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Chapter 10 Classification of Muscles According to Histology

Muscles Striated Cardiac Smooth
Myotomes of Mesodermal
Splanchnic Mesoderm Splanchnic Mesoderm
 Muscles and Tissues Uninucleate
o Muscle: tissue; Muscles: organ Multinucleate separated by intercalated
o mesodermal (mesenchyme) in origin discs
 except smooth muscle of the iris (ectoderm) Myofibrils and Filaments
Muscle fibers Myofibrils w/o striations
 Differentiation via increase in length + myofibrilar synthesis (myosin and actin)
Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary
 Functions: Striated Striated Non-Striated
o General Function: Contraction
 Shortening – result of chemical changes in muscle proteins (actin and  Striated – long, cylindrical, multinucleate fibers, voluntary
myosin) o Myofibrils – longitudinal striations
 If muscle surrounds lumen: lumen becomes compressed o Sacromeres – repeated component of each myofibril
 If muscle extends between 2 structures: one is drawn toward the o Myofilaments – 2 species of longitudinally oriented proteins, actin and myosin
other o Syncytium – single, functional unit of striated muscle fiber
 If other muscles separate 2 structures mentioned above: resistance o Mechanism of Contraction
can be applied  motor end plate – portion of sarcolemma w/ receptors for
 nerve impulse – usual stimulus for muscle contraction except for a neurotransmitters (amines)
cardiac muscle  initiates stimuli along the sarcolemma that result in biochemical
 interactions b/n the actin & myosin, result in sarcomere shortening
 motor unit – functional group of muscle fibers that contract
simultaneously when a single nerve cell supplies motor end plates on
many mucle fibers

 Cardiac – uninucleated, intercalated, involuntary

o contract without nervous stimulation
o innervated by fibers of the autonomic nervous system(ANS).
Sliding Filament Model
 Smooth – fusiform, uninucleated, involuntary
o Produce body movements o Often in sheets as part of an organ
o Stabilization of body positions o Innervated by ANS
o Control of organ volumes o intercalated disks – unique boundaries in cardiac muscle tissues that link
 Sphincter muscles cytoplasms of adjacent cells
o Movement of substances in the body  facilitating ion transport → rapid ion potentials
 Blood, lymph, food and fluids, sperm
o Heat production
 Shivering – involuntary action of skeletal muscles

 Vertebrate Muscles
o Appearance: Striated vs Smooth
o Action: Voluntary vs Involuntary
o Location: Skeletal vs non-Skeletal
Major Categories of Muscles
Somatic Visceral Branchiomeric
orient the body to external regulate internal
environment environment
striated muscles smooth muscles striated muscles
spinal nerves and cranial
postganglionic fibers of ANS cranial nerves
nerves III, IV, VI and XII
voluntary, skeletal Involuntary, smooth voluntary, skeletal
Myotomes of Mesodermal Lack sclerotome and
splanchnic mesoderm
Somites dermatome components
Do not fully Segment
ligaments, tendons, bones hollow organs, vessels, Belong to the pharyngeal
of axial skeleton, tubes and ducts, the arches and their
appendicular skeleton, and intrinsic musculature of the ontogenetic /phylogenetic
skeletal components of eyeballs, and erector derivatives from fishes to
lateral & ventral body walls muscles of feather and hairs human beings

