Security Guard

2.Register your name in the Admin Staff DSWD Field Office
logbook and get a number
from Travel Clearance
the designated administrative Unit/Section
3.Fill-up application form and Admin Staff DSWD Field Office
wait for your number to be Travel Clearance
called Unit/Section
4.Submit requirements to Social Social Worker DSWD Field Office
Worker for initial screening for Travel Clearance
completeness and authenticity Unit/Section
of documents.
5.Interview/Assessment by Social Worker DSWD Field Office
Social Worker to determine Travel Clearance
purpose of travel and Unit/Section
vulnerability/risk to abuse,
exploitation and child
6.Approval and issuance of Unit Head/Regional DSWD Field Office
travel clearance Director Travel Clearance
7.Payment of processing fee for Regional Finance Service DSWD Field Offices
travel clearance issued. Office




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Human Rights

8:00 a.m. TO 5:00 p.m. without noon break


1.Person needing social welfare development assistance

1.1.Individuals/families in crisis situation

1.2.Who have not yet availed of CIU assistance during the year.
1.3.Who are indigent as certified by the Barangay Chairman of the area where
they resides.


1. For Hospitalization/Medical Assistance

1.1.Clinical Abstract and/or

1.2.Medical Certificate with license/PTR No. of the attending physician 1.3.Prescription
(for medicine)
1.4.Laboratory Request/Medical Procedures (recommended by the attending Physician)
1.5.Billing Statement (for hospital bill)
1.6.Social Case Study Report from LGU (optional)
1.7.Barangay Certification/Indigency/ any valid ID of the patient or his/her representative (e.g.
driver’s license, postal, school, voters and senior citizen ID)
1.8.Referral/Endorsement letter from legislator, if applicable.

2. For Burial Assistance

2.1.Registered Death Certificate 2.2.Funeral Contract

2.3.Permit to Transfer (transport
of cadaver) 2.4.Barangay Certificate/any
valid ID 4. Educational Assistance
2.5.Social Case Study report from LGU
(optional) 2.6.Referral/Endorsement Letter 4.1.Certificate of Enrollment
from legislator, if applicable 4.2.Barangay Certification/Indigency/any
valid ID 4.3.Referral/Endorsement letter
3. For Transportation Assistance from legislator, if applicable 4.4.Social
Case Study Report (optional)
3.1.Barangay Certification/Indigency/any
valid ID 3.2.Social Case Study Report
from LGU (optional)
3.3.Referral/Endorsement letter from
legislator, if applicable

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Human Rights


1. For cash outright

1 Client gets queuing number and waits for the 45 minutes
interview and assessment of the social worker.

2 The Social Worker (SWO II) conducts the 25 minutes
interview, assessment, accomplishes the GIS, and
recommends for assistance.
3 The Team Leader (SWO III) reviews the 30 minutes
4 The OIC/approving officer reviews and approves 10 minutes
the recommendation
5 The Administrative Staff prepares documents 10 minutes
needed, calls the client and ushers to the Cashier’s
Office for the release of assistance.
TOTAL 2 hours

2.For issuance of guarantee/referral letter

Maximum of 158-20 minutes per client

3.For processing of check

Three (3) to five (5) days


Steps Person-in-charge Location
1. Get a stub number and register Guard on Duty DSWD Central Office
the name with the guard on duty and Field Offices
Main Entrance Gate
2. Proceed to CIU Office and wait Screening Officer CIU Central Office
for the number to be called for and CIU Field Offices

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Human Rights

3. Interview/Assessment for the Social Workers CIU Central Office

assistance needed and CIU Field Offices
4. Recommendation/Action Taken Social Workers CIU Central Office
for the assistance requested and CIU Field Offices
5. Review and Approval of the CIU Sub-Office Officer- CIU Central Office
Officer-in-Charge to the Social in-Charge and CIU Field Offices
Worker’s recommendation for
the assistance being requested by
the client
6. Client will receive the approved CIU Officer-in-Charge CIU Officer-in-
assistance whether financial / (designated disbursing Charge’s Office
guarantee /referral letter officer) for the financial
Social Worker for the CIU Office
guarantee/referral letter
7. Client to affix their signature as Disbursing Officer CIU Officer-in-
proof for the assistance given Charge’s Office


