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1.1 -
Health and welfare provision:
 Drinking water
 Washing facilities
 Sanitary conveniences
 Accomodation for clothing
 Rest and eating facilities
 Seating, Heatingh, Lighting, Cleanliness Workplance
Lighting at work: so far as it is possible Natural Light,
 prevent of discomfort from glare, excessive contrast between light and shade, reflections or strong direct
 eliminate harmful flickering and strobing
 lux level to suit the required level of detail and local task lighting
 suitable for the environment and provided with emergency lighting
Effects of Hot Environment: loss of concentration, lethargy, sweating, heat syncope (fainting), heat rash, heat
exhaustion, cramping heat stroke, burns
 Preventative measures: move away from the source, screening / barriers, acclimatization, regular breaks,
job rotations, isotonic fluids, ventilation and humidity control, lightweight clothing, ban working outside in
very hot weather
Effect of cold environment: loss of concentration, reduced manual dexterity, shivering, hypothermia, frost nip,
frostbite, chilblains (geloni), immersion foot, slip hazard (ice), freeze burns injuries.
 Preventative measures: protect from draughts (correnti d’aria), shield or lag cold surfaces, insulating
clothing, provide warm refuges, regular brakes, job rotation, warm food and drink, insulated floor pads (for
workers that stand still in one place for long periods), acclimatization, treaty icy floors.
Prevention of falling materials:
 Stacking may be done by creating freestanding stacks or with racking system in which stack the materials
 Only level, never in gradient
 Pallet or cages (to be moved with equipment)
Depends on what material is and in what shape it comes (e.g. sand for concrete can be loose or in containers).
The storage system should be clearly marked (e.g. limit weight…), should be designed for the purpose, suitable for FLT
(Fork Lift Truck), right signage and delimitations of areas.

1.2 - Violence at work

Definition: “any incident in which a person is abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances relating to their
work” – “any location, incident or behaviour that departs from reasonable conduct in which a person is assaulted,
Risk Factors:
 Position of authority (policemen, inspectors…)
 Nature of the work
 Work location
 Time of the day (night shifts…)
 Misuse of alcohol and or drugs
 Person under stress
 Visible appearance (wealthy…)
 Availability of weapons
 Cash handling
To determine the size of the problem:
 Speak to worker, encourage reporting, identify vulnerable workers, keep detailed records of all incidents,
classify according to severity, predict what might happen in the future.
Control measures:
 Policy statement says zero tolerance
 eliminate or reduce visit to known trouble areas especially at night
 Remove potential weapons
 Improve security doors code, CCTVs

 Provide distraction
 Reporting procedures
 Provision of information on specific / individual cases
 Training in conflict avoidance
 Personal alarms
Dealing with the incident (reactive monitoring) needs to consider: Debrief Victim, provide time off work where
necessary, Phased return to work, Provide counselling where needed, Legal assistance, advice to other worker on how
to treat those who have been victims of violence.

1.3 - Substance misuse at work

Risk to Health and Safety:
 Casual use can escalate into dependency
 Prescription medication should be considered as well as illegal substances
 Effect may vary from person to person
 Substances may remain in the body for lengthy periods
 Effects includes: poor coordination, balance and decision making; effect on perceptions; poor concentration;
poor attitude; rule breaking, violence and theft; overall state of poor health (fatigue, concentration, stress)
 Solvent may be used as a substance or can cause: nausea, headache, dizziness, light-headedness.

Control Measures:
 Identification of safety critical work
 Drug and alcohol policy

1.4 – Safe Movement of people in the workplace

Common hazards can cause a pedestrian to:
 Slip, trip or fall on the level (can be caused by)
o Poor surfaces (damage floor, pot hole)
o Unmarked changes in level (ramps, kerbs)
o Slippery surfaces caused by oil or water
o Obstructions (debris, cables, tools…)
o Poor housekeeping
o Inappropriate footwear
o Running or not taking care
 Fall from height
o Unfenced edges
o Fragile roofing materials
o Changing environment (construction sites…)
o High wind, rain, ice, snow…
o Slippery surfaces
o Unsafe climbing technique
 Collide with moving vehicle
o Lack of space
o Lack of segregation between people and vehicles
o Undefined traffic routes
o Reversing vehicles
o Speeding
o Inadequate warning systems (reversing alarm…)
 Be struck by moving, flying or falling objects
o Stacking items too high
o Damaged pallets
o Overloaded racking
o Stacking loose materials at too steep an angle
o Faulty or inappropriate lifting equipment
o Unstable loads
o Items being thrown or dropped
 Strike fixed or stationary objects
o Poorly positioned machinery and equipment
o Lack of marked pedestrian walkways
o Lack of space
o Low overheads
o Poor lighting
o Suspended items (cranes…)
Slips and trips, control measures:
 Slip resistant materials
 Highlight changes in level
 Good lighting
 Defect reporting
 Cleaning up spillage
 Housekeeping
 Handrails on stairs
 Use of appropriate footwear
 Spillage control and drainage
 Designated walkways (width marking clear of obstruction…)

1.5 – Working at height

Work when there is risk of a fall to cause personal injury.
People at risk: steel worker, scaffolders, roofers, engineers, welders, maintenance staff, painters, window cleaner.
Main Risk: Worker falling or Object Falling.
Accident: Death, Neck or Spinal Injury, Broken Bones.
Examples of working at height:
 Fragile Roof (not designed to carry load), use of signs, roof ladders and crawling boards to reduce risk
 Sloping Roof (pitch greater than 10°)
Risk Factors: Deterioration of materials, unprotected edges, unstable access equipment, weather, falling materials.
Only in case of short duration of work
Hazards: falls from height (falling off the ladder, the ladder toppling sideways, ladder base slipping out from the wall)
Control measures: sited away from live overheads, Solid and flat base, Hands on stiles, never on rungs, correct angle
(1:4 rule), top of the ladder against solid support, ladder secured at the top, top of the ladder should extend above
working platform, only one person on ladder at time, nothing should be carried in hands when climbing, wooden
ladder not painted (so can be clear if rotten)
For short and light work.
Precautions: daily inspections before use, fully open locking device in place, firm on level ground, don’t work off top 2
steps, avoid over reaching, avoid side-on working.

Independent Tied Scaffold (ponteggi)

Causes of Scaffold collapse:
 Overloaded work platform
 Soft ground
 Scaffold not tied in
 Insufficient bracing
 Standards not upright
 Standards bent or damaged
 High winds
 Incorrect couplers
 Scaffold struck by mobile plant
 Scaffold erected by incompetent workers
 Scaffold not inspected prior to use

Mobile Towers Scaffolds (trabattelli o ponteggi mobili)

Hazard and Risk: falls from the work platform, object falling, collapse of the structure, overturn (toppling),
unintended movement of the wheels, contact with live overheads.
Precautions: guardrails, not overloaded, wheels locked, firm and level ground, people materials off while moved,
avoid overhead, outriggers used, no climbing outside tower, training.