SKELETAL MUSCLES  Actions of Skeletal Muscles

 muscles act in functional groups and also synergistically w/ other
 Skeletal Muscles as Organs functional groups that have an opposing action
o Epimysium – tough fibrous sheath surrounding a muscle  torn muscle or stretched tendon or ligament – effect if a muscle action is
o Perimysium – surrounds major bundles of muscle fibers (fascicles) not properly opposed
o Endomysium – continuation of perimysium supporting the muscular, neural o Extensors – straightens two segments of a limb or vertebral column at a joint
and vascular components of each functional unit o Flexors – draw one segment toward another
o Tendons – continuations of the muscle beyond the site where fascicle ends o Adductors – draw a part toward the midline
 At the site of attachment the tendon of the skeleton, collagenous o Abductors – away from the midline
bundles of the tendon continue into and contribute to the perichondrium o Protractors – thrust forward or outward
or periosteum of the bone to which they are attached o Retractors – pull back
o Levators – raises
 Origin, Insertions and Muscle Shapes o Depressors – lowers
o Anatomic Origin – site of attachment that remains fixed under most o Rotators – causes rotation on its axis
functional conditions, that is, the bone is not displaced when muscle contracts  Supinators – rotators that turn the palm upward
 when biceps contract, the forearm is flexed. Therefore, the origin of the  Pronators – make it prone(downward)
biceps is somewhere above the elbow o Tensors – more taut(e.g. eardrum)
o Insertion – site of attachment, usually displaced by contraction of the muscle o Constrictors – compresses internal parts
 e.g. biceps inserts on the forearm  most sphincter and dilator muscles are non-skeletal
 a muscle may cause displacement of the bone of origin instead of the  Sphincters – constrictors, make an opening smaller
bone of insertion if the former is immobilized by other muscles  Dilators – constrictors that make an opening wider
 geniohyoid
o Aponeuroses – tough, thin, sheet-like expanses of mammalian tendons and  Basis for homology:
ligaments o similarity of location, origin and insertion
 galea aponeurotica – major component of mammalian scalp  genioglossus (mammals-insertion in tongue) to sublingual seed pouch
o Raphes – long-seamlike tendons (avians)
 linea alba o embryogenesis and innervation
o Tendonous Inscriptions – fine nonmetameric myosepta-like traverses, strap-  corascapular process of reptiles = supraspinatus and infraspinatus of
like muscles mammals
 Name and Homologies of Skeletal Muscles  2 Major Ramis that supply the Axial Musculature: (in Fishes and Tetrapods)
o Two muscles having the same name is o Dorsal Rami – supply epaxial muscles
Basis Example
no assurance that they are homologous o Ventral Rami – larger because they innervate a greater muscle mass, the
Oblique o The more distantly related 2 animals hypaxial myomeres
Direction of Fibers
Rectus are, the greater is the likelihood that they are
Thoracis not homologous  Oblique Fibers – lie superficial to main hypaxial mass ventrolaterally (in many
Location Suoraspinatus o comparing early developmental Fishes)
Superficialis stages – method of testing homology
Number of Quadriceps o embryologic and neurologic evidence  forces exerted by contractions of myomeres – distributed over more than one
Subdivisions Digastric – most reliable at present for establishing body segment → become most powerful in the tail (where flexibility of vertebral
Deltoid muscle homologies column is also the greatest)
Shape Teres
Serratus  Metamerism of hypaxial muscles (of Fishes) – Interrupted where girdles are built
Xiphihumeralis into the body wall, and by the gills
Origin / Insertion
Levator Scapulae  Bluefin Tuna – “warm-blooded” due to the heat generated by contractions of the
Risorius voluminous axial musculature, thus warming the body to temperatures far
Major exceeding that of surrounding water

