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Chapter 1 - DP Flow

Differential pressure flow measurement (DP Flow) is one of the most common Figure 1.1.a - The modern DP flowmeter.

There are many reasons for the wide usage of DP Flow technology.

fluid dynamics and mass transport phenomena

Its long history of use has also led to the development of standards for

manufacture and use of DP flowmeters

Manufacturers offer a large catalog of both general and application-specific

instrumentation and installation choices

DP Flow technologies achieve high accuracy and repeatability

1.2 History of DP Flow

Flow measurement began thousands of years ago as the Egyptians began to make approximate predictions of harvests based on the

relative level of spring floods of the Nile River. Romans later engineered aqueducts to provide water in cities for sustenance and the need

to monitor steady flow became important. Operators used flow through an orifice or the welling of water over obstructions to roughly gauge

flow rates. Marks on the walls of the flow stream, strength of the stream through an orifice, etc. gave a rough measurement of the flow

rates. Newton's discovery of the law of gravitation in 1687 enabled physicists and mathematicians to formulate theories around motion and

force, which ultimately lead to the development of the ability to quantify flow rates.

Daniel Bernoulli was a Swiss mathematician who studied hydrodynamics. His work centered on the conservation of energy and provided

the first key breakthrough in the development of flow measurement technology. He developed the Bernoulli principle which states that the

sum of all energy in the flow must remain constant regardless of conditions. Specifically for DP Flow, this means that the sum of the static

energy (pressure), kinetic energy (velocity), and potential energy (elevation) upstream equals the static, kinetic, and potential energy

downstream.

Reynolds Number

Osbourne Reynolds was not a student of physics but rather one of mechanics, and is most famous for his study of fluid flow through a

pipe, specifically the conditions under which the flow transitions from laminar flow to turbulent flow. The Reynolds number is a numeric

quantification of the internal forces over the viscous forces. In short it describes the flowing characteristics of a fluid. Reynolds number is a

key concept for designing flowmeters and is used as a constraint on the range of a flowmeter's applicability.

1.3 Pressure

What is pressure? Pressure is the amount of force applied over a defined area (Equation 1.1).

Pressure decreases with decreasing force or increasing area

Measuring pressure helps prevents over pressuring of equipment that may result in damage

Measuring pressure helps prevent unplanned pressure or process release that may cause injury

Why Measure Pressure?

The most common reasons that the process industry measures pressure are:

for more acurate process

measurements. Process efficiency

Cost savings

Measurement of other process variables

tanks, valves,

flanges, and other equipment, minimizes equipment damage,

controls levels and flows, and

helps prevent unplanned pressure or process

release or personal injury.

pressures (and other

process variables) are maintained at specific values or

within a narrow range of values.

uses

considerable energy. Pressure optimization can save money by reducing

energy costs.

Measurement of Other Process Variables: Pressure is used to measure numerous processes. Pressure transmitters are

frequently used in a number of applications, including:

Level of fluid in a tank

Density of a substance

Liquid interface measurement

Flow theory is the study of fluids in motion. A fluid is defined as any substance that can flow, and thus the term applies

to both liquids and

gases. Precise measurement and control of fluid flow through pipes requires in-depth technical

understanding, and is extremely important

in almost all process industries.

There are 6 factors that are key to understanding pipe flow:

2. Fluid velocity

3. Friction of the fluid along the walls of the pipe

4. Fluid density

5. Fluid viscosity

6. Reynolds number

Piping Configuration: The diameter and cross-sectional area of the pipe enables both the determination of fluid volume for any given

length of pipe and is included in the determination of the Reynolds number for a given application. Velocity: Depends on the pressure or

vacuum that forces fluid through the pipe.

Friction: Because no pipe is perfectly smooth, fluid in contact with a pipe encounters friction, resulting in a slower flow rate near the walls

of the pipe compared to at the center. The larger, smoother, or cleaner a pipe, the less effect on the flow rate.

Density: Density affects flow rates because the more dense a fluid, the higher the pressure required to obtain a given flow rate. Because

liquids are (for all practical purposes) incompressible and gases are compressible, different methodologies are required to measure their

respective flow rates.

Viscosity: Defined as the molecular friction of a fluid, viscosity affects flow rates because in general, the higher the viscosity more work is

needed to achieve the desired flow rates. Temperature affects viscosity, but not always intuitively. For example, while higher temperatures

reduce most fluid viscosities, some fluids actually increase in viscosity above a certain temperature.

Reynolds Number: By factoring in the relationships between the various factors in a given system, Reynolds number can be calculated to

describe the type of flow profile. This becomes important when choosing how to measure the flow within the system.

There are three different flow profiles that are defined by different Reynolds number regimes. Laminar flow, characterized by having a

Reynolds number below 2000, is a smooth flow in which a fluid flows in parallel layers. It usually has low fluid velocities, very little mixing,

and sometimes high fluid viscosity. When a fluid's flow profile has a Reynolds number between 2000 and 4000, it is considered to be

transitional. A Reynolds number above 4000 is called turbulent flow. This is characterized by high fluid velocity, low fluid viscosity, and

rapid and complete fluid mixing.

The best accuracy in DP Flow metering occurs with turbulent flow. This is because in turbulent flow, the point at which the fluid separates

from the edge of the flow restriction is more predictable and consistent. This separation of the fluid creates the low pressure zone on the

downstream side of the restriction, thus allowing that restriction to function as the primary element of a DP meter. Depending on the type

of restriction and design of the flowmeter, the minimum pipe Reynolds number at which a specific meter should be operated can be

considerably higher than 4000.

Flow Continuity

When liquid flows through a pipe of varying diameter, the same volume flows at all cross sectional slices. This means that the velocity of

flow must increase as the diameter decreases and, conversely, velocity decreases when the diameter increases. Equation 1.2 highlights

this relationship.

Volume can be broken down to area, A, multiplied by length, s. Volumetric flow can thus be expressed as:

Equation 1.3 can be further simplified, since length, l, divided by time yields velocity, v. Velocity can now be substituted for the term s/t

tielding:

Since the volumetric flow rate is the same at all cross-sectional slices:

The derivation of flow continuity above describes the basic principle of energy conservation. The Bernoulli equation, which will be covered

in more detail in Chapter 3, builds on this principle to define the energy conservation appropriate for flowing fluid.

