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# Magnetic Force & Lorentz Force Questions

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Magnetic Force and Lorentz Force”.

1. Find the electric force when the charge of 2C is subjected to an electric field of 6 units.
a) 6
b) 3
c) 12
d) 24

Explanation: The electric force is given by F = qE, where q = 2C and E = 6 units. Thus we get F
= 2 x 6 = 12 units.

2. Find the magnetic force when a charge 3.5C with flux density of 4 units is having a velocity of
2m/s.
a) 14
b) 28
c) 7
d) 32

Explanation: The magnetic force is given by F = q(v x B), where q = 3.5C, v = 2m/s and B = 4
units. Thus we get F = 3.5(2 x 4) = 28 units.

3. Find the electric field when the velocity of the field is 12m/s and the flux density is 8.75 units.
a) 510
b) 105
c) 150
d) 165

Explanation: The electric field intensity is the product of the velocity and the magnetic flux
density ie, E = v x B = 12 x 8.75 = 105 units.

4. Find the Lorentz force of a charge 2.5C having an electric field of 5 units and magnetic field
of 7.25 units with a velocity 1.5m/s.
a) 39.68
b) 68.39
c) 86.93
d) 93.68

Explanation: The Lorentz force is given by F = qE + q(v x B), it is the sum of electric and
magnetic force. On substituting q = 2.5, E = 5, v = 1.5 and B = 7.25, F = 2.5(5) + 2.5(1.5 x 7.25)
= 39.68 units.

5. The force on a conductor of length 12cm having current 8A and flux density 3.75 units at an
angle of 300 is
a) 1.6
b) 2
c) 1.4
d) 1.8

Explanation: The force on a conductor is given by F = BIL sin θ, where B = 3.75, I = 8, L = 0.12
and θ = 300. We get F = 3.75 x 8 x 0.12 sin 30 = 1.8 units.

6. The force per unit length of two conductors carrying equal currents of 5A separated by a
distance of 20cm in air(in 10-6 order)
a) 25
b) 35
c) 40
d) 50

Explanation: The force per unit length of two conductors is given by
F = μ I1xI2/2πD, where I1 = I2 = 5 and D = 0.2. Thus F = 4π x 10-7 x 52/ 2π x 0.2 = 25 x 10-6
units.

7. When currents are moving in the same direction in two conductors, then the force will be
a) Attractive
b) Repulsive
c) Retracting
d) Opposing

Explanation: When two conductors are having currents moving in the same direction then the
forces of the two conductors will be moving towards each other or attractive.
8. Find the flux density due to a conductor of length 6m and carrying a current of 3A(in 10-7
order)
a) 1
b) 10
c) 100
d) 0.1

Explanation: The flux density is B = μH, where H = I/2πR. Put I = 3 and R = 6, we get B = 4π x
10-7 x 3/2π x 6 = 1 x 10-7 units.

9. Find the maximum force of the conductor having length 60cm, current 2.75A and flux density
of 9 units.
a) 14.85
b) 18.54
c) 84.25
d) 7.256

Explanation: The force on a conductor is given by F = BIL sin θ, where B = 3.75, I = 8, L = 0.12
and θ = 90 for maximum force. We get F
= BIL= 9 x 2.75 x 0.6 sin 90 = 14.85 units.

10. The magnetic force impacts the energy of the field. State True/false.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The magnetic force depends on the flux density of a material and the flux density is
in turn dependent on the energy of the material. It can be shown that F = q(v x B) and E = 0.5 x
B2/μ. It is clear that B and F are related.

by staff10

## 1. Find the force that exists in an electromagnetic wave.

a) Electrostatic force
b) Magnetostatic force
c) Lorentz force
d) Electromotive force

Explanation: In an electromagnetic wave, the force of the electric and magnetic field both
coexist. This is given by F = qE + q(v x B). It is called Lorentz force.

