Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 544

)

. 14 2011 . .
)

-
-

3-
. .

2011
514.12(075)
22.151.59.73
20

. , . .- . ., . . ),
. .- . ., . .

.
20 .
. . – .: , 2011 - 543 .
ISBN 5-7416-0147-7

-
, -
, -
.
,
.

2011
ISBN 5-7416-0147-7 2011
3

.................................................................................. 8
................................................................................. 10
1. .......... 12
§ 1.1. ............................................ 12
§ 1.2. ........................................ 21
§ 1.3. ...................... 24
§ 1.4. ......................... 28
§ 1.5. . .................. 34
§ 1.6. -
............................................................ 38
§ 1.7. ............................. 44
§ 1.8. -
.................................................... 47
2. .................................... 54
§ 2.1. .......................... 54
§ 2.2. -
......................................................................... 57
§ 2.3. -
.................................................................... 59
§ 2.4. -
......................................................................... 61
§ 2.5. -
.................................................................... 65
§ 2.6. ................................... 68
§ 2.7. -
................................................................ 70
§ 2.8. ....................... 72
§ 2.9.
............................................................... 75
4 .

3. .......................................... 79
§ 3.1. ........................................... 79
§ 3.2. .............. 84
§ 3.3. ................................... 93
§ 3.4. ........... 103
§ 3.5. -
.................................................... 107
4. -
............................................................ 119
§ 4.1. ................ 119
§ 4.2. ............................... 124
§ 4.3. ....... 127
§ 4.4. ................. 130
§ 4.5. .... 138
§ 4.6. .................. 141
5. .............................. 147
§ 5.1. .......................................... 147
§ 5.2. .
.................................. 158
§ 5.3. ..................... 161
§ 5.4. .......... 169
§ 5.5. ........ 184
§ 5.6. ................................................... 189
6. ....................... 191
§ 6.1 ...................................................... 191
§ 6.2 ..................................... 192
§ 6.3. ................................. 199
§ 6.4. ................................................ 205
§ 6.5. ...................................................... 208
§ 6.6. m n -
............................................................. 213
§ 6.7. ................... 216
§ 6.8. . ... 227
5

7. .................................... 235
§ 7.1. ................ 235
§ 7.2. ,
....................................... 239
§ 7.3. ............. 244
§ 7.4. -
...................... 251
§ 7.5. ................... 254
8 -
............................................................ 267
§ 8.1. ........................................... 267
§ 8.2. .................. 269
§ 8.3. -
.................................................................... 275
§ 8.4. .. 283
§ 8.5.
................................................................ 296
§ 8.6.
.............................................................. 303
§ 8.7. ...................................... 317
9. -
............................................................ 325
§ 9.1. .................................. 325
§ 9.2. ............................... 329
§ 9.3. -
......................................................................... 339
§ 9.4. -
........................................................................ 348
§ 9.5. -
.............................................................. 353
§ 9.6. .............................. 354
10. .................................. 356
§ 10.1. ................... 356
§ 10.2. .
................................................................ 360
6 .
§ 10.3. -
.......................................................... 362
§ 10.4. -
........................................................... 368
§ 10.5.
……...... 372
§ 10.6. -
........................................................... 378
§ 10.7. .......................... 383
§ 10.8. ............................... 391
11. .................................. 400
§ 11.1. ............ 400
§ 11.2. -
.................................................................... 403
§ 11.3. ........................................ 405
§ 11.4. .
......................... 410
§ 11.5. ..................... 413
12. ......... 415
§ 12.1.
.......................................... 415
§ 12.2. 431
§ 12.3. .. 435
1.
................................................. 443
§ . 1.1 …. 443
§ . 1.2 .............................. 445
§ . 1.3. ........................... 452
§ . 1.4. ............................. 459
2. -
........................................................ 465
§ . 2.1. -
......................................................... 465
§ . 2.2. ................................................ 466
§ . 2.3. ..................... 467
7
§ . 2.4. .................. 469
§ . 2.5. ................... 472
§ . 2.6. .................... 474
§ . 2.7. ........................... 475
3. ............................... 478
4. ....... 488
§ . 4.1.
............................ 488
§ . 4.2. ...... 496
§ . 4.3. .............................. 504
§ . 4.4. ....... 515
§ . 4.5. ..... 520
................................................................ 528
.......................................................... 529
8 .

