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International Political Economy

Jaizel Pagkaliwangan Date: March 17,2018

ABFS 301 Sir Jumel G. Estrañero

Political economy of pollution in the Philippines and the government’s green

measures towards a healthy and sustainable environment

I. Introduction/Abstract
Pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have
harmful effects on plants, animals and human beings. This occurs when only short-term
economic gains are made at the cost of the long-term ecological benefits for humanity.
No natural phenomenon has led to greater ecological changes than have been made by
mankind. During the last few decades we have contaminated our air, water and land on
which life itself depends with a variety of waste products. Pollutants include solid, liquid
or gaseous substances present in greater than natural abundance produced due to
human activity, which have a detrimental effect on our environment. Pollution is
spreading like wildfire in many regions of the world.The most significant types of
pollution are the air,water and land pollution. Pollution has becoming one of the most
debated and concerned topics of all times by global citizens because of its disastrous
effects on everything on this Earth.

II. A. Statement of the Problem

1. Types of pollution
2. Causes Of Polutions
3. What are the Political and economic consequences of pollutions ?
4.What are the actions taken by the government to elleviate Polutions ?

B. Methodology
The researcher used secondary resources, content analysis, The sources of data are
books, journals, periodicals, abstracts, indexes, directories, research reports,
conference papers, market reports, annual reports, internal records of organizations,
newspapers, magazine CD-ROMs, on-line databases, Internet, videos and broadcasts.
III. Review of Related Literature

The Review of Related Literature in this study focuses on pollution both local and
foreign reviewed by the researcher which are related to this research. The researcher
believe that the following studies are very much related to the problem.

According to an article Indian journal of community medicine, Air pollution is
responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status
in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the
control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight
into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures
instituted. A large number of studies in Delhi have examined the effect of air pollution on
respiratory functions and the associated morbidity.. 1 The already existing measures
need to be strengthened and magnified to a larger scale. The governmental efforts
alone are not enough. Participation of the community is crucial in order to make a
palpable effect in the reduction of pollution.

The use of public transport needs to be promoted. The use of Metro rail can be
encouraged by provision of an adequate number of feeder buses at Metro stations that
ply with the desired frequency. More frequent checking of Pollution Under Control
Certificates needs to be undertaken by the civic authorities to ensure that vehicles are
emitting gases within permissible norms. People need to be educated to switch-off their
vehicles when waiting at traffic intersections. Therefore, all those who play a role in
modifying the environment in any way, for whatever reason, need to contribute to
safeguard people's health by controlling all those factors which affect it.

According to the article Shanghai Daily, Air pollution in China is not only a
concern for expats in Beijing, it should also be a serious concern for expats in
Shanghai.In January 2013 the air quality in Shanghai was the worst in its history.
Approximately 35 percent of days during the first three months of 2013 were considered
slightly or very hazardous to health. Beijing expats have been experiencing bad air
quality for many years. Environmental authorities in Beijing only started issuing PM2.5
measurements in January 2012. The Government Begins to Tackle Air Pollution, On
September 12, 2013 the Environmental Protection Ministry (MEP) unveiled its new
comprehensive plan to tackle air pollution in China; The Airborne Pollution Prevention
and Control Action Plan (2013-17). The plan calls for reducing concentration levels of
PM2.5 for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regional cluster.

Indian J Community Med, Jan-Mar 2013 .www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3612296/
According to this article, Egyptians says that approximately 38 million
people drink polluted water. The river Nile, the longest river in the world (4,258 miles),
flows from the lakes of Central Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. It is necessary for
industrial and agricultural needs, drinking and daily use2. “Egypt faces an annual water
deficit of around 20 billion cubic meters.” Besides the population growth and lack of
water, there is another huge danger: pollution. Water is polluted when a direct or
indirect change occurs in its elements or in its physical or chemical properties. The Nile
faces daily pollution problems. There are several sources of pollution into the
Nile, including industrial wastewater discharge, pesticidal and chemical fertilizer residue
from an agricultural application, agricultural water drainage, radioactive discharge, and
oil pollution.2 (Fady Michael, April 1,2014)