2. In an field having a force of 12N and distance 20cm, the torque will be
a) 0.24
b) 2.4
c) 24
d) 12/20

Explanation: The torque is defined as the product of the force and distance in a field. Thus T = F
x d = 12 x 0.2 = 2.4 units.

3. Find the torque in a conductor having current 2A, flux density 50 units, length 15cm and
distance of 8m.
a) 120
b) 240
c) 800
d) 350

Explanation: The torque on a conductor is given by T = BILd, where L x d is the area of the
conductor. Thus the torque will be, T = 50 x 2 x 0.15 x 8 = 120 units.

4. The distance of the conductor when the area and length of the conductor is 24m2 and 13.56m.
a) 1.76
b) 2.67
c) 1.52
d) 2.15

Explanation: We know that the surface integral is the area component which is the product of
two dimensions given by length and distance in a conductor. Thus A = L x d. To get d, d = A/L =
24/13.56 = 1.76 units.

5. The torque on a conductor with flux density 23 units, current 1.6A and area 6.75 units will be
a) 248.4
b) 192.6
c) 175.4
d) 256.9

Explanation: The maximum torque on a conductor will be at perpendicular angle ie, at 90. The
torque will be given as T = BIA, where B = 23, I = 1.6 and A = 6.75.Thus we get, T = 23 x 1.6 x
6.75 = 248.4 units.

6. Consider the conductor to be a coil of turns 60 and the flux density to be 13.5 units, current
0.12A and area 16units. The torque will be
a) 1555.2
b) 1222.5
c) 525.1
d) 255.6

Explanation: For a single turn or loop, the torque will be BIA. For N turns, the torque will be T =
NBIA, where N = 60, B = 13.5, I = 0.12 and A = 16. Thus T = 60 x 13.5 x 0.12 x 16 = 1555.2
units.

## 7. The torque of a conductor is defined only in the case when

a) The field is perpendicular to the loop
b) The plane of the loop is parallel to the field
c) The plane of the loop is perpendicular to the current direction
d) The field and the current direction are same

Explanation: The torque of a conductor is given by T = NBIA. This equation of the conductor is
valid only when the plane of the loop is parallel to the magnetic field applied to it.

## 8. Find the angle at which the torque is minimum.

a) 30
b) 45
c) 60
d) 90

Explanation: The torque of a conductor loop is given by T = BIA cos θ. The torque is minimum
refers to zero torque. This is possible only when the angle is 90 or perpendicular.

## 9. The magnetic moment and torque are related as follows

a) T = BM
b) B = TM
c) M = TB
d) T = M

Explanation: The torque is defined as the product of the magnetic flux density and the magnetic
moment. It is given by T = BM, where M = IA is the magnetic moment.

10. Calculate the magnetic moment when a field of B= 51 units is subjected to a torque of 20
units.
a) 0.39
b) 4.2
c) 2.55
d) 3.21

Explanation: The magnetic moment is given by the ratio of the torque and the magnetic flux
density. Thus M = T/B, where T = 20 and B = 51 units. We get M = 20/51 = 0.39 units.

## Magnetic Dipole - Electromagnetic Theory

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Magnetic Dipole”.

1. The magnetic moment of a field with current 12A and area 1.6 units is
a) 19.2
b) 12.9
c) 21.9
d) 91.2

Explanation: The magnetic moment is the product of current and the area of the conductor. It is
given by M = IA, where I = 12 and A = 1.6.Thus we get, M = 12 x 1.6 = 19.2 units.

2. Find the torque of a loop with magnetic moment 12.5 and magnetic flux density 7.65 units is
a) 95.625
b) 65.925
c) 56.525
d) 65.235

Explanation: The torque is defined as the product of the magnetic moment and the magnetic flux
density given by T = MB, where M = 12.5 and B = 7.65. Thus we get T = 12.5 x 7.65 = 95.625
units.