( " ") -
-
, . -

.
, -
, -
, , , -
, , .
,
. -
.
, , -
,
. , . , . , .
. , -
-
, .
, , , -
. -
, ,
" ",
, -
.
9

-
– ,
. -
. -
" ".
-
-

. -
, , -
,
, -
.

-
, , . , . - ,
. , . , . . ,
, ,
, -
.
.
, , -
.
. " -
" -
-
.

.
,
.
, 1997
10 .

.
– ,
: -
. -
, -
,
, .
-
“ ”, -

. -
,
. -
, ,
, .
,
,
.
-
,
, :
- , ,
( -
x, y z,
);
- -
, , :
, , -
, , , , -
;
11
-
: , A ;
- , ,
, -

: , a , -

-
, : -
, det A .
-
,
,
. , . , .
. .

1997 -
, -
, ,
.

www.umnov.ru
, .
12

§ 1.1.

,
,
, -
.
m n
1.1.1. ( ) , -
m n .
, ,
), ,
, .
, i j
1
, ij .
m, n m n -
1.1.2. .
-
. ,

ij ;i [1, m] ; j [1, n]
:

1
“ i-j “.
1. 13

11 12 13 ... 1n 11 12 13 ... 1n

21 22 23 ... 2n 21 22 23 ... 2n

31 32 33 ... 3n ; 31 32 33 ... 3n ;
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
m1 m2 m3 ... mn m1 m2 m3 ... mn

11 12 13 ... 1n

21 22 23 ... 2n

31 32 33 ... 3n ,
... ... ... ... ...
m1 m2 m3 ... mn

. -
, ij

A.

m n, ,
1.1.3. n.
m 1 m (
m- ) . 1 n
n ( n- ) .

, , -
1j i1 ,
, -
j i .
14
, , ,
: .

,
1.1.4. ij ji i, j [1, n] ,
.
, , -
.
O .
n
1 0 0 ... 0
0 1 0 ... 0
0 0 1 ... 0
... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 1
.
E .

A B ( -
1.1.5.
: A B ), -
-
, ij ij , i [1, m] j [1, n] .
1. 15
C A
1.1.6.
B ( : C A B ),
A , B , C

ij ij ij , i [1, m] , j [1, n] ,

ij i [1, m] , j [1, n]
C .
C
1.1.7.
A ( : C A ),
A C

ij ij , i [1, m] , j [1, n] .

, .

: ( )
,
,
,
, , ,
.

,
1.1.8. ,
,
( . 1.1.1).

,
T
A , A .
16

. 1.1.1

T 11 21 ... m1
11 12 13 ... 1n
12 22 ... m2
21 22 23 ... 2n
13 23 ... m3 ,
... ... ... ... ...
... ... ... ...
m1 m2 m3 ... mn
1n 2n ... mn
T
A -
T
: ij ji , i [1, m] , j [1, n] .
, , -
, 1 m
m 1 .

( )
2- 3-

-
, ( ) -
1. 17
2
det A .
n 6, -
n 2 n 3 ..

( ) -
1.1.9.
2- 11 12

21 22

11 12
det 11 22 12 21
.
21 22

( ) -
1.1.10.
11 12 13
3-
21 22 23

31 32 33

11 12 13
det 21 22 23 11 22 33 13 21 32

31 32 33

12 23 31 13 23 31 12 21 33 11 22 32 .

3-
1.1.1. 2-
:

|...|.
, ,
, .
18
11 12 13

det 21 22 23

31 32 33

22 23 21 23
11 det 12 det
32 33 31 33

21 22
13 det ,
31 32

1.1.9 1.1.10.

. 1 . , -
1.1.1., -

, .

. 1.1.2

2 . -
3-
:
1. 19
1.1.10

, , -
, " ", -
. 1.1.2
, , -
, " ", –
.

, 1.1.9
1.1.10
2-
1.1.1. 3- .

