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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Introduction

“Developing strong reading skills in students is one of the

key goals of every early education program. It is through

reading that students expand their vocabulary and learn about

the world” is a statement of Meredith Cicerchia (2016) in an

article, Three Common Reading Problems for students, which

requires the pupils to read and get support from teachers in

school, and family at home for their awareness about world

issues.

Furthermore, reading English writings is important thing to

consider in Philippine education as we know its significance not

just in our country but, also in whole world which can be showed

on 2008, Prof. Renato Constantino’s lines, “English has created

a barrier between the monopolies of power and the people.

English has become a status symbol, while the native tongues are

looked down upon”.

Learners have different ability in reading depends upon

their level. According to Kelmon (2016), “Your child's reading

will leap forward as fourth grades are asked to


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read more demanding fiction and nonfiction while improving their

decoding and fluency skills” which means, fourth grade learners

must read longer fictions.

Assessing pupil’s performance in reading is significant,

and in this study, Phil-IRI or Philippine Informal Reading

Inventory will be used. This inventory will help to assist in

determining the pupils’ reading strengths and weaknesses. Each

score has a corresponding remark, so they will know their level

in English-reading such as, Independent, Intructional,

Frustration and Non-reader.

Flojo (2007) emphasized that based on the Philippine

informal reading inventory, determined the strengths and

weaknesses of students. Her study was done to analyze the

existing learner’s difficulties in reading and defining the

source of their difficulties in reading comprehension.

This current study determined the factors that influence

English-reading proficiency of grade-four pupils of Mallorca

Elementary School as revealed in their scores in Phil-IRI test

in terms of conducted variables such as family support,

teacher’s approach, reading habits, favorite past-time,

materials read at home, and favorite TV program.


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Review of Related Literature

English Proficiency

In many countries, children are taught and encouraged to

learn English as a second language. Even in countries where it

is not an official language, such as the Netherlands or Sweden,

we will find many syllabi in science and engineering are written

in English. Because it is the dominant language in the sciences,

most of the research and studies you find in any given

scientific field will be written in it as well. At the

university level, students in many countries study almost all

their subjects in English in order to make the material more

accessible to international students. (Zeeshan Naved, 2015)

According to the study of Zeeshan Naved (2015), if you want

to learn English more quickly, lots of reading is important. The

more you read, the more knowledge put on your brain and gets how

about the language works. When you read in English, you can

improve your vocabulary, your grammar, and your writing skills

at the same time. This explained the importance of learning

English for the students who find hard to decide what course

they are going to take in college. Suddenly, when you know how

to speak in English language you can use it whenever you go in


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our country because, it is the most popular language people

known.

Reading Proficiency

Weakness in the reading ability constitutes one of the

biggest problems that encounter students at all educational

levels. Thus, teaching reading is viewed as a teaching objective

at the different educational stages; and the key to success in

other subjects of study. (Khateeb, 2010)

The study of Khateeb, 2010 saying, from time to time people

has wondered why reading is important. There seem so many other

things to do with one’s time. Reading is important for a variety

of reasons. The children who are most at risk for reading is

elementary grades. Frequently, many poor readers have not

consistently engaged in the language play that develops an

awareness of sound structure and language patterns. Being

proficient in reading is a big help as it affects the

performances of the learners in other subjects like, science and

mathematics.

Reading Habit

Reading habit is an essential and important aspect for

creating a literate society in this world. It shapes the


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personality of individuals and it helps them to develop proper

thinking methods, and creates new ideas. However, the

developments in the Mass Media, had continued to influence

interest in reading, hard copy of literatures such as; books,

magazines and journals, among others. (Palani, 2012)

In relation to the study of Palani, 2012, children now a

day are more prone in addictive technologies or gadgets such as;

television, computers mobile phones and many more are used as

past-time. On the other hand, to make reading English writings

habit appropriate is one of the factors that influence the

learners to be good readers. It will serve as an effective

practice for the readers in all levels, especially to the

respondents of this current study to be fluent and proficient

enough in English reading. Correct usage of the said

technologies and enough time to practice reading are required to

bring positive outcomes.

Family Support

The family members are the first teachers and role models

for the young learners, and therefore have a strong influence on

their learning. Yet, studies continue to show that many parents

are not aware of the importance they play in their child’s


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education and have a limited understanding of their role in

their children’s learning (DCSF, 2007).

The study of DCSF, 2007, explains the importance of getting

support from family when it comes to reading. Parents have a big

responsibility in young readers as they are the foundation of

their learnings. They have the power and ability to make their

children responsible in reading especially, in English. As they

are the foundations of every child’s learning, they have the

ability to promote the genuine love for reading English

writings.

Reading Materials

Growing up in a home with 500 books would people child 3

years further in education on average, than would growing up in

a similar home with few or no books. (Jacobs, 2010)

According to the study of Jacobs, 2010 the advantage of

having materials to be read at home and it’s just says that it

is important to have access to the book as a child grows,

because of the fact that there are lots of books in the house,

there are instances where the child’s attention goes and the

initiative of his reading when that happens, the child turns to

education because he is well versed in reading. Also, having the


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right materials to be read is significant to the early English-

readers; having effective English books like dictionary, English

novels and short stories, etcetera. Obviously, readers can be

more proficient in English reading if they have useful and

appropriate materials at home.


