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Calibre Multi-Patterning

Student Workbook

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Table of Contents
Module 1: Why Multi-Patterning? ........................................................................ 9
Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 10

Glossary .............................................................................................................................................. 11

So Far, So Good ................................................................................................................................. 12

The 20nm Litho Challenge ................................................................................................................. 13

It 痴 All About K1 .............................................................................................................................. 14

Advanced Lithography k1 Trend ....................................................................................................... 15

Migration of Mfg Requirements Into Design ..................................................................................... 16

Litho/Mask Cost Comparison ............................................................................................................ 17

Wafer Price Trend .............................................................................................................................. 18

Industry Move to Multi-Patterning .................................................................................................... 19

Costs and Benefits of MP Processing ................................................................................................ 20

Multi-Patterning Growth in Multiple Domains .................................................................................. 21

Lab Exercise ....................................................................................................................................... 22

Module 2: What Is Multi-Patterning? ................................................................. 23


Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 24

Double Patterning — the Concept ..................................................................................................... 25

Layer Decomposition ......................................................................................................................... 26

Double Patterning Manufacturing — LLE/LFE ................................................................................ 28

Double Patterning Manufacturing — LELE ...................................................................................... 29

Mask Alignment Issues ...................................................................................................................... 30

Using Multi-Patterning — A Knowledge Roadmap .......................................................................... 31

Lab Exercise ....................................................................................................................................... 32

Module 3: How Does DRC : Change with MP? ................................................. 33

Calibre Multi-Patterning I
Table of Contents
Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 34

Foundry Impact On MP Design ......................................................................................................... 35

Colored DP DRC Flow ...................................................................................................................... 36

DRC Rules for Coloring a DP Layout ............................................................................................... 37

Multiple Versions of Spacing Rules ................................................................................................... 38

Example Colored DRC rules for DP .................................................................................................. 39

Colorless DP DRC Flow using Optional Anchoring ......................................................................... 40

DRC Rules for Colorless DP Layout — Minimum Space and Cycle Checks .................................. 41

Understanding Cycles ........................................................................................................................ 42

Odd Cycles Cannot Be Legally Colored for DP ................................................................................ 43

What is Anchoring? ............................................................................................................................ 44

Why Use Anchoring? ......................................................................................................................... 45

Anchoring Can Lead To Coloring Violations .................................................................................... 46

DRC Rules for a Colorless DP Layout — Path Checks ..................................................................... 47

Anchoring ........................................................................................................................................... 48

How is Multi-Patterning "Special" for EDA? .................................................................................... 49

Graphs vs. Polygons ........................................................................................................................... 50

Multi-Patterning DRC Comparison ................................................................................................... 51

Lab Exercise ....................................................................................................................................... 52

Module 4: Debugging DP Violations ................................................................... 53


Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 54

Fixing DP Cycle Violations in a Colorless Layout ............................................................................ 55

Fixing DP Cycle Violations in a Colored Layout .............................................................................. 56

DP Debugging Frustrations ................................................................................................................ 57

The Hazards of Whole-Polygon Movement ....................................................................................... 58

Calibre Multi-Patterning II
Table of Contents
Techniques to Avoid Polygon Movement Hazards ............................................................................ 59

Cycle Interactions can be Problematic ............................................................................................... 60

Calibre Highlights Cycle Interaction Problems ................................................................................. 61

Debugging Hints to Avoid Cycle Interactions ................................................................................... 62

Example Debug Options .................................................................................................................... 63

Colored vs. Colorless Error Debugging ............................................................................................. 64

How to Fix Path Violations ................................................................................................................ 65

Fixing Multiple Path Violations ......................................................................................................... 66

Example Cycle and Path Errors ......................................................................................................... 67

Fixing Multiple Error Types .............................................................................................................. 68

Foundry Multi-Patterning Violation Reporting.................................................................................. 69

Lab Exercise ....................................................................................................................................... 70

Module 5: Automated Decomposition ................................................................. 71


Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 72

Automated Decomposition - A New Use Model ............................................................................... 73

Foundry Decomposition Summary .................................................................................................... 74

Related Foundry DP Design Flows .................................................................................................... 75

Manual vs. Automated Decomposition .............................................................................................. 76

PDK Usage Modes ............................................................................................................................. 77

Merging Decomposed Layers into Original ....................................................................................... 78

Detailed Flow ..................................................................................................................................... 79

Layout Considerations........................................................................................................................ 80

"Color As You Go" Issues.................................................................................................................. 81

"Color At the End" Issues .................................................................................................................. 82

Comparing Final Results .................................................................................................................... 83

Calibre Multi-Patterning III


Table of Contents
Hierarchy and Decomposition ............................................................................................................ 84

Density Balancing and Decomposition .............................................................................................. 85

Dealing with Arbitrarily-Colored Shapes .......................................................................................... 86

Alternation Behavior Details .............................................................................................................. 87

Alternation Coloring Behavior ........................................................................................................... 88

The Hierarchy and Density Trade-offs ............................................................................................... 89

Non-Obvious Cases ............................................................................................................................ 90

Dealing with Large-Area Shapes ....................................................................................................... 91

Lab Exercise ....................................................................................................................................... 92