1.1.2 11 1 12 2 1
). -
21 1 22 2 2
, ,

11 12
det 0.
21 22

.

{ 1, 2 }, , -
, :
20

1 ( 11 22 12 21 ) ( 1 22 2 12 );
2 ( 11 22 12 21 ) ( 2 11 1 21 )

11 12
1 1 ; 2 2 , det ,
21 22

1 12 11 1
1 det ; 2 det .
2 22 21 2

0
1 1 ; 2 2
1 0
0
.
2 0

( )
1 2 0 -
,
– { 1, 2 }, ,
11 1 12 2 1.

, 0.

. 0, -
{ 1, 2 }, -
11 , 12 , 21 , 22 , 1 , 2

1 2 .
1 2

.
1. 21
§ 1.2.

, A
1.2.1. B, , ,

.
, -
, -
.

AB, ,
A , B – .
a.
AB a .

AB CD
1.2.2. , -

, 1.2.2 -
.

a b.

b a (
1.2.3. b, b, -
a ),
22
c,
a b, -
a b 3.

( .
1.2.1).

. 1.2.1

, :

1 .
,
.1.2.2.
2.
,
1.2.3 ( . . 1.2.3).
3 . a b a b
c,
a b c.

3
, -

”.
1. 23

. 1.2.2

. 1.2.3

4 . -
.

a a
1.2.4. :
0 ,
24
0 , -

a;

a, 0,
-
a, 0.

§ 1.3.

, -
1.3.1. § 1.2 :
- ( . 1.2.2);
- ( . 1.2.3);
- ( . 1.2.4),
.
-

, a.

o.

1.3.1.
:

1º. a b b a.
1. 25
2º.

a (b c) (a b) c;

( a) ( )a.
3º.

(a b ) a b;

( )a a a

a, b c
.

a b.
ABDC ( . 1.3.1).

. 1.3.1
26
-

, CD a; BD b,
, , ACD ABD

, AD b CD; AD a BD ,
a b b a.

1 . , -
.
, -
,
.
(
-
, -
-
) -

, -

-
), -
. 1.3.2 .
1. 27
, ( -
1.3.1), , -
. 1.3.2,
500 .
, -
1000 ( -
)
500 2 700 . ,
-
, ( -
1.3.1) .
2 . , , -
1.3.1 -
, . , -

. , -
, , , -
; – , -
. , -
, -
, ,
.
3 . -
,
1.3.1
.
, A, -
,
. -
0 -
A -

r( 0), – r ( ).
28

r( ) r( 0) (
) , -
1.3.1.
, ,
. ,
,
, , -
.
, ,
, -
, ,
.

§ 1.4.

-
.

, ,
1.4.1. .
, -
, .

.
.

1 a1 2 a 2 ... n an ,
1.4.2.
i ;i [1, n] – , -

a1 , a 2 ,..., a n .
1. 29

1 , 2 , ..., n

1 2 ... n 0) ,
.

1 , 2 , ..., n

( 1 2 ... n 0 ), -
.

, -
, , -
, -
:
n
F (k ) F (k 1) ... F (n) F (i ) ,
i k

:" F (i ) i k n"), i– ,
k– ,n–
, , F (i ) – -
.

-
1.4.1. :
n
12 22 ... (n 1) 2 n2 i2
i 1
n(n 1)(2n 1)
,
6
30
n
13 23 ... (n 1) 3 n3 i3
i 1
2 2 n 2
n (n 1)
4
( ), i 1
i

n 1
1 1 1 1 i 1
... .
12 23 (n 1)n i 1 i(i 1) i

, -
n
1 a1 2 a 2 ... n an i ai .
i 1

-
.

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n -
1.4.3. ,
n n
i ai , , i ai o.
i 1 i 1

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n -
1.4.4. n
, i ai o -
i 1
n
i ai ,
i 1

1 2 ... n 0.
1. 31

, a1 , a 2 , ..., a n ,

1 , 2 , ..., n, -
n
, k ak
k 1
.

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n
1.4.1. , -
.

