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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)

Smart Headlight System


Ajinkya Gaikwad1, Nilesh Chavan2, Prashant Adasule3, Bhimashankar Irabatti4
Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Sangli Maharashtra
B.E. (Mechanical)
Abstract— This paper gives the guidelines to develop the The potentiometer used is the circular type having
‘Smart headlight system’, which will be turning to the left or rotation of 300 degrees. The central rod potentiometer is
right according to the rotations of the steering wheel. Hence connected through the gear mechanism to the steering rod.
will be giving good vision at night time and will reduce
Which gives th input to the microcontroller.
accidents.
2) Sensor Block Development
Keywords—Smart, Headlight, Servomotor, Steering, Sensor,
Potentiometer, microcontroller. 1. Gear Reduction :
Rotation of potentiometer is 300 Deg.
I. INTRODUCTION Rotation of Steering rod is 1260 Deg.
Safety is important parameter in today‟s every vehicle. Reduction ratio = 1260/300
According to survey done by the „Institute for Traffic = 4.2
Accidents Research and Data Analysis‟, Japan about 70% 2. Gear Selection :
the road accidents occurs at night time and poor vision at Number of teeth on Pinion = 16
night time is one of the reason for this. Aim is to improve
the vision in front of the vehicle, so that the driver can Number of teeth on Gear = 16 * 4.2
judge the vehicles coming from the front side and stop = 67.2 ~ 67
collision. Which is serious problem along curvy road? The
convention headlight system are fixed in position hence it 3. Torque Required for rotation of potentiometer :
does not give good vision. Logic behind developing new As per the given specification of the potentiometer
headlight system is simply to turn the headlight according Torque = 2~ 20mN.m (20 ~200gf.cm)
to the rotation of the steering. Such headlight is called as, 4. Torque Produced by Steering Wheel: Torque
„Smart Headlight System‟ (SHS). This can be achieved in
transmitted by the steering wheel = 25 N-cm.
three possible ways.i.e.
5. Material for Gear :
1. Mechanical Material used for Gear is Cast Iron.
2. Hydraulic
6. Bearing selection :
3. Mechatronics Anti-friction ball bearing of Specification 6204
Form these above method we selected the last on i.e.
Mechatronics method to develop this headlight system. 7. C-clamp Design :
Which is feasible, accurate than other two and can be Material used for the C-clamp is Cast Iron.
implemented into vehicle. The requirements and Plate 1: 45*50*5mm QTY- 1 item
components required for this are described below.
Plate 2: 80*50*5mm QTY- 1 item
II. COMPONENTS Plate 3: 100*50*5mm QTY- 1 item
1) Sensor block (Potentiometer)
It does the working of sensing the position of the
steering wheel.

460
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)
Sensor Block holding attachment Specification:
CATIA 3D Model:

3) Microcontroller-PIC18F452
This is the heart of the entire headlight system. A
Programmable Intelligent Computer (PIC) microchip
is used to control the actuator block. The controller is
having 8 bit memory storage with 32kb flash program
memory.
4) Actuator Block
Vega Analog Servo Motor V3001 is used as the
actuator block. Whose rotation finally turns the
headlamp which if fitted above it. Servo motor is
more suitable for SHS than stepper motor with an
advantage of built in feedback circuit required for
design.

461
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)
III. ACTUATOR B LOCK HOLDING ATTACHMENT V. SOFTWARE USED
CATIA 3D Model : 1) CATIA P3 V5R17

Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive


Application. CAD model of Sensor Block and the
Head Lamp is built in CATIA.
2) MPLAB IDE v8.92

MPLAB Integrated Development Environment


IV. ECU DEVELOPMENT
(IDE) is a free, integrated toolset for the
The electronic control unit of SHS consists mainly of the development of embedded applications on
microprocessor, analog sensor, and analog servo motor. Microchip's PIC and dsPIC microcontrollers.
The microprocessor used is PIC18F452 from microchip. PIC18F452 servo motor control program done in
Analog servomotor used is VEGA SERVO MOTOR this software.
V3001 model. Sensor used is single turn rotary
Potentiometer. 3) Proteus (Design Software)