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6. Department of Foreign Affairs

The history of the Republic of the
Philippines and that of the Department of
PHILIPPINE FOREIGN POLICY Foreign Affairs (DFA) are intertwined. The
 PRINT important events marking the passage of
The most important provisions of the 1987 the years at the Department are also
Philippine Constitution which pertain to the
milestones in the rise of the Philippines as
framing of Philippine foreign policy are as
an independent nation.

Over one hundred years ago, the DFA had

Article II, Section 2: "The Philippines
renounces war as an instrument of national its auspicious beginnings when President
policy, adopts the generally accepted Emilio Aguinaldo appointed Apolinario
principles of international law as part of the Mabini as the Republic's first Secretary of
law of the land and adheres to the policy of Foreign Affairs on 23 June 1898, eleven
peace, equality, justice." days after the declaration of Philippine
independence at Kawit, Cavite. The DFA
Article II, Section 7: "The State shall pursue was among the first government
an independent foreign policy. In its relations departments created following the
with other states the paramount
consideration shall be national sovereignty,
establishment of the First Philippine
territorial integrity, national interest, and the Republic. Realizing the need for
right to self-determination." international recognition of the new
government, Aguinaldo assigned Mabini
Republic Act No. 7157, otherwise known as the difficult task of establishing diplomatic
"Philippine Foreign Service Act of 1991", relations with friendly countries. Members
gives mandate to the Department of Foreign of the Hong Kong Junta, a group of Filipino
Affairs to implement the three (3) pillars of exiles in Hong Kong, served as the
the Philippine Foreign Policy, as follows:
country's envoys for this purpose.
1. Preservation and enhancement of national
security The Philippines underwent colonial rule
under the United States from 1898 to 1946,
2. Promotion and attainment of economic and Japanese occupation from 1942 to
security 1944. The country regained
independence, including full control of
3. Protection of the rights and promotion of foreign affairs and diplomatic matters, on 4
the welfare and interest of Filipinos overseas. July 1946. Commonwealth Act No. 732
was passed creating the Department of
Foreign Affairs. Shortly thereafter,
President Manuel Roxas issued on

HISTORICAL September 16 of that year Executive Order

No. 18 providing for the organization and

BACKGROUND operation of the DFA and the Foreign

Service. The main tasks of the DFA then
were to assist in post-war rehabilitation,
 PRINT formulate policies for investment