The DP Flowmeter

The primary element creates a pressure drop across the flowmeter by introducing a restriction in the pipe. This pressure drop is measured

by the secondary element, a differential pressure transmitter. The tertiary element consists of everything else within

the system needed to make it work, including impulse piping and connectors that route the

upstream and downstream pressures to the transmitter.

By creating an engineered restriction in a pipe, Bernoulli's equation can be used to calculate flow

rate because the square root of the pressure drop across the restriction is proportional to the flow

rate.

2. Orienting impulse lines correctly (they have to be sloped to prevent gas accumulation in

liquid applications or liquid accumulations in gas applications)

3. Ensuring that periodic calibration does not degrade accuracy (avoided by using highly

accurate calibration equipment)

There are many kinds of primary elements including those shown in Figure 1.4.c. Examples include:

Single and multiple-port pitot tubes

Venturi tubes

Flow nozzles

Cones

Segmental wedges

Transmitter Options

There are two main types of pressure transmitters used to

calculate flow using differential pressure. The first is the traditional

differential pressure type, which only measures differential

pressure, with no ancillary functionality. The second is the

multivariable transmitter. A multivariable transmitter is a

differential pressure transmitter that is capable of measuring a

number of independent process variables, including differential

pressure, static pressure, and temperature. When used as a mass flow transmitter, these independent values can be used to compensate

for changes in density, viscosity, and other flow parameters.

Product Consistency: Batch-based products depend on accurate proportions of ingredients, and DP Flow meters help ensure the

accurate delivery of liquids and gases.

Production Efficiency: Metering and measurement of flow are part of a broad range of process control variables related to efficiency,

from batch control, to by-product scavenging, to emissions monitoring.

Process Variable Control: Processes often include multiple variable inputs. Control over these variables, including flow rates, is key to

quality production.

Safety: DP Flow helps prevent a broad range of threats to safety including overfilling, reactor control, and others.

Internal Billing & Resource Allocation: Tighter control over inventories and process rates contributes directly to profitability. For many

sophisticated producers, internal billing around process costs directly impacts the bottom line.

Custody Transfer: Flow metering is the cash register for products sold by volume or weight. An accurate measurement on the dispensing

side accounts for every drop and on the receiving side minimizes over-charging.

Traditional Installation

The Traditional Installation Method calls for three separate component categories shown in Figure 1.6.a.

2. Secondary element (transmitter)

3. Tertiary elements (impulse lines, connecting hardware, tubing, fittings,

valves, etc.)

variety of applications and can be engineered to meet custody transfer standards.

multiple potential leak points at connectors, separate/incorrect piping and

manifolding; and accuracy problems traceable to long impulse lines. In addition,

installation is complex, requiring long straight runs (dependent on the primary

element used) and careful configuration of components. Much work has been

done over the years to correct for some of these issues, and thus extend the

usefulness and value of DP Flow installations.

Integrated Installation

The integrated flowmeter integrates the primary element and the transmitter into a single flowmeter assembly. It was in large part

developed to minimize the issues around installations of the older-style traditional flowmeter. As a result, its installation requires fewer

components and less labor than traditional flowmeter installations.

The integrated flowmeter works much the same way as that of the traditional flowmeter. It uses the same equations,

works largely with the

same primary elements, and is available with the same transmitters (both differential pressure and multivariable).

Eliminates the need for fittings, tubing, valves, adapters, manifolds, and mounting brackets

Fewer potential leak points (factory leak checked)

Fewer flow measurement error sources

Simplified ordering and installation

Decreased susceptibility to freezing and plugging

More compact footprint

Rosemount integrated flowmeters combine industry leading transmitters with innovative primary element technologies and connection

systems. There are in effect 10 devices in one flowmeter, simplifying engineering, procurement, and installation.

Figure 1.6.b - The traditional DP Flow structure vs. the integrated multivariable DP Flow structure.

1.7 Alternate Flow Technologies

Flow measurement can be performed with a broad range of technologies other than pressure-based. These include open channel,

mechanical, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, Coriolis, optical, thermal mass, and vortex types.

Electromagnetic flowmeters, which require an electrically-conductive fluid and a means for inducing magnetic energy to the flow, use

electrodes to sense current induction from the magnetic flux.

Coriolis flowmeters, as the name implies, use the Coriolis effect, which induces distortion in a

vibrating tube.

DP Flow remains

Optical flowmeters use photodetectors to gauge the movement of particles in an illuminated fluid the most

stream. commonly used

Vortex flowmeters use electrical pulse generators-commonly a piezoelectric crystal-to measure flow form of flow

disturbances (vortices) around a calibrated obstruction. measurement in

Each of the various flow measurement technologies in existence today has its ideal range of the industry.

applications. However, thanks to its long history, its ease of use, and its immense range of

applicability, DP Flow remains the most-commonly used form of flow measurement in industry.

Chapter 2 - Fluid Basics

2.1 Introduction

To understand the theory of measuring flow, a basic knowledge of the fundamentals is required.

A fluid is a substance that continues to deform when subjected to a shear stress. Fluids can be liquids, vapors, or gases.

For most fluids,

some of their properties can be calculated by knowing other properties.

There are five key fluid properties that must be known to properly size and use a DP flowmeter:

2. Static pressure

3. Temperature

4. Viscosity

5. Isentropic exponent

Flowmeters use the concept of energy conservation to determine the rate of flow in a pipe by measuring a physical difference in

pressures.

To convert mass in motion to force, Newton’s second law of motion is used.

The SI unit of force is the Newton, N. It is the amount of force needed to move a kg mass at an acceleration of 1/s. The US unit of force is

the pound force, lbf, it is the amount of force needed to move a 1 pound mass one foot at an acceleration of 32.174 ft/s.

2.3 Density

The density of a fluid is its mass per unit volume. Note that for the same quantity of mass, the volume occupied by that mass will vary with

temperature and pressure. Fluctuations in density due to changes in temperature and pressure are typically small for liquids but are much

greater for gases. Fluids whose densities change very little with moderate temperature and pressure fluctuations are considered

incompressible. If the density changes significantly with varying pressures and temperatures, the fluid is considered compressible.