Mobile Elevated Work Platforms (MEWPS)

Hazard and Risk: Falls, object falling, collapse, overturn (toppling), contact with live overheads, unauthorised use.
Precautions: firm stable ground, clearance of obstruction and overheads, barriers to exclude vehicles, guardrails,
controls inside the cradle, not driven with the cradle raised, not overloaded, inspected before work, trained,
authorised staff.

1.6 – Hazard and control measures for works of a temporary nature

Temporary works is widely used in the construction industry for semi-permanent construction works that need to be
carried out first to allow works to take place.
Construction includes: building works, renovations, maintenance activities, demolition works.
Specific ILO standards for construction sites.
Main Hazards: stacked materials and flammable substances, stored materials, stored flammable substances,
machinery vehicles, electricity, (hazard from excavation and work at height are separate chapters).

Storage of materials => area clearly identified, separate area for different items, areas clean and tidy, frequently
inspected, ???
Stacking => each stack for one material only, maximum stack height, stack in vertical, use of pallets to keep off the
ground, sufficient space to allow safe movement of pallets.
Storage of flammable substances =>
 liquid, solid and gases in separate stores
 oxygen stored separately
 external stores away from buildings drains or excavations
 internal stored constructed of fire resistant material and ventilated
 large stores should have two means of escape
 stores suitably signed
 hot works prohibited near storage area
 correctly rated electrical equipment
 fire-fighting equipment
 regularly inspected

Hazards: moving parts, ejected materials, noise, vibrations
Controls: guarding, maintenance, competent users, safe system of work, PPEs, supervision.

Hazards: uneven ground, poor sight lines, risk of collision with structures
Controls: site layout, routes for pedestrians/vehicles, warning signs, maintenance, proper use, competent drivers,
movement supervised (banksman for reversing)

Site Security
Perimeter fence and signs; secure gates; security staff; CCTV camera; site alarm; secure portable equipment; remove
ladder from scaffolds; secure all chemical; secure all mobile plant; cover or barrier off excavations; good lighting.

Specific risk for construction: overhead power lines or buried services. Is not necessary the contact, electricity can arc.
Overhead power line precautions: Isolating the power supply; using SSoW and PTW; Sleeve low voltage power
lines; using barriers, signage and goal-post; using banksmen; using non-conducting equipment.

Includes total destruction or partial dismantling of structures
Hazards: unstable structure; plant, vehicle, machinery; live overheads; buried services; asbestos; dust; biological
hazard; sharps; heavy awkward loads.
Controls: choose of method to exclude people; structural surveys; disconnection of services; removal and disposal of
hazardous materials; security for the site; camping down to minimise dust.
Risk: collapse; striking buried services; people falling in; object falling in vehicle, spoil, adjacent structures ???
Preventative measures: competent people, risk assessment, segregation of areas, emergency procedures, welfare
provision (drinking water etc…)

Three kinds of excavation: Battering, shoring, trench box.
Precautions for people falling in: barriers and toe boards; good lighting and signs; crossing points; access
ladders; ladders to extend above edge of excavation.
Preventing materials and vehicles from falling in: spoil heaps away from excavation; barriers and signs; stop-
barriers; minimise vehicles close to unsupported excavations; hard hats.
Preventing striking buried services: detailed plants of the area; detection equipment (metal, cable detector, ground
radar); hand digging; identification, support where necessary; mechanical digging.
2.1 –
Major Issues:
 Overturning – laterally or longitudinally
 Collision with other vehicles, pedestrians, fixed object
 Falling from height
 Being struck by loads
 Non-movement related hazards: loading and unloading; securing loads; coupling; maintenance work
 Hazards associated with vehicle maintenance
 Drive too fast
 Reversing
 Silent operation of machinery (EV)
 Poor visibility
What could cause a forklift truck to overturn:
 Overloading or uneven loading
 Driving with the load elevated, especially cornering
 Cornering whilst being driven too fast
 Sudden or excessive braking
 Driving over potholes
 Driving across a slope rather than straight up/down
 Collision especially with kerbs
 Lateral instability
Collision on entrance or exit points concerns: bottleneck of vehicles, blind spots, change in lighting level.
Factors that increase risk of collision: Driving too fast; inadequate lighting; reversing without banksman; blind
spots; bad weather conditions; obstructed visibility; poor design of pedestrian walkways and crossing points; lack of
vehicle maintenance.
Control strategy: hierarchy of control (eliminate hazard, safe place, safe person); risk assessment: identify hazard,
identify people at risk, evaluate risk and precautions, record and implement measures, review.
Conditions and Environments that can increase risk:
 Poor lighting, poor signage, poorly identified fixed object
 Lack of driver familiarity
 Reversing
 Sharp bends
 Lack of safe crossing points, lack of barriers, lack of vehicle management
 Use of same entrance/exit for both vehicles and pedestrians
 Poor vehicle maintenance
 Speeding
 Rain, snow, ice…
Factors that can cause loss of control: driver error, environmental conditions, mechanical failure.
Management of vehicle movements:
 Transport manager appointed
 Trained drivers
 Authorised drivers only
 Briefing for visiting drivers
 Vehicle checks
 Use of banksman
 Key security
 Control of reversing
 Well maintained and lit roadways
 Segregate vehicles and pedestrians
Factors to consider when setting a layout of traffic routes:
 Purpose of the route
 Types of vehicles to be using the route
 Likely volume of traffic
 Surface material
 Gradient, cambers, changes in level
 One-way system and turning circles
 Segregation of vehicles and pedestrians
 Crossing points
 Lighting level
 Drainage
 Speed limits and markings
Parking Rules:
 Apply the handbrake
 Lower the fork and trip the mast forwards
 Remove the key
 Do not obstruct traffic route, pedestrian route, emergency escape routes
Pre-use checklist:
 Tire pressure
 Parking brakes and service brakes
 Steering
 Fuel, oil and water system leak free
 Batteries and chargers
 Lifting and tilting system/hydraulics
 Audible warning
 Lights and mirrors
Driver should be:
 Competent to drive the vehicle
 Medically fit to drive
 Provided with specification information, instruction and training
 supervised