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Theoretical Framework

Kendra Cherry (2017) stated that Albert Bandura proposed a

social learning theory which suggests that observation,

imitation, and modeling play a primary role in this process.

Bandura's theory combines elements from behavioral theories,

which suggest that all behaviors are learned through

conditioning, and cognitive theories, which take into account

psychological influences such as attention and memory.

This theory of Bandura is precise and near in

realization about learning in general, including reading.

Bandura, 2016 said, the study was significant because it

departed from behaviorism’s insistence that all behavior is

directed by reinforcement or rewards. The children received no

encouragement or incentives to beat up the doll; they were

simply imitating the behavior they had observed. Bandura termed

this phenomenon observational learning and characterized the

elements of effective observational learning as attention,

retention, reciprocation and motivation.


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As reading is a part of learning, the theory of Bandura can be

applied or considered. The social learning as explained above is

a theory having a big connection in reading proficiency of the

learners. Learning how to read effectively needs a self-

observation, reinforcement and assessment from the literate

adult. Measuring the proficiency of reading is important to make

some action in curing the weaknesses; Philippine Informal

Reading Inventory is the material we will use in this study.


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Conceptual Framework

The major concept of this study is focused on factors

influencing the English reading proficiency of Grade-four pupils

at Mallorca Elementary School.

Figure one shows the said profile variables categorized as

family support, teacher’s approach, reading habits, favorite

past-time, and materials read at home. The conducted variables

will undergo a process in a way that the problems will be

identified; data will be gathered through a survey questionnaire

and will be analyzed and interpreted, until conclusions and

recommendations could be formulated. The outcome of the research

is the proficiency in English-reading of Grade four pupils.


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Profile variables in terms


of:

a) Family support;

b) Reading habits; English Reading

c) Favorite pastime; Proficiency of Grade-

d) Materials read at home; four Pupils

e) Favorite TV program; and

f) Teacher’s approach

Figure 1.Paradigm of the Research


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Statement of the Problem

1. How may the respondents be characterized in terms of:

a) Family support;

b) Teacher’s approach;

c) Reading habits;

d) Favorite past-time;

e) Materials read at home; and

f) Favorite TV program

2. What is the level of reading proficiency of grade 3 pupils in

Mallorca Elementary School as revealed by their scores in

PHIL-IRI?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the level of

reading proficiency and the conducted variables?

4. Are there significant differences in the reading proficiency

of the respondents when grouped according to the profile

variables?
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Hypotheses of the Study

This study was guided by the following hypothesis.

1. There is no significant relationship between the level of

reading proficiency and the conducted variables.

2. There are no significant differences in the reading

proficiency of the respondents when grouped according to the

profile variables.
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Significance of the study

This study will help in giving information to people who may

want to determine which factors influencing English Reading

proficiency in Grade IV pupils. Specifically, the following will

benefit from the results of this research:

Pupils. Knowing the significance of being proficient in English

reading will help them to improve their academic performances

and be ready for their daily living by means of giving English

reading exercises.

Parents. This study will be beneficial to the parents because it

will help them understand the importance of reading English in

school and at home, also its influence in academic performances

of their children.

Community. This will benefit them because this research will

help them gain productive citizens. When a community’s citizens

are productive, they can contribute more to the society

triggering the development of the community.

Future Researchers. The findings of this research may be used as

a foundation or guide to studies similar to this topic.


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Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study focuses on the factors influencing the English-

reading proficiency. The respondents chosen for this study are

the grade four pupils of Mallorca Elementary School that already

passed the Phil-IRI test for grade four level, for the reason

that they met all the requirements for the English reading

proficiency as well as for the convenience of the researchers.

The respondents will be given questionnaires to answer.

This research will be conducted for approximately nine months

during October to June of the Academic Year 2016-2017.


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Definition of Terms

This section facilitates understanding of the study by

defining the terms or variables according to either their

conceptual or contextual use.

Reading. This is an activity that our eyes and mind are being

used to understand the written texts and learn something from

them.

English. The meaning of English as a subject is to educate on

the English language in general and to aid in the understanding

and employment of the language. The subject of English is most

often split into two main topics; English Literature and English

Language wherein reading and writing are both needed.

Proficiency. The meaning of proficiency is a highly developed

skill in or knowledge of something.

Instructional Reading Level. An instructional reading level is

the level at which a child needs the support of a teacher,

parent, or tutor. This is the level where students are

introduced to new vocabulary and is where the greatest progress


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in reading occurs. Children are reading with 90-95 percent

accuracy or better and possess at least 80 percent comprehension

on simple recall questions about the story. A child in this

level needs an instruction and supervision of his facilitator

Independent Reading Level. An independent reading level is the

level at which a child can read a text on his/her own with ease.