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Human Rights

promotion, and establish diplomatic the foreign service and to upgrade the
relations with other countries. recruitment and selection of new foreign
service officers.
The DFA led in the conclusion of the RP-
U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty, as well as in The Marcos years, from 1965 to 1986,
the Laurel-Langley Agreement, thus were marked by policy innovations and
paving the way for a balanced yet robust then difficulties brought about by the
trade and military relations with the United excesses of the martial law
States. regime. President Ferdinand Marcos
redefined foreign policy as the
The DFA had a heyday during the post-war safeguarding of territorial integrity and
years, with its increased participation in the national dignity, and emphasized
international arena. It became a founding increased regional cooperation and
member of the United Nations and one of collaboration. He stressed "Asianness"
the drafters of the Universal Declaration of and pursued a policy of constructive unity
Human Rights. It helped forge the General and co-existence with other Asian states,
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade regardless of ideological persuasion. In
(GATT). The country was also an early 1967, the Philippines launched a new
proponent of decolonization and global initiative to form a regional association with
disarmament. The Philippines' dynamic other Southeast Asian countries called the
participation in global matters culminated Association of Southeast Asian Nations
in Carlos P. Romulo's election as the first (ASEAN). The Philippines also normalized
Asian President of the UN General economic and diplomatic ties with China
Assembly in 1952. At that time, the and the USSR, which President Marcos
international environment began to visited in 1975 and 1976,
change, requiring that new thrusts and respectively. The Philippines also opened
priorities in Philippine foreign policy be embassies in the eastern bloc countries,
determined. During the Cold War era, as well as a separate mission to the
against the backdrop of the Korean War European Common Market in Brussels.
and rising communism in China, the
Philippines pursued an increasing Throughout the 1970s, the DFA pursued
internationalist foreign policy. the promotion of trade and investments,
played an active role in hosting
Realizing the importance of foreign international meetings, and participated in
relations, President Elpidio Quirino in June the meetings of the Non-Aligned
1952 pushed for the passage of the Movement. The Foreign Service Institute
Foreign Service Act of 1952, embodied in was created in 1976 to provide in-house
Republic Act No. 708. During the post-war training to Foreign Service personnel.
period, the DFA focused on institution
building, closer engagement with Asian The EDSA Revolution in 1986 saw the re-
neighbors, and increasing Philippine global establishment of a democratic government
linkages. When he became under President Corazon Aquino. During
Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs under this period, the DFA once again pursued
the Magsaysay Administration, Raul S. development diplomacy, in the active
Manglapus instituted the Foreign Service pursuit of opportunities abroad in the vital
Officers’ Examinations to professionalize areas of trade, investment, finance,

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Human Rights

technology and aid. The Philippines APEC Leaders' Summit, which resulted in
became one of the founding members of the Manila Action Plan for APEC 1996
the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (MAPA '96).
(APEC) in November 1989, and an active
player in regional efforts to establish the The Migrant Workers and Overseas
ASEAN Free Trade Area. In the 1990s, Filipinos Act of 1995 (R.A. 8042) provided
more diplomatic missions were established a framework for stronger protection of
in the Middle East to improve existing ties Filipino workers abroad, with the creation
with Arab states and to respond to the of the Legal Assistance Fund and the
growing needs of Overseas Filipino Assistance-to-Nationals Fund, and the
workers in the region. designation in the DFA of a Legal Assistant
for Migrant Workers' Affairs, with the rank
In 1991, heeding the growing nationalist of Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs.
sentiments among the public, the
Philippine Senate voted against the Among the other significant events in
extension of the RP-U.S. Military Bases foreign affairs during the Ramos years
Agreement, thus putting to a close the were: the adoption by ASEAN in 1992,
decades-old presence of the U.S. military upon Philippine initiative, of the
at Subic Bay and Clark Field. Also in 1991, Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in
President Aquino signed into law the new the South China Sea aimed at confidence-
Foreign Service Act of 1991 (R.A. 7157), building and avoidance of conflict among
which reorganized the Department along claimant states; the establishment of the
geographic lines and strengthened the Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and
Foreign Service. It instituted a Career Philippines (BIMP)-East Asia Growth area
Minister Eligibility Examination as a in 1994; the establishment of the ASEAN
requirement for promotion of senior FSOs Regional Forum (ARF) in 1994 as the only
to the rank of Career Ministers, thereby multilateral security dialogue in the Asia-
ensuring the professional selection of Pacific region conducted at the
those who would eventually rise to the level government level; and the signing between
of career ambassadors. the Philippine Government and the Moro
National Liberation Front on 2 September
The Ramos administration from July 1992 1996 of the Mindanao Peace Agreement.
to June 1998 defined the four core
priorities of Philippine foreign policy The DFA, during the Estrada
namely: the enhancement of national administration, hosted the ASEAN
security, promotion of economic Ministerial Meeting in July 1998, and
diplomacy, protection of overseas Filipino undertook confidence-building measures
workers and Filipino nationals abroad, and with China over the South China Sea
the projection of a good image of the issue. President Estrada strengthened
country abroad. bilateral ties with neighboring countries
with visits to Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,
President Ramos boosted foreign trade, Singapore, Japan and South Korea. The
investments and official development DFA played a major role in the forging of a
assistance to the Philippines through his Visiting Forces Agreement with the United
state visits and summit meetings. In 1996, States, which was concurred in the Senate
the Philippines successfully hosted the in 1999. The country also sent a

