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Common Physical Nonlinearities - Control

Systems Questions and Answers -


Sanfoundry
by Manish

This set of Control Systems Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Common Physical Nonlinearities”.

1. The term backlash is associated with:


a) Servomotors
b) Induction relays
c) Gear trains
d) Tacho generator.
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The term backlash is associated with Gear trains.

2. With feedback _____ increases.


a) System stability
b) Sensitivity
c) Gain
d) Effects of disturbing signals
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Feedback can increase system stability as well as can reduce the stability of the
stable system.

3. By which of the following the system response can be tested better?


a) Ramp input signal
b) Sinusoidal input signal
c) Unit impulse input signal
d) Exponentially decaying signal
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: System response can be best treated with the impulse response as when the input is
impulse input then the output is itself the response of the transfer function.

4. In a system zero initial condition means that :


a) The system is at rest and no energy is stored in any of its components
b) The system is working with zero stored energy
c) The system is working with zero reference signal
d) Laplace transform is not possible
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In system zero initial condition means the system is at rest and no energy is stored
in the system previously.

5. In a system low friction co-efficient facilitates:


a) Reduced velocity lag error
b) Increased velocity lag error
c) Increased speed of response
d) Reduced time constant of the system
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In a system low friction facilitates reduced velocity error as the friction error is
equal to the velocity error.

6. Hydraulic torque transmission system is analog of :


a) Amplidyne set
b) Resistance-capacitance parallel circuit
c) Motor-generator set
d) Any of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Hydraulic torque transmission system is analog of Motor-generator set.

7. Spring constant in force-voltage analogy is analogous to?


a) Capacitance
b) Reciprocal of capacitance
c) Current
d) Resistance
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Spring constant in force-voltage analogy is analogous to reciprocal of the resistance
which is also series analogy.

8. The frequency and time domain are related through which of the following?
a) Laplace Transform and Fourier Integral
b) Laplace Transform
c) Fourier Integral
d) Either b or c
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The frequency and time domain mainly continuous time domain are related by the
Laplace and Fourier transform and discrete time and frequency are related by the discrete time
Fourier transform and z transform.

9. An increase in gain, in most systems, leads to:


a) Smaller damping ratio
b) Larger damping ratio
c) Constant damping ratio
d) Zero damping ratio
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Damping factor is inversely proportional to the gain and if the gain increases the
damping factor and hence the value reduces.

10. Static error co-efficient are used as a measure of the effectiveness of closed loop systems for
specified ________ input signal.
a) Acceleration
b) Velocity
c) Position
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Static error coefficients are used as a measure of the effectiveness of closed loop
system for specified acceleration, velocity and position of input signal.

Nonlinear System Stability - Control Systems


Questions and Answers - Sanfoundry
by Manish

This set of Control Systems Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Stability of Nonlinear System”.

1. Stability of a system implies that :


a) Small changes in the system input does not result in large change in system output
b) Small changes in the system parameters does not result in large change in system output
c) Small changes in the initial conditions does not result in large change in system output
d) Small changes in the initial conditions result in large change in system output
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Stability of the system implies that small changes in the system input, initial
conditions, and system parameters does not result in large change in system output.

2. A linear time invariant system is stable if :


a) System in excited by the bounded input, the output is also bounded
b) In the absence of input output tends zero
c) Both a and b
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A system is stable only if it is BIBO stable and asymptotic stable.

3. Asymptotic stability is concerned with :


a) A system under influence of input
b) A system not under influence of input
c) A system under influence of output
d) A system not under influence of output
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Asymptotic stability concerns a free system relative to its transient behavior.

4. Bounded input and Bounded output stability notion concerns with :


a) A system under influence of input
b) A system not under influence of input
c) A system under influence of output
d) A system not under influence of output
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: BIBO stability concerns with the system that has input present.

5. If a system is given unbounded input then the system is:


a) Stable
b) Unstable
c) Not defined
d) Linear
View Answer
Answer: c
Explanation: If the system is given with the unbounded input then nothing can be clarified for the
stability of the system.

6. Linear mathematical model applies to :


a) Linear systems
b) Stable systems
c) Unstable systems
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: As the output exceeds certain magnitude then the linear mathematical model no
longer applies.

