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‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬


‫‪THE GEOTECHNICAL MAPS FOR THE SOILOF THE‬‬
‫‪GOVERNORATES BAGHDAD, DIYALA, WASIT AND BABYLON‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻫﺭﺓ ﺘﺭﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺯﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﺠﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺒﻭﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻜل ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ )‪ ( "… 7 ,5 ,3 ,1 " m‬ﻭﻟﺤﺩ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪.(15 m‬‬
‫ﻭﺸﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻭﺴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻡ )ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻟﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ( ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ( ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻤﺎﻡ )ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻷﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ( ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻡ )‪ (138‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ )‪ (64‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺭﺴﻤﺕ ﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺴﻡ‬
‫) ‪ ( 1 : 1500000‬ﻭ )‪ (74‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺭﺴﻤﺕ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺒﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺴﻡ) ‪.( 1 : 100000‬‬

‫‪ABSTRACT‬‬
‫‪This study dealt with the geotechnical properties of soil of the governorates‬‬
‫‪( Baghdad, Diyala, Wasit And Babylon), depending on the induction & comparison & analysis of‬‬
‫‪soil properties .The study involved collecting data, tabulating the information & analyzing them,‬‬
‫‪then maps were drawn for each property at depths ( "1, 3, 5, 7….15" m).‬‬
‫‪The selected properties were Atterberg limits ( liquid limit & plasticity index ), dry unit weight,‬‬
‫‪initial‬‬ ‫‪void‬‬ ‫‪ratio,‬‬ ‫‪fine‬‬ ‫‪particle‬‬ ‫‪percent,‬‬ ‫‪strength‬‬ ‫‪of‬‬ ‫‪soil‬‬ ‫‪in‬‬ ‫‪term‬‬ ‫‪of‬‬
‫‪( number of blows in S.P.T and unconfined compressive strength ), compression index, organic‬‬
‫‪matter percent, sulphate content, Water table level was also taking into account for Baghdad city.‬‬
‫‪With the aid of computer program, ( 138 ) geotechnical maps was drawn , (64) of them were‬‬
‫‪devoted for the study case area with scale of (1 : 1500000) & ( 74 ) maps were drawn for Baghdad‬‬
‫‪city.‬‬

‫‪87‬‬
‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‪:‬‬


‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒـل ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻴﺤﺘـﺎﺝ ﺍﻟـﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﻤﻜﺜﻔـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ) ‪ ( Surfer / Version 7‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻭﻗـﻊ‬
‫ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻨﺴﺏ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻔـﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜـﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ ‪( Surfer /‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺍﻥ‬
‫) ‪ Version 7‬ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﻤل ﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺹ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﻔﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﺨـﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻗﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻭﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤـﺎﺕ )‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻨﺸﺎﺀﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺤﺩﺍﺜﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ( ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻜل ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺴـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﺜﻔـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻗﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻤﺼﺩﺍﻗﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ ﻹﻨـﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻔـﺭ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴـﺔ ﻭﻋـﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺨﻭﺫﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﺤﻔﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬـﺎ ﻻ ﺘـﺸﻜل‬
‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺒﺤﺜﺎ ﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻴﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺨﺫ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﺤﺼﻬﺎ ﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﻴﺎ ﺒﺄﻱ ﺤـﺎل‬
‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴﺒﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﺘﻔﺭﻗﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ "ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻗﺎﻡ) ‪ ( Bakir, 1998‬ﺒﺈﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﺒل "‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﻬل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﻭﻀـﻊ ﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻟﻬـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋـﺩﺕ ) ‪( Al-Naimi, 1996‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ ﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻨﺴـــﺏ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻀﻤـــﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘـﺴﻤﺎﺕ ) ‪ ( Charts‬ﺘﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﺨـﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻜﺸــﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻤﺜل ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺠﻤـﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ) ‪Reconnaissance‬‬ ‫ـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬
‫ـﻡ ﺨـ‬
‫ـﺎﻨﻲ‪ ( 2001 ،‬ﺒﺭﺴـ‬
‫ـﺎﻡ ) ﺍﻟﻌـ‬
‫ـﺩ ﻗـ‬
‫ﻭﻗـ‬
‫‪ ( Phase‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴــﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒــﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅــﺔ ﺩﻴــﺎﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋــﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫) ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻭﺭﻱ‪ ( 2002 ،‬ﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‪:‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل‪.‬‬

