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Derivatives (1)

Calculus I
Outline
• Introduction
• Derivatives
• Differentiation Rules
• Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
• Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions

Calculus I 2
Introduction

Calculus I
Introduction

Review: Tangent Line

Calculus I 4
Introduction

Review: Instantaneous Speed

∆𝑦
lim
∆𝑡→0 ∆𝑡

𝑓 𝑡0 + ℎ − 𝑓 𝑡0
lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

Calculus I 5
Introduction

Review: Rates of Change

𝑓 𝑥 −𝑓 𝑎
lim
𝑥→𝑎 𝑥−𝑎

𝑓 𝑎+ℎ −𝑓 𝑎
lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

Calculus I 6
Introduction

Interpretations

𝑓 𝑎+ℎ −𝑓 𝑎
lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

1. The slope of the graph of 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) at 𝑥 = 𝑎


2. The slope of the tangent to the curve 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) at 𝑥 = 𝑎
3. The rate of change of 𝑓(𝑥) with respect to 𝑥 at 𝑥 = 𝑎
4. The instantaneous rate of change of 𝑓(𝑥) at 𝑥 = 𝑎
5. The derivative of 𝑓(𝑥) at 𝑥 = 𝑎 or 𝑓 ′ 𝑎

Calculus I 7
Introduction

Example 1
Suppose that the amount of water in a holding tank at 𝑡 minutes is
given by 𝑉 𝑡 = 2𝑡 2 − 16𝑡 + 35. Determine each of the following.
a) Is the volume of water in the tank increasing or decreasing at
𝑡 = 1 minute?
b) Is the volume of water in the tank increasing or decreasing at
𝑡 = 5 minutes?
c) Is the volume of water in the tank changing faster at
𝑡 = 1 or 𝑡 = 5 minutes?
d) Is the volume of water in the tank ever not changing?
If so, when?

Calculus I 8
Introduction

Example 1
a) The rate of volume change at 𝑡 = 1 minute is given by
𝑉 1+ℎ −𝑉 1
lim
ℎ→0 ℎ
2. 1 + ℎ 2 − 16. 1 + ℎ + 35 − 2. 12 − 16.1 + 35
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

2 + 4ℎ + 2ℎ2 − 16 − 16ℎ + 35 − 2 − 16 + 35
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

4ℎ + 2ℎ2 − 16ℎ
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

= lim 2ℎ − 12
ℎ→0
= −12 DECREASING

Calculus I 9
Introduction

Example 1
b) The rate of volume change at 𝑡 = 5 minutes is given by
𝑉 5+ℎ −𝑉 5
lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

Calculus I 10
Introduction

Example 1
c) From (a) and (b), we can conclude that the volume of water in the
tank is changing faster at 𝑡 = ⋯ than at 𝑡 = ⋯

Calculus I 11
Introduction

Example 1
(d) The volume of water in the tank is not changing at 𝑡 = 𝑎 minutes
when
𝑉 𝑎+ℎ −𝑉 𝑎
lim =0
ℎ→0 ℎ

Calculus I 12
Introduction

Exercises
5 1
1. What is the equation of the tangent line to 𝑓(𝑥) = at 𝑥 = ?
𝑥 2
𝑡+1
2. The position of an object at any time 𝑡 is given by 𝑠 𝑡 =
𝑡+4
a) Determine the velocity of the object at time 𝑡 = 5.
b) Does the object ever stop moving? If yes, at what time(s) does
the object stop moving?