Through the implementation of this project, the Egyptian government hopes to address
this part of the lake water that is being contaminated, restore order and re-establish the
bio-environmental system. Alexandria, one of the largest cities in Egypt, aims to reduce
the pollution load on the Mediterranean resulting from the more polluted areas such as
from the Gulf of Mex and the Mariout Lake. According to Almasry Alyoum newspaper,
this is in addition to the protection and renewal of heritage coastlines and reformation
systems of the lake by developing a national plan for the management of the coastal

According to latest World Health Authority figures from 2010, respiratory

disease actually killed 2% of the population, but perhaps even more alarming are the
statistics which point to the extent to which much of the region’s population are living
with asthma, particularly in urban areas. The UAE’s health record has come
increasingly under the spotlight in recent years. Levels of chronic disease have risen
alarmingly, with cardiovascular disease and cancer claiming many lives. The greatest
risk is outdoors, where residents are exposed to unhealthy levels of ozone smog and
particulate matter, which are tiny dust specks that can cause respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases when inhaled.Worryingly, respiratory infections are the second
most common non-life threatening condition in the capital region, accounting for almost
14 per cent of all episodes in health centers.3 (Bethany, February 20,2013) since 2010
HAAD has implemented an accredited training program on Asthma Diagnosis and
management in Children and adults. The program aims to educate healthcare providers
to adhere to international standards for asthma management and improve the way
asthma is successfully managed in the general population, including the wider
introduction of written asthma care management plans, and standardizing the use of
Spirometry tests to measure lung capacity. Healthcare providers and the national
Fady Michael, April 1,2014. “Egypt and water pollution”http://savethewater.org/2014/04/10/egypt-and-water-

Bethany, February 20,2013.https://www.uae-medical-insurance.com/blog/2013/02/pollution-and-
media, in particular, have also become involved in the drive to raise awareness, with
specialized asthma awareness programs, clinics and media articles aimed at educating
the public. This will help people to recognize the various types of asthma and related
symptoms, as well as being better informed about what treatments are available in the
hope of encouraging people to seek help, particularly for their children.

According to this article, Mongolia’s capital Ulaanbaatar is one the world’s most
polluted cities its “harmful dust” is 6-7 times higher than the most lenient World Health
Organization standards. by the World Bank presents findings on Ulaanbaatar’s air
pollution and its impact on health. Air pollution was monitored year round in
Ulaanbaatar’s ger areas for the first time during the study. Ulaanbaatar’s air pollution
comes from many sources dust from the desert, unpaved roads and open soil surfaces,
lack of vegetation, ash and emissions from coal stoves, power plants, boilers, and
vehicles. But coal and wood burning by the 175,000 households in ger areas for
cooking and heating contributes to the severity of air pollution in winter time summer air
pollution is much lower than in winter.4 (Ulaanbaatar’s air pollution,April 25,2012)

the Ulaanbaatar Clean Air Project will help replace stoves and low-pressure boilers
used now by ger areas families with new models that are more energy-efficient and
burn fuel more cleanly. It will provide subsidies to bring down the costs for these people,
who are among the poorest and most vulnerable in the city. This is to continue a
program started at a large scale by the United States Millennium Challenge


According to this article, The Manila Bay is the country’s major hub and
international gateway to its political, economic and social center. It is to the Filipino
people, a natural heritage and a silent witness to the millennia of Philippine history and
the venue of many historical events that helped shaped the Filipino culture and values.
Along with its surrounding provinces, the Bay contributes an estimated 55% of the
country’s GDP and account for almost one third of the country’s agriculture, fisheries
and forestry production and 64 percent of the contribution of industrial and services
sector to the GDP, respectively.5 Several laws are being implemented (P.D. 984, DAO
35, R.A. 6969, R.A.2003, P.D. 979) for the protection and conservation of the bay.
However, with the increasing complexity of the problem there is a need for multi-agency
and cross-sectoral management program. Thus, the implementation of the Manila Bay
Environmental Management Project a local component of the Regional Program on

April 25,2012. “Ulaanbaatar’s air pollution” http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/04/25/curbing-

Wepa, (2013). “Manila bay is identified as a pollution
building Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia
(PEMSEA). The sustainability of the Bay and its diverse ecosystem is however
continually threatened by a variety of land and se-based human activities, which
contribute to the decline in its environmental quality.

