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Reliability Management Consultant

Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING FUNDAMENTAL REALITIES All machines vibrate – only dead machines

VIBRATION MONITORING

FUNDAMENTAL REALITIES

All machines vibrate – only dead machines don’t

Vibration is a symptom to and fro motion

A body vibrates because it has mass and

stiffness & they are related.

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING HARMFUL EFFECTS OF EXCESS VIBRATION Increased Stresses On Machine

VIBRATION MONITORING

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF EXCESS VIBRATION

Increased Stresses On Machine Components

Increased Load On Bearings

Higher Forces On Mountings

Risk of fatigue.

Reduced bearing life.

Loosening of foundation

Damage to supporting

structure.

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING WHAT IS VIBRATION ? WHAT CAUSES VIBRATION ? HOW DO WE

VIBRATION MONITORING

WHAT IS VIBRATION ?

WHAT CAUSES VIBRATION ?

HOW DO WE MEASURE VIBRATION ?

HOW DO WE ANALYSE VIBRATION ?

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING WHAT IS VIBRATION ? • IT IS MOTION OF MECHANICAL PARTS

VIBRATION MONITORING

WHAT IS VIBRATION

?

IT IS MOTION OF MECHANICAL PARTS

BACK AND FORTH FROM ITS POSITION

OF REST.

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Imagine

Reliability Management Consultant Imagine Imagine a bird perched on a thin twig of a tree. And

Imagine a bird perched on a thin twig of a tree. And the bird goes up and down. In other words it oscillates.How would you describe its motion over a period of time?

Now imagine that two birds sit on the same

branch and the frequency of oscillation

increases to 20 times/min. The vibration

increases greatly and the birds fly off. What has

happened?

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING What causes Vibration ? INDUCED FORCE & FREEDOM FOR MOVEMENT

VIBRATION MONITORING

What causes Vibration ?

INDUCED FORCE

&

FREEDOM FOR MOVEMENT

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING Types of Forces ? Inertia Forces Acceleration & Deceleration

VIBRATION MONITORING

Types of Forces ?

Inertia Forces

Acceleration & Deceleration

Looseness & Impacts

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING Degrees of Freedom? Degrees of Freedom determines the direction in

VIBRATION MONITORING

Degrees of Freedom?

Degrees of Freedom determines the

direction in which we measure vibration

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Reliability Management Consultant Basic Theory Of Vibration Simple Spring Mass System Max Acceleration, Min Velocity

Basic Theory Of Vibration

Simple Spring Mass System

Max Acceleration, Min Velocity Upper Limit Neutral Position Lower Position Max Velocity, Min Acceleration Max
Max Acceleration, Min Velocity
Upper Limit
Neutral Position
Lower Position
Max Velocity, Min Acceleration
Max Acceleration, Min Velocity
Displacement

IT FOLLOWS SINE CURVE

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING Modes of Amplitudes • DISPLACEMENT • VELOCITY •

VIBRATION MONITORING

Modes of Amplitudes

DISPLACEMENT

VELOCITY

ACCELERATION

SPIKE ENERGY

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Reliability Management Consultant The significance  Displacement gives the strain energy  Velocity gives the

The significance

Displacement gives the strain energy Velocity gives the kinetic energy Acceleration gives the force Spike energy/HFD/gE are special ways to measure acceleration only.

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Physical Significance Of Vibration Amplitude

Consultant Physical Significance Of Vibration Amplitude Displacement : Stress Indicator Velocity Acceleration :

Displacement : Stress Indicator

Velocity

Acceleration

: Fatigue Indicator

: Force Indicator

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Amplitude Measurement

Reliability Management Consultant Amplitude Measurement

1. Displacement : Total distance traveled

by the mass. Unit : Microns, Mils

2. Velocity

: Rate of change of

displacement. It is the measure of the speed at which the mass is vibrating during its oscillation. Unit : MM/Sec, Inch/sec

3. Acceleration : It is the rate of change of velocity. The greater the rate of change of velocity the greater the forces (P=mf) on the Machines. Unit : M/Sec 2 , Inch/sec 2

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING UNITS OF MEASUREMENT DISPLACEMENT - MICRONS VELOCITY -

VIBRATION MONITORING

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

DISPLACEMENT

-

MICRONS

VELOCITY

-

MM / SEC.

ACCELERATION

-

MM / SEC 2 , G

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Reliability Management Consultant Scales Of Amplitude Av. RMS Peak Peak to Peak Peak Peak to Peak

Scales Of Amplitude

Av. RMS Peak Peak to Peak
Av.
RMS
Peak
Peak to Peak
Consultant Scales Of Amplitude Av. RMS Peak Peak to Peak Peak Peak to Peak RMS Average

Peak Peak to Peak RMS Average

- a - 2a - 0.707 a - 0.637 a

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Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION MONITORING

VIBRATION MONITORING

AMPLITUDE DESCRIPTORS

RMS

-

Displacement

 

Velocity

PEAK

-

1.414 RMS

Displacement

 

Velocity

Acceleration

PEAK-TO-PEAK

-

2 * PEAK

Displacement

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Measurement direction -

Reliability Management Consultant Measurement direction - Horizontal, Vertical, Axial.

Horizontal, Vertical, Axial.