2.2 – Driving at work

Managing work-related road safety:
 Specific Policy
 System to manage work-related road safety
 Monitoring performance
 Organisation
 Legal responsibilities:
o Fitness to drive
o Driver competence
o Vehicle condition
o Driving behaviour
Risk Factors: Distance travelled, driving hours, work scheduling, stress (e.g. traffic), weather conditions.
The Driver:
 Competency (driver license checked; experience and ability)
 Training (advanced or defensive driving courses; vehicle safety, pre-use inspections)
 Fitness and health (medical examination, eyesight checks, drug policy)
The Vehicle:
 Suitability (minimum requirement standard; insurance and MOT If private vehicle used)
 Condition (maintained, pre-use inspection, defect report)
 Safety equipment (seat belts, airbags, head restraints; emergency triangles, first aid kit, spare tire; fire
 Ergonomic (Adjustability of seat position and controls)
The Journey:
 Routes (avoid hazard e.g. town centres; select low risk roads; avoid roadworks)
 Scheduling (avoid peak time; avoid fatigue time; flexible deadlines)
 Time (realistic; rest breaks; statutory requirements e.g. lorry drivers, HGV)
 Distance (use other transport; not excessive)
 Weather conditions (reliable weather forecast; no driving/additional safety advice in bad weather)
3.1 – Work related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULDs)
Meaning of MSD:
 Disorders of muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, bones caused by working and working conditions
 Mostly cumulative, resulting from repeat exposure
 Mainly affect thee back, neck, shoulders and upper limb
Symptoms: Aches and pains; tenderness; tingling; numbness; weakness; swelling and cramps.
Repetitive operations: keyboard operations, assembly of small components, bricklaying, supermarket checkout.
Ill-Health Effects: caused or made worse by forceful, frequent twisting and repetitive movements.
Examples: tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis); tensynovitis; carpa tunnel syndrome.
Increase of Risk:
 Task (repetition; force; posture; twisting);
 Environment (lighting; other parameters);
 Equipment (design adjustability).

Display Screen Equipment (DSE)

Provide basic DSE workstation equipment to minimum standards, plan work routines, provide eyesight test, provide
training on risk and preventative measures.
 Workstation / Desk layout
 Temperature
 Document Holder
 Footrest
 Telephone headset
 Specific measure for laptops:
o Short duration works only
o Docking station/separate keyboard and mouse
o Breaks
o Eye test
MSD Control Measures:
 Ergonomic Solutions (fit the task, equipment, workstation to the person)
 Workstation: height, space, adjustability
 Temperature control
 Reduce need for muscular force – lower weight, balanced tools
 Mechanise or automate
 Job rotation
 Rest breaks
 Ensure good posture through work design
 Work organisation – avoid peaks and thoughts in demand
 Training

3.2 – Manual Handling Hazards, control measures

Common Injuries:
 Back (disc) injury
 Sprains and strains
 Fracture and lacerations
 Hernias
 Cut and burns
 Bruises, fractures and crushing injuries
Four main Factors:
 L – Load (reduce size, provide handles, eliminate sharp edges)
 I – Individual (personnel selection, training, PPEs, general clothing, Health)
 T – Task (redesign, mechanise, reduce carrying distances, team handling, job rotation)
 E – Environment (workstation heights, lighting, floor conditions, space)
Guidelines for Assessment:
 Lifting => guidance on manageable loads for men and women
 Carrying => guidance assumes load is close to the body
 Pushing and Pulling
 Handling while seated
 Twisting
Avoiding or Minimising the Risk:
 Eliminate
 Assess manual handling which remains
 Use handling aids
 Modify the Task, Load, environment
 Match individual capabilities to the activity

3.3 – Manually Operated Load Handling Equipment

 Trained workers only
 Follow manufacturer’s recommendations
 Avoid uneven ground and slopes
 Use ramps over steps
 Safe working load
 Secure load
 Use the brakes if fitted
 Care when moving or lowering the load
 Safe parking and storage
 Routine inspection and maintenance
 Safety shoes or boots
Patient Hoists are used for moving people and can be manual powered, mobile or fixed. The Environment should
be considered (difficult to push on carpets); need of inspection before use
Slide sheets: slide patient from trolley to bed, avoiding to lift the person.

3.4 – Powered Load Handling Equipment

They should be appropriate for the task, stable, secure, marked with Safe Working Load (SWL), used by competent
person. If they lift persons may require additional inspections.
The Fork Lift Truck is a powered load handling equipment.

Battery powered Trucks

Risk =>
 Explosion from hydrogen gas whilst charging
 Corrosive acid
 Manual handling
 Arcing, shock, burns or fire
 Environmental (battery disposal)
 Silent running
 Battery leads can short.
Precautions =>
 Charge batteries in well ventilation area without ignition sources
 Use PPEs specific when handling acids
 Mechanise battery handling
 Electrical safety with insulated tools and gloves

Diesel powered Trucks

Risk =>
 Dermatitis from diesel
 Slip hazards
 Environmental pollution from large spills
 Toxic exhaust fumes
 Bulk storage of diesel
 Use in well ventilated areas
 Spill kits
 Use glove when handling diesel

Lift and Hoists

 Falling objects
 Being struck by the load
 Entanglement in moving parts
 Falls from height
 Being struck while riding on the platform of the lift by (landing levels, parts of any enclosure, other
 Suitable for intended use
 Preventing people getting:
o Underneath the lift platform
o Access to an unprotected loading edge
o Struck by landing and obstructions when being carried on the platform
 Maximum safe working load
 Competent operators
 Information, instruction and training
 Routine maintenance
 Routine inspection and thorough examination

Conveyors (Belt conveyors, roller conveyors, screw conveyors

 Warning to alert prior to moving
 Guards on moving parts
 Emergency stops
 Guards beneath overhead conveyors to catch falling objects
 Barriers to exclude people
 Information, instruction and training
 No loose clothing / long hair / jewellery
 Inspection and maintenance
 Defect reporting system
Mobile Cranes:
Hazards / Risks =>
 The crane collapsing or toppling over
 The arm (jib or boom) striking structures
 Falling load
 The load striking object or people
 Contact with live overhead cables
Factors causing instability
 Overturning
 Uneven or unstable ground
 Not using outriggers correctly
 Use in high winds
 Extending the jib or boom too far
 Structural failure
 Use with the safe lifting capacity
 Careful siting
 Maintenance and examination
 Trained and competent operators
 Lift to be planned and supervised
 Banksman
 Safety devices
 Check weather
 Use outriggers correctly
 Never lift the load over a person
 Use of PPEs

4.1 – General requirements for work equipment

All work equipment must be compliant with relevant legislation and compatible with the task and environment.
Only trained and competent operators especially for high specialised equipment and within theirs range of hazards.
For low risk => instruction (example for the use of a hammer and nails)
For high risk => formal training with check of effectiveness
Management of Operators and Staff (specific information, instruction and training; minimise risk; understand
maintenance requirements)

Frequent Inspection of the equipment => control the maintenance conditions with
planned preventative maintenance (e.g. oil at 40.000 km)
condition based maintenance (when tires are exhausts…)
breakdown maintenance => emergency repairs
Maintenance Risks => guards and enclosures removed; safety devices removed or disabled; power sources exposed;
stored power released (e.g. compressed springs); access in awkward; manual handling of heavy parts; additional
hazard like power tools.

