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Third International conference on Innovative & Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology – ICIETET’18

Anbarasu.A1, Nithin Siddharth.B2, Nagaraja. V3, Rajesh.S4
Professor, UG Student, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai

ABSTRACT use of the petroleum fuels is increasing at faster rate.

It is necessary to find out an alternative fuel to in order to But diesel engine emits pollutants that affect human
achieve the energy demand of the world due to depleting of health, ozone layer, acid rain, green house effect and
fossil fuel day by day. Biodiesel is one of the best available global warming. On behalf of healthier atmospheric
resources and it is obtained from vegetable oils that have environment, improvements are necessary in order to
been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The
experiments relating to blend of diesel and single biodiesel
reduce the exhaust pollution emitted by the diesel
have been done already. Very few works have been done engines. The engine manufacturers and the customers
with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with are strictly follow emission rules implemented by
diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. This paper gives government to save the environment from the
detailed up-to-date review of effects of dual biodiesel on harmful emissions. Several researchers conducted
the performance and emissions in a constant speed direct experiments in diesel engines to reduce the emissions
injection compression engine at various engine loads by a on same level with the performance improvement by
various author. The various parameters like brake specific engine design modifications, fuel modification and
fuel consumption. Brake thermal efficiency, Exhaust gas exhaust gas treatment techniques. Most of researchers
temperature can be measured by conducting experiments.
The emission characteristic such as the nitrogen oxides
used fuel modification technique in diesel engine to
(NOx) emission and particulate matter (PM) are reduced gain specific fuel properties for improves
by the use of a dual-fuel operation with diesel fuels are the performance and reduce the exhaust emissions. In
major advantage and dual-fuel combustion of biodiesel addition, the scientific community searches for
fuels and diesel decreases soot emissions compared with alternate fuels those are renewable, safe and non-
normal diesel combustion. In addition, the application of polluting. Biodiesel is biodegradable, nontoxic and
such a dual fuel operation can propose potential economic can significantly decrease exhaust emissions and
and efficiency advantages. overall life cycle emission of carbon oxides and it can
be consider as a substitute for diesel fuel when
Keywords: biodiesel, dual fuel, performance, utilized as a fuel in diesel engine.
Biodiesel is a substitute diesel fuel derived from
I INTRODUCTION vegetable oils or animal fats. The main components
of vegetable oils and animal fats are triglycerides or
For light, medium and heavy duty applications like also known as ester of fatty acid attached to glycerol
automobiles, power plants, marine and various [13] [14].
industrial sectors the diesel engines are become as Biodiesel has a relatively high flash point, which
most important potential due to their smooth makes it less volatile and safer to transport or handle
operation i.e., lower fuel consumption, and better than petroleum diesel. Engine wear and long engine
power performance. Due to continual use the life are advantages that can be provided by biodiesel
petroleum fuels are very less significant and may as it does have lubricating properties. Therefore, use
destroy in upcoming decades and moreover due to
increase of population and living advancements the