According to World Health Organization's (WHO) 2014 Ambient Air Pollution

study reported that Baguio city has exceedingly high recorded levels of particulate
matter (PM2.5 and PM10), standard measures of air pollution. This became the subject
of a community forum, convened by the Maryknoll Ecological Sanctuary, on the
occasion of World Environment Day, June 5, 2014.6 Air pollution related diseases in
Baguio include upper respiratory tract infections, colds, pharyngitis, asthma, bronchitis,
and cardiovascular diseases. A panel of local government representatives shared their
programs and insights towards improving air quality.

In Baguio, we have in place a Clean Air Ordinance, a number coding system limiting
vehicles entering the Central Business District, and monitoring and fining of smoke-
belching vehicles. However, based on the levels of air pollution, these measures are still
not enough. Five speakers in the citizens' panel shared their perspectives and insights
towards finding solutions to the air pollution in the city. Dr. Ronald Paraan of the Baguio
Heritage Foundation called for the conservation of green and open spaces in the whole
city, including the central business district. Architect Rafael Chan proposes the
pedestrianization of Session Road, while revitalizing business potential in the area.

According to Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission (PRRC), The Pasig River is

the main river in Metro Manila that connects Laguna de Bay and Manila Bay. It is
approximately 27 km long with an average width of 91 meters and depth ranging from
0.5 to 5.5 meters. The stretch of the Pasig River has an average depth of 1.3 meters.
The deepest portions (4.5 meters) are located between Guadalupe Bridge and C6
Bridge, while the shallowest portion is at the mouth of Manila Bay. The average water
volume is 6.6 million m3. During low flow from March to May, the discharge volume is
12m3/sec, while from October to November the discharge volume reaches 275m3/sec.
It is considered as a tidal estuary because of the interchange of water during low tide
from Laguna de Bay and during high tide from Manila Bay.

Rehabilitation of the Pasig River System, The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission
(PRRC) was created in 1999 under the Executive Order No. 54. Its purpose is to
rehabilitate the Pasig River to its previous pristine condition, for recreation,
transportation, and tourism. The PRRC had adopted various activities that include social
preparation and relocation, riverbed deepening, easement recovery, solid waste
management and point source pollution control, river warriors, bioremediation,
academic institution and stakeholder partnership, and climate change mitigation and

According to this Article, Measures to improve air quality in the Philippines

are among the priority agenda at the ongoing 8th Annual Clean Air forum of the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The discussion points to
vehicle emission as the leading factor that contributes 69% to the country’s air pollution.
90% of which comes from Metro Manila. Based on records of DENR, the current rate of
air pollution has declined by about 20%. However, it is still more than the allowable level
stated in the Clean Air Act. Based on records of the Land Transportation Office, more
than 6,000 vehicles have been added on the road from 2012 to 2014.7

The government is now penalizing violators of Clean Air Act through the no-contact anti-
smoke belching operation. As of today, the government has apprehended almost 9,000
firms for failing the emission standards and for operating without proper permits. DENR
advised to use cleaner fuel to lessen pollution.“The Euro2 fuel that we use has 500ppm
in terms of sulfur dioxide emission. If we use Euro4 it further downgrades emission level
to 50ppm only,” Ocfemia said. The public may also contribute in reducing air pollution
by not smoking, by walking or using bicycle for short distances or riding the mass
transport system. It is also better to recycle your garbage instead of burning it.

According to this article, More than 500,000 diesel-fueled jeepneys, buses,

trucks and other vehicles in Metro Manila are responsible for about 70 percent of the
total soot or black carbon emissions in the Philippines, according to Climate Change
Commissioner Heherson Alvarez. In a speech before the just-ended 2013 Sustainable
Development Summit in New Delhi, a copy of which was furnished to the Philippine
Daily Inquirer, Alvarez also reported that public utility vehicles, mostly jeepneys,
produce 22,000 metric tons of soot emissions per year in the country. The conference
was held from Jan. 31 to Feb. 2 in the Indian capital. Citing Philippine Environment
Monitor figures, the former senator and environment secretary noted that air pollution
costs the Philippine economy some $1.5 billion annually, in large part due to diesel
vehicles. 8 (Jerry Esplanada,February 5,2013)

Earlier, the Climate Change Commission cited a recent scientific study pointing to black
carbon as the second most important, but previously overlooked factor in global
warming. Studies showed that reducing soot emissions from diesel engines could slow
the melting of glaciers in the Arctic more effectively and more economically than any
other quick fix. If governments radically cut levels of black carbon and methane through


technologies that are now available, then we could cut the rate of global warming by at
least 50 percent. This would increase the chance of keeping temperatures rise below 2
degrees Celsius, thereby slowing the advance of climate change by several decades,
the CCC added.