Maintenance Precautions =>

Use a Safe System of Work to include
 competent staff,
 power sources (isolated or locked off),
 stored power released or secured or cover with insulated materials or additional PPE;
 if dangerous moving parts they should run at lower speed possible or fit purpose made maintenance guards;
 precaution for safe access;
 use of manual handling aids

Equipment controls should be =>

 Well designed and easy to use
 Suitably located
 Easily identifiable
 In good working order
 Compliant with relevant standards
 Emergency stops (buttons and pull cords)
Environmental Factors =>
Equipment should be stable, controls appropriately marked, have appropriate warning signs
Lighting should be => adequate, suitable, environmental suitable (e.g. explosive area should have peculiar light bulbs)
Space should be adequate

Responsibilities of Operators
 Only operate equipment authorised to use
 Follow instructions and training
 Only use equipment for its intended purpose
 Carry out safety check before use
 Not use equipment if it is not safe
 Reports defects immediately
 Not use equipment under influence of drugs and alcohol
 Keep equipment clean and in safe order
4.2 – Hazards and controls for hand held tools
 Chisel – scalpello
 Hammer - Martello
 Screwdriver - Cacciavite
 Axe – Ascia

Risks =>
 Tool may shatter
 Handle may come loose
 Tool may be blunt requiring excellive force
 Human error
 Misuse (wrong tool for job)
Precautions =>
 Tools suitable for the task
 Information instruction and training
 Visual inspection of tools
 Substandard tools maintained or discarded
 Maintenance of tools
 Supervision of practices

Hand Held Portable Power Tools

High risk because forces are greater meaning potential severe injury

Hazards associated with power tools

 Electricity
 Fuel
 Noise
 Vibration
 Dust
 Ejection of material
 Trip hazards

Controls for safe use of power tools

 Careful selection of task and environment
 Instruction, follows manufacturer’s instruction and in-house rules
 Training information competence
 Supervision
 Routinely inspected
 Regular maintenance
Further controls =>
 Tools used for intended purpose
 Guards and safety devices in place
 PPE used
 Power cable controlled
 Ejected parts controlled
 Control of: noise, dust, vibration, petrol, electrical equipment
4.3 – Mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of machinery
Mechanical hazards => contact with or being caught up in moving parts
 Crushing
 Shearing
 Cutting or severing
 Entanglement
 Drawing in or trapping
 Impact
 Stabbing or puncture
o Friction or abrasion
o High pressure fluid injection
Acronimo ENTICES per ricordare mechanical hazards
 Entanglement
 Nip
 Trapping
 Impact
 Contact
 Ejection
 Stabbing

Non-Mechanical hazards => from power source or things being emitted by the machine
 Electricity
 Noise
 Vibration
 Hazardous substances
 Ionising radiation
 Non-ionising radiation
 Extreme temperatures
 Poor design
 Cables
 Fire explosion hazards

Fumes from combustion is non-mech while sparks or debris ejected by a machine is mech hazard

4.4 – Control Measures to reduce the risk from machinery hazards

Acronym FIAT => Fixed, Interlocked, Adjustable (self adjusting), Trip
Fixed Guards pros =>
 completely prevent access to dangerous parts of machinery
 are fixed in place
 require a tool for removal
cons => maintenance of machinery, does not block machinery operation when removed, visibility limitations,
overheating of the machinery,

Interlocked Guards =>

If the guard is open the power to the machine is disabled until the guard is in place
If the guard is closed, it is locked until the machine has returned to a safe condition
Pros => disable power if removed, is easily opened and closed
Cons => if system not maintained may have failures, may be bypassed manually forcing opening

Adjustable/self adjusting guards

Used when it is not possible to prevent access to dangerous parts
Adjustable => require the operator to set manually the position of the guard
Self Adjusting guard => usually spring adjust itself to the workplace
Pros => ergonomic; adjustable from operator; protect operators in case of variable dimension of item
Cons => requires more training; may obscure visibility; relies on the operator ability to adjust the guard.

Trip Devices
Not a physical barrier and use the presence of an operator to stop the machine with detecting sensors.
Examples => pressure mats, trip bars, photo-electric devices
Pros => Helpful to reduce the severity of damage received; may be used as an additional control device (addition to
other guards)
Cons => not a physical barrier; may be bypassed;

Two Hands controls

Designed to protect operator’s hands; releasing one hand stop the machinery immediately
Pros => the hazards is keep away from the hands; has an immediate stop
Cons => Protect only the operator (create a safe person not a place); limited speed of operations;

Protective Appliances
Designed to be expendable during working operations keeping the operators safe. Keeps operator’s hand away from
 Push sticks; Jigs; clamps;
Pros => cheap; create physical distance;
Cons => may reduce accuracy of the work;

Emergency stop control

 Bring the machine to a safe stop as quickly as possible
 Machine can only be restarted using reset button
 Release of the button should not restart the machine

Basic characteristics of a guard or safety device

 Suitable for intended purpose with ad adequate strength and compatible with machine operation.
 Not easy to defeat, well maintained, not rough or sharp
 Allow maintenance without removal and doesn’t increase overall risk
5.1 – Principles, Hazards and Risks associated with the use of electricity at work
 Pressure measured in volt
 Flow rate measured in amperes
 Resistance measured in Ohm
V = I x R (Ohm’s Law)
Alternating current (AC) vs Direct Current (DC)
Electricity flows from higher potential towards lower potential. Earth is a pit of lower potential
Risks from Electricity
 Electric shock (heart fibrillation, Muscle contraction, Burns internal or external; Arching)
 Static Electricity
 Fire and Explosion
 Secondary effects

Severity of electrical shock depends mainly on:

 Voltage – the higher voltage and the current the higher the damage
 Duration – time of exposure
 Current path – the route through the body
 Frequency of the AC current
 Resistance – skin condition, clothing…
 Environmental factors – metal surface, humidity…
Fire and Explosions causes:
 Electrical equipment faulty or overheated
 The system may be overload
 Equipment may be misused
 A flammable atmosphere may be present
 Electrical equipment may produce heat or sparks as part of its normal operation
 Poor internal connections
Static Electricity
 Built up by potential difference between surfaces
 Caused by friction
 Surfaces become charged
 Spark caused on contact with earth
 Ability of electricity to jump across an air gap
 Usually involves high voltage
 Main hazards:
o Electric shock
o Burns (direct or indirect)
o Damage to eyes from UV radiation emitted