Module 6: Auto-Stitching ..................................................................................... 93


Objectives ........................................................................................................................................... 94

Related Foundry DP Design Flows .................................................................................................... 95

What are Stitches and why do we use them? ..................................................................................... 96

Why use Stitches? .............................................................................................................................. 97

Stitched Decomposition ..................................................................................................................... 98

Stitch Locations .................................................................................................................................. 99

Lithographic Challenges of Stitching ............................................................................................... 100

Rule-Based Stitch Constraints .......................................................................................................... 101

Automated Stitch Generation ........................................................................................................... 102

Auto-Stitching vs. User Stitches ...................................................................................................... 103

Pre-Coloring in Stitched Decomposition ......................................................................................... 104

Anchors and Seeding ........................................................................................................................ 105

User Stitching for DP ....................................................................................................................... 106

Stitching Keep-Outs ......................................................................................................................... 107

Design Flow with Stitching .............................................................................................................. 108

Calibre Multi-Patterning IV
Table of Contents
Lab Exercise ..................................................................................................................................... 109

Module 7: Using DP with Other Tools .............................................................. 111


Objectives ......................................................................................................................................... 112

Placement Considerations ................................................................................................................ 113

Cell Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................................ 114

Power and Ground Color Dependencies .......................................................................................... 120

Real Examples .................................................................................................................................. 121

Density Impact Example .................................................................................................................. 122

Pin Coloring and In-Cell Routing .................................................................................................... 123

Cell DP Placement Characterization ................................................................................................ 124

Olympus-SoC MP-Driven Placement Engine .................................................................................. 125

DP Routing Approaches ................................................................................................................... 126

Routing DP Prevention Strategies .................................................................................................... 127

Impact of Routing DP Prevention Strategies ................................................................................... 128

DP Routing Repair Considerations .................................................................................................. 129

Traditional Halo Re-Checking Has Issues ....................................................................................... 130

Alternative Halo Approaches Still Have Problems .......................................................................... 131

Color Preservation Fixes Halo but Over Constrains ........................................................................ 132

Block Boundary and DFM Operation Issues ................................................................................... 133

Issues with Pre-colored data in cells/blocks ..................................................................................... 134

Real Example ................................................................................................................................... 135

LVS Considerations for DP.............................................................................................................. 136

Hierarchy Issues with LVS in DP Design ........................................................................................ 137

Approaches to Deal With LVS Hierarchy Issues ............................................................................. 138

DP Mask Misalignment Impacts PEX ............................................................................................. 139

Calibre Multi-Patterning V
Table of Contents
DP Impact On Circuit Performance ................................................................................................. 140

PEX Solutions for Double-Patterning .............................................................................................. 141

DP related corners ............................................................................................................................ 142

Designer Concerns ........................................................................................................................... 143

Seeing the Colors Is Not the Same as Controlling Them ................................................................. 144

Anchoring is the Only Reliable Solution ......................................................................................... 145

Calibre LFD For Multi-Patterning Design ....................................................................................... 146

SmartFill for Double Patterning ....................................................................................................... 147

Lab Exercise ..................................................................................................................................... 148

Module 8: Beyond Double-Patterning ............................................................... 149


Objectives ......................................................................................................................................... 150

Triple-Patterning (TP) ...................................................................................................................... 151

Triple Patterning Provides Greater Layout Flexibility ..................................................................... 152

TP Color Cycles are Unlike DP ....................................................................................................... 153

TP Coloring Violations .................................................................................................................... 154

TP Error Visualization ..................................................................................................................... 155

Biggest Process Challenge for Multi-Patterning .............................................................................. 156

Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) ......................................................................................... 157

SID SADP Metal Process ................................................................................................................. 158

Mandrel-Fill/Cut-Mask SID ............................................................................................................. 159

SADP vs LELE Process Challenges ................................................................................................ 160

Lab Exercise ..................................................................................................................................... 161

Module 9: Writing DP Rule Files....................................................................... 163


Objectives ......................................................................................................................................... 164

General DP Rule File Structure* ...................................................................................................... 165

Calibre Multi-Patterning VI
Table of Contents
Calibre Double-Patterning SVRF Operations .................................................................................. 166

Calibre DP Flow Diagram (without Stitching) ................................................................................ 167

LITHO FILE and RET NMDPC ...................................................................................................... 168

LITHO FILE Action Layers ............................................................................................................. 169

RET NMDPC Syntax ....................................................................................................................... 170

RET NMDPC MAP Output ............................................................................................................. 171

Anchor-Specific RET NMDPC MAP Output .................................................................................. 172

Some MAP Output Comparisons ..................................................................................................... 173

Calibre DP Flow Diagram (with Stitching)...................................................................................... 174

LITHO FILE with Stitching ............................................................................................................. 175

Design Rule Definition..................................................................................................................... 177

Types of Stitches .............................................................................................................................. 178

dpStitchCandidates Litho File Options ............................................................................................ 179

Example Design Rule Definitions in dpStitch ................................................................................. 180

dpStitchCandidates -outLayer .......................................................................................................... 181

Lab Exercise ..................................................................................................................................... 182

Calibre Multi-Patterning VII