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‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴـل ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻤـﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ‪(Grain Size‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻻﻋﻤﺎﻕ )‪،1" m‬‬
‫)‪.Analysis‬‬ ‫‪ 13 ،11 ،9 ،7 ،5 ،3‬ﻭ ‪ ("15‬ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ‪Engineering‬‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬
‫‪:Properties of Soil‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ )‪ (64‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ـﻲ ‪(Standard‬‬
‫ـﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴـ‬
‫ـﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘـ‬
‫ﻓﺤـ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺴﻡ )‪ ،(1 : 1500000‬ﻭ‬
‫)” ‪.Penetration Test “ S.P.T‬‬ ‫)‪ (74‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤــﺔ ﺍﻻﻨــﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺤــﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺒﺄﺒﻌﺎﺩ)‪ (5 km × 5 km‬ﺒﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺴﻡ‬
‫‪(Unconfined Compressive Strength‬‬ ‫)‪.(1 : 100000‬‬
‫)” ‪.“ qu‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻁـﻭﻁ ﺘـﺼل‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ “ ‪(Compression Index‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴـﺔ‬
‫)” ‪cc‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﺼﺭ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﺨـﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ‪Chemical‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﻗـﻴﻡ‬
‫‪:Properties of Soil‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻁﺌﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻻﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬
‫‪(Sulphate‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻷﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫) ‪ ( L‬ﻟﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ ) ‪ ( Low‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻻﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻱ (‬
‫)” ‪.Ions “ SO3 %‬‬
‫‪ H‬ﻟﻴــــــــﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟــــــــﻰ‬ ‫)‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌـﻀﻭﻴﺔ ‪(Organic‬‬
‫) ‪ ( High‬ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬
‫)” ‪.Matter “ ORG %‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ ﺒﻐـﺩﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﺀ ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ‬
‫)” ‪.(Water Table Level “ W.T.L‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁـﻭﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻠﻡ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺒﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺴﻡ )‪ (1 : 1500000‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪Physical‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻁﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ –‬ ‫‪:Properties of Soil‬‬
‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ‪ 1990‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﺘﺭﺒﻴﺭﻙ )‪.(Atterberg Limits‬‬
‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠـﻡ ﺍﻟﺠـﺎﻑ )” ‪Dry “ γdry‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺒﻊ )ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫‪.( Unit Weight‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﺒل ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ( ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻷﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ) ‪Initial Void Ratio‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪.(1-1‬‬ ‫”‪.( “eo‬‬
‫ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺒﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﺴﻡ )‪ (1 : 50000‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻻﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬

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‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫ـﻴﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ـﺩﻥ )ﺍﻟﻌﻅـ‬
‫ـﻤﺕ ﻤـ‬
‫ـﻰ ﻭﻀـ‬
‫ـﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻟـ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘـ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺒﻲ ﺼـﻴﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﺍﺩﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻴﻬﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺹ‪ ،‬ﻫﺒﻬﺏ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﻘﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻬﺭﺯ‪ ،‬ﻜﻨﻌﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺒﻠـﺩﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫)ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺼﺩﺭﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻨﺩﻟﻲ(‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺤﺔ – ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ -:‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺩﻥ ) ﺒﻨـﻲ ﺴـﻌﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ 1977‬ﻭﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺸﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺴﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻁﻴﻔﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ -:‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﻤـﺩﻥ )ﺍﻹﺴـﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺠﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺴـﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻤـﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ)‪ (1: 100000‬ﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﻗﺴﻤﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻴل‪ ،‬ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺒﻲ ﻏـﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﻠـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻰ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺒﺄﺒﻌﺎﺩ ) ‪(5 km × 5 km‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴل‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺤﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺸﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺴﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﻔل‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل)‪.(1-2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻭﻴﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺴـﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗـﻊ ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﻴـﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﻌﺭﻓـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻰ‪ :‬ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺜﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺒﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ )ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻘﻴﻁ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﺍﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺒﻲ ﺼﻴﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻴﻬﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻨﻌﺎﻥ ﻭﺒﻠﺩﺭﻭﺯ(‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﻭﻜﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (36-58 %‬ﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ )‪ (7 m‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﺴﻨﺄﺨﺫ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺸﺊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔـﺼﻴل ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫)ﻜﻨﻌﺎﻥ( ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺼل ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ )‪ (17 %‬ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪.(LL7-4‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (17-81%‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‪ ،‬ﻨﺭﻯ ﺍﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻁﺄ ﻟﻬﺎ )‪ (17 %‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ )ﻜﻨﻌـﺎﻥ(‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ ،(7 m‬ﺍﻟـﺸﻜل )‪ 1(LL7-4‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤـﺩ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ )‪ (81 %‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ( ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (11 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪.(LL11-6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫‪(5‬‬ ‫)‪m‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﺘﻘـﺴﻴﻡ‬
‫)‪ (30 %‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ )ﻤﻨﺩﻟﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL5-3‬ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل ﺍﻟـﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻟﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﻟﺤﺩ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (15 m‬ﻟﺘﺼل ﺍﻟﻰ )‪%‬‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫) ‪-6‬‬ ‫‪ (43‬ﻻﺤﻅ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل )‪،(LL9-5) ،(LL7-4‬‬
‫‪ (LL13-7) ،(LL11‬ﻭ )‪.(LL15-8‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻟﻰ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻨﻭﻋﻬﺎ‬

‫‪90‬‬
‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻤﻠﻲ ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ .(LL15-8‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺜﻨﻰ ﻤـﻥ ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺒﻤﺩﻥ‬
‫)ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺏ( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻌﻅﻴﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺹ‪ ،‬ﻫﺒﻬﺏ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﻘﻭﺒﺔ ﻭﺒﻬﺭﺯ( ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤـﻕ ) ‪، (23 %) ( 3 m‬ﺍﻟـﺸﻜل)‪(LL3-2‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (40-65 %‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻗﻴﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺸﻤﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪.‬‬
‫)‪-6‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )‪ (69 %‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ ) ‪ ،( 11 m‬ﺍﻟـﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻰ ﻨﺭﻯ‬
‫‪ (LL11‬ﻭﻗﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻤﻠﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫)‪ (24 %‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ ،(13 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪.(LL13-7‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻭﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (37-46 %‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺜﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻤﻕ ) ‪9‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻨﻘﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ‪،‬‬
‫‪ (m‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺼل ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ )‪ ،(53 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺀ ﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﻀﻡ ﻤﺩﻥ )ﺒﻨﻲ ﺴﻌﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺸﺩﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫)‪.(LL9-5‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺠﻲ( ﻭﺠﺯﺀ ﺠﻨﻭﺒﻲ ﻴﻀﻡ ﻤﺩﻥ )ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺴﻔﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻁﻴﻔﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺩﻥ )ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (37-68 %‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻭﻴل‪ ،‬ﺃﺒﻲ ﻏﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔل(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺸﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (38-68 %‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫)‪ (7 m‬ﺘﻘل ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ )‪ (32 %‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔل ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (15 m‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻟﺘﺼل ﺍﻟﻰ )‪.(44 %‬‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ ،(38 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪.(LL15-8‬‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ ، (43-67 %‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (11 m‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺼل‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺜﻡ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (81 %‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺹ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (LL‬ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (24-70 %‬ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻼﺠـﺯﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻭﻁﺄ ﻟﻬﺎ )‪ (24 %‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﻤـﺩﻥ )ﺍﻟـﺼﻭﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل)‪(LL5-3‬‬ ‫‪،(5‬‬ ‫)‪m‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻴل‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺤﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺸﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺴﻡ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (70 %‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (13 m‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻴﺭﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻤﻠﻲ( ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (33-64 %‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺘـﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘـﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪.(LL13-7‬‬ ‫ﺘــــــﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﺤــــــﺩ ﻋﻤــــــﻕ‬
‫ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﺘﻘـﺴﻴﻡ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 11 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL11-6‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﻌـﻭﺩ ﻟﺘﺘﻨـﺎﻗﺹ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﺒﺢ )‪ (47 %‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ ) ‪ ( 15 m‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬

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‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﺤﻴـﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟـﺸﻌﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ )ﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﺒﻜﺎﺭ( ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ‪ 7 ،‬ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﺒﻜﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (42-62 %‬ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﺘـﺸﻤل ﺍﺤﻴـﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻅﻤﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻻﻤﻴﻥ( ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪( 32-42 %‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻫﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻋﻅﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻴﺭﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒـﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻅـﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (5 m‬ﻭ )‪ ،(7 m‬ﺍﻟﺸـﻜل )‪(LL5-3‬‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺸﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬـﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺍﻤـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟـﺼﺎﻟﺤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﻜل )‪ (LL7-4‬ﻋـﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺎﻭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻴﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺩﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻠﻌﺏ‬
‫)‪ (9 m‬ﻭﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (11 m‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪- 7‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ ،(63-66 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL9-6‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﺤﻴﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺸـﺎﺭﻉ‬
‫‪.(LL11‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺘﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺩﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻐﺯﺍﻟﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﺯﻴـﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺭﺍﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (31-70 %‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺤﻴﺎﺀ )ﺍﻻﻋﻅﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻅﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻫﺭﺍﺀ(‬ ‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻟﺤﺩ ﻋﻤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻰ‪ :‬ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫)‪،(9m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL9-5‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪%‬‬ ‫)‪ (28-66 %‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪ (31-48‬ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ ،(11 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺏ( )‪ (54-62 %‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (LL11-6‬ﻭﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ)‪ (9 m‬ﻓﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ ،(55-62 %‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻴﺭﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ (43 %‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ ،(LL9-5‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (49-70 %‬ﻋﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪m‬‬ ‫)‪ (28-40 %‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪-6‬‬ ‫‪ (11‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪،(31 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (9 m‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ ،(LL11‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻭﺸﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫)‪ ،(56 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL9-5‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪(15 m‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺸﻴﺩ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴـﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)‪-8‬‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ ،(62 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁـﺔ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴـﻥ )‪.(37-48 %‬‬ ‫‪ .(LL15‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ )ﺍﻟﺜﻭﺭﺓ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺍﻤﺔ( ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪%‬‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (47-62 %‬ﻋﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪(11 m‬‬
‫‪ (34-62‬ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺍﺒﺘﺩﺍﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪،(7 m‬‬ ‫)‪-6‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ ،(33 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫)‪-8‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL7-4‬ﻭﻟﻐﺎﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ ،(15 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫‪ .(LL11‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ )‪ 7‬ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ .(LL15‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (47-57 %‬ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪-43 %‬‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (13 m‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ‬
‫‪ (33‬ﻭﻟﺤﺩ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (11 m‬ﻋﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪(5 m‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ ،(38 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ .(LL13-7‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ ،(58 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫)ﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﺒﻜﺎﺭ( ﻭﺤﻲ )ﺍﻻﻤﻴﻥ( ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬

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‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫)‪ (LL1-1‬ﻭ )‪ (24 %‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ ،(5 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫)‪ .(LL5-3‬ﻭﻓﻲ )ﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻴﺭﺍﻥ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ‬
‫)‪ ،(LL5-3‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﺭﺍﺱ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪-39 %‬‬
‫)‪-1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ (50 %‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ ،(1 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫‪ (32‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (9 m‬ﻭﻋﻤﻕ )‪(11 m‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ .(LL1‬ﺍﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪ (58 %‬ﻭ )‪ (69 %‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (40-61 %‬ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪.‬ﻭﺒﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL9-5‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ .(LL11-6‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺎﻭﻴﻥ( ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (42-65 %‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ) ‪( 1-1‬‬ ‫ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺩﻭﻥ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪%‬‬
‫ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻻﻭﻁﺄ ﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫‪ (50-65‬ﻋﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (11 m‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ ،(37 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL11-6‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﺒل ﻭﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ 13m‬ﻤﺘﺭ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ )‪ ،(36 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪،(LL13-7‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ ‪:Conclusions‬‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ )ﻤﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺏ( ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺒﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫)‪ (38-60 %‬ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻗﻠﻴل‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ )ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ( ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪-50 %‬‬
‫) ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ( ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫‪ (34‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻊ( ﻭﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺍﺩﺓ( ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼل ﺍﻟﻰ ﺇﻥ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (32-44 %‬ﻭﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻭﻟﺤﺩ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (7 m‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺘﺫﺒﺫﺒﺔ ﻟﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺘﺭﺴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﻬﺭﻱ ﺩﺠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺠﻌﻠﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺸﻜﻼ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺍ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﺜﻼ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ‬ ‫)‪ (24-61 %‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﻐﺯﺍﻟﻴﺔ( ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪(50-58 %‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺤﺩ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (5 m‬ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻲ )ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ( ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (42-49 %‬ﻭﻟﺤﺩ‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (5 m‬ﺍﻴﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺹ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻔـﺼل‬ ‫)‪ ،(5 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL5-3‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪- :‬‬ ‫)‪ (55 %‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ (9 m‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(59 %‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL9-5‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺘﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻥ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﺼل ﻨﻬﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (34-55 %‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺭﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﻬﺭ ﺩﺠﻠـﺔ ﺒـﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ (31 %‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪ ،(1 m‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻱ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭﺒﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬

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‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫ﺒــــــــــــــــــــــــﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﺩ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻭﺍﺼﻬﺎ‪.‬‬


‫)‪ (0.12-0.61‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻗـﻴﻡ ﺩﻟﻴـل‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ )‪ (0.3‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺒﻐـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺹ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤـﺩ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻋﺩﺍ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪-70 %‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )‪ (0.3‬ﻟﺘﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ )‪.(0.61‬‬ ‫‪ (24‬ﻭﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻟﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐـﺩﺍﺩ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﺘـﺭﺏ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﺩﻭﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻠﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻁﺌﺔ ﻭﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫ﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻭ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻤﻁـﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻟﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪ (9-63 %‬ﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻤـﻼﺡ ﻫـﻲ ﺃﻤـﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘـﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻷﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪%‬‬ ‫ـﺩﺍﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ـﺔ ﺒﻐـ‬ ‫ـﻴﻥ )‪ (13.8-19 KN/m3‬ﻓـ‬
‫ـﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـ‬ ‫ﺒـ‬
‫‪ .(0.03-17.36‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘــﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨــﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔــﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴــﺔ ﺒــﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ )‪ ،(2 %‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫)‪ (0.523-1.051‬ﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﺒـﺸﻜل ﻤﺘﺫﺒـﺫﺏ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ )‪ (2 %‬ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴـﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻓـﻲ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻭﺤـﺴﺏ‬
‫ه‪ .‬ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ]‪ [USCS‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (0.8-6.43 m‬ﻤﻥ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﺎ ) ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺫﺒﺫﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ( ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗـﺕ ﺒـﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻨﻬﺭ ﺩﺠﻠﺔ ﻭﺴﻁ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺭ ﺩﺠﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬


‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ )‪ (N‬ﻤﻥ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ )‪ (SPT‬ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (4-80‬ﻀﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ )‪ (Liquid Limit‬ﻭﺩﻟﻴـل‬
‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ (Plasticity Index‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨـﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻨﻬﺭ ﺩﺠﻠﺔ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻬﺭ ﺩﺠﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻕ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺔ ﺩﻴـﺎﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻡ )‪ (N‬ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨـﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺤـﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ ،(32-536 kN/m2‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠـﻡ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ )‪ .(0.2 %‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـﻴﻥ‬
‫ـﺎﻑ ﺒــــــــــ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠــــــــــ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺘــــــﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨــــــﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺒــــــﻴﻥ‬ ‫)‪ ،(13.7-17.8 kN/m3‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺍﻍ‬
‫ـﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫ـﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌـ‬
‫ـﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـ‬
‫)‪ ،(0.03-3.56 %‬ﺤﻴـ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪ (0.55-0.895‬ﻭﺘﺘـﻭﺯﻉ ﺒـﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺘﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻀﺤﻠﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﻜـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (9-99 %‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟـﺫﻟﻙ ﻓـﺎﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺴﻭﻤﺔ ﻟﺤﺩ ﻋﻤﻕ )‪.(9 m‬ﻭﺒـﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ )‪ (50 %‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ )‪.(2 %‬‬ ‫]‪.[USCS‬‬

‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﻁ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ )‪ (N‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ )‪ (SPT‬ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (9-88‬ﻀﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠـﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ ،(38-466 KN/m2‬ﻭﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪ ،(15.4-16.5 KN/m3‬ﻭﺘﺘـﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅـﺔ‬
‫ـﻴﻥ‬
‫ـﺔ ﺒـــ‬
‫ـﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴـــ‬
‫ـﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔـــ‬
‫ﻨـــ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻗﻭﻴـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (0.573-0.76‬ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻭﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻷﺠـﺯﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (57-94 %‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺤﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺨﻭ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘـﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗـﻴﻡ ﺩﻟﻴـل ﺍﻻﻨـﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻜﺜـﺭ ﻤـﻥ )‪ (50 %‬ﺤـﺴﺏ‬ ‫)‪ (0.08-0.254‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩ ]‪.[USCS‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬


‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ )‪ (N‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ )‪ (SPT‬ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (21-36‬ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﻤﻊ‬ ‫)‪ (0.07-7.5%‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ ﻴﺨـﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬

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‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ )‪ (N‬ﻓﻲ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺘﺘـﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ )‪ (SPT‬ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (5-93‬ﻀﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒــﻴﻥ )‪ ،(129-366 KN/m2‬ﻭﺘﺘــﻭﺯﻉ ﺒــﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‪ .،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (0.15-0.235‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ،(38-458 KN/m2‬ﻭﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅـﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﺨـﻭ‪.‬‬
‫ـﻭﻥ‬
‫ـﺴﺏ ﺃﻴـ‬
‫ـﺫﺏ ﻨـ‬
‫ـﺙ ﺘﺘﺫﺒـ‬
‫)‪ (0.25-3.86 %‬ﺤﻴـ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪(0.14-0.33‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ )‪ .(0.2 %‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨـﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪-1.08 %‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ،(0.06‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ )‪ (2 %‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (0.04-12.3 %‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﻨـﺴﺏ ﺃﻴـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ )ﺍﻟﻠﻁﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺠـﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻓﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻜﺒﺭ ﻤـﻥ )‪.(0.2 %‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪%‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺔ ﺍﻟـﻰ‬
‫‪ ،(0.2-7.55‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ )‪ (2 %‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل‪ ،‬ﻋﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠـﻡ‬
‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ )ﺃﺒﻰ ﻏﺭﻕ( ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ ﺒـﻴﻥ )‪ ،( 13.7-15.5 KN/m3‬ﻭﺘﺘـﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (4.92-7.55 %‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻴـﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (0.61-0.98‬ﻭﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘــــــــــﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒــــــــــﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ‪:Recommendations‬‬ ‫)‪ (25-98 %‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺘـﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤـﺩ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﻭﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫]‪.[USCS‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺒﺈﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﺤﻭﺹ ﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺭﺍﺩ‬

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‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬


‫‪ .2‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫‪- Al-naimi,‬‬ ‫‪Ghaidaa‬‬ ‫‪A.‬‬ ‫‪1996,‬‬
‫‪(Evaluation Of Shear Strength‬‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﺒﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫‪Parameters Of Baghdad Soil ) M. Sc.‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪Thesis, University of Technology,‬‬
‫‪Baghdad.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺇﻥ ﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ‬
‫‪- Bakir, A. M., 1998, ( The‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻻﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬
‫[ ‪Geotechnical Maps Of Iraq‬‬
‫‪Southern Region ] ), M. Sc. Thesis,‬‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫‪University Of Baghdad – College of‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺤﻭﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﺍ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬
‫‪Engineering.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺍﺕ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻭﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺤﺎﻤﺩ ﺤﺴﻥ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ‪) ،2002 ،‬ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬
‫ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ( ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ –‬ ‫ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ – ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﺇﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،1990 ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ – ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺫﺍ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﻴﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺭﺏ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ‪ -‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،1977 ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺤﺔ – ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ﻨﻬﺭ ﺩﺠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺩﺭ ﻋﺒـﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﻫـﺎﺏ‪ ) ،2001 ،‬ﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﻴﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ( ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻤﺎﺠـﺴﺘﻴﺭ – ﻜﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﻭﻀﻊ ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ–ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﺄﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‪.‬‬

‫‪97‬‬
‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ) ‪ ( 1-1‬ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻻﻭﻁﺄ ﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﺒل ﻭﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ‬