For industrial gas measurement applications it is common to use the Real Gas Law or the Ideal Gas Law. The Ideal Gas Law is applicable

for moderate temperatures and low pressures. However, it fails to account for the interaction between gas molecules. When assumptions

regarding the Ideal Gas Law do not apply the Real Gas Law is applicable.

Specific gravity (SG) is the ratio of density of one substance to the density of a second, or reference, substance. The reference substance

for liquids is typically water at 68°F (20°C). The density of distilled water at 68°F is 62.316 lbm /ft3, or at 20°C, 998 kg/m3. The specific

gravity of liquids is generally obtained with hydrometers, instruments whose scales read in specific gravities, degrees Baume (°B), or

degrees API (American Petroleum Institute).

The specific gravity of a gas is defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas of interest to the molecular weight of

air (defined as

28.9644). As long as the composition of a gas does not change, the ratio of molecular weight against that of

a reference gas will remain

the same regardless of temperature, pressure, or location.

2.5 Pressure

Figure 2.5.1.a - Pressure is force acting perpendicularly on an

area. Pressure is the force acting on a surface in the normal direction (i.e.,

perpendicularly) per unit area (Figure 2.5.a).

The US unit of pressure is pounds per square inch, or psi, where pounds

is force and not mass.

The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal and is equal to 1 Newton per m2.

The Pascal is a very small unit of pressure and is generally expressed in

kPa (kiloPascals) or MPa (megaPascals). Another common SI unit of

pressure is the bar which is equal to 100 kPa.

The absolute pressure, Pabs, is the pressure relative to a perfect vacuum. The gage pressure, or Pgage, is the pressure relative to

The absolute pressure is used to compute the density of gases. The gage pressure, since it is relative to atmospheric pressure, is used to

ensure that pressure retaining parts (i.e. the pipe or parts of flowmeters that retain the pressure when installed in the pipe) will remain

within safe working limits.

Standard atmospheric pressure is typically defined as 1 atm, 14.69595 psi, or 101.325 kPa. Actual atmospheric pressure

at any given

location depends on that location’s elevation above sea level and day-to-day weather conditions. Typically,

changes in the atmospheric

pressure due to weather are not used when calculating absolute pressure. However, local

standard atmospheric pressure – adjusted for

elevation – is used to determine the atmospheric pressure for purposes of

measuring the flow rate.

The value of pressure for a flowmeter application is used to provide information for two separate but important engineering

tasks:

For the calculation of fluid parameters – especially gas or vapor density and gas expansion factor

To check the compatibility and safety margins for the mounting hardware

Differential Pressure

When the difference in two pressures is needed, as called for in DP Flow calculations, it is called the differential pressure or DP. The SI

unit for DP is Pa or kPa. The US unit for DP is psi or inches of water (inH2O) at a specified temperature.

The unit inches of water is a carryover from the past where manometers were used to measure flow rate and indicates the pressure at the

bottom of a column of water of the specified height when the water is at a specific temperature. As an example a DP of 25 inches H2O at

68°F means that this is the pressure at the bottom of a column of water that is 25 inches high when the temperature of the water is a

uniform 68°F. There are two commonly used versions of this unit inches H2O at 68°F (used in the US process control industry) and inches

H2O at 60°F (used in the US natural gas industry). The conversion factors in psi for each of these is:

This is a difference of 0.08% between the two reference temperatures, thus it is important to know the reference temperature.

Differential pressure can be calculated with a simple relation:

The simplest of instruments used for the measurement of a small difference in pressures is the manometer A manometer uses a U-shaped

tube or two vertical tubes connected at the bottom, with a liquid filling the tubes part-way (Figure 2.5.b). When the two pressures are

applied at the top of each tube, the liquid in the two tubes change height, and a scale fixed to the manometer is used to measure the

height or elevation difference, h. The differential pressure is then calculated using the relation:

The standard manometer fluid for gas flow DP measurement is water, with the height indicated in inches, and the DP expressed as

“Inches of Water Column.” Of course, if water or other liquids are being measured, a heavier manometer fluid is needed. Typically,

mercury (S.G. = 13.5), or bromide-based fluids are used (S.G. = 2.5 to 3.0). Any fluid that is heavier than water could be used, but it must

be “immiscible,” or unable to mix with the fluid in contact with the manometer.

Current best practices exploit electronic differential pressure and static pressure transmitters (Figure 2.5.c), which provide extremely

accurate readings over very large ranges of pressure or DP, and can operate over a wide range of ambient temperatures without external

correction. The electronic signal output is easily fed into microprocessors for calculating the flow rate or logging data.

2.6 Temperature

Industrial methods of measuring temperature are based on substances that change electrical resistance with temperature, such as RTDs

(resistance temperature detectors), or thermocouples that generates a voltage at the junction of dis-similar metals that is based on

temperature.

Outside of the engineering world, measurements are generally done on the relative Fahrenheit or Celsius scales, which were originally

devised to measure the earth’s temperate range. However, flow engineering problems require a different temperature scale, one that

represents an absolute temperature. Absolute temperature has units of Kelvin in SI units and Rankine in US customary units. The

relationships between absolute temperature and the conventionally used units of °F

and °C are:

The absolute temperature is required in the calculation of the fluid properties (i.e. density, viscosity and insentropic

exponent). The

calculation of thermal expansion effects involves temperature differences so it is common to use °F or °C.

Absolute zero Rankine and absolute zero Kelvin are equivalent. The Rankine scale increments by degrees Fahrenheit,

while the Kelvin

scale increments by degrees Celsius.

2.7 Viscosity

Table 2.7.1 – Viscosity symbols and common units.

Absolute viscosity defines the resistance to movement of a fluid (Figure 2.7.a). It is a measure of the resistance of fluid molecules to

velocity change due to shear stress.

Stated differently, viscosity tends to resist one particle from moving faster than an adjacent particle. Absolute viscosity is defined as:

Every real fluid has viscosity, which changes primarily with temperature. For this reason, fluid viscosity is usually plotted against

temperature, and equations are developed that allow the calculation of viscosity once the temperature is known. For a liquid, the viscosity

decreases with temperature; for a gas, the viscosity increases with temperature.