5.2 – Control Measures

Protect conductors => insulated to prevent contact with live conductors: cable coverings unbroken and equipment
casing intact
Inspect to ensure protection is in place and ensure electrical panels are locked

Factor to consider for electrical equipment includes:

 Suitability for the task
 Capability not exceeded (manufacturer’s guidelines)
 Environmental conditions (weather, natural hazards, temperature, dirt and contamination, corrosive
chemical, wet conditions, flammable liquids and vapours)
 Foreseeable types of damages
Protective systems:
 Fuses
 Earthing
 Insolation of supply
 Reduced and low voltage systems
 Residual current devices (RCDs)
 Double Insulation

Fuses =>
 protect the equipment not the people
 Form a weak link in the circuit
 Designed to overheat and melt if excessive current
 Rating should be above operating current but lower than the cable rating

 Very cheap and reliable
 Offer a good level of protection for the equipment against current overload that can cause fire or explosion

 Protect equipment not people
 Relatively slow to act
 High tolerances
 Very easy to bypass

To work on conductor and live wires the person shall be competent (KATE) and usually is required a license by national
Usually working near electricity is required a safe system of work that shall consider to:
1. Work dead whenever possible
o Isolation and lock-off
o Warning signs
o Prove test equipment
o Prove dead (with a light bulb for instance)
o Prove test equipment again
2. Work on or near live electrical equipment only under exceptional causes and if controlled tightly
o May be controlled by national laws
o Safe system of work to include:
 Permit to work
 Competent person
 Insulating PPE (boots, gauntlets)
 Insulating tools
 Designated work areas

Buried cable may be struck during excavation and can result in arcing, shock burns, fire.
Precautions: check plans, detection equipment, identify and label.

Overhead Power Lines: usually are uninsulated

Protect by: isolation, SSoW, Permit To Work, barriers, signs, goal-post, check plans, banksmen, non-conducting
Emergency Action:
 Don’t touch the casualty
 Call for help
 Isolate from power supply
 Call for ambulance
 Check for breathing: recovery position, start CPR if not breathing
 Treat burns
 Treat for physical shock
 Ensure medical help is obtained

Inspection and maintenance of electrical equipment

Apply to fixed wiring systems and portable electrical appliances
 User checks (routine, every work shift)
o Damage to cable sheath
o Damage to plug
o Flex fully insulated (no kinks/splits)
o Inadequate joints
o Unsecured sheath
o Wet or contaminated
o Damage to casing of equipment
o Burns/scorch marks
 Formal visual inspection
o User check plus =>
o Remove plug cover and check fuse
o Check cord grip
o Check terminals are secure and no signs of internal damage
o Done by competent person
 Combined inspection and testing
o Visual inspection may fail to detect loss of earthing integrity, deterioration of insulation
o Inspection and test is justified when: suspect equipment is defective; after repair or modification; at
appropriate intervals (usually dictated by manufactures)
Portable Appliance testing
 Demonstrates legal compliance
 Defect faults not visible to the simple eye check
 Allows early removal / repair of unsafe equipment
 Identifies trends or patterns of faults
 Provides proof of safety at one moment in time only
 Does not ensure safe use or prevent misuse
 Items may be missed and then remain untested
 Can’t be applied to all equipment (e.g. computers)
6.1 – Fire initiation, classification and spread
The fire triangle: Oxygen Heat Fuel

Classification of Fires:
Class A – Solid Materials
Class B – Liquid and liquefiable solids
Class C – Gases
Class D – Metals
Class F – high temperature fat

Method of fire spread

 Direct burning
 Convection (inside or outside)
 Conduction
 Radiation

Common Causes of Fires:

 Electrical equipment
 Deliberate ignition (arson)
 Hot work
 Smoking
 Cooking appliances
 Heating appliances
 Unsafe use and storage of flammable liquids and gases
 Mechanical heat
 Chemical reactions

Consequences of Fires
 People killed and inured
 Damage to buildings and contents including smoke damage
 Environmental damage
 High cost for the organisation

6.2 – Fire Risk Assessment

Five step of risk assessment =>
1. Identify the fire hazards:
a. Fuels
i. Paper
ii. Packaging materials
iii. Furniture
iv. Highly flammable liquids and gases
b. Ignition sources
i. Hot work
ii. Electrical equipment
iii. Portable heaters
c. Oxygen sources
i. Oxygen cylinders
ii. Oxidising substances
2. Identify the people who might be harmed and how
a. Workers, clients, contractors, intruders, also neighbourhood and firemen that may come during the
3. Identify and implement the fire precautions that are required
a. Fire prevention
b. Prevention of spread of smoke and flames
c. Fire detection and alarm
d. Fire-fighting equipment
e. Means of escape
f. Signs and notices
g. lighting
4. Record findings, plan and train
a. Record the significant findings
b. Develop emergency plans
c. Provide information and instruction
d. Train workers
5. Review and revise as necessary
a. Review and revise =>
i. As necessary (significant changes or fire emergency)
ii. Periodically (to keep assessment up to date)

Temporary Workplaces =>

Fire safety applies to all workplaces (needed for temporary workplaces like construction sites)
Changes to workplace may require review of risk assessment (extension, changing internal layout…) and may need
approval from fire authority
6.3 – Fire prevention and prevention of fire spread

 Control flammable substances (solids liquids and gasses)

 Control ignition sources (system of work, smoking, arson)
 System of work (hot processes, machinery, electrical equipment)
 Good Housekeeping (general tidiness, waste control and disposal)

Control of Flammable Materials =>

 Eliminate use altogheter
 Substitute for lower risk
 Minimise quantities:
o Stock control
o Housekeeping
o waste management
 safe use and storage in protected, dedicated buildings

Storage of Liquid Petroleum Gas

 Should be stored outside
 Storage area should be separate
 Area should be secure
 Warning signs
 Ignition sources eliminated
 Bottles chained upright
 Separate from other buildings
 Empty bottles stored separately from full ones
 Oxygen bottles should not be stored with LPG
 Use minimum bottle required at workplace
 Return to store immediately after use
Area characteristics when storing flammable materials
V – Ventilation
I – Ignition
C – Containment
E – Excange
S – Separation

Control Ignition Sources

 Electrical equipment
 Hot work
 Smoking
 Cooking activities
 Mechanical heat
 Arson

Typical Hot Work Precautions:

 Flammable materials removed from the area
 Cover items that can’t be removed
 Sweep the floor
 Damp down wooden floors
 Provide fire extinguisher
 Fire – watcher present in the area until is safe
 Check area after work has finished
Structural Measures to Prevent Fire Spread =>
Compartmentation: keep fire IN or OUT of a building area
 Creating enclosed/sealed boxes
 Fire-resistant floors and walls
 Fire-resistant doors (self-closing)
 Automatic shutters for ventilation shafts
 Intumescent sealants for gaps (fire-stopping)
 Remove waste regularly
 Keep the area tidy and return flammable materials to the correct storage area
 Fuel and ignition sources separated
 Maintain clear escape routes
Fire Doors, characteristics =>
 Able to withstand fire for a set time
 Fitted with self-closing devices
 Fitted with intumescent strip
 Fitted with a cold smoke seal
 Have vision panels of fire-resistant glass
 Clearly labelled

Common building materials:

 Concrete, usually fire resistant
 Steel, severely affected by high temperature
 Brick, very resistant to fire
 Timber, thin timbers burn, thick joints chars

Protecting building materials

 Steel:
o Encased in concrete
o Coated with intumescent foam or paint
 Insulation must be fire resistant
 Wall coverings can be flammable

Electrical Equipment for Use in Flammable Atmospheres

ATEX classifications for environment based on the presence of flammable materials
Gases, Vapor, Mists have three zones:
Zone 0 (zero) => always flammable material present for long periods
Zone 1 => flammable material may occasionally be present
Zone 2 => flammable material usually not present
For Flammable Dusts other three zones =>
Zone 20 => always flammable dust present
Zone 21 => occasionally may be present
Zone 22 => Usually not present

6.4 – Fire alarm system and fire-fighting arrangements

Fire Detectors =>
Smoke detectors:
 Detect small smoke particles
 Two main types: ionising and optical
 Can give rise to false alarms
Heat Detectors:
 Detect excesses heat generated by fire
 Usually less sensitive and give later warning
 Two main types: rate of rise or fixed temperature
 May not detect fires that are giving off smoke but not much heat
Radiation detection (not common)
Flammable gas detection

Other fire-fighting equipment =>

 Fire blanket (physically smothers fires useful for fat fires in kitchen)
 Hose reels (used in large buildings for fire teams)
 Sprinkler system (sited in buildings and warehouses, automatically dowses the fire)

Different class of fire needs different fire extinguishers.

Class A fire => water, powder, chemicals (CO2),
Class B => foam spray, CO2
Class C => CO2
Class D =>

Siting of Fire Extinguishers

 On fire exit routes
 Close to exit doors
 Close to specific hazards
 Clearly visible and signed
 Unobstructed access

6.5 – Evacuation of a workplace

A fire plan should include:
 Who is on premises
 Action to be taken on discovering fire
 Means of escape (shown on buildings plans)
 Fire-fighting equipment
 Action to be taken after evacuation
 Training

Means to Escape
 Availability to every person in the workplace (disabled, old people…)
 No use of lifts
 Must take staff to a place of safety
 Two or more separate routes may be required
 Travel distance should be short
 Adequate width
 Clearly signed appropriately lit
 Emergency lighting
 No obstructions

Stairs and corridors

 Fire-resistant protection
 Adequate width
 Unobstructed
 No storage of materials or equipment
 Consider wheelchair users

 Easy to open
 adequate width
 open in direction of travel
 Not locked

Assembly Points
 Safe distance from building
 Safe location
 Further escape possible if needed
 Must not impede fire-fighters
 Clearly signed
 Refuges for disabled workers

Fire Marshall
 Check if the alarm is real
 Check all areas are evacuated
 Assist disable workers
 Ensure fire escape routes are kept clear
 Ensure windows and doors are closed
 Conduct roll call at assembly point

Evacuation of the Workplace

 Training
 Records kept
 Fire drills: usually once a year; records kept
 Roll calls: ensure all person accounted for; may not be practical e.g. supermarket
Provision for Infirm and Disabled
Staff with disabilities may need personal evacuation plan to be:
 Assisted with travel downstairs
 Alert those with hearing impairment
May need to consider temporary disabilities
Evacuations of young elderly or pregnant woman
7.1 – Hazardous substances: forms, classification and health risk
Physical Forms of Chemicals
 Dust
 Fume (contains solid particles)
 Gas
 Mist
 Vapor
 Liquid
 Solid
 Fibres
 Smoke
Biological Agents
 Fungi (farmer’s lung…)
 Bacteria (legionnaire’s disease, leptospirosis…)
 Viruses (HIV, Hepatitis B…)
Chemical Classifications
 Toxic: small doses cause death or serious illness
 Harmful: larger dose cause death or serious illness
 Corrosive: destroys living tissue
 Irritant: inflames skin or mucous membranes
 Carcinogens: cause cancer
 Respiratory sensitizers: cause asthma e.g. flour dust isocyanates
 Skin sensitizers: cause allergic dermatitis e.g. epoxy resin
 Mutagens: causes hereditary genetic mutation
 Toxic for reproduction: causes sterility or is harmful to unborn child
 Serious eye damage
Specific target organ toxicity
 Single Exposure: the damage depends on the toxicity of the substance
o Cause damage to organs
o May cause damage to organs
o May cause respiratory irritation
o May cause dizziness
 Repeated exposure: depends mainly on the time of exposure to the substance
o Causes damage to organ through prolonged or repeated exposure
o May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

Health Effects may be:

 Acute
o High levels of exposure
o Short exposure time
o Quick effect
 Chronic
o Lower levels of exposure
o Longer exposure time
o Long term effect
7.2 – assessment of health risk
Should be considered the route of entry:
 Inhalation
o Inhalable dust
o Respirable dust (<7 microns)
 Ingestion
 Absorption through the skin
 Injection through the skin
o Needle stick
o Cuts and and grazes
o Bites
Defence Mechanisms:
Respiratory defences
 Sneezing and couching
 Nasal hair/mucous
 Ciliary escalator
 Macrophages
 Inflammatory response
Skin Defences
 Waterproof barrier comprised of
o Outer layer of dead cells
o Sebum – biocidal properties
o Inflammatory response

Factors to consider when assessing health risk

 Hazardous nature of substance
 Potential ill-health effects
 Physical forms
 Route of entry
 Quantity
 Concentration
 Number of people
 Frequency of exposure
 Duration of exposure
 Existing control measures

Sources of information
Product labels:
 Name of substance
 Hazardous components
 Risk phrases indicating danger
 Precautions
 Detail of supplier
 Manufacturers’ data sheet

Safety Data Sheet Contents

1. Details of substance and supplier
2. Composition of substance
3. Hazard identification
4. First-aid measures
5. Fire-fighting measures
6. Accidental release measures
7. Handling release measures
8. Exposure controls / PPEs
9. Physical / chemical properties
10. Stability and reactivity
11. Toxicological information
12. Ecological information
13. Disposal requirements
14. Transport information
15. Regulatory information
16. Other information

Stain Tube Detection => a reliable, quick and cheap test to evaluate the chemical concentration of the
environment. Limitations => only tests for one substances, not reliable for larger environments because it is single use
only, verifies only gases, vapours fumes, have an expiration date.