## 3. The magnetization is defined by the ratio of

a) Magnetic moment to area
b) Magnetic moment to volume
c) Magnetic flux density to area
d) Magnetic flux density to volume

Explanation: The magnetization refers to the amount of dipole formation in a given volume when
it is subjected to a magnetic field. It is given by the ratio of the magnetic moment to the volume.
Thus Pm = M/V.

4. Find the orbital dipole moment in a field of dipoles of radius 20cm and angular velocity of
2m/s(in 10-22 order)
a) 64
b) 76
c) 54
d) 78

Explanation: The orbital dipole moment is given by M = 0.5 x eVangx r2, where e = 1.6 x 10-19 is
the charge of the electron, Vang = 2 and r = 0.2. On substituting, we get M = 0.5 x 1.6 x 10-19x 2
x 0.22= 64 x 10-22 units.

5. Find the orbital angular moment of a dipole with angular velocity of 1.6m/s and radius
35cm(in 10-31 order)
a) 1.78
b) 8.71
c) 7.18
d) 2.43

Explanation: The orbital angular moment is given by Ma = m x Vangx r2,where m = 9.1 x 10-31,
Vang = 1.6 and r = 0.35. On substituting, we get, Ma = 9.1 x 10-31 x 1.6 x 0.352 = 1.78 x 10-31
units.
6. The ratio of the orbital dipole moment to the orbital angular moment is given by
a) e/m
b) –e/m
c) e/2m
d) –e/2m

Explanation: The orbital dipole moment is given by M = 0.5 x eVangx r2 and the orbital angular
moment is given by Ma = m x Vangx r2. Their ratio M/Ma is given by –e/2m, the negative sign
indicates the charge of electron.

7. Calculate the Larmer angular frequency for a magnetic flux density of 12.34 x 10-10.
a) 108.36
b) 810.63
c) 368.81
d) 183.36

Explanation: The Larmer angular frequency is the product of magnitude of the ratio of orbital
dipole moment to orbital angular moment and the magnetic flux density. It is given by fL = B
e/2m, where is the charge of electron and m is the mass of the electron. On substituting, we get
fL = 12.34 x 10-10 x 1.6 x 10-19/(2 x 9.1 x 10-31) = 108.36 units.

## 8. The Bohr magneton is given by

a) eh/2m
b) eh/2πm
c) eh/4m
d) eh/4πm

Explanation: In atomic physics, the Bohr magneton (symbol μB) is a physical constant and the
natural unit for expressing the magnetic moment of an electron caused by either its orbital or spin
angular momentum. It is given by eh/4πm, where h is the Planck’s constant, e is the charge of the
electron and m is the mass of the electron.

9. Find the magnetization of the field which has a magnetic moment 16 units in a volume of 1.2
units.
a) 16.67
b) 13.33
c) 15.56
d) 18.87
Explanation: The magnetization is the ratio of the magnetic moment to the volume. Thus M =
m/v, where m = 16 and v = 1.2. We get M = 16/1.2 = 13.33 units.

## 10. Which of the following is true regarding magnetic lines of force?

a) Real
b) Imaginary
c) Does not exist
d) Parallel to field

Explanation: Magnetic Lines of Force is a an imaginary line representing the direction of
magnetic field such that the tangent at any point is the direction of the field vector at that point.

## Magnetic Materials - Electromagnetic

Theory Questions and Answers - Sanfoundry
by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Magnetic Materials”.

1. The presence of parallel alignment of magnetic dipole moment is given by which materials?
a) Diamagnetic
b) Ferromagnetic
c) Paramagnetic
d) Ferromagnetic

Explanation: The ferromagnetic materials are characterized by parallel alignment of magnetic
dipole moments. Their susceptibility is very large.