Kinematic viscosity is the absolute viscosity divided by the density of the fluid at the same temperature, or:

Fluids are classified by the relationship between fluid stress (the force needed to overcome viscosity) and the strain (the fluid velocity).

Figure 2.7.b shows the plot for different types of fluids based on the behavior of μ. DP flowmeters are restricted to “Newtonian” type fluids,

or those where the slope of the fluid stress/strain curve (μ) is constant. Shear-thinning fluid viscosities decrease with increasing shear

stress; examples include ketchup, lava, or polymer solutions and molten polymers. Shear thickening (with viscosity increasing as shear

stress increases) include suspensions—corn starch in water for example. Bingham plastics do not flow until a critical stress yield is

exceeded; examples of this type of fluid include toothpaste.

2.8 Fluid Velocity

Velocity is not a fluid property, but can be used to predict the behavior of fluids in motion and will frame the application of DP flowmeters.

In general, velocity is the rate of change of an object’s position relative to a reference, and is equivalent to the specification of speed and

direction of an object. As applied to fluid dynamics, velocity defines the speed of a particle of fluid with respect to a stationary reference

such as a pipe. When a fluid flows around an object or through a pipe, the viscosity of the fluid creates a velocity profile. If there were no

viscosity, the velocity of a flowing fluid in a pipe would be uniform across a pipe section. With the slightest of viscosity, however, shearing

between adjacent fluid particles produces a non-uniform velocity profile in the pipe, with a velocity of zero at the pipe wall and maximum at

the pipe centerline for developed flow.

Fluid flow in a pipe also defines a velocity field. The flow of fluids through pipes has been studied extensively and velocity fields can be

predicted when the rate of flow and fluid properties are known.

Table 2.9.1 – Mass and volumetric flow rate symbols and common units.

Volumetric flow is measured in terms of volume, as the name implies, yielding how much volume is passing through a given area, as

follows:

Mass flow is dependent on density and the volumetric flow rate, as follows:

Volumetric flow and mass flow can be related by the following:

In other words, when the mass flow rate (units of mass/unit time) is divided by the density at reference conditions, the flow rate is

equivalent to the volume the fluid would occupy if its pressure and temperature were adjusted from the flowing conditions to reference

conditions. If the flowing pressure is 146.96 psia, the temperature is 68°F, and the reference conditions are 14.696 psia and 68°F, then the

mass flow rate is converted to standard volume flow rate (by dividing by the density of the fluid at reference conditions) the numerical

value will increase by a factor of 10. The mass will remain the same, but in order for the pressure to be at 14.696 psia it must occupy 10

times the volume as it did under flowing conditions.

For a given quantity of liquid, mass does not change, but volume can with changes in pressure and temperature (Figure 2.9.a).

Figure 2.9.a – Volume, unlike mass, changes with changes in pressure and temperature. This illustration depicts an example of how much

volume of a fluid can change with temperature.

The measurement of mass flow is preferred for most gases and liquids, while volumetric flow can be acceptable for stable

liquids.

Flowmeters suitable for mass flow include multivariable DP flowmeters or Coriolis meters. Volumetric flowmeters

include DP flowmeters,

turbine, vortex, magmeter, or variable area meters.

As gases flow through a restriction in a pipe the density changes due to pressure changes. The expansion of the gas is

assumed to be an

isentropic process and the effect of the density changes on the flow rate can be determined theoretically

for some obstructions or

empirically for others. The relevant fluid property is the isentropic exponent of the gas, designated

by k (sometimes designated by g) and

primarily is a function of temperature. It is common practice to determine k at a

nominal temperature and use this value for all flow rates.

Typical values of k can range from 1.0 to 1.4.

Chapter 3 - Flow Theory

3.1 Introduction

Chapter 3 covers the theoretical and computational details for DP Flow. Its purpose is two-fold: What is important

to understand is

Introduce industry users to some of the many aspects of fluid flow in general and of DP

that there is a great

Flow technologies specifically

deal of complexity

Explain the underlying assumptions and approaches behind the engineering of

that exists under

Rosemount DP Flow products

the surface of

Note that an in-depth understanding of the chemical and physical relationships that affect DP even the simplest

Flow are useful to help technical personnel to cover all the bases in the engineering of a specific application.

application, but is not required for the installation and daily operation of DP flowmeters. What is

important to understand is that there is a great deal of complexity that exists under the surface of

even the simplest application.

Available Resources

There are many readily available resources that allow engineers to resolve complexities.

Application and sales engineering resources available from the vendor of a given product

Industry training and discussion by both experts and peers at user group and formal workshop sessions

Software toolboxes and utilities usually developed by vendors and designed to streamline the engineering of a given

application

A large body of technical articles and books on the subject

The following chapters discuss the practical side of DP Flow—which technologies serve for a given class of application (gases, liquids,

steam), insight into the hardware and software of available products (transmitters, primary elements), and considerations for installation

and use.

The concepts used in DP Flow theory and calculations originate mainly in two divisions of fluid mechanics: fluid kinematics, the study of

fluids in motion; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effects of forces due to fluid motion. The basic DP Flow equation is based on the

conservation of energy, and applies to the measurement of almost every type of fluid found in industry or commercial use.

The advantages of using DP devices to measure flow rate are the simplicity of the sensing system, the availability of many types of

primary devices, the ability to verify the measurement, and the wide range of applications that are suitable for DP Flow.

The challenges for using DP flowmeters are overcome by becoming familiar with the theory and operation of the devices used for DP

Flow measurement.

When evaluating the performance of flowmeters and in assessing their uses in a potential A flow rate is

application, the condition of the velocity profile at the plane of measurement should be considered “developed”

considered. A flow rate is considered “developed” when the velocity profile does not change when the velocity profile

significantly as it travels downstream. Achieving developed flow requires either a sufficient does not change

length of straight piping, or devices installed upstream that remove excessive turbulence or significantly as it

“straighten the flow.” Since flowmeters are primarily tested in developed flows, the potential travels downstream.

effects on the performance of a meter must be considered separately if the flow at the

measuring point is not developed.

Different types of flowmeters are affected differently by undeveloped flows. Undeveloped flow can result from the additional turbulence in a

pipe caused by piping fittings and types of valves installed upstream of the measurement location. Because of this, manufacturers usually

provide a chart that shows how the flowmeter device should be installed to achieve the stated performance.