Passive Samplers => no pumping mechanism; long-term sampling; for gases and vapours; sample diffused on to
absorbent surface; laboratory analysis; highly accurate; can be used for personal monitoring of TWA (Time Wait
Average); Smoke Tube. Limitations => may be manumitted by worker

Dust Monitoring Equipment

 Worn by worker whilst working
 Indicates personal exposure
 Pre-weighed filter
 Pumped air
 Filter re-weighed
 Gives average value over time

Dust Lamp (Tyndall Lamp)

 Strong beam of light
 Highlights fine particle of dust
 Used to determinate efficiency of exhaust ventilation

Limitation of monitoring
 Accuracy of results
 Variations in personal exposure
 Absence of a standard
 Other exposure routes

7.3 – Occupational Exposure Limits

Legal limits differ around the world
UK has WEL; USA has TLV; EU has OEL.

Maximum concentration of an airborne substance, averaged over a reference period, to which employees can be
exposed by inhalation.

Define Substance, chemical formula, CAS Number (identificativo), LTEL (long term evaluated limit), STEL (short term
evaluated limit)
Exposure limit => ceiling exposure limit refers to short frequent exposition not included in LTEL nor in STEL but could
be harmful with an instant exposure. Should not be exceeded at any time.

Limitation of Exposure Limit =>

 Compound routes of entry
 Individual susceptibility
 Origin of exposure limit data
 Variations in control
 Errors in monitoring
 Synergistic effects

7.4 – Control Measures

The need to prevent exposure or adequately control => is law requirement (ILO, international protocols, national law,
good practice) to prevent exposure where is reasonable practicable
- Change method of working
- Modify a process for eliminate hazardous
- Substitution

1. Minimise emission, release and spread of hazardous substances

2. Choose effective and reliable controls
3. Use control measures proportionate to the risk
4. Use PPE where control cannot be achieved by other means
5. Implement personal hygiene and protection regimes
6. Carry out health and medical surveillance
7. Check control measures regularly
8. Additional controls for carcinogens, asthmagens or mutagens

Common measures used to implement principles of good practice

- Elimination or substitution
- Process changes
- Reduce exposure times
- Enclosure or segregation
- Local exhaust ventilation
- Personal hygiene and protection
- Health surveillance and monitoring

Local exhausts ventilation

Analyse why a local exhaust ventilation may be defective
 Poorly positioned intake hoods
 Damaged ducts
 Excessive amount of contamination
 Ineffective fan
 Blocked filters
 Build up of contaminant in the ducts
 Sharp bends in ducts
 Unauthorised additions to the system

Limitation of Dilution Ventilation

 Not suitable for highly toxic substances
 Compromised by sudden release of large quantities of contaminant
 Do not work well for dust or where the contaminant is released a a point of source
 Dead areas may exist

Control against Viruses => Vaccination

 Against biological agents (hepatitis, tetanus, typhoid)
 Worker consent required
 Immunity not always achieved
 False sense of security

Health surveillance
 Health monitoring
o Signs of disease
o Symptoms of chronic conditions (e.g. lung function test to check asthma)
 Biological monitoring
o Checks for contaminants within the body (e.g. lead)
 Pre-employment screening
o Establishes a baseline

Control of Carcinogens, Mutagens and Asthmagens

 Total enclosure of process or handling systems
 Prohibition of eating, drinking and smoking
 Regular cleaning
 Warning signs
 Safe storage, handling and disposal

Specific Control for Biological Agents

 Sterilisation and disinfection
 PPEs like lab coats
 Restrict agents to a designated area
 Spill containment trays/spill kits
 High standards of hygiene
 Vaccination

Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE)

Two types =>
 Respirators: filter contamined air
 Breathing Apparatus (BA): for oxygen depleted atmospheres, provide clean source of air.
The suitability of RPE
 Concentration of the contaminant and its hazards
 Physical form of the substance
 Level of protection offered by RPE
 Presence or absence of oxygen
 Duration of time that it must be worn
 Compatibility with other items of PPE
 Shape of the user’s face
 Facial hair
 Physical requirements of the job
 Physical fitness of the wearer

RPE information, instruction and training

Users should understand
 How to fit the RPE
 How to test it to ensure that it is working effectively
 The limitations of the item
 Any cleaning requirements
 Any maintenance requirements (how to change filter)

7.5 – Specific Agents

For instance, Asbestos =>
Naturally occurring mineral fibres used for fire-resistant building and lagging materials
 Asbestosis
 Lung cancer
 Mesothelioma
 Diffuse pleural thickening
 Asbestos cement roof
 Ceiling tiles
 Fire break walls
 Floor tiles
 Downpipes
 Pipe lagging
 Gaskets

To work with Asbestos in general:

 Work must be notified to the enforcement agency
 Work area sealed
 PPE and RPE
 Negative pressure ventilation system with efficient filters
 Asbestos waste
o Securely double bagged
o Labelled
o Disposed as hazardous waste
 Dust levels monitored inside and outside sealed work area
 Worker exposure must not exceed control limit
 Health surveillance provided

Specific Agents are =>

 Asbestos
 Blood Borne Viruses e.g. HIV, Hepatitis A, B, C
 Carbon monoxide
 Cement
 Legionella
 Leptospira
 Silica
 Wood Dust

Blood Borne Viruses =>

 Hepatitis A
o Contracted orally by cross contamination of faecal matter e.g. sewage workers
 Hepatitis B
o Transmitted in body fluids e.g. blood
o Health care workers, fire-fighters. Police
o Symptoms => jaundice, liver damage
Control measures =>
 PPE: gloves, eye protectors
 Disposal of material and clinical waste
 Prevention of needle stick injuries
 Decontamination and disinfection
 Vaccination
 Vaccination
 Accident procedures

Carbon Monoxide
 Colourless, odourless gas
 By-product of combustion e.g. poorly maintained boilers
 Inhalation hazard
 Prevents red blood cells absorbing oxygen
 Chemical asphyxiation
o Low level => worsening headaches
o High levels => rapid unconsciousness and death
Control measures =>
 Competent engineers for gas systems
 Maintenance and testing of boilers and flues
 Good ventilation
 LEV for workshop vehicle exhausts
 Siting of equipment containing combustion engines
 CO alarm
 Confined space entry controls

Controls =>
 Eliminating or reducing exposure
 PPE – gloves, dust mask, eye protection
 Removal of contamined clothing
 Good hygiene and washing skin on contact
Harmful effects =>
 Irritation of the Eye, respiratory tract, skin
 Allergic dermatitis and corrosive burns to skin on repeated prolonged contact
Legionnaire’s disease
 Water-loving soil bacteria
 Inhalation hazard
 Mists particularly high risk
 Flu-like fever, pneumonia