## 2. The magnetic materials follow which law?

b) Ampere law
c) Lenz law
d) Curie Weiss law

Explanation: Generally, the ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials follow the
Curie Weiss law, which relates the magnetization and the applied field.
3. Find the internal field when the applied field is 12 units, molecular field constant is 0.1 units
and the magnetization is 74 units.
a) 86
b) 62
c) 752
d) 19.4

Explanation: From Curie law, the internal field of a magnetic material is given by H = Ho + χ M,
where χ is the molecular field constant. Put χ = 0.1, M = 74 and Ho = 12, we get H = 12 +
(0.1)74 = 19.4 units.

## 4. In which materials the magnetic anisotropy is followed?

a) Diamagnetic
b) Paramagnetic
c) Ferromagnetic
d) Ferromagnetic

Explanation: In materials like iron, the magnetic properties depend on the direction in which they
are measured. This is magnetic anisotropy. The material iron is a ferromagnetic material type.

## 5. Piezoelectric effect is analogous to which phenomenon?

a) Electrostriction
b) Magnetostriction
c) Anisotropy
d) Magnetization

Explanation: The piezoelectric effect is the mechanical strain caused on a material like quartz
when subjected to an electric field. The same is observed in a ferromagnetic material called
magnetostriction.

## 6. The converse of magnetostriction is called the

a) Magnetization
b) Magnetic anisotropy
c) Villari effect
d) Curie effect

Explanation: When a strain is applied, the change in magnetic field is observed. This is the
converse of the magnetostriction phenomenon and is called Villari effect.
7. The materials having very small susceptibility at all temperatures are
a) Antiferromagnetic
b) Diamagnetic
c) Ferromagnetic
d) Paramagnetic

Explanation: In antiferromagnetic materials, the susceptibility will decrease with increase in
temperature. They have relatively small susceptibility at all temperatures.

8. Find the susceptibility when the curie constant is 0.2 and the difference in critical temperature
and paramagnetic curie temperature is 0.01.
a) 2
b) 20
c) 0.02
d) 200

Explanation: The susceptibility in magnetic materials is given by χm = C/(T-θ), where C is the
curie constant, T is the critical temperature and θ is the paramagnetic curie temperature. Put C =
0.2 and T-θ = 0.01, thus we get susceptibility as 0.2/0.01 = 20.

## 9. The susceptibility is independent of temperature in which material?

a) Paramagnetic
b) Ferromagnetic
c) Diamagnetic
d) Ferromagnetic

Explanation: In the diamagnetic materials, the susceptibility is very small and negative. Thus the
susceptibility will be independent of the temperature. The atoms of solids having closed shells
and metals like gold have this property.

## 10. In ferromagnetic materials the susceptibility is infinity. State True/False

a) True
b) False

Explanation: The ferromagnetic materials are iron, nickel, cobalt which are highly attracted by
magnetic field. Thus their susceptibility is also very high and nearing infinity. Also
ferrimagnetics have infinite susceptibility.
Electromagnetic Theory Questions and Answers – Magnetization

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Magnetization”.

1. Find the Lorentz force due to a conductor of length 2m carrying a current of 1.5A and magnetic
flux density of 12 units.
a) 24
b) 36
c) 32
d) 45

Explanation: The Lorentz is given by the product of the current, differential length and the magnetic
flux density. Put B = 12, I = 1.5 and L = 2, thus we get F = BIL = 12 x 1.5 x 2 = 36 units.

2. Calculate the flux density due to a circular conductor of radius 100nm and current 5A in air.
a) 10
b) 100
c) 0.1
d) 1

Explanation: The field intensity of this conductor is I/2πR and since B = μH, the flux density will be B
= μI/2πR. Put I = 5 and R = 100 x 10-9, thus we get B = 4π x 10-7x 5/(2π x 100 x 10-9) = 10 units.

## 3. The torque expression of a current carrying conductor is

a) T = BIA cos θ
b) T = BA cos θ
c) T = BIA sin θ
d) T = BA sin θ

Explanation: The torque is given by the product of the flux density, magnetic moment IA and the sine
angle of the conductor held by the field. This gives T = BIA sin θ.