AXIAL MUSCLES (Axial Muscles) Trunk and Tail Muscles of Tetrapods

 Axial Muscles  Tetrapods

o muscles of the trunk and tail o loss of metamerism → disappearance of horizontal skeletogenous septum
o extend forward beneath the pharynx as hypobranchial muscles and as tongue
 Except for tailed amphibians
o do not include branchiomeric or appendicular muscles o changes in vertebral musculature w/ advent of limbs
o arise from segmental MESODERMAL SOMITES  disapperance of epaxial muscles
o hypaxial myomeres in lateral body wall (parietal) musculature → strata of
 Metamerism and Hierarchy of Axial Muscles broad muscular sheets →parietal muscles liberated from locomotory function
o Metamerism – enables fishes and aquatic tetrapods to propel themselves in  new parietal musculature (Function: support of trunk viscera)
water by lateral undulation o exceptions:
 Primitive – superceded by locomotion of limbs in terrestrial
 Necturus – retained epaxial and hypaxial myomeres, but each hypaxial
o Myosepta (Myocommata) – separate muscles of 1 body segment to the next
 anurans and amnions: abdominal musculature consists of broad sheets muscle is split into 3 layers
strengthened by tendonous inscriptions, and not myosepta.  Sphenodon – retained epaxial myomeres only; lateral body wall
musculature consists of broad stratified sheets
(Axial Muscles) Trunk and Tail Muscles of Fishes
Axial Muscles of Tetrapods
 myomeres separated by myosepta to w/c the longitudinally directed muscle fibers Epaxial Hypaxial Tail
attach for locomotion Spinales Subvertebrals Hypobranchial
o dorsal (epaxial) & ventral (hypaxial) ÷ horizontal skeletogenous septum Multifidus spinae Longus Colli Tongue
 except in Agnathans Intervertebrals Quadratus Lumborum Hyoglossus
Longgisimus Psoas Minor Styloglossus
 Extensions of the Divisions of Myomere: Iliocostales Oblique Transverse Muscles Genioglossus
o epibranchial muscles – continuation of epaxial muscles dorsal to gills Complexus Parietal Muscles Lingualis
o hypobranchial muscles – extension of hypaxials to the lower jaw beneath the Cremaster Muscles
gills Intercostals
 Epaxial Muscles of the Trunk  (turtles and Birds) epaxials are only prominent in the neck
o All voluminous and complex  Ribs are immobilized by fusion of synsacrum / carapace
o Functions  Complexus – one of the cervical epaxials of birds
 straightening/extending the vertebral column  inserts on the interparietal bone
 lateral flexion of body  provides power for cracking the eggshell during hatching
o extend from base of skull into tail of varying distances  (snakes) dorsoventral flexion and lateral undulation
o most anterior ones attach to Occiput
o (Amphibians; except anurans)  Hypaxial Muscles of the Trunk
 Dorsal Trunci – retained primitive metamerism o (a) Subvertebrals – longitudinal bundles beneath the transverse processes in
o (Amniotes) – most long bundles the coelomic roof
 expansion dorsad of appendicular muscles and associated lumbodorsal  Action: opposite of the epaxials
aponeurosis  flexors of vertebral column – beneath transverse processes from atlas to
 (a) Intervertebrals – deepest epaxial muscles pelvis
 only ones to retain primitive metamerism  longus colli – in neck of Aves and Mammals
 Function: participate w/ longer epaxials in maintaining body posture  Quadratus lumborum – in the thorax
 Location:  O: centra of several of last thoracic vertebrae and bases of their ribs;
 Intertransversarii – b/n 2 successive transverse processes on the transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae (varies in different
 interspinales – b/n 2 neural spines species)
 interarcuales – b/n 2 neural arches  I: ventral angle of the wing of ilium
 interarticulares – b/n 2 successive zygapophyses  Psoas minor – “tenderloin” – in mammals
 (b) Longissimus – longest epaxial mass  A: connects the lumbar vertebrae w/ pelvic girdle
 Dominant extensor in mammals o (b) Oblique and Transverse Muscles
 Function: generalized mammalian locomotion  Derivatives of the oblique sheets of primitive parietal muscles
 Location: lateral position above transverse processes  (Amniotes) lack segmental myosepta
 Capitis bundles – Insert on the neck; assist in head movements  Embryonic Origin: from successive somites
 Cervicis muscles – in the neck  Innervation: via Ventral Rami of successive Spinal Nerves
 Dorsi bundles – in the trunk  Function: support the abdominal viscera
 (c) Spinales – long and medial bundles  Compress the viscera for delivery of birth and egg-laying and