. a1 , a 2 , ..., a n -
, 1 , 2 , ..., n, -
n
, , k ak o.
k 1

, 1 0,
n
k
a1 ( ) ak , .
k 2 1

. , ,
n n
a1 k ak , ( 1) a1 k ak o,
k 2 k 2

| 1| | 2 | ... | n | 0. -

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n
.

.
32
.
,
1.4.1. .
,
1.4.2. .
,
1.4.3. .

1.4.1 1.4.2 -
. 1.4.3.

. a1 , a 2 , a 3
, , -

, 1 , 2 , 3, , 1 a1 2 a2 3 a3 o.
1.4.1 -
, , , -
.

, a1 a2
.

a1 , a 2 , a 3 . ,
.

a3 , -

a1 a2 . b1 b2 , -

, a3 b1 b2 ( . 1.4.1).
1. 33

b1 -

a1 ,
b2 a2 ,
1.4.1 1.4.2
,

b1 1 a1 ; b2 2 a2 ,
. 1.4.1 ,

a3 1 a1 2 a2 ,

a1 , a 2 , a 3 1.4.1 -

. a1

. a2 .

1 . ,
.
2 . ,
.
3 . ,
.

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } -
1.4.4. ,

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } .
34
.

, -
k n ( , -
), -
k

1 , 2 , ..., k , , i ai o.
i 1

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } , k
i ,i [1, k ] .
,
n k n

i ai i ai 0 ai o.
i 1 i 1 i k 1

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n }
1.4.1.
, {a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } -
.

§ 1.5. .

-
1.5.1. , .
-
, -
.
1. 35
-
.

, -
1.5.2. (
).

-
1.5.3. , -
.

g1 , g 2 , g 3 , {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } . -

{e1 , e2 , e3 } .

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , x
1.5.1.

x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 ,

1 , 2 , 3 – .

1 . .

g1 , g 2 , g 3 x O

x ,

O, g1 , g 2 ( . 1.5.1).
36

y z ,

x z y, z g3 -
, ,
-

z g3

z 3 g3 . -

y
O
-
1.4.3,

y 1 g1 2 g2 , -
,

. 1.5.1
x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 ,

2 . .

x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 , -

1 , 2 , 3 , ,

x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 .
,

( 1 1 ) g1 ( 2 2 ) g2 ( 3 3 ) g3 o,
1. 37

1 1 2 2 3 3 0.
, -

( 1 1 ) g1 ( 2 2 ) g2 ( 3 3 ) g3

, {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ,
,
1.5.1.
.

1 , 2 , 3 –
1.5.4.
x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 – -

( ) x
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 :

1 . x( 1 , 2 , 3 ), 2 . ( 1 , 2 , 3 ), 3 . 1 2 3 ,

1 1

4 . 2 , 5 . 2 ,

3 3
38
. -

" x {g1 , g 2 , g 3 }
1 1

2 " x 2 ,
g
3 3
, ,
1

x 2 .

, x {g1 , g 2 }

x 1 g1 2 g2 ,
1
x .
g 2

§ 1.6.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } -

1 , 2 , 3 – ,
,
.
, -
( ), -
,
.
1. 39

1.6.1. :
1 . -

x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3

y 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3
, -
:
1 1

x y 2 2 .
g g
3 3

2 . -
-

x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3

y 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3
-

x y x y .
g g g

3 . - -
-
-
x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3
40
-

x x .
g g

.
-
( 1.3.1)

x y ( 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 ) ( 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 )
g g

( 1 1 ) g1 ( 2 2 ) g2 ( 3 3 ) g3
g

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 x y .
g g
3 3 3 3

1.6.1.
x y

x y :.
1. 41

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 .

3 3 3 3

, -

x y
1.6.2. , ,
1 1
x y
g 2 g 2

1 1
det 0. -
2 2

. x y -
, 1.4.1
1 1
x y .
2 2

,
1 1
1 2 2 1 0, , det 0.
2 2
42

1 1
. det 0,
2 2

1 2
, 1 0; 2 0, -
1 2

x y -
, .

1 2 0 .