4. Find the current in a dipole with a moment of 16 units and area of 9 units.
a) 1.78
b) 2.78
c) 1.87
d) 2.34

Explanation: The dipole moment is given by M = IA. To get I, put M = 16 and A = 9, we get I = M/A =
16/9 = 1.78 units.
5. The expression for magnetization is given by(I-current, A-area, V-volume)
a) M = IAV
b) M = IA/V
c) M = V/IA
d) M = 1/IAV

Explanation: The magnetization is defined as the magnetic moment per unit volume and the
magnetic moment is IA. Thus M = IA/V is the expression.

## 6. Find the permeability of a medium whose susceptibility is 100.

a) -100
b) 99
c) -99
d) 101

Explanation: The susceptibility is given by χm = μr-1. To get permeability, μr = χm + 1 = 100 + 1 = 101
units.

7. Calculate the magnetization of a material with susceptibility of 50 and field intensity of 0.25 units.
a) 12.5
b) 25
c) 75
d) 37.5

Explanation: The magnetization is the product of the susceptibility and the field intensity given by M
= χmH. Put χm = 50 and H = 0.25, then M = 50 x 0.25 = 12.5 units.

## 8. Very small and positive susceptibility is found in

a) Ferromagnetic
b) Diamagnetic
c) Paramagnetic
d) Antiferromagnetic

Explanation: Paramagnetic materials are characterized by a small and positive susceptibility. The
susceptibility and the temperature are directly related.

## 9. Which of the following materials is ferrimagnetic?

a) Fe
b) Sn
c) Fe2O3
d) FeCl

Explanation: Fe is iron and a ferromagnetic material. Sn and FeCl are not magnetic materials. The
oxides of iron like ferric oxide Fe2O3 is said to be a ferrimagnetic material.

## 10. Identify the diamagnetic material.

a) Silicon
b) Germanium
c) Silver
d) Cobalt

Explanation: The diamagnetic materials are characterised by very small or negative susceptibility.
Also the susceptibility is independent of the temperature. The material having these properties is
germanium from the given options. Metals like gold and atoms with closed shells are also
diamagnetic.

## Electromagnetic Theory Online Test -

Sanfoundry
by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory online test focuses on “Magnetic Boundary Conditions”.

## 1. Find the correct relation between current density and magnetization.

b) J = Div(M)
c) J = Curl(M)
d) M = Curl(J)

Explanation: The curl of the magnetization gives the magnetic field intensity theoretically. From
Maxwell equation, we can correlate that with the current density (Ampere law)

2. The tangential component of the magnetic field intensity is continuous at the boundary of
separation of two media. State True/False.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: For two medium of separation, the tangential component of the magnetic field
intensity will be continuous. This is analogous to the fact that the tangential component of the
electric field intensity is continuous at the boundary.

3. In air, the tangential component of flux density is continuous at the boundary. State
True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Since the tangential component of the magnetic field intensity will be continuous
and B = μH, in air, the tangential component of the flux density will also be continuous.

4. The flux density of medium 1 has a normal component of 2.4 units, then the normal
component of the flux density in the medium 2 will be
a) 1.2
b) 4.8
c) 2.4
d) 0

Explanation: Unlike the electric fields, the magnetic flux density has normal component same in
both the mediums. This gives Bn1 = Bn2.

5. The normal component of magnetic field intensity at the boundary of separation of the
medium will be
a) Same
b) Different
c) Negative
d) Inverse

Explanation: The normal component and tangential components of the magnetic flux density will
be same. This holds good for any medium.

## 6. The line integral of the magnetic field intensity is the

a) Current density
b) Current
c) Magnetic flux density
d) Magnetic moment
Explanation: The line integral of the magnetic field intensity is given by ∫H.dl. This is same as
the current component. From this relation, the Ampere law can be deduced.

7. Find the magnetization of the material with susceptibility of 6 units and magnetic field
intensity of 13 units.
a) 2.16
b) 6.2
c) 78
d) 1.3

Explanation: The magnetization is the product of the susceptibility and the magnetic field
intensity. Thus M = 6 x 13 = 78 units.