Reynolds number is an important non-dimensional parameter used in fluid mechanics. It is defined as the ratio of the inertial force of a

fluid to the viscous force. The Reynolds number allows modeling of a fluid flow so that specific operational characteristics can be indexed

to a common value. For flow metering, the Reynolds number is used to define a universal measuring range for all types of fluids. This

ability greatly simplifies the evaluation, sizing, and use of flowmeters.

The flow through a pipe is characterized by ranges of the Reynolds number. The identification of these ranges, or regimes, is the result of

extensive studies by scientists and engineers researching the belief that fluids flowing in pipes go through a transition from low to high

velocities. This transition causes a change in the velocity profile in a pipe, which greatly affects the dynamics of the fluid and the ability to

measure the flow rate.

The initial regime at very low Reynolds numbers is referred to as “laminar” flow, or flow where the fluid remains in layers. The velocity

increases consistently from the pipe wall to the pipe axis. The velocity profile for laminar flow is represented by a parabola. In this case,

fluid viscosity plays a major role in driving the flow pattern to remain in steady layers.

As the velocity increases, this laminar condition begins to change and the flow transitions. The layers breakdown into smaller eddies as

the parabolic shape of the velocity profile begins to flatten. At higher velocities, the laminar region exists only at the wall and is very thin.

The fluid throughout the rest of the pipe becomes turbulent. Although, the velocity profile flattens, the highest velocity is still at the center.

Figure 3.4.a shows the profiles for the two types of flow. In Reynolds number values, the regimes are as follows:

Re 2000 ≤ 4000 = transition flow

Re > 4000 = turbulent flow

The turbulent regime covers the majority of the range of velocities seen for fluids used in industrial and commercial flow in

pipes. It is rare

that piping is sized such that flows to be read are in the laminar regime unless the fluid has a high viscosity.

For this reason, the

application of DP flowmeter technology can be restricted to turbulent flow which in turn means they

can be used in the majority of

applications.

The basic Reynolds Number equation is described by a velocity, pipe ID, the fluid density, and viscosity. Since the

Reynolds number is

dimensionless, the units must be given in a consistent mass, volume/length, and time basis. The

following base units are needed to

calculate the pipe Reynolds number for US and SI units:

The poise is the unit of measurement for dynamic viscosity. Viscosity is commonly measured using centipoise (cP) in US units and Pa·s in

the SI system of measurement. To convert to the viscosity units shown above use:

While the density and viscosity can usually be found, the velocity is not typically on the specification sheet for a flowmeter. Instead the

desired minimum and maximum flow rates are given. It is possible to calculate the Reynolds number using the flow rate rather than the

velocity. We start with the area for a circular pipe or duct:

For units other than the base units, a conversion factor is needed. The following are the equations for converting to the pipe average

velocity, and calculating the Reynolds Number:

Special Case: Non-Circular Ducts

For non-circular ducts (Figure 3.4.b), the hydraulic diameter is used in place of pipe diameter. This is defined as 4 times the cross-

sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. The equation is:

In fluid dynamics, the Bernoulli Principle and the equations derived from it are a special form of the conservation of energy. More

specifically, they are a special form of the general fluid flow energy conservation equation first described mathematically by Leonhard

Euler in 1757. It is in actuality a collection of related equations whose forms can differ for different kinds of flow. The basic Bernoulli

Equation for steady, incompressible flow is:

This equation applies to a fluid that is moving along a “streamline” (denoted as “s”), or a continuous path that the fluid follows. All changes

in the fluid will only occur along the streamline, and no fluid will flow out of or into the streamline. For the application of this concept to fluid

meters, the fluid is flowing in a conduit or pipe, and the pipe is now the streamline. For steady-state conditions with developed flow, this

one-dimensional model is sufficient to describe the flow field in a pipe.

The Bernoulli Equation acts as the operating equation for DP Flow—that is, the transfer function between the input: the flow rate and fluid

condition, and the output: the differential pressure. The benefit of the Bernoulli Equation is that it is simple, well defined, and accepted in

the engineering community as a viable method for measuring fluid flow.

For flow metering, the flow of fluid must be considered “steady-state,” meaning that there is no appreciable change in the rate or

conditions while measurements are made. While these conditions might seem restrictive, in reality most fluid systems are designed to

operate at a steady state with changes occurring slowly to prevent excessive pressure transients or vibration in the system.

For an energy balance, the assumption is that no heat is added to the system and no work is done to or by the system. In reality work is

done to the fluid—otherwise pumps and fans would not be needed. However, when the system boundary is drawn around the meter, it is a

good approximation to eliminate the system energy terms. In the applied form for fluid flow, the Bernoulli Equation represents an energy

difference at two points in the fluid flow stream. In this description, Point 1 records the higher pressure; point 2 records the lower pressure

(Figure 3.5.a), due to a transformation of energy from potential (pressure) to kinetic (velocity) energy.

If Bernoulli’s Equation is appplied to two points along the same stream line equation and an energy balance is applied around the area

change or restriction within the pipe, the equation becomes:

Equation 3.6 shows the sum of the energy terms going into the restriction at point 1 must equal the sume of the energy terms after the

restriction at point 2.

Figure 3.5.a - Typical energy and flow diagram for a restriction in a pipe.

To determine the flow rate in mass/time or volume/time the continuity equation must be used which assures that mass is conserved

(Equation 3.7):

To reach the above form of the continuity equation and Bernoulli’s equation, some assumptions were made:

Neglible viscous effects – represents a fluid with perfect uniformity while flowing and a consistent flow profile

No work is added to the system – Bernoulli’s equation was derived from an energy balance on a system boundary

around the

meter. As a result, the simplified equation form shown in Equation 3.9 is not applicable in flow sections

that involves pumps,

turbines, fans, or other machinery since they disrupt the streamlines and ultimately cause energy

interactions with the fluid

Incompressible fluid – it is assumed that density remains constant across the streamline

Negligable heat transfer effects – the simplified Bernoulli energy balance excludes frictional effects which create local energy

transfer in the form of heat

Beginning with Bernoulli’s equation (Equation 3.5) and re-writing where z = h for height, the equation becomes (see

Figure 3.5.b for

categorization of the terms):

When it’s assumed the fluid is flowing horizontally and there is no change in height, the potential energy terms are equal. Combined with

the continuity equation (Equation 3.9), the change in pressure at two points is represented as:

For an incompressible fluid Equation 3.8 is true. The velocity multiplied by the cross-sectional area at points 1 and 2 are equal.