{ x, y, z} -
1.6.3.
1

x 2 ,
g
3

1 1

y 2 z 2
g g
3 3

,
,
1 1 1

det 2 2 2 0. .
3 3 3
1. 43
.

x , y, z -

, 1 x 2 y 3 z o , -
,

1 1 1 0
1 2 2 2 3 2 0 .
3 3 3 0

1 1 2 1 3 1 0,
1 2 2 2 3 2 0,
1 3 2 3 3 3 0,
( , 6.4.1)
, -
.
, , ,
( ) .

1 1 1
det 2 2 2 0.
3 3 3

1 2 3 0,
.

, -
« »
(§ 2.6).
44
§ 1.7.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } O, -
1.7.1. , -

) {O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }.

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } ,
1.7.2. , -
( ) -
.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ,
M

r, O,
– M.

r OM
1.7.3.
M {O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }.
M
1.7.4. M

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }.

-
-
.
1. 45

1.7.1.
{O , g 1 , g 2 , g 3 }
M N,

MN . MN .

. . 1.7.1
.

1 1

OM 2 ON 2 .

3 3

OM MN ON
MN ON OM .
1 1

MN 2 2 .
. 1.7.1
3 3

1.7.2.
{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } -
M1 M2,

1 1

OM 1 2 OM 2 2 .

3 3

M, , M1M MM 2 .
46
. , , -
1, M
. 1.7.2). M. -
OM 1 M OMM 2

OM1 M 1 M OM ; OM MM 2 OM 2 ,

, M1M MM 2 ,

OM OM 1 (OM 2 OM )
,

OM
1
OM 1 OM 2 .
1 1
M
. 1.7.2
1 1

1
2 2
OM .
1
3 3

: 1.7.2
.
1. 47
§ 1.8.

-
,
-
. , -
,
, .
: “ ”

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } “ ” {O , g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ( . 1.8.1).

“ ” , OO , “ -
” . 1.5.1
:

g1 11 g1 21 g2 31 g3 ,
g2 12 g1 22 g2 32 g3, (1.8.1)

g3 13 g1 23 g2 33 g3 ,

OO 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3.

“ ”
1.8.1. “ ” -
:
1 11 1 12 2 13 3 1 ,
2 21 1 22 2 23 3 2 , (1.8.2)

3 31 1 32 2 33 3 3 .
48
.

M “ ” {O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }
1

2 , “ ”

{O , g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } – 2 .

“ ” “ ”
M. :

OM 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3

OM 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3

1 ( 11 g1 21 g2 31 g3 )

2 ( 12 g1 22 g2 32 g3 )

3 ( 13 g1 23 g2 33 g3 ) .

OM , O M OO

OM O M OO
. 1.8.1 ,
1. 49

1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 o,

1 1 11 1 12 2 13 3 1 ,
2 2 21 1 22 2 23 3 2 ,
3 3 31 1 32 2 33 3 3 .

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , -

, o, , -
1 2 3 0
1 11 1 12 2 13 3 1 ,
2 21 1 22 2 23 3 2 ,
3 31 1 32 2 33 3 3 .

(1.8.2)
1.8.1.
{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

{O , g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

, « » (1.8.1) (1.8.2)
.
, (1.8.2),
“ ” “ ”,
S , “ ”
50

“ ” , 2 “ ”

3
“ ” .

11 12 13

S 21 22 23 -
1.8.2.
31 32 33

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

1.8.2.
11 12 13

det 21 22 23 0.
31 32 33

11 12 13

21 22 23 -

31 32 33
-

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .
1.6..3 .

.
1. 51
:
1.8.1.
” {O, g1 , g 2 } “ ” {O , g 1 , g 2 } ( . .
1.8.2). -

, “ ” “ ”,
1
g1 OO g2 g1 .
2
. -
, -
“ ” “ -
”:

g1 2 g2 ,

g2 g1 2 g 2 .

0 1 1 1
. 1.8.2 S , .
2 2 2 0
, “ ” “ ”
1 2 1,
2 2 1 2 2.

{O, e1 , e2 } {O , e1 , e2 } . ,
. 1.8.3.
52

e1 e1 cos e2 sin e2 e1 sin e2 cos


:

cos sin 1
S , , OO ,
sin cos 2

“ ” -
“ ”

1 1 cos 2 sin 1 ,
2 1 sin 2 cos 2 .

