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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK EXPERIMENT

REPORT

Author:

Febrian Sukma W. 3714100027 2014

TEKNIK GEOFISIKA
INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER
SURABAYA
2016
PREFACE
In the name of Allah SWT, the writers say thanks to Almighty Allah SWT who has
given His bless to the writers for finishing the practical report of physical properties of rocks
course. The writers also wish to express our deep and sincere gratitude for those who have
guided in completing this report.
This practical report contains of five chapters. It consist of preliminary, literature
review, methodology, result and discussing, also closing remarks. Preliminary contains
background, problem formulations, objectives and benefits of the experiment. Literature
review contains theories that support the experiment. Methodology contains experimental
time and place, tools and materials, also experimental procedures. Then, result and discussion
contains the definition, function, and also application of oscilloscope. In the last, closing
remarks contains conclusion and recommendations of the practical.
Hopefully, this practical report can be used as the reference and guidance for those
who want to do experiment about physical properties of rocks. In the other hand, this report
can help the others to develop their knowledge about physical properties of rocks.

Authors
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2
CHAPTER I ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
PRELIMINARY ................................................................................................................................................................. 5
1.1 Background .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
1.2 Problems Formulations......................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Objectives ................................................................................................................................................................. 6
1.4 Benefits ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6
CHAPTER II........................................................................................................................................................................ 7
LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................................ 7
2.1 Wave........................................................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 Wave Phase........................................................................................................................................................... 8
2.1.2 Reflection .............................................................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.3 Refraction .............................................................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.4 Diffraction ............................................................................................................................................................. 9
2.2 Sedimentary Rock ............................................................................................................................................... 10
2.2.1 Classification systems ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2.2 Terrigenous clastic rocks ................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2.3 Carbonate rocks: limestones and dolomites ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2.4 Noncarbonate chemical sedimentary rocks ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2.5 Limestone ............................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3 Principles Of Laboratory Measurements ..................................................................................................... 10
BAB III ............................................................................................................................................................................... 11
EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 11
3.1 Time and Place ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.2 Tools and Materials ............................................................................................................................................ 11
3.3 Experimental Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 11
CHAPTER IV ................................................................................................................................................................... 12
RESULT AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................... 12
4.1 Definition & Portions ......................................................................................................................................... 12
4.2 Application ............................................................................................................................................................ 13
CHAPTER V .................................................................................................................................................................... 15
CLOSING REMARKS.................................................................................................................................................. 15
5.1 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 15
5.2 Recommendation ................................................................................................................................................. 15
Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................................... 16
CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY
1.1 BACKGROUND
Geophysics is one branch of geoscience. According to the definition, geophysics is
part of earth science that studies the Earth using the principle of physics. Therefore, it is very
closely related to rock formations. Geophysics itself has many purposes, one of the purpose is
to search for natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas, or geothermal. To get it all, it is
important to understand the characteristics of the rock. we have to know the type of rock and
the physical characteristics of the rock. Some important physical characteristics of rocks
which are elastic properties and geomechanical properties. To explain the physical
parameters there are some materials, they are speed of P - wave propagation ,speed of s wave
propagation , yong's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio. From all
this, we can determine the rock types and can assist in exploration of natural resources such
as petroleum, natural gas and geothermal mentioned above. In addition, we also need to know
the density and porosity of a rock. This is because the porosity and density are very important
in storing a natural resources on a rock formation.
In Geophysics, waves are very important things that we used to know. It is being so
important because Geophysicist activity can’t be separated from the waves phenomena. For
example, in seismic methode, we used a wave called seismic waves to measure the properties
of rock inside the Earth. As we know, Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through
the Earth's layers, and are a result of an earthquake, explosion, or a volcano that gives out
low-frequency acoustic energy. To measure the wave properties, we used a tool called
Oscilloscope. An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a
scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage
oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly
varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a
function of time. Other signals (such as sound or vibration) can be converted to voltages and
displayed. Oscilloscopes are used to observe the change of an electrical signal over time, such
that voltage and time describe a shape which is continuously graphed against a calibrated
scale. The observed waveform can be analyzed for such properties as amplitude, frequency,
rise time, time interval, distortion and others. Modern digital instruments may calculate and
display these properties directly. Originally, calculation of these values required manually
measuring the waveform against the scales built into the screen of the instrument. That’s why
we have to know how to use oscilloscope. From this tool, we can know about the properties
of the wave.
By knowing all that stuff, we are expected to know the type of rocks that we observed
before and easier us later in determining the rock formation that appropriate with the physical
characteristic of rocks that have potential to store the natural resources. Because of all that
stuff, we do the experiment of physical properties of rocks.
1.2 PROBLEMS FORMULATIONS
This experiment have some problem to explore :
1. How to use oscilloscope?
2. How to measure the wave properties (Vp&Vs) using oscilloscope?
3. How the relation between Vp with density and porosity?
4. How to measure bulk modulus?
5. How to measure shear modulus?
6. How to measure poisson’s ratio?
7. How to know the type of the rock sample?