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Human Rights

delegation of 108 observers to the Ø Eighth, international tourism will be a

Indonesian parliamentary elections, and major driver of national growth.
engaged in cooperative activities in the
areas of security, defense, combating Ø Ninth, overseas Filipinos play a critical
transnational crimes, economy, culture, role in the country's economic and social
and the protection of OFWs and Filipinos stability.

At the start of its administration in 2001,

President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo The DFA is also guided by the three
pursued foreign policy based on nine fundamental pillars of Philippine
realities: (see Philippine Foreign Policy). foreign policy. These are:

Ø First, the dynamics of relations 1. Preservation and enhancement

between China, Japan and the United of national security;
States determine the security situation and
economic evolution of East Asia. 2. Promotion and attainment
of economic security;
Ø Second, Philippine foreign policy
decisions are, increasingly, being made in 3. Protection of the rights and promotion
the context of the Association of Southeast of the welfare and interest of Filipinos
Asian Nations (ASEAN). overseas.

Ø Third, Europe will continue to play a

significant role in promoting international
prosperity and stability. As we enter the decade starting 2010, the
DFA welcomes the challenges and
Ø Fourth, the international Islamic opportunities it will face in the service of the
community remains crucial to the country's Filipino people in an increasingly
search for lasting and permanent peace in globalized world.

Ø Fifth, inter-regional organizations will

become increasingly influential in the
global context.

Ø Sixth, the protection of the

environment, natural resources and
maritime territory.

Ø Seventh, the drive for foreign markets

and foreign direct investments will form a
focal concern of economic diplomacy

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Human Rights

5) regulating the employment of aliens, including the

enforcement of a registration or work permit system for
7. Department of Labor and employment
such aliens, as provided for by law;

6) formulating general guidelines concerning wage and

DOLE Profile income policy;
Vision, Mission, and Functions

7) recommending necessary adjustments in wage

structures with a view to developing a wage system that
The Department of Labor and Employment is mandated
is consistent with national economic and social
as the primary policy-making, programming,
development plans;
coordinating and administrative entity of the Executive
Branch of the government in the field of labor and
employment. It assumes the primary responsibilities of
promoting gainful employment opportunities and 8) providing for safe, decent, humane and improved
optimizing the development and utilization of the working conditions and environment for all workers,
country's manpower resources; advancing workers' particularly women and young workers;
welfare by providing for just and humane working
conditions and terms of employment; and maintaining
industrial peace by promoting harmonious, equitable, 9) maintaining a harmonious, equitable and stable labor
and stable employment relations that assure equal relations system that is supportive of the national
protection for the rights of all concerned parties. economic policies and programs;

Its long-term vision is that every Filipino worker attains 10) upholding the right of workers and employers to
full, decent and productive employment. To attain this organize and promote free collective bargaining as the
vision, the DOLE’s continuing mission is to promote foundation of the labor relations system;
gainful employment opportunities, develop the country’s
human resources, protect workers and promote their
welfare, and maintain industrial peace by:
11) providing and ensuring the fair and expeditious
settlement and disposition of labor and industrial
disputes through collective bargaining, grievance
1) enforcing social and labor legislation to protect the machinery, conciliation, mediation, voluntary arbitration,
working class and regulate the relations between the compulsory arbitration as may be provided by law, and
worker and his employer; other modes that may be voluntarily agreed upon by the
parties concerned; and