The cross-sectional area for a circular pipe and a circular restriction (such as an orifice plate) is:

Then re-writing Equation 3.10 substituting Equations 3.11 and 3.12 for A1 and A2,

Combining Equation 3.9, the continuity equation, with Equation 3.13, results in an equation that relates the velocity at the restriction to a

differential pressure:

To calculate a volumetric flowrate multiply both sides of the equation by the area of the restriction:

To calculate a mass flow rate, multiply both sides of the velocity equation by the density:

Equations 3.15 and 3.16 are the theoretical mass and volumetric flow equations based on the assumptions listed in Section 3.5. These are

not representative of real-world fluid interactions. As a result two correction factors were developed, the discharge coefficient and the gas

expansion factor.

No viscous effects

No heat transfer

Pressure taps at ideal locations

Beta Ratio

Instead of a “restriction”, this type of meter is called an “area” meter, as the meter is based on a change in area. For convenience, the ratio

“d/D” is called “Beta”, or “β.” The term “d4/D4” would then be “β4.” Area meters such as orifice plates or venturis are defined by Beta, and

the result of calibrations is classified by the type of area meter. To further simplify the flow equation, the term for Beta replaces the

diameter ratio:

This is still the “theoretical equation” for incompressible flow, as it does not account for energy losses for a real fluid. When the discharge

coefficient is added to the equation, it is called the “Actual Mass Flow Equation for an incompressible flow” and is:

Figure 3.5.c – Flow lab set-up for one Assume that an orifice plate is installed in a flow lab so that a steady flow of water can be

discharge coefficient data point.

collected in a weigh tank. A flow calculation based on the theoretical equation shows that

a total 1000 pounds of water flowed through the orifice during the test period and was

collected in the tank.

However, during the same period, the weigh tank actually collected 607 pounds of water

(Figure 3.5.c). This means that the discharge coefficient (Equation 3.20) for this orifice

plate was 0.607 at the steady flow rate that was observed. This discharge coefficient

represents just one data point on the graph in Figure 3.5.d.

Since the discharge coefficient for most primary elements varies with Reynolds number, this test is done over a range of Reynolds

numbers to determine the Cd vs. Re curve, or the meter characteristic. For area meters the same curve is also determined for various beta

ratios. This body of data characterizes the discharge coefficient over a wide range of possible flow conditions for a range of area ratios, or

Beta. This will result in hundreds or thousands of data points depending on the extent of the parameters to be tested.

Once all of the data is collected, an equation can be developed to fit the curve of the data, as represented by the black line in Figure 3.5.d.

This equation can then be used to predict the discharge coefficient of any geometrically similar primary element. In this way, the equation

serves as a calibration constant so that primary elements of similar construction donot need to each be calibrated in a laboratory. The

uncertainty for this variable can then be determined as shown by the orange dotted line in Figure 3.5.d. The uncertainty of a curve that is

fitted to data is done using the Standard Estimate of the Error (SEE), which is the standard deviation of the data sample referenced to the

calculated (curve) values.

Figure 3.5.d – The curve fit uncertainty of the discharge coefficient data collected.

The Gas Expansion Factor (Y1)

The gas expansion factor is also derived from laboratory testing where a gaseous fluid (typically air) can be used to generate a known flow

rate. The reason it does not hold true in actual flowing conditions is because as a gas flows through a restriction, there is a decrease in

pressure which results in the expansion of the gas and a decreased density, so ρ1 ≠ρ2. With a lowered density, the velocity will be slightly

higher than predicted by the theoretical flow equation.

Given:

Figure 3.5.e – Flow lab set-up for one gas expansion data It is possible to determine Y1. For example, the lab testing for the gas

point using air flow.

expansion factor determines that 90 lbs should be collected according to

the theoretical equation and 54.1 lbs was actually collected. The 54.1 lbs

represents the mass flow including the discharge coefficient and the gas

expansion factor.

So:

Since the same pipe and beta ratio was used for this test, Cd= 0.607.

For gas or vapor flows, the density is determined at the upstream tap. For liquid flows, Y1 = 1.000. Figure 3.5.f below shows a plot of the

expansion factor vs. the ratio ΔP : Pabs for gases with a ratio of specific heats = 1.4 for the typical concentric, square-edged orifice plate.

The gas expansion factor is plotted this way because the slight change in density is proportional to the percent change in line pressure.

Because the calculated flow rate depends on Cd and Y1 and these factors depend on the flow rate, it is necessary to re-calculate the flow

rate, and then calculate new values for Cd and Y1, or iterate, until the difference between subsequent calculations is small.

Figure 3.5.f — After data is collected a line can be fit and the uncertainty of the gas expansion factor determined.

By adding the discharge coefficient and gas expansion factor, the flow equation now can accurately calculate flow applications. Recall the

theoretical mass flow equation:

Based on Bernoulli’s equation and an energy balance (Continuity Equation), this is the basic flow equation that uses the physical fluid

properties mentioned above. d2, E, are geometrical terms and are determined by the primary element geometry. Cd, Y1 are empirical

terms and are calculated using the test-derived equations either for a fixed set of flow equation parameters, or when a microprocessor-

based flow computer is used, are continuously calculated DP, and ρ vary with changing process conditions such as flow, temperature, and

pressure.

As mentioned above d2 and E are geometric terms that change depending on the primary element geometry. Orifice plates, venturis, and

flow nozzles are considered area-change primary elements or throated meters. Averaging pitot tubes use a velocity calculated by

measuring the stagnation pressure (see Section 3.8 for details).