Contols =>
 Enclosing wwater systems
 Water treatment (chlorination)
 Hot water >60°C
 Biocides
 Prevention of timescale
 Routine cleaning of cooling towers
 Water sampling and analysis

Leptospira Bacteria
Infected urine from: rats, mice, cattle and horses
Contaminated water in contact with cuts grazes etc…
Dairy farmers, sewage workers, water sports instructors
Flu-like symptoms, jaundice, liver damage (weil’s disease)

Controls =>
Preventing rat infestation – good housekeeping, pest control
Good personal hygiene
PPE especially gloes
Covering cuts and grazes
Issuing at risk cards to workers

Component of rock
Quarries, pottery and construction industry
Inhalation hazard
Causes scar tissue to form in lungs

Controls =>
Alternative work method
Dust suppression by water
Health surveillance

Wood Dust
Inhalation hazard
Causes asthma
Hard woods can cause cancer

Controls =>
Vacuuming rather than sweeping
Health surveillance
7.6 – Safe handling and storage of waste
Waste definition => something that is discarded or is going to be discarded

General hierarchy of control =>

1. Reduce
2. Rescue
3. Recycle
4. Recover energy
5. Responsible disposal

Hazardous Waste
Substances (highly flammable, toxic, carcinogenic, corrosive); products (batteries, refrigerators, freezers, televisions,
fluorescent light tubes, computer monitors)

Non hazardous waste

Household waste, paper, wood, biodegradable materials

Safe handling and storage, factor to consider for solid waste =>
 The hazardous nature of the waste
 Manual handling risk
 Safe access to skips, bins…
 Don’t store on unmade ground
 Moving parts of compactors
 Vehicle hazards
 Security of the waste
 Segregation
 Documentation
 Containers located in bund away from walls
 Bunds have 110% capacity of largest container
 Provision for rainwater
 Transfer points
 Protect bund from damage
 Bunds checked and maintained

Spill containment:
Whenever liquid wastes are present
Measures include: spill kit, drain covers, training.
8.1 – Noise
Effect of the noise: acute (temporary deafness, acoustic trauma (broken eardrum), distraction), chronical (deafness,
tinnitus, social exclusion)
Occupation at risk: construction, army, music operator, workshop, huge call centre.

Noise Assessment
Simple sound meter
 Measure instant noise levels
 Simple surveys

Integrating sound level meter

 Measures noise over a period of time
 Used for all surveys

 Worn by worker
 Personal noise exposure

Noise exposure Standard (European standard as example)

In Italy maximum peak of noise is 140 dB but starting from 80 dB should be monitored and controlled the risk.

Lower Exposure Action Value => 80 dB (A)

 Noise assessment
 Information, instruction and training
 Provide hearing protection
Upper Exposure Action Value => 85 dB (A)
 Noise assessment
 Reduce noise exposure engineering measures
If Noise Above 85 dB (A)
 Mandatory hearing protection zone
 Information, instruction and training
 Provide hearing protection and enforce use
 Health surveillance

Noise Exposure Control:

For the noise should be considered source, pathway and receiver.
Apply the hierarchy of control last line of defence is PPEs.

Hearing protection
Ear Defenders (muffs) => encase the ear and bones surrounding the ear
Ear plugs => fit into the ear canal
Health surveillance
Audiometry allows to:
 Identification of workers with
o Pre-existing hearing damage
o New hearing damage
 Removal/exclusion of such worker from high noise areas
 Investigation of noise controls to rectify problems
8.2 – Vibration
Two kinds of vibration, full body or hand-arm vibrations

Effect of Exposure to vibrations =>

Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) (e.g. power drill workers)
 Vibration white fingers (blanching)
 Nerve damage
 Muscle weakening
 Joint damage
Whole Body Vibration (WBV) (e.g. excavator driver, dumper truck driving, aircraft cabin crew)
 Whole-body vibration
 Damage to spinal discs
 vertigo

Control of Vibration (hierarchy of control)

 eliminate
 substitute
 change of work method
 maintenance
 isolate
 limit time exposed
 job rotation
 PPEs

Health surveillance
At above the exposure action value
Health surveillance allows:
 Indentation of workers with pre-exiting vibration damages or new vibration damage
 Removal/exclusion of such workers from vibration sources
 Investigation of vibration sources to rectify problems

8.3 – Radiation
Two types of radiation:
 Higher energy
 Can change the structure of atoms
 Lower energy
 Heating effects
 Doesn’t change the structure of atoms
Ionising radiation: can penetrate the body and cause serious and permanent harm
- Alpha particles
- Beta particles
- X-rays
- Gamma rays
- Neutrons
- Radon
Acute Health Effects
 Radiation sickness
 Nausea, vomiting, ulceration of skin
 Hair loss
 Dermatitis
 Cataracts
 Anemia
 Reduced immune system
 Infertility
 Death
The larger the dose, the greater the risk

Chronic Health Effects

 Cancer
 Genetic mutation
 Birth defects

Protection from Ionising Radiation

 Minimise exposure
 Dose proportionate to time
 Half life
 Alpha beta can’t travel long distance through air
 Depends upon type of radiation

Non Ionising Radiation

Types Sources Health effects
UV Ultra Violet light Sunlight Skin burns
Arc welding Arc eye (photo keratitis)
Skin cancer
Visible light Laser (class of damage) Temporary blindness
Infra-red light (IR) Red hot steel Redness and skin burns
Glass manufacture Retinal burns
Microwaves Food preparation Internal heating
Telecommunication Organ damage
Radiowaves Radio Internal heating
Tv radar Organ damage

Health surveillance
 Skin check
 Respiratory checks
 Exposure records
 Sickness records

8.4 – Stress
An adverse reaction to excessive pressure
Health effects:
 Psychological
 Physical
 Behavioural
 Serious ill-health if prolonged

Causes of stress
 Change - uncertainty
 Demands - Excessive
 Control - Weak
 Support - Poor
 Relationships - Difficult
 Role - Undefined

Effects of Stress
 Anxiety
 Low self-esteem
 Depression
 Sweating
 Hearth rate
 Blood pressure
 Skin rashes
 Muscle tension
 Headache
 Dizziness
 Sleeplessness
 Poor concentration
 Poor decision-making
 Mood swings
 Irritability
 Alcohol consumption
 Drug misuse
 Absence from work

Prevention strategies for stress

 Demand - reasonable demands, sufficient resources
 Control - given as much control as possible
 Support - information, instruction, training, additional support
 Relationship - clear anti-harassment and bullying policies
 Role - clear job descriptions, responsibilities and authority
 Change - planning and preparation for change, communication, timescales