3. Determine if the function 𝑍 𝑡 = 3𝑡 − 4 increasing or decreasing


at the given points.
a) 𝑡=5
b) 𝑡 = 10
c) 𝑡 = 300

Calculus I 13
Derivatives

Calculus I
Derivatives

Definition
The derivative of 𝑓 𝑥 with respect to 𝑥 is the function
𝑓 ′ 𝑥 and is defined as,

𝑓 𝑥+ℎ −𝑓 𝑥
𝑓′ 𝑥 = lim
ℎ→0 ℎ

Calculus I 15
Derivatives

Example 2
Find the derivative of the following function
𝑓 𝑥 = 2𝑥 2 − 16𝑥 + 35
Solution:
𝑓 𝑥+ℎ −𝑓 𝑥
𝑓′ 𝑥 = lim
ℎ→0 ℎ
2 𝑥 + ℎ 2 − 16 𝑥 + ℎ + 35 − 2𝑥 2 − 16𝑥 + 35
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ
2𝑥 2 + 4𝑥ℎ + 2ℎ2 − 16𝑥 − 16ℎ + 35 − 2𝑥 2 − 16𝑥 + 35
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ
4𝑥ℎ + 2ℎ2 − 16ℎ
= lim
ℎ→0 ℎ
= lim 4𝑥 + 2ℎ − 16
ℎ→0
= 4𝑥 − 16
Calculus I 16
Derivatives

Example 3
Determine 𝑓 ′ 0 for 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑥

Calculus I 17
Derivatives

Differentiability
• A function 𝑓(𝑥) is called differentiable at 𝑥 = 𝑎 if 𝑓 ′ 𝑎
exists
• 𝑓 𝑥 is called differentiable on an interval if the
derivative exists for each point in that interval

Calculus I 18
Derivatives

Differentiability and Continuity

If 𝑓(𝑥) is differentiable at 𝑥 = 𝑎 then 𝑓(𝑥) is


continuous at 𝑥 = 𝑎.

Calculus I 19
Derivatives

Alternate Notation
Given a function 𝑦 = 𝑓 𝑥 ,

𝑑𝑓 𝑑𝑦 𝑑 𝑑
𝑓′ 𝑥 = 𝑦′ = = = 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑦
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑓 𝑑𝑦
𝑓′ 𝑎 = 𝑦′ = =
𝑥=𝑎 𝑑𝑥 𝑥=𝑎
𝑑𝑥 𝑥=𝑎

Calculus I 20
Derivatives

Second- and Higher-Order Derivatives


• If 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is a differentiable function, then its derivative
𝑓’(𝑥) is also a function.
• If 𝑓’ is also differentiable, then we can differentiate 𝑓’ to
get a new function of 𝑥 denoted by 𝑓’’.
𝑓 ′′ = (𝑓′)′
𝑑2 𝑦 𝑑 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦′
𝑓 ′′ 𝑥 = 2= = = 𝑦′′
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑛 𝑦 𝑑 (𝑛−1)
𝑓 (𝑛) 𝑥 = 𝑛= 𝑦 = 𝑦 (𝑛)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 21
Derivatives

Exercises
Find the derivative of the following functions
1. 𝑓 𝑥 = 10

2. 𝑔 𝑤 = 5𝑤 + 8

𝑡
3. ℎ 𝑡 =
𝑡+1
4. 𝑓 𝑧 = 5𝑧 − 8

5. 𝑔 𝑥 = 2𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 + 7

Calculus I 22
Differentiation Rules

Calculus I
Differentiation Rules

Derivatives of a Constant
If 𝑓 has the constant value 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐 then

𝑑𝑓 𝑑
= 𝑐 =0
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Example:
𝑓 𝑥 =5
𝑑𝑓
=⋯
𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 24
Differentiation Rules

Power Rule
If 𝑛 is any real number, then

𝑑 𝑛
𝑥 = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1
𝑑𝑥

for all 𝑥 where the powers 𝑥 𝑛 and 𝑥 𝑛−1 are defined.