IV. Presentation, Interpretation & Analysis

Types Of Polution

Air Pollution
Air pollution is perhaps the most common and the most dangerous type of pollution. It
involves the direct release of chemicals into the environment. The chemicals then
become the part of the air around us that all the living things take in. The increase in the
rate of diseases such as asthma and lung cancer today is due to the increase in the air
pollution around us. Air pollution is also a cause of global warming and acid rain. Air
pollution is the contamination of the natural air by mixing it with different pollutants such
as harmful fumes and chemicals. This contamination can be caused by gases emitted
by vehicles or from burning material or harmful fumes emitted as a byproduct of
Land Polution
Land pollution, in other words, means degradation or destruction of earth’s surface and
soil, directly or indirectly as a result of human activities. Anthropogenic activities are
conducted citing development, and the same affects the land drastically, we witness
land pollution; by drastic we are referring to any activity that lessens the quality and/or
productivity of the land as an ideal place for agriculture, forestation, construction etc.
The degradation of land that could be used constructively in other words is land
pollution.10 Land pollution is the contamination of the land through the dumping of waste
and garbage and the introduction of toxins into the environment.11
Water Polution
The 75% of the earth’s surface is covered with water and more that half of the total
population of earth’s species resides in water. Moreover, our life greatly depends on
water and life without water is impossible. Water pollution not only affects the fish and

“Difference between Descriptive analysis ng comparison” http://www.differencebetween.info/different-types-of-


The Environment, (2014) http://theenvironment14.blogspot.com/2014/12/land-pollution-in-philippines.html
animals living in the water but also affects the whole food chain by also transferring the
contaminants to the consumers depending on these animals. has taken toll of all the
surviving species of the earth. Almost 60% of the species live in water bodies. It occurs
due to several factors; the industrial wastes dumped into the rivers and other water
bodies cause an imbalance in the water leading to its severe contamination and death
of aquatic species.12

Causes of Polutions

Causes of air pollution

Burning of Fossil Fuels: Sulfur dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuelslike
coal, petroleum and other factory combustibles is one the major cause of air pollution.
Pollution emitting from vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes cause
immense amount of pollution. We rely on them to fulfill our daily basic needs of
transportation. But, there overuse is killing our environment as dangerous gases are
polluting the environment. Carbon Monooxide caused by improper or incomplete
combustion and generally emitted from vehicles is another major pollutant along with
Nitrogen Oxides, that is produced from both natural and man made processes.13

Exhaust from factories and industries: Manufacturing industries release large amount of
carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air
thereby depleting the quality of air. Manufacturing industries can be found at every
corner of the earth and there is no area that has not been affected by it. Petroleum
refineries also release hydrocarbons and various other chemicals that pollute the air
and also cause land pollution.

Indoor air pollution: Household cleaning products, painting supplies emit toxic chemicals
in the air and cause air pollution. Have you ever noticed that once you paint walls of
your house, it creates some sort of smell which makes it literally impossible for you to
breathe. Suspended particulate matter popular by its acronym SPM, is another cause of
pollution. Referring to the particles afloat in the air, SPM is usually caused by dust,
combustion etc.

Causes of Land pollution


When land is cleared of the trees, the soil is stripped of its natural protection against
erosion; this means that land that was previously lush and fertile is now being converted

into dry, nutrient free land as a result of erosive processes like wind or water. Once the
nutrients are removed from the land, they are very difficult to restore.


Furthermore, agriculture is another source of land pollution. There is prevalent use of

pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals used when growing food, all contributing to
soil contamination and land pollution. When these chemicals seep into the ground, they
are very difficult to remove.


