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Upgrade Guide

Upgrading To 5.5.0 From 5.4

Upgrading To 5.5.0 From 5.4

Estimated Upgrade Time: 1 Hour

We attempt to document every possible breaking change. Since some of these breaking
changes are in obscure parts of the framework only a portion of these changes may
actually affect your application.


Laravel 5.5 requires PHP 7.0.0 or higher.

Updating Dependencies

Update your laravel/framework dependency to 5.5.* in your composer.json file. In addition, you
should update your phpunit/phpunit dependency to ~6.0 . Next, add the filp/whoops package with
version ~2.0 to the require-dev section of your composer.json file. Finally, in the scripts section of
your composer.json file, add the package:discover command to the post-autoload-dump event:

"scripts": {
"post-autoload-dump": [
"@php artisan package:discover"

Of course, don't forget to examine any 3rd party packages consumed by your application and verify
you are using the proper version for Laravel 5.5 support.

Laravel Installer

If you commonly use the Laravel installer via laravel new , you should update your Laravel
installer package using the composer global update command.

Laravel Dusk

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Laravel Dusk 2.0.0 has been released to provide compatibility with Laravel 5.5 and headless Chrome


The Pusher event broadcasting driver now requires version ~3.0 of the Pusher SDK.

Swi Mailer

Laravel 5.5 requires version ~6.0 of Swi Mailer.


Auto-Loading Commands

In Laravel 5.5, Artisan can automatically discover commands so that you do not have to manually
register them in your kernel. To take advantage of this new feature, you should add the following line
to the commands method of your App\Console\Kernel class:


The fire Method

Any fire methods present on your Artisan commands should be renamed to handle .

The optimize Command

With recent improvements to PHP op-code caching, the optimize Artisan command is no longer
needed. You should remove any references to this command from your deployment scripts as it will
be removed in a future release of Laravel.


The authorizeResource Controller Method

When passing a multi-word model name to the method, the resulting route

segment will now be "snake" case, matching the behavior of resource controllers.

The before Policy Method

The method of a policy class will not be called if the class doesn't contain a method matching

the name of the ability being checked.


Database Driver

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If you are using the database cache driver, you should run php artisan cache:clear when deploying
your upgraded Laravel 5.5 application for the first time.


The belongsToMany Method

If you are overriding the method on your Eloquent model, you should update your

method signature to reflect the addition of new arguments:

* Define a many-to-many relationship.
* @param string $related
* @param string $table
* @param string $foreignPivotKey
* @param string $relatedPivotKey
* @param string $parentKey
* @param string $relatedKey
* @param string $relation
* @return \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\BelongsToMany
public function belongsToMany($related, $table = null, $foreignPivotKey = null,
$relatedPivotKey = null, $parentKey = null,
$relatedKey = null, $relation = null)

BelongsToMany getQualifiedRelatedKeyName

The getQualifiedRelatedKeyName method has been renamed to getQualifiedRelatedPivotKeyName .

BelongsToMany getQualifiedForeignKeyName

The getQualifiedForeignKeyName method has been renamed to getQualifiedForeignPivotKeyName .

Model is Method

If you are overriding the method of your Eloquent model, you should remove the
is Model type-hint
from the method. This allows the is method to receive null as an argument:

* Determine if two models have the same ID and belong to the same table.
* @param \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model|null $model
* @return bool
public function is($model)
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Model $events Property

The property on your models should be renamed to $dispatchesEvents . This change was

made because of a high number of users needing to define an events relationship, which caused a
conflict with the old property name.

Pivot $parent Property

The protected $parent property on the Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\Pivot class has been

renamed to $pivotParent .

Relationship create Methods

The BelongsToMany , HasOneOrMany , and MorphOneOrMany classes' create methods have been modified
to provide a default value for the argument. If you are overriding these methods, you

should update your signatures to match the new definition:

public function create(array $attributes = [])


So Deleted Models

When deleting a "so deleted" model, the exists property on the model will remain true .

withCount Column Formatting

When using an alias, the method will no longer automatically append _count onto the

resulting column name. For example, in Laravel 5.4, the following query would result in a bar_count
column being added to the query:

$users = User::withCount('foo as bar')->get();

However, in Laravel 5.5, the alias will be used exactly as it is given. If you would like to append _count

to the resulting column, you must specify that suffix when defining the alias:

$users = User::withCount('foo as bar_count')->get();

Model Methods & Attribute Names

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To prevent accessing a model's private properties when using array access, it's no longer possible to
have a model method with the same name as an attribute or property. Doing so will cause exceptions
to be thrown when accessing the model's attributes via array access ( $user['name'] ) or the data_get

helper function.