Example:
𝑑 −2
𝑥 =⋯
𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 25
Differentiation Rules

Constant Multiple Rule


If u is a differentiable function of x, and c is a constant,
then

𝑑 𝑑𝑢
𝑐𝑢 = 𝑐
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Example:
𝑑
2𝑥 4 = ⋯
𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 26
Differentiation Rules

Sum Rule
If 𝑢 and 𝑣 are differentiable functions of 𝑥, then their sum
is differentiable at every point where 𝑢 and 𝑣 are both
differentiable. At such points,
𝑑 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑣
𝑢+𝑣 = +
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Example:
𝑑 4
𝑥 + 10𝑥 = ⋯
𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 27
Differentiation Rules

Product Rule
If 𝑢 and 𝑣 are differentiable at 𝑥, then so is their product
𝑢𝑣, and

𝑑 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑢
𝑢𝑣 = 𝑢 +𝑣
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Example:
𝑑
𝑥 2 + 10𝑥 𝑥 + 3 =⋯
𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 28
Differentiation Rules

Quotient Rule
If 𝑢 and 𝑣 are differentiable at 𝑥 and if 𝑣(𝑥) ≠ 0, then the
quotient 𝑢/𝑣 is differentiable at 𝑥, and

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑣
𝑑 𝑢 𝑣 −𝑢
= 𝑑𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑣 𝑣

Example:
𝑑 𝑥 2 + 10𝑥
=⋯
𝑑𝑥 𝑥

Calculus I 29
Differentiation Rules

Exercises
Find the derivative of the following functions
1. 𝑓 𝑥 = 15𝑥 100 − 3𝑥 12 + 5𝑥 − 46
5
2. 𝑔 𝑤 = + 3𝑤 2
𝑤
𝑡
3. ℎ 𝑡 =
𝑡+1
3
4. 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑥 2 2𝑥 − 𝑥 2
2𝑡 5 + 𝑡 2 − 5
5. 𝑔 𝑡 =
𝑡2
Calculus I 30
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Calculus I
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

𝑑 𝑑
sin(𝑥) = cos 𝑥 cos(𝑥) = −sin(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑 𝑑
tan(𝑥) = sec 2 (𝑥) cot(𝑥) = −csc 2 (𝑥)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑 𝑑
sec(𝑥) = sec 𝑥 tan(𝑥) csc(𝑥) = −csc(x)co𝑡(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 32
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

Exercises
Find the derivative of the following functions
1. 𝑓 𝑥 = 3 sec 𝑥 − 10 cot(𝑥)

2. 𝑔 𝑤 = 3𝑤 −4 − 𝑤 2 tan 𝑤

3. ℎ 𝑡 = 5 sin 𝑡 cos 𝑡 + 4 csc 𝑥

4. 𝑓 𝑥 = 500 + 100 cos 𝑥 − 150 sin 𝑥


sin 𝑡
5. 𝑔 𝑡 =
3 − 2 cos 𝑡
Calculus I 33
Derivatives of Exponential and
Logarithm Functions

Calculus I
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions

Derivatives of Exponential Functions

𝑑 𝑥
𝑎 =⋯
𝑑𝑥

Calculus I 35
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions

Some Definitions of e

𝑛
1
1. 𝐞 = lim 1 +
𝑛→∞ 𝑛

𝐞 is the unique positive number for which


2. 𝐞ℎ −1
lim =1
ℎ→0 ℎ


1
3. 𝐞 =
𝑛!
𝑛=0

Calculus I 36
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions

Derivative Rule for Inverses


If 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥) are inverses of each other then,

1
𝑔’ 𝑥 =
𝑓′ 𝑔 𝑥

Calculus I 37
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions

Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions

𝑑 𝑥 𝑑 𝑥
𝐞 = 𝐞𝑥 𝑎 = 𝑎 𝑥 ln 𝑎
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑 1 𝑑 1
ln 𝑥 = log 𝑎 𝑥 =
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 ln 𝑎

Calculus I 38
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions

Exercises
Find the derivative of the following functions
1. 𝑓 𝑥 = 4𝑥 − 5log 9 𝑥

2. 𝑔 𝑤 = 3𝐞𝑤 + 10𝑤 3 ln 𝑤

5𝐞𝑡
3. ℎ 𝑡 = 𝑡
3𝐞 + 1

Calculus I 39