of biodiesel is being grown brightly during the last on fossil fuels. The thermal efficiency and
years [15]. mechanical efficiency of Blend A were slightly
higher than the diesel. Blend B and Blend C were
In order to make the biodiesel the four primary
very closer to the diesel values. Biodiesel blends of
methods like direct use and blending, micro-
Blend A, Blend B and Blend C would be used as an
emulsions, thermal cracking (pyrolysis) and
alternative fuel for diesel in the diesel engines.
transesterification are used. Transesterification
S.Prasanth et al. [3] conducted “Experimental
process represents one of the most promising options
Investigations on Mixing of Two Biodiesels Blended
for biodiesel produced from used cooking oil.
with Diesel as Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines”.
However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable
In this investigation, transesterification is carried out
oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel
for the mixed pongamia and Neem oil which
feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-
contained low percentage of FFA to obtain the
biodiesel. It was observed that biodiesel diesel blend
II REVIEWS has density and viscosity properties almost similar to
that of diesel. The blends were prepared with
Number of research papers and studies has been biodiesel percentages of 10, 20, and 30 and the
conducted on the consumption of biodiesel and its following conclusions were drawn from this
blends in diesel engines have been performed. From investigation. It is observed that for the biodiesel
blends of 10% and 20% the density, fire point, flash
previous studies, it is evident that single biodiesel
point and calorific value were very close to that of
offer acceptable engine performance and emissions diesel, which makes them suitable for using them as
for diesel engine operation. Most of the researchers an alternative for diesel. The mixed biodiesel blend
conducted experiments on single biodiesel like B30 shows the higher brake thermal efficiency. The
soybean oil, rapeseed oil, pongamia pinnata oil, specific fuel consumption of mixed biodiesel blends
cotton seed oil, neem oil, mahua oil, jatropha oil, B10 and B20 shows value closer to diesel. Mixed
honne oil, rice bran oil etc., and its blends with pongamia and Neem biodiesel blends B10 and B20
can be used as alternative fuel in diesel engine.
diesel. Very few works have been conducted with the
Anand A et al. [4] on his study the “Experimental
combination of diesel and two different biodiesel as a Investigation of Diesel Engine using different Blends
fuel. Number of reviews has been taken below to of Mixed Pongamia-Coconut Biodiesel as alternative
complete the present study Fuel”. The following conclusions were drawn from
this investigation.
K.Srithar et al.[1]conducted “Experimental 1.Mixed Pongamia and coconut biodiesel satisfies the
investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended important fuel properties as per ASTM specification
with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines”. of biodiesel.
From the experimental analysis results, the thermal 2.It is observed that for the biodiesel blends of 10%
efficiency and mechanical efficiency of Blend A and 20% the density, fire point, flash point and
were slightly higher than the diesel. Blend B and calorific value were very close to that of diesel,
Blend C were very closer to the diesel values. The which makes them suitable for using them as an
specific fuel consumption values of dual biodiesel alternative for diesel.
blends were comparable to diesel. Blend A and Blend 3.The mixed pongamia and coconut shows higher
B produced slightly lower CO and CO2 than diesel. biodiesel yield of 72.5%.
This is a considerable advantage over diesel while 4. The mixed biodiesel blend B10 shows the higher
using the dual biodiesel blends. The dual biodiesel brake thermal efficiency which is slightly less than
blends gave higher smoke opacity, HC and NOx than that of diesel.
diesel. But for the Blend A, Blend B and Blend C the 5.The specific fuel consumption of mixed biodiesel
smoke opacity was nearer to diesel. Therefore, it may blends B10 and B20 shows value closer to diesel.
be concluded that dual biodiesel blends of Blend A, Mixed pongamia and coconut biodiesel blends B10
Blend B and Blend C would be used as an alternative and B20 can be used as alternative fuel in diesel
fuel for diesel in the diesel engines. engine
R.Thirunavukarasu et al. [2] carried out an Krishna Kini H et al. [5] carried out the
experimental Investigation on “Performance analysis “Investigation of Properties of Different Blends of
of Two Biodiesel Blended with Various Diesel Castor and Pongamia Biodiesels and Their
Ratio”. This study shows that performance of two bio Performance in a Compression Ignition Engine”.
diesels pongamia pinnata and neem blended with Based on Property testing it was found that 1.
various diesel ratios .Where reducing the dependence Density of all samples was found to be near to that of

Third International conference on Innovative & Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology – ICIETET’18