7. For non-linear systems stability cannot be determined due to:


a) Possible existence of multiple equilibrium states
b) No correspondence between bounded input and bounded output stability and asymptotic
stability
c) Output may be bounded for the particular bounded input but may not be bounded for the
bounded inputs
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: For non-linear systems stability cannot be determined as asymptotic stability and
BIBO stability concepts cannot be applied, existence of multiple states and unbounded output for
many bounded inputs.

8. If the impulse response in absolutely integrable then the system is :


a) Absolutely stable
b) Unstable
c) Linear
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The impulse response must be absolutely integrable for the system to absolutely
stable.

9. The roots of the transfer function do not have any effect on the stability of the system.
a) True
b) False
View Answer
Answer: b
Explanation: The roots of transfer function also determine the stability of system as they may be
real, complex and may have multiplicity of various order.

10. Roots with higher multiplicity on the imaginary axis makes the system :
a) Absolutely stable
b) Unstable
c) Linear
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Repetitive roots on the imaginary axis makes the system unstable.

Stability of Nonlinear System Questions and


Answers - Sanfoundry
by Manish

This set of Control Systems Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Stability of NonLinear System-II”.

1. In a control system integral error compensation _______steady state error


a) Increases
b) Minimizes
c) Does not have any effect on steady state error
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Integral compensation is the phase lag compensation as it reduces or minimizes the
steady state error by not affecting the damping factor but reducing the natural frequency.

2. With feedback _____ reduces.


a) System stability
b) System gain
c) System stability and gain
d) Damping
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: With feedback damping increases and system gain reduces as they are inversely
proportional to each other and for the good control system the speed of response must be high
with low gain and oscillations.
3. An amplidyne can give which of the following characteristics?
a) Constant current
b) Constant voltage
c) Constant current as well as constant voltage
d) Constant current, constant voltage and constant power
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: An amplidyne is the device so constructed so as can give constant current, voltage
and power and it is the important device as single device can achieve all these features.

4. Which of the following cannot be measured by LVDT?


a) Displacement
b) Velocity
c) Acceleration
d) Pressure
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: LVDT is the linear variable differential transformer and it is an inductive
transformer and can measure displacement, velocity and acceleration but pressure cannot be
measured by using LVDT.

5. __________directly converts temperature into voltage.


a) Thermocouple
b) Potentiometer
c) Gear train
d) LVDT
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Among all the instruments Thermocouple is the instrument that has two different
metals with different temperatures and the difference in temperature is converted into the
potential difference.

6. The transfer function technique is considered as inadequate under which of the following
conditions?
a) Systems having complexities and nonlinearities
b) Systems having stability problems
c) Systems having multiple input disturbances
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: State variable analysis is used as Transfer function approach cannot be practically
used in the systems having complexities, nonlinearities, stability problems and multiple input.
7. Which of the following is the output of a thermocouple?
a) Alternating current
b) Direct current
c) A.C. voltage
d) D.C. voltage
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Thermocouple is the instrument that has two different metals with different
temperatures and the difference in temperature is converted into the potential difference and
gives output in D.C. Voltage.

8. A.C. servomotor is basically a


a) Universal motor
b) Single phase induction motor
c) Two phase induction motor
d) Three phase induction motor
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A.C. Servomotor is the servomotor in which the input is mainly the alternating
current and is basically two phase induction motor.

9. The first order control system, which is well designed, has a


a) Small bandwidth
b) Negative time constant
c) Large negative transfer function pole
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The first order control system which is the system with maximum one root which
can be at origin and has well designed large negative transfer function pole.

10. Which of the following is exhibited by Root locus diagrams?


a) The poles of the transfer function for a set of parameter values
b) The bandwidth of the system
c) The response of a system to a step input
d) The frequency response of a system
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Root locus diagrams is constructed by the locus traced by the gain of the system
with the varying frequency and have the poles of the transfer function for a set of parameter
values.
Construction of Phase-Trajectories - Control
Systems Questions and Answers -
Sanfoundry
by Manish

This set of Control Systems Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Construction of Phase-trajectories”.

1. Electrical time-constant of an armature-controlled dc servomotor is :


a) Equal to mechanical time-constant
b) Smaller than mechanical time-constant
c) Larger than mechanical time-constant
d) Not related to mechanical time-constant
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Electrical time constant is smaller than the mechanical time constant and hence the
delay in the mechanical systems is more than the electrical systems.