 Function: connect neural spines or transverse processes w/ neural emptying of digestive tract
spines several or many segments cephalad  (amniotes except turtles) external respiration
 Transversospinales – connect transverse processes w/ neural  (mammals) accessory role
spines of 2nd vertebra forward  Parietal Muscles – stratified into superficial and deep layers
 (mammals) assist in maintaining stability of the column  External Oblique
 (humans) assist other bundles in maintaning an upright posture  Internal Oblique
while standing  Transverse muscles of the abdomen
 Location: medial positions above the transverse processes  (male mammals) Cremaster Muscles – loops around the spermatic cord,
 Multifidus Spinae – spinales grouped with lumbar intervertebrals commences at the inguinal ring, inserts fibrous sheath in wall of scrotum
 (d) Iliocostales – O: in ilium; I: on ribs and uncinate processes  Amniotes
 Dominant in reptiles  Intercostals – assisted by supracostal muscles
 Function: provide leverage for lateral undulation  External Intercostal
 Location: lateral to longissimus; continue forward into the neck BUT  Internal Intercostal
NOT caudad into the tail  Transverse Muscles of Thorax
 Supracostal Muscles – differrentiate on the surface of the rib cage Hypaxial Muscles of the Trunk
 Scalenus Subvertebrals Rectus Muscles of the Abdomen
 Serratus dorsalis Longus Colli Pyramidalis Muscle
 Levatores costarum Quadratus Lumborum Mammalian Diaphragm
 Transversus costarum
Psoas Minor
Oblique and Transverse Muscles
Urodeles and some Anurans Aves Turtles Parietal Muscles Intercostals Supracostals
lizard External Oblique External Intercostals Scalenus
Participate in Internal Oblique Internal Intercostals Serratus dorsalis
locomotion Internal
Transverse Muscles Transverse Muscles of the Levatores costarum
Parietal External oblique:
2 layers each Thin vestigial Cremaster Muscles Thorax Transversus costarum
Muscles Oblique: sometimes
superficial & missing
deep parts
(Axial Muscles) Muscles of the Tail
o (c) Rectus Muscles of the Abdomen
 Location: extends logitudinally on either side of linea alba between pubic  Tail Muscles – continuations of the epaxial and hypaxial vertebral musculature of
symphysis and sternum the trunk
 Rectus abdominis – assists in flexing the trunk and in supporting the o (Amniotes) disruption of the continuity, especially of the hypaxial bundles,
abdominal viscera in a muscular sling occurs to one degree or another at the level on their pelvis (large pelvis)
 (urodeles) strictly segmental o (Snakes) employ the tail for locomotion
 (anurans and amniotes) irregular transverse tendonous inscriptions  epaxial & hypaxial muscles: well developed along entire extent of the tail
 Pyramidalis Muscle – seen in ventral wall of marsupial pouch, a slip of
the rectus abdominis  Parts of Tail Muscles
 vestiges may be found in Eutherian mammals (True Placentals) o (a) Epaxial – Dorsal aspect of Vertebral Column
o (d) Mammalian Diapragm  Function: extend the tail and arch it upward
 hypaxial muscles that have migrated accompanied by third, fourth and  Medial Extensors – from Intervertebrals and short Spinales (collectively
fifth cervical spinal nerves multifidus spinae)
 innervated by ventral rami of the cervical spinal nerve  Lateral Extensors – from Longissimus
 Function: separates thoracic and abdominal cavities  Extensor caudae lateralis – tail section of Longissimus
 major component of the suction pump utilized in Mammalian  O: sacral and caudal vertebrae
breathing  I: distal tail vertebrae
 Parts: Central tendon o (b) Hypaxial Muscles
 pair of semilunar extensions  Function: bend the tail laterad or downward
 muscular portion – converges on tendonous portion from a  O: medial and caudal border of the wing of the ilium, transverse
circumferential perimeter arising on: processes of the last lumbar vertebrae, sacrum (pass into the tail as long
 sternal portion – xiphoid process ventrally bundles paralleling the vertebral column)
 costal portion – caudalmost ribs or their costal cartilages  supplemented by flexors that arise w/in the tail
laterally o (urodeles and reptiles) Caudofemoralis – an extrinsic appendicular muscle
 vertebral portion – several lumbar vertebrae dorsally  contributes to fleshy part of the tail
 crura – pair of triangular masses firmly anchored to lumbar  connects several caudal vertebrae at the base of the tail w/in the femur
vertebrae by a single short, tough, cylindrical tendon  exerts a powerful backward pull on the hind limb during locomotion of
Lizards and Crocodilians