Next, industrialization is a major contributor to land pollution. There are numerous

negative consequences of industrialization but whether it is a clothing factory or a power
plant, industries produce a large amount of waste. This waste, although regulated in
many countries, still leaches into the soil and leads to land pollution.14


There are various mining tactics practiced throughout the world and each kind leads to
its own version of land pollution. For example, strip mining essentially turns the land
inside out and disrupts any natural process previously occurring there. Hydraulic mining
washes away layers of soil leaving the area barren.


The fifth cause of land pollution are landfills and waste. A majority of the population live
in urban centers. In the future, this is not expected to change, and as a result, since
most of the world’s population will be living in urban areas, there will be an increase in
the pollution and waste in these cities. When waste is buried in landfills, if it is not done
properly, chemicals can leach out and pollute the groundwater and soils. Additionally,
sewage and sewage treatment leads to soil degradation and pollution of the land.


Finally, urbanization and construction lead to a variety of sources of land pollution. One
environmental consequence of urbanization is the transportation needed for so many
people. More cars and public transportation mean that there will be an increase in
exhaust and an increase in air and land pollution. Oil, gasoline, and other pollutants are

released into the atmosphere and settle on the soil leading to environmental
destruction. Additionally, run off and construction effluent is also harmful.Overall, there
are many causes of land pollution and many cities and country sides have been
converted into barren landscapes or brownfields.

Causes of water pollution

Untreated Raw Sewage. Due to a lack of sufficient and effective sewage treatment
infrastructure, only about 10% of the sewage in the Philippines is properly treated. Much
of this waste is directly discarded into waterways, particularly in low income urban areas
that lack sufficient infrastructure to support proper treatment of this waste. Such waste
can spread disease-causing organisms and can cause waterborne diseases, such as
gastroenteritis, diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, dysentery, and hepatitis. An estimated 58%
of the groundwater in the Philippines has been contaminated with coliform bacteria and
should be treated.

Industrial Wastewater. Specific pollutants vary by each industry, but common industrial
pollutants include chromium, cadmium, lead, mercury and cyanide. Such pollutants are
dumped directly into water bodies on a daily basis.15

Agricultural Wastewater. Pollutants from agriculture can include dead plants, manure,
dead animals, soil erosion runoff, and pesticides and fertilizers.

Domestic Wastewater. This can contain disease-causing organisms or toxic chemicals.

Non-Point Sources. Can include runoff from rain and groundwater and from landfills, as
well as solid wastes. This type of pollution can contain some of the same toxic
chemicals that industrial wastewater contains.

Other Sources. These can include spills from oil and other chemicals, abandoned
mines, and the dumping of wastes near or directly into water bodies.

Greentumble Editorial Team, October 19,2015 https://greentumble.com/water-pollution-in-the-philippines-
What are the Political and economic consequences of pollutions ?

The consequences of pollution to health seem likely to be greater in the developing

world because of higher levels of emission, denser population, scarcer resources and
limited abatement technologies. The dynamic interaction of economic activities,
associated pollution levels and health impacts has various implications to resource
allocation and policy directions. This study modified a computable general equilibrium
model of the Philippines to incorporate the economy pollution health framework. The
model was used to estimate the health and economic benefits of air pollution reduction
through the use of emission tax and ambient air standards. The results formed the basis
for policy implications. The direct economic impact of the emission tax was a decrease
in aggregate output. Health impacts were in the form of significant decreases in
mortality, cases of chronic bronchitis and respiratory symptoms. In economic terms,
costs avoided in the form of lost wages and medical expenses also decreased.
Economic performance contracted when the air standard was applied. The air standard,
however, improved the health status of the population. The number of deaths, cases of
chronic bronchitis and cases of respiratory symptoms significantly decreased. Cost of
mortality, medical expenses from chronic bronchitis, and medical expenses from
respiratory symptoms decreased relative to the base.

What are the actions taken by the government to elleviate Polutions ?

The Philippines Clean Air Act of 1999 (Republic Act No. 8749) outlines the
government’s measures to reduce air pollution and incorporate environmental protection
into its development plans. It relies heavily on the polluter pays principle and other
market-based instruments to promote self-regulation among the population. It sets
emission standards for all motor vehicles and issues pollutant limitations for industry.
Emission limit values are laid down by The Department of Environment and Natural
Resources, Philippines as ‘Implementing Rules and Regulations for Philippine Clean Air
Act of 1999’. These rules and regulations shall apply to all industrial emissions and
other establishments which are potential sources of air pollution.