The child makes hardly any errors when reading the text and has

excellent comprehension of the story. The child can read the

story alone with confidence.

Frustration Reading Level. It occurs when the accuracy of the

reading goes below 90 percent and the pupils are considered as

“non-reader” if they are belong to this level.

PHIL-IRI. The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI)

is an initiative of the Bureau of Elementary Education --

Department of Education that directly addresses its thrust to

make every Filipino child a reader.

Pre-reading test. Reading test used to measure the capacity and

level of readers in reading some writings, and usually done

before the formal class.


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Bottom–up Model. It is a reading model that emphasizes the

written or printed text. It emphasizes the ability to decode or

put into sound what is seen in the text.

Post-reading test. From the word “post” which means “after”,

this kind of reading test measures the proficiency of readers

and assess their performance. This is usually done at the end of

the school year to know if the learners improved in reading.

Respondents. The respondents are the people asked to answer the

survey questionnaires and to participate in this study.


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CHAPTER 2

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The descriptive method research will be used in this study.

As a consequence this type of research takes the form of closed-

ended questions, which limits its ability to provide unique

insights. However, if it will be used properly, it will help an

organization better define and measure the significance of

something about a group of respondents and the population they

represent. Specifically, the kind of descriptive method will be

used is correlational in nature. A correlational study is a

quantitative method of research in which there are 2 or more

quantitative variables from the same group of subjects, and

determines if there is a relationship or co-variation between

the 2 variables or if there is a similarity between them.

The Descriptive method will be the most appropriate method

to use since, the study is concerned with the factors

influencing the English Reading Proficiency of grade four

pupils.
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Participants

The respondents of the study will be the Grade four pupils

of Mallorca Elementary School S.Y. 2016-2017. They were chosen

because they already passed the Philippine Informal Reading

Inventory (Phil-IRI) meaning, they are considered as good

readers which help them to keep going and learn more. With the

intense and difficulties in reading, they need all kinds of

supports (materials and attentions) in both school and home as

well as the supervisions of school staffs and families at home.

Moreover, the time given to the researchers is limited as well

as their financial resources. As per records in school

registrar, there are 1,035 elementary pupils presently studying

in Mallorca Elementary School and among these, 163 are Grade-

four pupils divided into four sections such as Narra, Acacia,

Mahogany and Yakal.

Section Population

Narra 44

Acacia 43

Mahogany 38

Yakal 38

Total: 163
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Table 1. The Participants

Research Site

The study will be conducted at the Mallorca Elementary

School (MES) located in 23 Nagano Street, Barangay Mallorca, San

Leonardo, Nueva Ecija. Throughout the years, Mallorca Elementary

School maintains a good reputation and results with regards to

their alumni in their performances in reading and other academic

performances.

Materials and Instrument

For this study, the researchers will use questionnaires as

their instrument in gathering the information needed. The

questionnaire will consist of two parts; the first part will

contain the profile variables in checklist form. This will

include the respondents’ family support, reading habits and

teacher’s approach. Meanwhile, the second part of the

questionnaire will consist of the other conducted variables such

as, favorite past-time, materials read at home, and favorite T.V

program.
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Data collection

The researchers will prepare letters to be able to make this

study succeed. The first letter will be given to the Dean of the

College of Education to ask his approval and guidance to let the

researchers work for this study. The approved letter by the

College Dean will be presented to the head or Principal and

adviser of the chosen respondents not just for an approval but

also to inform them the significance of this study. Another

letter is for the Grade-four pupils as they are the respondents

of this study. The researchers must prepare an effective letter

to get the respondents’ trust and interest to be part of this

research.
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Data Analysis

The data and information will be collected through the use

of the survey questionnaires wherein, it will be recorded using

the Microsoft Excel.

The possible answers from the first part of the

questionnaire which is about the profiles of the respondents

will be treated using the Frequency counting and Percentage

formula.

Meanwhile, the answers on the second part of the

questionnaire will be analyzed using the formula for finding the

weighted mean. The Likert Scale will be used for selecting the

answers to each item statement.

Rating Scale for the Degree of Agreement

SCALE RANGE OF VALUES VERBAL DESCRIPTION

4 3.25 – 4.00 Strongly Agree – the

respondent strongly

agrees with the

statement.
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3 2.50 – 3.24 Agree - the respondent

agrees with the

statement.

2 1.75 – 2.49 Slightly Agree - the

respondent slightly

agrees with the

statement.

1 1.00 – 1.74 Disagree - the respondent

disagrees with the

statement.

Spearman Rho will be used to test the hypothesis of the

study. This is embedded in the statistical program, Statistical

Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (Spearman’s

correlation, for short) is a nonparametric measure of the

strength and direction of association that exists between two

variables measured on at least an ordinal scale. It is denoted

by the symbol rs (or the Greek letter ρ, pronounced rho). The

test is used for either ordinal variables or for continuous data

that has failed the assumptions necessary for conducting the

Pearson's product-moment correlation (Lærd Statistics, 2013).