1.3 OBJECTIVES
This experiment had two main objective as output :
1. Use oscilloscope to measure wave properties using parameter of time and sample
dimension
2. Measure anisotropy of velocity using few model of calculation
3. Determine the relation between Vp with density and porosity
4. Measure the bulk modulus, shear modulus, and poisson ratio from the rock sample
5. Determine the type of rock sample base on the experiment

1.4 BENEFITS
From this experiment, the student get some benefits such as :
1. Students know how to use oscilloscope
2. Students can measure the wave properties using oscilloscope
3. Students can analyze few model of calculation to determine anisotropy of wave
properties
4. Student know the relation between Vp with density and porosity
5. Student know how to measure bulk modulus, shear modulus, and poisson’s ratio
6. Student can identify the type of rock base on their physical properties
CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 WAVE

A wave is a regular vibration that carries energy. Ripples on the surface of a pond, sound in
air, ultrasound, visible light, X rays and infrared rays are all types of wave. All transverse
waves have crests and troughs. The wavelength ( ) of a wave is the length of one complete
wave. The unit of wavelength is the metre.

The frequency ( ) of a wave is the number of oscillations per unit time. The frequency of a
wave is the same as the frequency of the source that produces the wave. The unit of
frequency is the hertz. The period (T) of a wave is the time that it takes for one complete
oscillation. The unit of period is the second. The period and frequency of a wave are linked
by the following relationship,

The speed (v) of a wave is the distance travelled per unit time by the wave. The unit of speed
is the metre per second, m s-1. The speed, frequency and wavelength of a wave are linked by
the following relationship,
2.1.1 WAVE PHASE

Points on a wave which are a whole number of wavelengths apart are said to be in phase.
Points A and A1 in the diagram above are in phase. Points which are an odd number of half
wavelengths apart are said to be out of phase. Points A and B in the diagram above are out of
phase. The energy carried by a wave depends on the amplitude of the wave. The bigger the
amplitude the more energy the wave carries. Reflection, refraction, diffraction and
interference are characteristic behaviours of all types of wave.

2.1.2 REFLECTION

Reflection occurs when a wave bounces from the surface of an obstacle. None of the
properties of a wave are changed by reflection. The wavelength, frequency, period and speed
are same before and after reflection. The only change is the direction in which the wave is
travelling.

Wave reflection

2.1.3 REFRACTION

Refraction occurs when a wave moves from one material to another. The speed and
wavelength are changed by refraction. The frequency and period of the wave stay the same.
The direction in which the wave is travelling may or may not be changed by refraction. For
more detail on this, go to the section on refractive index.
Wave refraction

2.1.4 DIFFRACTION

Diffraction occurs when a wave passes an edge, passes through a narrow gap or goes
past an object. None of the properties of a wave are changed by diffraction. The wavelength,
frequency, period and speed are same before and after diffraction. Again, the only change is
the direction in which the wave is travelling. When a wave passes through a gap the
diffraction effect is greatest when the width of the gap is about the same size as the
wavelength of the wave.