8. Find the ratio of permeability of the two media when the wave is incident on the boundary at
45 degree and reflected by the boundary at 60 degree.
a) 1:1
b) √3:1
c) 1:√3
d) 1:√2

Explanation: From the magnetic boundary conditions, the ratio of permeability μ1/μ2 = tan
θ1/tan θ2 and θ1 = 45, θ2 = 60. Thus we get μ1/μ2 = 1/√3. The ratio will be 1:√3.

9. Find the magnetic moment of a material with magnetization 5 units in a volume of 35 units.
a) 7
b) 1/7
c) 15
d) 175

Explanation: The magnetization is the ratio of the magnetic moment and the volume. To get
moment, put M = 5 and V = 35, thus moment will be 5 x 35 = 175 units.

10. A boundary of separation between two magnetic materials is identified by which factor?
a) Change in the permeability
b) Change in permittivity
c) Change in magnetization
d) Conduction
Explanation: Two materials are differentiated by their permeability in case of magnetic and
permittivity in case of electric. Thus at the boundary of separation, change in permeability is
identified for magnetic materials.

## Inductances - Electromagnetic Theory

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Inductance”.

1. Calculate the emf of a coil with turns 100 and flux rate 5 units.
a) 20
b) -20
c) 500
d) -500

Explanation: The emf is the product of the turns of the coil and the flux rate. Thus e = -N dφ/dt,
where the negative sign indicates that the emf induced is opposing the flux. Thus e = -100 x 5 = -
500 units.

2. The equivalent inductances of two coils 2H and 5H in series aiding flux with mutual
inductance of 3H is
a) 10
b) 30
c) 1
d) 13

Explanation: The equivalent inductance of two coils in series is given by L = L1 + L2 + 2M,
where L1 and L2 are the self inductances and M is the mutual inductance. Thus L = 2 + 5 + 2(3)
= 13H.

3. The expression for the inductance in terms of turns, flux and current is given by
a) L = N dφ/di
b) L = -N dφ/di
c) L = Niφ
d) L = Nφ/i
Explanation: We know that e = -N dφ/dt and also e = -L di/dt. On equating both we get, L =
Ndφ/di is the expression for inductance.

4. The equivalent inductance of two coils with series opposing flux having inductances 7H and
2H with a mutual inductance of 1H.
a) 10
b) 7
c) 11
d) 13

Explanation: The equivalent inductance of two coils in series with opposing flux is L = L1 + L2
– 2M, where L1 and L2 are the self inductances and M is the mutual inductance. Thus L = 7 + 2
– 2(1) = 7H.

## 5. A coil is said to be loosely coupled with which of the following conditions?

a) K>1
b) K<1
c) K>0.5
d) K<0.5

Explanation: k is the coefficient of coupling. It lies between 0 and 1. For loosely coupled coil,
the coefficient of coupling will be very less. Thus the condition K<0.5 is true.

## 6. With unity coupling, the mutual inductance will be

a) L1 x L2
b) L1/L2
c) √(L1 x L2)
d) L2/L1

Explanation: The expression for mutual inductance is given by M = k √(L1 x L2), where k is the
coefficient of coupling. For unity coupling, k = 1, then M = √(L1 x L2).

## 7. The inductance is proportional to the ratio of flux to current. State True/False.

a) True
b) False
Explanation: The expression is given by L = Ndφ/di. It can be seen that L is proportional to the
ratio of flux to current. Thus the statement is true.

8. Calculate the mutual inductance of two tightly coupled coils with inductances 49H and 9H.
a) 21
b) 58
c) 40
d) 49/9

Explanation: For tightly coupled coils, the coefficient of coupling is unity. Then the mutual
inductance will be M = √(L1 x L2)= √(49 x 9) = 21 units.