Figure 3.6.a – Types of area meters, also known as Each meter will have different levels of energy loss, so the values of the

throated meters, include Conditioning and standard orifice

plates, nozzles, and venturis. discharge coefficient will be different. Figure 3.6.b shows the values of Cd

for three throated primary elements plotted against the pipe Reynolds

Number. When the primary meter calibration factor is plotted over the

operating range, it is called the “signature curve” of the meter. Note that the

venturi shown in the figure approximates the path taken by the streamlines

of the flow. For this reason, there is little energy loss, so the value of the

discharge coefficient is nearly 1.00. The nozzle has more energy loss as

the streamlines separate from the walls, but the orifice has the most

because it is an abrupt change in area that creates more turbulence in the

fluid.

the location and

size of the openings to read the DP

signal (also called the “taps”,

and the condition of the

components that make up the meter.

2. The discharge coefficients assigned to the appropriate

meter

geometry.

Figure 3.6.b – Discharge coefficient curves for

three types

of DP flowmeters.

Primary elements such as the orifice plate or venturi shown in Figure 3.6.a

have been tested for over a hundred years, and there have been many

standards created to establish the value of the discharge coefficients as

well as the design requirements for fabricating and installing each type of

meter. Among these efforts are the resulting equations that were derived

from a series of calibrations for a range of pipe sizes and beta values to

allow the calculation of the discharge coefficient. Different types of Cd

prediction equations have been developed with varying degrees of

success. Because the orifice plate is the simplest, least expensive and

easiest to retrofit and maintain, it is the most widely used of the four types

of primary elements shown above. Each primary element type has a slightly

different flow coefficient, but the equation used to calculate the flow rate is

the same.

There are many design variations of the four types of primary elements shown above. These variations allow the application of a DP Flow

installation to types of fluid conditions that would not be possible with the standard designs. In every case, the modification to the standard

design will use the same basic Bernoulli equation form, but with a modified the discharge coefficient, and expansion factor. These types of

primary elements include Rosemount Conditioning Orifice plates, standard orifice plates, venturis, and nozzles.

Figure 3.7.a – Standard orifice plate. As discussed in Chapter 1, the type of flowmeter most often specified in

industry is the orifice plate (Figure 3.7.a). The diameter of the orifice bore or

throat is less than the diameter of the pipe, creating differential pressure as it

restricts flow. As with all differential pressure producing flowmeters, the

underlying theoretical principle for orifice flowmeters is the Bernoulli Equation,

and the calculation of actual flow rates depends on Cd and Y1.

Note that the discussion in the next section is generic and applicable to

square-edge concentric orifice plates.

ISO, ASME, and AGA Standards Provide a Basis for Calculating Discharge Coefficients

Three major standards have been written to detail the Cd and Y1 coefficients, as well as the detailed construction, installation requirements

and uncertainty factors. They are ISO 5167 Parts 1-4 from the International Organization for Standardization; ASME MFC-3M from the

American Society of Mechanical Engineers; and AGA Report No. 3 for Natural Gas and Hydrocarbon fluids from the American Gas

Association.

Many independent test laboratories both public and private have contributed to the test data to correlate Reynolds Number, discharge

coefficient, and gas expansion factor.

Each standards organization continuously examines the equation structure to be used for their standard, usually when more data

becomes available or a new analysis of the original data has been completed. For example, the ASME MFC-3M committee in 2004

updated its equation structure to one virtually identical to ISO 5167.

The Rosemount Conditioning Orifice Plate design is an orifice plate with four bores (Figure 3.7.b). The primary purpose of this type of

orifice is to condition the flow being measured within the area. This self-conditioning eliminates the need to install separate flow

conditioners or the need for, in some cases, 40+ diameters of straight run after a flow disturbance.

Figure 3.7.b – Rosemount Conditioning Orifice Plate The Rosemount Conditioning Orifice Plate (COP) technology is based on

showing its characteristic four holes orthogonally

arranged around the center. the same Bernoulli equation as is used for standard orifice plates. As a

result, the conditioning orifice plate follows the same general discharge

coefficient versus Reynolds Number relationship as standard orifice plates

with a slight shift in value, depending on the Beta ratio.

The four holes in the plate are placed equally around the plate center.

When a kinetic energy balance is done at the conditioning orifice plate and

the continuity equation is applied, the result requires energy be conserved

or the rate of the flow through the four holes must be the same. This

pattern forces a distribution of the flow through the holes, creating a

consistent downstream dynamic even when the upstream fluid velocity

distribution is highly asymmetric or cyclonic. Since most of the orifice DP

signal is created downstream, the COP provides equivalent results when

installed in very close proximity to typical piping components as when

installed in long runs of straight pipe. This removes the requirement for a

flow conditioner and provides superior performance in short straight pipe

runs.

Figure 3.7.c – Illustration of how the four holes in the Rosemount Conditioning Orifice Plate conditions irregular flow profiles to provide

accurate flow measurement with little straight run.

Rosemount Conditioning Orifice flowmeters meet the intent of three main standards, ISO 5167/ASME MFC 3M and AGA Report Number

3. See Table 3.7.1 for details of compliance and deviations from the standards.

Table 3.7.1 – Comparison of the Rosemount Conditioning Orifice Plate to single-hole concentric orifice plates.

Figure 3.8.a – Pressure points for a single point pitot tube. Pitot tubes calculate velocity by measuring the stagnation pressure, or the

pressure due to the fluid velocity. The pressure at the impact pressure is

called the total or stagnation pressure (Figure 3.8.a). If the pressure at the

low static pressure tap is considered the pipe or conduit static pressure,

the DP is called the dynamic pressure of the fluid at that point. This form is

used for the Pitot tube, invented and first used by Henri de Pitot in 1784.

The modern incarnation of the Pitot tube used to measure flow rate is the

Averaging Pitot Tube, or APT. The purpose of the APT is to measure the

flow rate in a pipe or duct by measuring the velocity pressure, and average

the pressure over the diameter of the pipe.

A pitot tube measures only a point velocity. Unless the velocity profile is known or the flow is considered “developed,” a single velocity

measurement will not represent an average velocity needed to calculate the flow rate with reasonable precision. For this reason, a pitot

traverse can be done, a procedure which involves moving the pitot tube across the pipe or duct while taking samples. The average

velocity can be calculated from these sample values. The sampling locations provide positions in a pipe or duct so that the average

velocity can be obtained.