Wave diffraction
2.2 ELASTIC PROPERTIES

2.3GEOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES

2.4 PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS


There are two main techniques for measuring elastic rock properties in the laboratory
(Fig. 2.1) :

1. Transmission technique : An ultrasonic pulse from the transmitter passes through the
sample. The receiver transform the arriving elastic wave into an electrical signal. An
oscilloscope visualizes the received signal and the travel time can be picked ( note the
dotted connection between generator and oscilloscope for triggering). This principle
can be combined with static measurement. Sophisticated equipment allows waveform
storage, measurement of compressional and shear wave, and simulations of external
and pore pressures, as well as temperatures.
2. Resonance technique : A transmitter ( driven by a frequency generator) generates
vibrations of a cylindrical sample. The receiver detects the vibrations as amplitude
signal. An amplitude versus frequency plot delivers a resonance curve. Resonance
frequency is controlled by sample geometry and Young’s modulus. Thus, Young’s
modulus can be determined. Resonance measurement in a torsional mode yield the
shear modulus. From the shape on the resonance curve, the Q – factor characterizing
the wave attenuation can be derived. ( Schon, 2015 , 174 – 175)

FIGURE 2.1 Principles of measuring technique for seismic / clastic rock properties.

2.5 SEDIMENTARY ROCK

2.6 DENSITY AND POROSITY


BAB III
EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY

3.1 TIME AND PLACE


The experiment took time and place on Thursday 30 November 2015 at 13.00 WIB in
Geophysics Laboratory.

3.2 TOOLS AND MATERIALS


In this wave propagation experiment, tools and materials were used, as follows:

Tools:

1. Gel
2. A set of oscilloscope
3. Grinder and sandpaper
4. A set of ultrasonic

Materials:

1. Sample of rock with diameter of 6 cm and thickness of 2 cm

3.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


In this experiment, carried out the experimental procedures that have been arranged.
Prior to measuring, the rock sample which will be observed is performed smoothing by
"coring" and grinding until the surface of rock is flat. After that, oscilloscope is prepared
along with its supporting tools. Before the oscilloscope is used, calibration is done prior to
the appliance. Then the rock that will be observed which on contact with the surface of the
emitter and receiver instruments is given gel. After that, the wave emitter and receiver affixed
to both of the flat surfaces of rock sample. Then gain and frequency on the oscilloscope is set
to acquire good waveforms. After the waveform obtained, paused and saved to a USB drive
to get a screenshot of the oscilloscope screen. The obtained data is processed using the
application "engauge digitizer" that converts images (.jpeg) into the coordinates of the curve
(.xml)
CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 DEFINITION & PORTIONS


Electronic oscilloscope is a measuring instrument that can map or project electrical
and frequency signals into graphic images to be readable and easy to learn. By using the
oscilloscope, we can observe and analyze the waveforms of electrical signals or frequency in
a series Electronics. In general, the oscilloscope can display graphic Two-dimensional (2D)
with time on the X axis and voltage on the Y axis
1. Characteristic Based on Time (Time)
a) Frequency and Period - Frequency is the number of vibrations produced during 1
second expressed in Hertz. While the period is the inverse of the frequency, ie the
time required to take one time vibration is usually denoted by t seconds. Oscilloscope
capability of measuring the maximum frequency varies depending on the type of
oscilloscope used. Nothing can measure 100MHz, no one can measure the 20MHz,
there can only measure 5MHz.
b) Duty Cycle (Cycle Work) - Duty Cycle is the ratio of the time when the signal
reaches the ON state and when it reaches the OFF condition within one signal period.
In other words, Work Cycle or Duty Cycle is the ratio of long ON and OFF condition
of a signal in each period.
c) Rise and Fall Time - Rise Time is the time the signal changes (duration) of low signal
to a high signal, for example from 0V to 5V. While Fall Time is the time the signal
changes (duration) of high signal to a low signal, for example, a change from 5V to
0V. This characteristic is very important in measuring the response of a circuit to the
signal.
2. Characteristics Based on Voltage (Voltage)
a) Amplitude - Amplitude is a measure of the magnitude of a signal or usually called
with the high crest of a wave. There are several ways of measuring the amplitude
of which is a measurement of the highest peak to the lowest peak (Vpp), there is
also a measure only one of either the highest peak and the lowest to the axis X or
0V.
b) Voltage Maximum and Minimum - oscilloscopes can easily display Voltage
Maximum and minimum legal a series Electronics.
c) Voltage Average - The oscilloscope can perform calculations on the signal voltage
it receives and displays the results of the average voltage signals.