2. The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is K/(s^2 (s+5))The system is
unstable for
a) K>5
b) K<5
c) K>0
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is used to calculate the
conditional stability by using the Routh Hurwitz criteria or the Root locus technique.

3. Peak overshoot of step-input response of an underdamped second-order system is explicitly


indicative of
a) Settling time
b) Rise time
c) Natural frequency
d) Damping ratio
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Peak overshoot refers to the damping of the system as if the damping id less than
the peak will be more.
4. A unity feedback system with open-loop transfer function G (s) = 4/[s(s+p)] is critically
damped. The value of the parameter p is
a) 4
b) 3
c) 2
d) 1
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The value of the p can be calculated by comparing the equation with the standard
characteristic equation.

5. Polar plot of G (jw) = 1/jw(jw+t) is


a) Crosses the negative real axis
b) Crosses the negative imaginary axis
c) Crosses the positive imaginary axis
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Polar plot can be made of the following function by following appropriate steps and
thus the plot neither crosses the real axis nor imaginary axis.

6. In optimum time switching curve the system takes :


a) Minimum time in reaching desired location
b) Maximum time in reaching desired location
c) Never reaches
d) No desired location is present
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: If switching is made to occur the crossing of the starting trajectory with the thick
line trajectory the system follows the trajectory and reaches the desired output at the minimum
time.

7. System with logic switching are :


a) Hang on
b) Bang on
c) Bang-bang
d) Hang out
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Suitable logic circuitry has to be added to the controller structure for the kind of the
switching and such systems are known as the bang-bang control system.
8. Zeroes are defined as:
a) Roots of the denominator of the closed loop transfer function
b) Roots of the numerator of the closed loop transfer function
c) Both of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Zeroes are defined as the roots of the numerator of the closed loop system.

9. As zero moves sufficiently left from the origin the effect of zero becomes less pronounced.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The effect of zero on transient response will be negligible if the zero moves left
from the origin due to dominant pole mechanism.

10. Assertion (A): The zeroes on the real axis near the origin are generally avoided in design.
Reason (R): In a sluggish system introduction of zeroes can improve the transient response
a) Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A
b) Both A and R are true but R is not correct explanation of A
c) A is true but R is false
d) A is false but R is true
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The zeroes on the real axis near the origin are generally avoided in design as they
cause system instability.

Phase-Trajectories Construction - Control


Systems Questions and Answers -
Sanfoundry
by Manish

This set of Control Systems Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Constructing Phase-trajectories”.

1. In liquid level and electrical system analogy, voltage is considered analogous to :


a) Head
b) Liquid flow
c) Liquid flow rate
d) Air flow rate
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In liquid level and electrical system analogy, voltage is considered analogous to the
head which can be pressure head that is the potential energy.

2. The viscous friction co-efficient, in force-voltage analogy, is analogous to:


a) Charge
b) Resistance
c) Reciprocal of inductance
d) Reciprocal of conductance
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The viscous friction co-efficient in force-voltage analogy, is analogous to resistance
of the electrical circuit that can be found out mathematically.

3. In force-voltage analogy, velocity is analogous to:


a) Current
b) Charge
c) Inductance
d) Capacitance
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In force-voltage analogy, velocity is analogous to the current in force-voltage that is
also called series circuit.

4. In thermal-electrical analogy charge is considered analogous to:


a) Heat flow
b) Reciprocal of heat flow
c) Reciprocal of temperature
d) Temperature
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In thermal-electrical analogy in which heat transfer in the wire or conductor can be
related to the temperature.

5. Mass, in force-voltage analogy, is analogous to:


a) Charge
b) Current
c) Inductance
d) Resistance
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Mass, is analogous to the inductance in the force-voltage analogy in the series form
as all the elements of the circuit are connected in the parallel.

6. The transient response of a system is mainly due to:


a) Inertia forces
b) Internal forces
c) Stored energy
d) Friction
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The transient response of the system is mainly due to stored energy as it is due to
the initial conditions which is nothing but the stored energy.