. 1.8.3

-
“ -

” OO O.
,
-
, , .

. 1.8.4.

, e1
e1 , -

. 1.8.4 e2
1. 53
,
.

1 1 cos 2 sin 1 ,
2 1 sin 2 cos 2 .

, . 1.8.3 . 1.8.4,
,

a
1.8.3.
b -
,

a b -
.

.
, S , -
, det S 1, det S 1,
(
), det S 1
.
54

§ 2.1.

l
2.1.1.

b .

b -
l.

M, -
2.1.2. l, -
, -
M l– -
. 2.1.1
M*, -
-
M .

– , -
, -
.

a l -
2.1.3.
Prl a , l, -
2. 55

a l, –
2.1.3.
a.
b, -

b
e {e }
|b|
l( . 2.1.1).
-
2.1.4.
a l

Prl a { e } 4.

a b -
2.1.5. , -
.

a l

a. . 2.1.2 ,
l

l a a cos , a e.

. 2.1.2

, : , , , -
.
56

1.1 .
:

Prl (a1 a 2 ) Prl a1 Prl a 2 .


. 2.1.3.

. 2.1.3

1.2 . , -
:

Prl ( a ) Prl a .
, 1.1 1.2
:

-
:

Prl ( 1 a1 2 a2 ) 1 Prl a1 2 Prl a 2 .


1.1 1.2 -
-
.
2. 57

2.1 . l (a1 a 2 ) l a1 l a2 ;

2.2 . l a l a.
, 2.1 2.2 ,

l ( 1 a1 2 a2 ) 1 l a1 2 l a2 .
,
.

§ 2.2.

a
2.2.1.
b ,
.
,
,
.

a b
(a , b ) . , a b:

(a, b ) | a | | b | cos , – -
. , 2.1.5, 0 .

, , b o,

(a , b ) b a.
b
58

1 . (a , b ) 0 a o b o ,

a b ;

2 . (a , b ) (b, a) -
( ).

3 . (a1 a 2 , b ) (a1 , b ) (a 2 , b ) ( ).
.

b o, 3 . b o,
(a1 a 2 , b ) b (a1 a 2 )
b

b a1 b a2 (a1 , b ) (a 2 , b ).
b b
.

4 . ( a, b ) ( a, b ) ;

5 . (a , a ) | a |2 0 a ; | a| (a, a) ;

, (a , a) 0 a o -
);

(a, b)
6 . a o b o cos , –
| a || b |
a b.
2. 59
§ 2.3.

{ g1 , g 2 , g 3 } a b, -

a 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 b 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 .
3 4

( a, b ) ( 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 , 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 )

1 1 ( g1 , g1 ) 1 2 ( g1 , g 2 ) 1 3 ( g1 , g 3 )

2 1 ( g 2 , g1 ) 2 2 (g2 , g2 ) 2 3 (g2 , g3 )

3 1 ( g 3 , g1 ) 3 2 (g3 , g2 ) 3 3 (g3 , g3 )
3
( j 1 ( g j , g1 ) j 2 (g j , g2 ) j 3 (g j , g3 ) )
j 1
3 3

j i ( g j , g i ).
j 1 i 1

{e1 , e2 , e3 } -
,

1, i j,
(ei , e j ) ij
0, i j,
ij – .
-

( a, b ) 1 1 2 2 3 3,
60
:
2 2 2
a 1 2 3

a o b o
1 1 2 2 3 3
cos .
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3 1 2 3

,
cos 1 – :
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 i ; i

-
2.3.1. , -
.

{O, e1 , e2 , e3} OM 2 2

OM 1 2 . ,

3
1.7.1,

M1M 2 ( 1 1 ) e1 ( 2 2 ) e2 ( 3 3 ) e3

| M 1M 2 | ( 1 1 )2 ( 2 2 )2 ( 3 3 )2 .
2. 61
§ 2.4.

2.4.1.
{a , b , c } , ( -

) a
b c -
.