2) formulating and recommending policies, plans and

programs for manpower development, training, 12) other functions as may be provided by law.
allocation, and utilization;

3) recommending legislation to enhance the material,

social and intellectual improvement of the nation's labor

4) protecting and promoting the interest of every citizen

desiring to work locally or overseas by securing for him
the most equitable terms and conditions of employment,
and by providing social and welfare services;

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Human Rights

8. Department of Interior and Local

Vision & Mission

A strongly determined and highly trusted

Powers & Functions Department committed to capacitate and nurture
 Assist the President in the exercise of local government units, public order and safety
general supervision over local governments; institutions to sustain peaceful, progressive, and
resilient communities where people live happily.
 Advise the President in the promulgation of
policies, rules, regulations and other
issuances on the general supervision over
local governments and on public order and
The Department shall promote peace and order,
ensure public safety, strengthen capability of local
 Establish and prescribe rules, regulations government units through active people
and other issuances implementing laws on participation and a professionalized corps of civil
public order and safety, the general servants.
supervision over local governments and the
promotion of local autonomy and community
empowerment and monitor compliance
thereof; Goals & Objectives
 Provide assistance towards legislation
regarding local governments, law
enforcement and public safety; Goals
Establish and prescribe plans, policies,
programs and projects to promote peace and  Peaceful, safe, self-reliant and development-
order, ensure public safety and further dominated communities;
strengthen the administrative, technical and  Improve performance of local governments
fiscal capabilities of local government offices in governance, administration, social and
and personnel; economic development and environmental
 Formulate plans, policies and programs management;
which will meet local emergencies arising  Sustain peace and order condition and
from natural and man-made disasters; ensure public safety.
Establish a system of coordination and Objectives
cooperation among the citizenry, local
executives and the Department, to ensure  Reduce crime incidents and improve crime
effective and efficient delivery of basic solution efficiency
services to the public;  Improve jail management and penology
 Organize, train and equip primarily for the services
performance of police functions, a police  Improve fire protection services
force that is national in scope and civilian in  Continue professionalization of PNP, BFP
character. and BJMP personnel and services

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Human Rights

 Enhance LGU capacities to improve their

performance and enable them to effectively
and efficiently deliver services to their
 Continue to initiate policy reforms in support
of local autonomy

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Human Rights

PNP, in support to this Act, has

adopted various modifications and
9. Philippine National Police
revisited its frontline services for
10. Republic Act No. 9485 otherwise the convenience of the transacting
known as the Anti-Red Tape Act of public minus the unnecessary
2007 was enacted into law to voluminous documents.
improve efficiency in the delivery of
government services to the public With the PNP Citizen’s Charter, the
by reducing bureaucratic red tape, public is now assured of more
preventing graft and corruption. courteous, efficient, and prompt
frontline service providers willing to
The Anti-Red Tape Act of 2007 be of service 24/7.
was signed into law amid 11. Our Frontline Services:
corruption and bureaucratic red 12. 1. DI Clearance Form
tape that are besetting government 13. 2. Firearms and Explosives
agencies for the past decades. Licensing
14. 3. Private Security Licensing
Through this Act, all government 15. 4. Motor Vehicle Clearance
offices including local government 16. 5. Crime Laboratory Services
units and government-owned and - 17. 6. Retirement and Benefits
controlled corporations are 18. 7. Permit to carry firearms
required to expedite transactions
and/or adopt fixed deadline for the
completion of transactions and
assess regularly as well as
enhance their frontline services.

This Act also requires all agencies

to maintain honesty and
responsibility among its public
officials and employees, and shall
take appropriate measures to
promote transparency in each
agency with regard to the manner
of transacting with the public.

RA 9485 also states that heads of

government offices are
accountable to the public in
rendering fast, efficient,
convenient, and reliable services. It
also requires agencies concerned
to act on pending papers within five
working days involving simple
transactions and a minimum of 10
days for complex cases. Thus the

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