7. ___________ signal will become zero when the feedback signal and reference signs are equal.
a) Input
b) Actuating
c) Feedback
d) Reference
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Actuating signal is the difference between the feedback signal and the reference
signal and when both of the signals are equal then the signal is zero.

8. A signal other than the reference input that tends to affect the value of controlled variable is
known as
a) Disturbance
b) Command
c) Control element
d) Reference input
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Disturbance signal is also the reference signal only there can be multiple inputs in a
control system or the other input is called the disturbance signal.

9. The transfer function is applicable to which of the following?


a) Linear and time-in variant systems
b) Linear and time-variant systems
c) Linear systems
d) Non-linear systems
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The transfer function is different from the state space approach as the transfer
function approach is similar to the LTI systems only while the state variable analysis is
applicable to the non-linear time variant systems also.

10. From which of the following transfer function can be obtained?


a) Signal flow graph
b) Analogous table
c) Output-input ratio
d) Standard block system
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The transfer function can be obtained by using signal flow graphs from among
these given methods.

Stability Analysis by Describing Functions


Questions and Answers - Sanfoundry
by Manish

This set of Control Systems Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Stability Analysis of the Describing Functions”.

1. The characteristic equation of a feedback control system is given bys3+5s2+(K+6)s+K=0. In


the root loci diagram, the asymptotes of the root loci for large K meet at a point in the s plane
whose coordinates are:
a) (2,0)
b) (-1,0)
c) (-2,0)
d) (-3,0)
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The point is calculated by using Routh Hurwitz table and then equating the S0 term
equal to zero.

2. The root locus diagram has loop transfer function G(s)H(s) = K/ s(s+4)(s2+4s+5) has
a) No breakaway points
b) Three real breakaway points
c) Only one breakaway points
d) One real and two complex breakaway points
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The breakaway points are the points where the root locus branches break and it is
not necessary that this point must lie on the root locus calculated by differentiating the value of
K with respect to s and equating it with zero.

3. For asymptotes passing from breakaway point then this point is also centroid
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: True
Explanation: Asymptotes are the lines of infinite length and these are tangents to the root locus
that meet at infinity and for these, passing from breakaway point then this point is also centroid.

4. Transportation lag is seen in systems:


a) Amount to be transferred in large
b) Time take to transfer is large
c) Inefficiency of the process
d) Errors
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Transportation lag is the delay that is seen in the systems where the output is not
following the input and is seen in systems where the time taken to transfer is very large.

5. Mediums responsible for transportation lag are:


a) Lines
b) Pipes
c) Belt conveyors
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Transportation lag is the delay that is seen in the systems where the output is not
following the input and is mainly seen in the practical mediums where the time of transfer is very
large.

6. Linear lumped parameter models are not valid under situations as:
a) Transmission pipe between the hydraulic pump and the motor causes a time lag in
transportation of oil from pump to motor
b) Transmission of heat by conduction or convection produces serious transportation lag
c) Transmission pipe causes the time lag and loss of heat by conduction and convection
d) Transmission of pipe causes neither any time lag nor any heat loss
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Linear lumped parameter models are the models that simplifies the description of
the behaviour of spatially distributed physical systems into a topology consisting of discrete
systems and not valid when the pure time lags are negligible compared to other lags in the
system.

7. Practically all the systems have transportation lag :


a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Not all systems have transportation lag but whose transmission time is more.

8. Transportation lag causes :


a) Instability in system
b) Stability in system
c) System remains unaffected
d) Bandwidth increases
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Transportation lag is the delay that is seen in the systems where the output is not
following the input and causes instability in the system.

9. The polar plot of a transfer function passes through the critical point (-1,0).Gain margin is
a) zero
b) -1dB
c) 1dB
d) Infinity
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Gain margin is the point where the at phase cross over frequency gain of the system
i 1 dB and of a polar plot passing through the critical point is zero.

10. Consider the following statements:


1. The effect of feedback is to reduce the system error
2. Feedback increases the gain of the system in one frequency range but decreases in another.
3. Feedback can cause a system that is originally stable to become unstable
Which of these statements are correct.
a) 1,2 and 3
b) 1 and 2
c) 2 and 3
d) 1 and 3
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Feedback can be of two types as positive and negative and cause the increase in
gain and also can cause stable system to become unstable.

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