Exception Format

In Laravel 5.5, all exceptions, including validation exceptions, are converted into HTTP responses by
the exception handler. In addition, the default format for JSON validation errors has changed. The
new format conforms to the following convention:

"message": "The given data was invalid.",
"errors": {
"field-1": [
"Error 1",
"Error 2"
"field-2": [
"Error 1",
"Error 2"

However, if you would like to maintain the Laravel 5.4 JSON error format, you may add the following
method to your App\Exceptions\Handler class:

use Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException;

* Convert a validation exception into a JSON response.
* @param \Illuminate\Http\Request $request
* @param \Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException $exception
* @return \Illuminate\Http\JsonResponse
protected function invalidJson($request, ValidationException $exception)
return response()->json($exception->errors(), $exception->status);

JSON Authentication Attempts

This change also affects the validation error formatting for authentication attempts made over JSON.
In Laravel 5.5, JSON authentication failures will return the error messages following the new
formatting convention described above.

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A Note On Form Requests

If you were customizing the response format of an individual form request, you should now override
the failedValidation method of that form request, and throw an HttpResponseException instance
containing your custom response:

use Illuminate\Http\Exceptions\HttpResponseException;

* Handle a failed validation attempt.
* @param \Illuminate\Contracts\Validation\Validator $validator
* @return void
* @throws \Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException
protected function failedValidation(Validator $validator)
throw new HttpResponseException(response()->json(..., 422));


The files Method

The files method of the Illuminate\Filesystem\Filesystem class has changed its signature to add the
$hidden argument and now returns an array of SplFileInfo objects, similar to the allFiles method.
Previously, the files method returned an array of string path names. The new signature is as

public function files($directory, $hidden = false)


Unused Parameters

The unused $data and $callback arguments were removed from the
Illuminate\Contracts\Mail\MailQueue contract's queue and later methods:

* Queue a new e-mail message for sending.
* @param string|array|MailableContract $view
* @param string $queue
* @return mixed
public function queue($view, $queue = null);

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* Queue a new e-mail message for sending after (n) seconds.
* @param \DateTimeInterface|\DateInterval|int $delay
* @param string|array|MailableContract $view
* @param string $queue
* @return mixed
public function later($delay, $view, $queue = null);


The dispatch Helper

If you would like to dispatch a job that runs immediately and returns a value from the handle

method, you should use the dispatch_now or Bus::dispatchNow method to dispatch the job:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Bus;

$value = dispatch_now(new Job);

$value = Bus::dispatchNow(new Job);


The all Method

If you are overriding the method of the Illuminate\Http\Request class, you should update your

method signature to reflect the new $keys argument:

* Get all of the input and files for the request.
* @param array|mixed $keys
* @return array
public function all($keys = null)

The has Method

The $request->has method will now return true even if the input value is an empty string or null .A
new $request->filled method has been added that provides the previous behavior of the has


The intersect Method

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The intersect method has been removed. You may replicate this behavior using array_filter on a
call to $request->only :

return array_filter($request->only('foo'));

The only Method

The method will now only return attributes that are actually present in the request payload. If

you would like to preserve the old behavior of the only method, you may use the all method

return $request->all('foo');

The request() Helper

The request helper will no longer retrieve nested keys. If needed, you may use the input method of
the request to achieve this behavior:

return request()->input('filters.date');


Authentication Assertions

Some authentication assertions were renamed for better consistency with the rest of the framework's

seeIsAuthenticated was renamed to assertAuthenticated .

dontSeeIsAuthenticated was renamed to assertGuest .
seeIsAuthenticatedAs was renamed to assertAuthenticatedAs .
seeCredentials was renamed to assertCredentials .
dontSeeCredentials was renamed to assertInvalidCredentials .

Mail Fake

If you are using the Mail fake to determine if a mailable was queued during a request, you should
now use instead of Mail::assertSent . This distinction allows you to specifically

assert that the mail was queued for background sending and not sent during the request itself.


Laravel Tinker now supports omitting namespaces when referring to your application classes. This
feature requires an optimized Composer class-map, so you should add the optimize-autoloader
directive to the config section of your composer.json file:

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"config": {
"optimize-autoloader": true


The LoaderInterface

The Illuminate\Translation\LoaderInterface interface has been moved to

Illuminate\Contracts\Translation\Loader .


Validator Methods

All of the validator's validation methods are now public instead of protected .


Dynamic "With" Variable Names

When allowing the dynamic method to share variables with a view, these variables will

automatically use "camel" case. For example, given the following:

return view('pool')->withMaximumVotes(100);

The maximumVotes variable may be accessed in the template like so:

{{ $maximumVotes }}

@php Blade Directive

The @php blade directive no longer accepts inline tags. Instead, use the full form of the directive:

$teamMember = true;


We also encourage you to view the changes in the GitHub repository. While many of

these changes are not required, you may wish to keep these files in sync with your application. Some
of these changes will be covered in this upgrade guide, but others, such as changes to configuration

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files or comments, will not be. You can easily view the changes with the GitHub comparison tool and
choose which updates are important to you.

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