diesel, with diesel being the least at 820 kg/m3 2. blends were produced lower HC and CO than those
Flash and fire point was higher for biodiesel samples, of diesel. This was a considerable advantage over
with highest flash point for B20C at 70°C for 20C diesel while using the DPJ dual biodiesel blends. The
and highest fire point for B5P15C at 79°C. 3. DPJ blends gave higher NOx than those of diesel.
Calorific value was found to be lower compared to Based on these results, DPJ 1 and DPJ 2 were closer
diesel, with diesel being highest at 46580kJ/kg. to diesel. Hence they can be recommended as fuel for
4.NOx emission was found to be higher for bio diesel stationary agricultural purpose diesel engines.
with least being for B5P15C at 385 ppm compared to
Tathilene Bezerra Mota Gomes Arruda et al. [7]
331 ppm for diesel at higher loads. 5. HC emission
studied the effect of“Blends of diesel and biodiesel of
was higher for diesel in comparison to blends of bio
cooking oil waste and moringa (Moringa oleı´fera
diesel with least for B5P15C biodiesel at 18 ppm
Lam): kinetic and thermal analysis and monitoring
compared to diesel at 29 ppm at higher loads. 6.CO2
during storage”. As observed, the moringa oil and
emission for biodiesel is lower in comparison to
cooking oil waste represent the extremes in the
diesel, with lest being for B5P15C at 4.35 ppm
production of biodiesel: biodiesel of cooking oil
compared to diesel at 5.08 ppm at higher loads. 7. CO
waste was not as stable as the biodiesel of moringa
emission for biodiesel is lower in comparison to
oil. But the results showed low influence of the
diesel, with lest being for B5P15C at 0.06 ppm
biodiesel in the quality of the diesel blend. At the best
compared to diesel at 0.084 ppm at higher loads. 8.
of our efforts in research, the behavior of the biofuels
O2 Emission for bio diesel was higher with highest
and blends under specific storage conditions is first
for B5P15C at 13.8 ppm compared to diesel at 13.35
time reported. The thermogravimetric analysis of the
ppm at higher loads. 9. Brake power remains almost
blends BFM10 and BFM20 showed thermal behavior
same for diesel and bio diesel 10. Exhaust gas
similar to that observed in BEF, and BEM showed
temperature was found to be higher for diesel at
the best thermal stability when compared to BEF
268°C than Bio diesel with least being for B20P at
once the onset temperature of degradation of BEM
248ºC at higher loads. 11. Brake thermal efficiency
was around 1000C higher than BEF. The possibility
was higher for biodiesel than diesel with highest for
of presence of water was excluded in all the samples
B20C at 28.9% compared to diesel at 27.3% at higher
once the onset temperature for the only thermal event
loads. 12. Specific fuel consumption remains almost
observed in TG curves was higher than 1000C. The
same at higher loads.
increase of the heating rate did not result in
Based on the results and analysis it can be concluded
significant alterations in the thermal behavior of the
that blend B5P15C is an optimum blend among all 5
blends. This results in lower greenhouse gas emission
The utilization of thermogravimetric data allowed the
with increased efficiency with same fuel
determination of the apparent kinetic parameters as
consumption, thus saving our dependence on fossil
the activation energy and pre exponential factor. As
fuels to a certain extent.
observed in the TG curves, the values of the
K. Srithar et al. [6] studied the impact of “Dual
activation energy for BFM10 and BFM20 were
Biodiesel for Diesel Engine – Property, Performance
similar to those observed in BEF, once the quantity
and Emission Analysis” The calorific value, specific
of BEF was higher in the blend. The pseudo-kinetic
gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point temperatures,
suggested by the applied methods was the same for
cetane number, surface tension and corrosion test for
all the samples and corresponded to R2 model.
diesel-pongamia pinnata biodiesel–jatropha biodiesel
The average values of the activation energy for the
(DPJ) were evaluated in this study. From this
biodiesel samples and their blends were close to
analysis, the calorific value and kinematic viscosity
values reported in literature for mineral fuels [16] and
of DPJ 1 was closer to diesel values. The cetane
imply a low time delay in the combustion when
number of DPJ blends was higher than those of
blended with mineral fuel. The conditions and the
diesel. The flashpoint temperature of DPJ blends was
time of the storage caused significant and crescent
higher than that of diesel fuel, facilitating safe
variations in the acid number of the samples that
transport and storage. The dual biodiesel blend DPJ 1
contain biodiesel. This behavior was observed mainly
has closer surface tension value with the diesel; other
in the samples with large percentage of BEF once the
blends were higher than that of diesel.
cooking oil waste biodiesel has the lowest thermal
From the performance analysis, the thermal stability between the biodiesels evaluated. When
efficiency of blend DPJ 1 and DPJ 2 were very closer appropriately conditioned, in other words, in room
to the diesel values. The specific fuel consumption temperature and non-exposed to visible light, the
values of dual biodiesel blends were comparable to moringa biodiesel kept its acid number under allowed
that of diesel. From the emission analysis, the DPJ value for biodiesel samples. On other hand, the