‫ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻷﻭﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪24‬‬ ‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪81‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪ 1‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪63‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪43‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪ 2‬ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻟﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫‪13.8‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬ ‫‪13.7‬‬ ‫‪18.8‬‬ ‫‪kN/m3‬‬ ‫‪ 3‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ‬
‫‪0.523‬‬ ‫‪1.051‬‬ ‫‪0.5‬‬ ‫‪1.07‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫‪ 4‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪99‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪99‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪ 5‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪80‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪93‬‬ ‫ﻀﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪ 6‬ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ‬
‫‪32‬‬ ‫‪536‬‬ ‫‪24‬‬ ‫‪498‬‬ ‫‪kN/m2‬‬ ‫‪ 7‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫‪0.12‬‬ ‫‪0.61‬‬ ‫‪0.08‬‬ ‫‪0.33‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫‪ 8‬ﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ‬
‫‪0.03‬‬ ‫‪17.36‬‬ ‫‪0.04‬‬ ‫‪12.3‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪ 9‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬
‫‪0.12‬‬ ‫‪7.7‬‬ ‫‪0.03‬‬ ‫‪7.55‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪ 10‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪0.8‬‬ ‫‪6.43‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬ ‫‪ 11‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬

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‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ ( 3‐1‬ﺧﺎرﻃﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ))ﺑﻐﺪاد ‪ ،‬دﻳﺎﻟﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺑﻞ ‪ ،‬واﺳﻂ(( اﻷدارﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ ))‪((1 : 1500000‬‬

‫‪99‬‬
‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪F‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬

‫‪N‬‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪0 1 2‬‬

‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪F‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (3-2‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻡ )‪(1 : 100000‬‬

‫‪100‬‬
‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫‪43‬‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫‪41‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪41‬‬
‫‪43‬‬ ‫‪41‬‬
‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪47‬‬
‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪55‬‬

‫‪55‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪52‬‬
‫‪62‬‬
‫‪58‬‬ ‫‪38‬‬
‫‪46‬‬
‫‪56‬‬
‫‪59‬‬ ‫‪53‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪57‬‬ ‫‪56‬‬
‫‪47‬‬ ‫‪44‬‬

‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬
‫‪58‬‬
‫‪H53‬‬ ‫‪51‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL7-4‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺒﻌﻤﻕ )‪ (7 m‬ﻤﻥ ﺴﻁﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ )‪ (N.G.L‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ) ‪( 2 %‬‬

‫‪101‬‬
‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫‪42‬‬

‫‪44‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪45‬‬ ‫‪58‬‬
‫‪65‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪46‬‬
‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪47‬‬
‫‪41‬‬

‫‪51‬‬
‫‪44‬‬

‫‪45‬‬
‫‪81‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪64‬‬

‫‪50‬‬
‫‪64‬‬
‫‪H H‬‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫‪48‬‬
‫‪64 64‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪55‬‬ ‫‪56‬‬
‫‪51‬‬ ‫‪45‬‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪57‬‬
‫‪68‬‬
‫‪H54‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬
‫‪62‬‬

‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (LL11-6‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺒﻌﻤﻕ )‪ (11 m‬ﻤﻥ ﺴﻁﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ )‪ (N.G.L‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ) ‪( 2 %‬‬

‫‪102‬‬
‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫‪2011‬‬ ‫ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ‪3‬‬

‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪62‬‬
‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪F‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬
‫‪61‬‬

‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪33‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬


‫‪6‬‬
‫‪52‬‬

‫‪42‬‬

‫‪62‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫‪59‬‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪58‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪48‬‬ ‫‪42‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪52‬‬

‫‪48‬‬ ‫‪43‬‬
‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪55‬‬
‫‪39‬‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪24‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪43‬‬

‫‪50‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪0 1 2‬‬
‫‪53‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬
‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪F‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل)‪ (LL5-3‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺒﻌﻤﻕ )‪ (5 m‬ﻤﻥ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻻﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (N.G.L‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ)‪(2 %‬‬

‫‪103‬‬
‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺟﻮاد اﻟﺸﻜﺮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﻭﺒﺎﺒل‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮة ﺗﺮآﻲ اﻟﺨﺰاﻋﻲ‬

‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪F‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬


‫‪47‬‬

‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪31‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪38‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪70‬‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬

‫‪32‬‬
‫‪H‬‬
‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪59‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪54‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬
‫‪62‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪0 1 2‬‬
‫‪61‬‬

‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪F‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل)‪ (LL13-7‬ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﺒﻌﻤﻕ )‪ (13 m‬ﻤﻥ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻻﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (N.G.L‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ)‪(2 %‬‬

‫‪104‬‬