In general, we can conclude the function of Oscilloscope is to analyze the behavior of


a quantity that varies with time. With the oscilloscope measurement tool we can know:
• The frequency, period and voltage of an electronic signal.
• Measure of the voltage of electricity and its relation to time.
• Measure the frequency of the oscillating signal.
• Checking the course of a signal on an electric rangakaian.
• Distinguish AC current to DC current.
• Check the noise in an electrical circuit and its relation to time.
 Etc.

4.2 APPLICATION
Two measurement is done for shell limestone, the frequency values are 3.048 KHz
dan 3.571 KHz. Both measurement resulting almost a same phase in sinusoidal form.

Figure 1 Measurement result displayed on the oscilloscope monitor.

After the measurement is done on oscilloscope, the results are saved as an image
format which can be digitized by engauge software. When using engauge, the wave is
digitized to get the information about wave position from Cartesian (x,y) coordinates.

Figure 2 Sinusoidal wave that have been digitized by using engauge software.
The digitized data will be exported as a .xls file to be opened in Microsoft Excel.
From the first measurement there are 9 points where the data are changing drastically while
the second measurement got 8 points. The difference between each data is within 2 or 3
fromy coordinate.

Figure 3The first measurement have 162 data with 9 points drastically data changing (left) and the second measurement have 156 data with 8 points
drastically data changing (right). Each points are displayed with different colors.

Since oscilloscope plots voltage in vertical axis and time in horizontal axis, we can
use the horizontal axis as the arrival time of P-Wave and S-Wave to determine the value of
Vp and Vs. By assuming the left side of the data is 0s, for first measurement arrival time of
P-Wave is in 9.1026 s and S-Wave is in 11.1539, for second measurement arrival time of P-
Wave is in 9.8718 and S-Wave as same as first measurement in 11.1539. The formula that
used to calculate Vp and Vs are listed below :
𝐿 𝐿
𝑉𝑝 = 𝑉𝑠 =
𝑡𝑝 𝑡𝑠
Where L is the length of the object (0.045 m), tp and ts are arrival time of P-Wave
and S-Wave, respectively. We get Vp value for first measurement in 0.0049 m/s and
0.0045m/s for second measurement, while Vs value for first measurement in 0.004 m/s and
0.004 m/s for second measurement.
For the calibration we need to find T period, frequency, Vpp, Vp, and Vrms. The calculation
are listed below

Figure 4 Calibration measurement for each data, left picture is calibration for the first measurement and right picture is calibration
for the second measurement
CHAPTER V
CLOSING REMARKS

5.1 CONCLUSION
From this experiment, we have a conclusions listed as below :
1. We can find the value of Vp and Vs of an object by using oscilloscope.
2. The value of Vp and Vs on the first measurement is 0.0049 m/s and 0.0045 m/s
3. The value of Vp and Vs on the second measurement is 0.004 m/s and 0.004 m/s
4. By looking at nearly the same value for Vp and Vs from both measurement, we
can say that the measurement is accurate.
5. The form of the sinusoidal wave should have same motion for one object.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION
For the next experiment, we have several reccomendations such as :
1. The need for assistance from the lecturer or lecturer assitance during the experiment
2. More detailed explanation about step of experiment and usability of tool
BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/waves/generalwavesrev1.shtml.

http://www.britannica.com/science/sedimentary-rock.

Schon, J. H. (2015). PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS : FUDAMENTALAND PRINCIPLES OF


PETROPHYISICS SECOND EDITION. Oxford: Elsevier B.V.