Reliability Management Consultant Measurement direction - Horizontal, Vertical, Axial.

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Reliability Management Consultant General rule of direction  We measure H direction for machines on the

General rule of direction

We measure H direction for machines

on the foundation.

We measure V direction for machines on structures

We measure A direction when we suspect misalignment

There are advantages, but there are exceptions to this rule.

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Reliability Management Consultant Simplest Transducers  Finger – index finger – displacement to even 10

Simplest Transducers

Finger index finger displacement to even 10 microns and acceleration or impacts FEEL

5 Rupee coin a go no-go test

Eye

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Reliability Management Consultant Other Transducers  Velocity  Proximity Probes  Accelerometers

Other Transducers

Velocity Proximity Probes

Accelerometers

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Reliability Management Consultant Accelerometer

Accelerometer

Reliability Management Consultant Accelerometer

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Reliability Management Consultant Accelerometer 1. Produces signal proportional to acceleration of seismic mass, can get

Accelerometer

1. Produces signal proportional to acceleration of seismic mass, can get disp, and vel also.

2. Large Frequency range

3. Smaller in size

4. Can be used remote

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Reliability Management Consultant Fixing Transducers  Come back to the same point  9 inch probe

Fixing Transducers

Come back to the same point

9 inch probe

Magnet

Stud

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Reliability Management Consultant Simple rules of Limits (Alarm)  For Velocity – 5 to 7 times

Simple rules of Limits (Alarm)

For Velocity 5 to 7 times of baseline For Displacement 4 to 5 times of Base

For Acceleration 20 to 40 times Base

For Spike Energy 30 to 50 times Base

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Reliability Management Consultant How do we set the limits? Warning and Alarm Limits  Baseline =

How do we set the limits?

Warning and Alarm Limits

Baseline = Y mm/s; G, D Warning = 1.5 x Y mm/s; 10 G; 1.5 D Alarm = 5 to 7 x Y mm/s;30-50G, 4/5D

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VIBRATION

Reliability Management Consultant VIBRATION Displacement: Sensitive to low frequencies. Good guide for imbalance, &

Displacement:

Sensitive to low frequencies. Good guide for imbalance, & other low frequency faults.

Acceleration:

Sensitive to high frequencies.

Good for rolling element

bearing damage.

Velocity:

Has average sensitivity throughout the frequency range.

Reasonably sensitive to imbalance, misalignment, looseness and

rolling element bearing damage.

the frequency range. Reasonably sensitive to imbalance, misalignment, looseness and rolling element bearing damage.

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Reliability Management Consultant Advantage Of Using Velocity?  Flat frequency range compared to displacement &

Advantage Of Using Velocity?

Flat frequency range compared to

displacement & acceleration.

Almost all machines generate fault frequency between 600CPM to 60KCPM

Velocity indicates fatigue.

Velocity is the best indicator of vibration

severity.

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Reliability Management Consultant Amplitude & Frequency Amplitude: It is the magnitude of Vibration signal. Units:

Amplitude & Frequency

Amplitude:

It is the magnitude of Vibration signal. Units: Micron, MM/Sec, M/Sec 2

Frequency:

How many times oscillation is occurring

for a given time period? Units: CPS(Hz), CPM

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Reliability Management Consultant Physical Significance Of Vibration Characteristics Amplitude - How much is it vibrating?

Physical Significance Of Vibration Characteristics

Amplitude

- How much is it vibrating?

(severity) of the problem.

Frequency

- What is vibrating?

Source of the vibration.

Phase Angle Relation of vibration?

Cause of the performance.

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Reliability Management Consultant Analysis with overall? What faults can we measure and How?

Analysis with overall?

What faults can we

measure and How?

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Detection By Vibration

Analysis

Unbalance

Consultant Detection By Vibration Analysis Unbalance  If the ratios of H:V:A = 5:4:1  And

If the ratios of H:V:A = 5:4:1 And it is true for both bearings on either sides, expect for overhung rotors

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Detection By Vibration Analysis

Misalignment

Consultant Detection By Vibration Analysis Misalignment  If the ratio of H:V:A = 4:2:3  Sometimes

If the ratio of H:V:A = 4:2:3 Sometimes the axial may be more than the horizontal. It may be due to less stiff rotors.

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Detection By Vibration

Analysis

Management Consultant Detection By Vibration Analysis Mechanical Looseness, Structural Weakness, Soft Foot 

Mechanical Looseness, Structural

Weakness, Soft Foot

The ratio of H:V:A = 2:4:1 for foundation

The ratio of H:V:A = 2:1:4 for structures

The ratio of H:V:A = 2: 4: 3 for soft foot

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Detection By Vibration

Analysis

Antifriction Bearing Defects

Detection By Vibration Analysis Antifriction Bearing Defects  The ratio of H:V:A = 5:3:1  and

The ratio of H:V:A = 5:3:1 and the gSE or gE is also high

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Detection By Vibration

Analysis

Management Consultant Detection By Vibration Analysis Electrical Problems  Vibrations are more to the motor

Electrical Problems

Vibrations are more to the motor side than on the driven side or the vibrations disappear suddenly on

switching off.

In some cases there is a distinct noise. Or the needle starts to flicker when

near an electrical cable.

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