The APT was developed to provide a faster method to obtain a velocity average. Figure 3.8.b depicts a Rosemount 485 averaging pitot

tube. The main benefits of an APT over a traditional Area Meter such as a nozzle or an orifice plate are:

The APT can be installed through a pipe coupling which requires less welding and expense

The APT can be “hot-tapped”, or installed while the pipeline is under pressure

The APT creates a much lower permanent pressure loss than a typical area meter

Figure 3.8.b – The Rosemount Annubar 485 When compared to a single-point Pitot tube, the following are the important distinctions

Averaging Pitot Tube design.

for the APT:

1. The velocity profile is sampled at the slots or holes in the front of the tube, which

is installed across the pipe plane. This is equivalent to a “continuous Pitot-

traverse.”

2. The fluid that comes to rest (or stagnates) in front of each slot or hole creates

a

pressure that represents the velocity at that point in the velocity field. In addition,

the opening at the front of the Pitot tube must be perpendicular to the fluid

velocity

vector to achieve a proper stagnation pressure.

3. If the APT is properly designed, the pressure sensed at the top of the APT front

chamber is the averaged stagnation pressure for the sampling slots or holes.

4. The rear chamber measures the pressure at the rear of the tube, or the suction

pressure. This pressure will be below the pipe static pressure due to the fact that

for real fluids in the turbulent flow regime, separation of the fluid from the tube

has

occurred. This is advantageous because the DP signal is higher than that

obtained with a standard pitot. However, unless the APT is properly designed, the

value of the base pressure may not be predictable at all operating flow rates.

Although the pressure sensed at the top of the rear chamber is the average suction pressure, in most cases, the pressure created behind

the tube is nearly the same across the pipe diameter, due to the span-wise vortex-shedding or separation of the flowing fluid from the tube

surface of the APT along the length.

Figure 3.8.c – Depiction of how vortices are shed off the Rosemount Annubar sensor. Rosemount Annubar T-shape design has a flat

upstream surface which creates a fixed separation point which improves the performance over a wider flow range over other APT sensor

designs as well as stabilize the low pressure measurement.

Video 3.8.a – How an Averaging Pitot Tube Works

sensor shapes. The above The sensor shape design of averaging pitot tubes varies

shapes can result

in weaker DP signal strengths due to lack of

separation point. greatly from manufacturer to manufacturer. The sensor shape

has a great deal of impact on performance. Generally, sensor

shapes such as the bullet shape, round, scalloped or ellipse

shapes (Figure 3.8.d) will perform more poorly over a flow

range,

especially at lower Re numbers because the signal

strength of

the DP signal is weaker with no fixed separation

point.

have

a flat upstream surface which creates a fixed separation

point

(Figure 3.8.c), resulting in a strong DP signal.

Additionally, the

T-shape design includes frontal slots (Figure

3.8.f) which capture

more of flow profile for a more

comprehensive averaging and

higher accuracy. The fixed

separation point also creates a

stagnation zone (Figure 3.8.c)

in the back of the T-shape, which

stabilizes the low pressure

measurement for overall less

signal noise.

sensor. Holes Figure 3.8.f – The 485 Annubar T-Shape APT

design

in the backside of the Rosemount 485

Annubar T-Shape average the low includes frontal slots that average the

high pressure

pressure measurement. side measurements.

For pitot style DP meters, the velocity at the sensing port is stagnated, meaning the velocity, V22, is actually zero.

Mulitplying the velocity by the cross-sectional area of the pipe the theoretical volumetric flow equation is obtained:

And multiplying by flowing density to obtain the theoretical mass flow equation:

To become:

No viscous effects

No heat transfer

Incompressible fluid

For averaging pitot tubes the flow coefficient (K) corrects for the following assumptions:

Negligible heat transfer

Pressure taps at ideal locations

The gas expansion factor corrects for the incompressible fluid assumption.

Figure 3.8.g – Cross section of pipe with APT installed, The K factor has been determined by extensive laboratory testing, similar to

showing terms of the blockage equation.

that of the discharge coefficent for orifice plates. Empirical equations have

been created to calculate the K factor based on the test data. To calculate

the K factor for an averaging pitot tube, it is a function of blockage. Blockage

is the ratio of the area of the pitot tube to the area of the pipe.

And subsituting terms shown in Figure 3.8.g (B is the blockage factor and is unitless)

For a blockage, B ≤ 0.25, use the following K factor equation and C1 and C2 values from Table 3.8.1:

For a blockage, B > 0.25 use Equation 3.38 below and Table 3.8.1:

Table 3.8.1 – Constants for determining the flow coefficient for the Rosemount 485 Annubar primary element.

Gas Expansion Factor for Averaging Pitot Tubes

The gas expansion factor for averaging pitot tubes is calculated slightly differently than area meters such as orifice plates. It is a function

of blockage, DP, static line pressure, and the ratio of specific heats. Again, this factor is determined by laboratory testing.

The equation for the gas expansion factor is as follows – note this form requires the pressure and differential pressure to be in the same

units so that Ya will be unitless.

Computational Software

Flow computers are often used to calculate flow utilizing the variables from the DP Flow installation or other measurement points. Flow

computers are configured to calculate the flow based on the fluid properties and installation specifics such as line size and process

variables either from individual pressure and temperature measurements or a multivariable transmitter such as the Rosemount 4088.

The other option is to utilize multivariable transmitters with the ability to calculate flow specifically the Rosemount 3051SMV. Rosemount

Engineering Assistant is a PC-based software program used for configuring Rosemount MultiVariable™ devices with mass flow output. In

addition to being able to configure and calibrate the device, Engineering Assistant also performs configuration of the mass flow equation

inside the transmitter. This software makes setting up a compensated flow equation simpler than manually setting up the flow equation in

the control system. This is because the configuration of the flow equation all happens within Engineering Assistant and the flow calculation

is done with the transmitter. The user only needs to enter their basic flowmeter and process information to configure their transmitter for

fully compensated mass or energy flow.

Engineering Assistant can be used as a “Stand-Alone” Windows based program, or as a SNAP-ON to AMS. The SNAP-ON version runs

within AMS, while the stand-alone version can be run without an AMS installation.

A common error in DP Flow installations is performing a double square root, or taking the square root of the Differential Pressure in the

flow equation in both the transmitter and in the control system. The square root should only be taken once, either in the control system or

in the transmitter.

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