Philippine Clean Water Act R.A. 9275 “An Act Providing for a Comprehensive Water
Quality Management and for Other Purposes” This Act shall apply to water quality
management in all water bodies, That it shall primarily apply to the abatement and
control of pollution From land based sources, that the water quality standards and
Regulations under this Act shall be enforced irrespective of sources Of pollution -
Coverage of the Act, Section 3 of Philippine Clean Water Act

P.D. 389 (P.D. 705) – The Forestry Reform Code - codifies, updates and raises forestry
laws in the country. It emphasizes the sustainable utilization of forest resources.
P.D. 704 – Preservation of optimum productivity of fishery resources through
conservation and protection.

P.D. 1219 – Providing for the protection of coral ecosystems.

P.D. 1067 – Water Code of the Philippines - adopts adequate measures to conserve
and regulate the use of water in commercial, industrial and residential areas. It also
provides other policy guidelines on water quality and management of water resources.

P.D. 463 – Amended the Mining Act of 1936. Requires all mining leaseholders to
comply with Pollution Control Laws and regulations an leaseholders to comply with
Pollution Control Laws and regulations and provide for penalties for noncompliance.

P.D. 1251 – Imposes fines on tailings and mine wastes and the fund generated is used
to pay for the damages to land, agricultural crops, forests products, aquatic resources
and infrastructures caused by pollution for mining operations. P.D. 984 – The Pollution
Control Law P.D. 825 – Prohibits the improper disposal of garbage

V. Summary, Conclusion & Recommendation

This study entitled “Political economy of pollution in the Philippines and the
government’s green measures towards a healthy and sustainable environment”
Discussed about Types of pollution, The Air, water land pollution. This will help us to
know what are the causes of pollutions like and how it affects our government. Also this
study cover about what are the Political and economic consequences of pollutions. In
this study we will learn that Pollution has become a major environmental issue as it has
created lots of health hazards to the people and animals of any age group. However, in
our country full attention is not getting paid to control it. It needs to be tackle seriously
otherwise our future generations would suffer a lot. Pollution is classified into many
categories according to the natural resources getting affected such as air pollution, soil
pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, etc. In the modern era where technological
advancement is given more priority by the people, everyone has forgotten the real
discipline of life. We will study also what are the actions taken by the government to
elleviate Polutions.

In conclusion, pollution is the big issue now for the whole human fraternity on this
planet today. We are continuously adding impurities to the environment unknowingly
through our bad and careless activities. Pollution affects the natural processes and
living of human being. When we play with the natural cycles of the environment which
consists of air, earth, water, land, plants and animals, it creates big challenges to us and
makes healthy life almost impossible. It hampers the existence of both human and
nature together as both are the completeness to each other. Both big and small
pollution affects the political economy of the Philippines and influences that may affect
the performance of certain organization. We also know that the government is doing
their best and implementing acts to reduce the pollution all over the world.


The government should focus more efforts in elleviating pollution. As we all know,
Pollution is everywhere. We recommend ways to reduce pollution. First, is to take
preventive measures so that the pollution stops getting worse. Second is to clear the
pollution that is already there. In doing the job, people need to cooperate and coordinate
to the government as much as possible. In order to do this, there should be proper and
strict discipline for everyone. If these things add to pollution in the environment, then
people must be responsible enough to do the right actions without being told by the
government agencies. There are so many ways to reduce air pollution. The researcher
recommend that present and publish more overview about pollution so that the other
researchers will enable to learn and solve about the problems in pollution.
VI. Reference:
Indian J Community Med, Jan-Mar 2013
Shanghai daily, (2013). “Air Plullution in
Fady Michael, April 1,2014. “Egypt and water
Bethany, February 20,2013.https://www.uae-medical-

April 25,2012. “Ulaanbaatar’s air pollution”


Wepa, (2013). “Manila bay is identified as a pollution




“Difference between Descriptive analysis ng comparison”



The Environment, (2014) http://theenvironment14.blogspot.com/2014/12/land-pollution-





Greentumble Editorial Team, October 19,2015 https://greentumble.com/water-pollution-