9. Find the inductance of a coil with turns 50, flux 3 units and a current of 0.5A
a) 150
b) 300
c) 450
d) 75

Explanation: The self inductance of a coil is given by L = Nφ/I, where N = 50, φ = 3 and I = 0.5.
Thus L = 50 x 3/0.5 = 300 units.

10. The inductance of a coaxial cable with inner radius a and outer radius b, from a distance d, is
given by
a) L = μd ln(b/a)/2π
b) L = 2π μd ln(b/a)
c) L = πd/ln(b/a)
d) L = 0

Explanation: The inductance of a coaxial cable with inner radius a and outer radius b, from a
distance d, is a standard formula derived from the definition of the inductance. This is given by L
= μd ln(b/a)/2π.

## Electromagnetic Theory Questions and Answers – Magnetic Energy and Circuits

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Magnetic Energy and Circuits”.

## 1. The magnetic energy of a magnetic material is given by

a) BH/2
b) B/2H
c) H/2B
d) B/H

Explanation: The magnetic energy of a material is given by half of the product of the magnetic flux
density and the magnetic field intensity. It is represented as BH/2. Since B = μH, we can also write
as μH2 or B2/2μ.

2. The induced emf in a material opposes the flux producing it. This is
b) Ampere law
c) Lenz law
d) Curie law

Explanation: The induced emf in a material under the influence of a magnetic field will oppose the
flux that produces it. This is indicated by a negative sign in the emf equation. This phenomenon is
called Lenz law.

## 3. The energy in a magnetic material is due to which process?

a) Emf
b) Magnetization
c) Magnetostriction
d) Polarization

Explanation: The energy in a magnetic material is due to the formation of magnetic dipoles which are
held together due to magnetic force. This gives energy to the material. Hence it is due to
magnetization process.

4. The flux lines of two energised coils overlapping on each other will give
a) Series aiding
b) Shunt aiding
c) Series opposing
d) Shunt opposing

Explanation: Flux lines are the magnetic lines of force of a magnetic material. Since the flux is
overlapping, the total flux of the two coils together will be high. Thus it is an aiding flux. Also this type
of overlapping is possible only when the two coils are back to back or in series connection.

## 5. The resistance in a magnetic material is called as

a) Capacitance
b) Inductance
c) Reluctance
d) Magnetic resistance

Explanation: The reluctance of a magnetic material is the ability of the material to oppose the
magnetic flux. It is the ratio of the magnetic motive force mmf to the flux.

6. Calculate the reluctance of the material with a mmf of 3.5 units and flux of 7units.
a) 32.5
b) 10.5
c) 0.5
d) 2

Explanation: The reluctance is defined as the ratio of the mmf and the flux. It is given by S = mmf/φ.
On substituting mmf = 3.5 and φ = 7, we get S = 3.5/7 = 0.5 units.

## 7. Which of the following relations is correct?

a) NI = Sφ
b) NS = Iφ
c) Nφ = SI
d) NI = S/φ

Explanation: The reluctance is also defined by the ratio of the current element to the flux. In other
words, mmf = NI. Thus S = NI/φ. We get the relation NI = Sφ.

8. Calculate the reluctance of a material with length 2π x 10-4 in air with area 0.5.
a) 1
b) 10
c) 100
d) 1000

Explanation: The reluctance is given by S = L/μ A, where L is the length, A is the area and μ is the
permeability. On substituting L = 2π x 10-4, A = 0.5 and μ = 4π x 10-7, we get S = 103/(2×0.5) = 1000
units.

## 9. Ampere turn is equivalent to which element?

a) Sφ
b) S/φ
c) φ/S
d) S
Explanation: Ampere turn refers to the current element, which is the product of the turns and the
current. It is given by NI. From the definition of reluctance, S = NI/φ. Thus NI = Sφ is the best
equivalent.

## 10. The line integral of the magnetic field intensity is given by

a) Turns
b) Flux density
c) MMF
d) Current element