blends containing mineral diesel showed acid number Brake specific fuel consumption for BDE 5, BDE10
virtually constant once the mineral diesel has high and BDE15 are 8%, 12% and 17% higher than that of
oxidation stability. Thus, the quality of the biodiesel neat jatropha oil. The CO and HC emissions were
did not affect the quality of the diesel when blended reduced with the use BDE fuels, compared to neat
in the proportion determined by Brazilian legislation jatropha oil for all load condition. The percentage of
and the evaluating of the storage conditions were reduction in HC is 42%.36% and 26% for BDE5,
more necessary in the samples of biodiesel. BDE10 and BDE15 respectively. The reductions of
G. Venkata Subbaiah et al. [8] investigated the CO for BDE5, BDE10 and BDE15 is 67%, 51% and
“The Effect of Biodiesel and Bioethanol Blended 35% respectively at full load, compared to neat
Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Emission jatropha oil. The exhaust gas temperature was
Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine”. increased for BDE fuels at all loads compared to neat
The performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil. The NOx emission was decreased with
emission characteristics of a turbocharged indirect addition of dimethyl ether. The percentage of
conventional diesel, rice bran oil biodiesel, diesel reduction of NOx for BDE5, BDE10 and BDE15 is
injection diesel engine running at different injection 17%, 28%, and 35% at full load compare to neat
and biodiesel blend and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol jatropha oil. On the whole it was concluded that the
blends were investigated on a single cylinder diesel jatropha -dimethyl ether blends can be used as
engine. The conclusions of this investigation are as alternative fuels in diesel engine. The addition of
follows: The brake thermal efficiency and BSFC dimethyl ether with jatropha biodiesel improved the
increased Engines, with the increased percentage of engine performance and decreased the emission level.
ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. The S. Ganesan et al [10] conducted an experiment on
maximum brake thermal efficiency (28.2%) was single cylinder 4.4kW, 1500 rpm Kirloskar C.I.
observed with the blend BE30. engine. Blends considered were B30 i.e.70%
The increased amount of ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-
Diesel+15% Castor + 15% Ethanol and 70% Diesel+
ethanol blends reduced the exhaust gas temperature,
sound intensity, Carbon monoxide and smoke. The 10% Castor +20% ethanol. The result showed that
minimum values of exhaust gas temperature, sound Sample of 70%Diesel+ 10%Castor+ 20% Ethanol has
intensity, Carbon monoxides and smoke were lower value of NOx, unburnt HC, exhaust gas
observed with the blend BE30 and were respectively temperature and brake thermal efficiency than Diesel.
0.57%, 11.53%, 41.23% and 14.5% lower than that
of the diesel fuel. The increased amount of ethanol in Shankarappa Kalgudi et al [11] conduced an
diesel-biodiesel- ethanol blends increased the Oxides experiment on performance and emission tests on
of Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide and unused Oxygen. The single cylinder, 4 stroke water cooled engine at
hydrocarbon emissions increased with ethanol but
constant speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of
lower than that of the diesel fuel by a maximum of
35.35% with the blend BE10. 16.5:1 for B20 (5H+15C+80D) and B25
The blending of 20% rice bran oil biodiesel into (5H+20C+75D) blends of karanja and cottonseed
diesel engines. diesel-ethanol blends allowed higher biodiesel. The experimental result showed that
amounts (30%) of ethanol mixing with diesel, performance characteristics like brake power (BP),
increased the brake thermal efficiency and reduced brake specific consumption (BSFC), brake thermal
the carbon monoxide, sound, hydrocarbons and efficiency (BTE) and emissions characteristics for the
smoke than that of diesel fuel.
M. Loganathan et al. [9] studied the “Emission hybrid blends are better than the D100. Hence these
Characteristics of Jatropha - Dimethyl Ether Fuel two blend blends of Karanja oil biodiesel and Cotton
Blends on a DI Diesel Engine”. Based on the seed oil biodiesels can be used as a vehicular fuel in
experimental results the performance and emissions CI engines. T. Venkateshwara Rao et al [12]
characteristics of diesel engine using BDE and neat conducted an experiment to investigate the
jatropha oil have been analyzed and presented as properties, performance and emission of different
follows. The brake thermal efficiency is increased
blends (B10, B20 and B40) of Pongamia, Jatropha
with blends of jatropha dimethyl ether (BDE5,
BDE10 and BDE15) compared to neat jatropha oil and Neem. The test result indicated that B20 has
operation. The BTE of BDE5, BDE10, and BDE 15 closer performance to diesel and reasonable
was 6%, 10%, and 3% higher than that of neat efficiency, lower smoke, CO and HC. Pongamia
jatropha at full load ( 3.7 kW). The Brake specific biodiesel gives better performance compared to
fuel consumption is increased in the case of jatropha - Jatropha and neem biodiesel
dimethyl ether blends compared to neat jatropha oil.

Third International conference on Innovative & Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology – ICIETET’18

“Blends of diesel and biodiesel of cooking oil waste and

III CONCLUSIONS moringa (Moringa oleı´fera Lam): kinetic and thermal
analysis and monitoring during storage”. Int J Energy
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