Hardware Development
The prototype hardware for SHS is builds on the PCB
with following components hardwired. The set up is
consists of rotary potentiometer for measuring the analog
inputs like steering angle. From the potentiometer input
signal is given to input port of microprocessor. In Proteus is software for microprocessor
PIC18F452 microprocessor input analog signal is converts simulation, schematic capture, and printed circuit
in to digital signal and then process on input signal and board (PCB) design. It is developed by Lab center
give PWM signal to output port for Servo Motor control. Electronics. The basic PCB design of PIC18F452,
PIC18F452 microprocessor to control the motor based on Potentiometer and Analog Servo Motor is built in
the analog inputs. Servo Motor drives by PIC18F452 by the this software.
PWM signal which receives by the Servo Motor from
output port of microprocessor. PIC18F452 controls the
angle of rotation of the Servo Motor that engages with the
head lamp mechanism, depending on steering wheel sensor
angle.

462
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)
4) PICkit 3 programmer VII. P ROGRAM F LOW CHART

PICkit is a family of programmers for PIC


microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology.
They are used to program and debug
microcontrollers, as well as program EEPROM.
Some models also feature logic analyzer and serial
communications (UART) tool. Flashing of the
PIC18F452 is done by this software and tool.

VI. PIC 18F452 P ROGRAM DEVELOPMENT


Step 1: Open MPLAB IDE v8.92 software
Step 2: Click on Project –„Project Wizzard‟
Step 3: Select device from given list of devices that is
„PIC18F452‟.
Step 4: Select Active tool suite – Microchip XC8 Tool suite
Step 5: Create New Project File. Example SHS
Step 6: Finish the Project Setup Wizard.
Step 7: Click on File – New this „New‟ file for writing „.c
„program.
Step 8: Save this program to project directory as .c
extension.
Step 9: Now right click on source link add this c program
as source file.
Step 10: Now click on Project menu and click on Build
with MPLAB XC8 C Compiler V1.21.
Step 11: Now click on „window‟ menu and click on „Tile
Vertically‟.

463
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)
VIII. W ORKING OF PROGRAM X. P ROGRAM F LASHING P ROCEDURE
Step1: As soon as Power supply is provided, entire circuit 1) Click on „Programmer‟ and select the „Erase flash
is made ON, and proceeds as follows device‟. Using this option we can erase all memory of
PIC18F452.
Step 2: Initialization of controller is takes place .In this
2) Now click on „Programmer‟ and then „Program‟.
initialization starting voltage is provided by potentiometer.
After this command Flashing of PIC17F452 will start
Step 3: Condition 1: P < 2.5 V and done in few seconds.
Error calculation = 2.5 – P it gives positive value. By following this procedure we can flash the .hex file in
to the PIC18F452 microcontroller.
This indicates that potentiometer has changed its centre
position due to rotation of steering wheel towards left XI. RESULT
direction.
Where ,
P :- voltage indicated by potentiometer.
As Error is positive headlight should towards left
direction.
Condition 2: P = 2.5 V
This indicates that the potentiometer is steady at centre
position, so no execution of the program, and headlight
remains at the centre position only.
Condition 3 : P > 2.5 V
Error calculation = 2.5 – P It gives negative value.
This indicates that potentiometer has changed its centre
position due to rotation of steering wheel towards right
direction.
Step 4: Pulse duration is calculated in 0 to 500 micro-
seconds.
Step 5: Current supply is provided to the actuator, so
headlight is rotates as per the pulse duration towards right
or left direction.
XII. CONCLUSION
Step 6: The circuit Stops. The design and build of steerable headlights from
conventional static headlamps has been achieved. Moving
IX. M ICROPROCESSOR P ROGRAM S IMULATION the headlights from left to right or vice versa continuously
Proteus is software for microprocessor simulation, corresponding to a sensor is achieved. An advantage of the
schematic capture, and printed circuit board (PCB) design. developed headlight system is in its high adaptability as it
It is developed by Labcenter Electronics. Proteus is a best can be easily configured to fit within space confines of a
simulation software for various designs with variety of vehicle designs.
microcontroller.

464
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)
Indeed, the latter provides a bending lamp that allows for REFERENCES
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Series No. 970650). Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive
and without the need to move the entire headlamp Engineers, 1997.
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simple and dependable assembly. Adaptive Headlamp Systems.

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