{a , b , c } .
-
2.4.2.
a b c, ,

1 . | c | | a | | b | sin , –

a b.
2 . c a
b.
3 . {a , b , c } .

, (
, -
), -

a b
[a, b]. 2.4.2 ,
62

1 . [ a, b ] ,

a b.
2 . a b
,
.

1 . [a, b ] [b, a] ( , -
2.4.2 sin ).
2 . [ a, b ] [a, b ] ( -

, [ a, b ] [a, b ] -

a
b 0 ).
3 . [a b , c ] [a , c ] [b , c ] ( ).

a b, -
2.4.1.
l. -

a b
l -

l .
2. 63
2.4.1

,l (a b) ,l a ,l b.

. 2.4.1. . 2.4.1

e 1 p o, [ p, e ] -
2.4.2.

p ,

e, e
.
2

O – p e – e,

p e.
p , -

e,
,
( . 2.4.2)
64

[ p, e ] p e sin p cos( ),
2

e 1. ,

[ p, e ] Pr e
p, Pr e
p -
,e
2

p ,

e.

. 2.4.2

3.

c o, 3 . c o,
2.4.1, 2.4.2 1.1 § 2.1 -
2. 65

c
[a b, c ] | c | [ a b, ] |c | Pr ( a b )
,c c
|c| 2

| c |( (Pr a Pr b ))
,c c c
2

|c |( Pr a Pr b)
,c c ,c c
2 2

c c
| c | ( [ a, ] [b , ] ) [ a , c ] [ b , c ].
|c| |c |
.

§ 2.5.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , , , -

g1 , g 2 , g 3 , a b, -

a 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 b 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 .

2 3

[a, b ] [ 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 , 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 ]

1 1 [ g1 , g1 ] 1 2 [ g1 , g 2 ] 1 3 [ g1 , g 3 ]

2 1 [ g 2 , g1 ] 2 2[ g2 , g2 ] 2 3[g 2 , g3 ]
66

3 1 [ g 3 , g1 ] 3 2 [g3 , g 2 ] 3 3[g3 , g 3 ]
3 3
j i [ g j , g i ].
j 1i 1

f1 , f 2 f3 -

[ gi , g j ] :

f1 [ g 2 , g 3 ]; f 2 [ g 3 , g 1 ]; f 3 [ g 1 , g 2 ].

[a , b ] -
, 2-
3- ( . 1.1.1),

[ a, b ] ( 2 3 3 2 ) f1 ( 1 3 3 1 ) f2 ( 1 2 2 1 ) f3
2 3 1 3 1 2
det f 1 det f 2 det f3
2 3 1 3 1 2

f1 f2 f3
det 1 2 3 .
1 2 3

{e1 , e2 , e3 } , -
, 2.4.2,

f1 e1 , f2 e2 , f3 e3 .
2. 67
-
:

e1 e2 e3
[a, b ] det 1 2 3 .
1 2 3

a b -
2.5.1. , ,

2 3 1 3 1 2
det det det 0,
2 3 1 3 1 2

1 2 3
.
1 2 3

-
2.5.2.
, a b, -

2 3 1 3 1 2
S det 2 det 2 det 2 ,
2 3 1 3 1 2

1 2
S det .
1 2
68
§ 2.6.

( ) -
2.6.1.
a, b c,

(a, b, c ) , ( [ a , b ], c ) .

2.6.1.
(a, b, c ) ,

a, b c.
a, b, c -
, ,
, – .

a b, .

a b, -

(a , b , c ) |[ a, b ]| c,
[a ,b]

S = | [ a, b ] | , -

a b,
| c | | c | | cos |
[ a,b ]
2. 69
– -
S,
( . . 2.6.1)

V (a , b , c ) .

(a, b, c )

| [ a , b ] | | c | cos ,

. 2.6.1
-
. .

1 . (a , b , c ) (c, a, b) (b , c , a )

(b , a , c ) (c, b, a) (a, c , b) ;

2 . ( a, b, c) (a , b , c ) ;

3 . ( a1 a2 , b , c ) ( a1 , b , c ) ( a2 , b , c ) ,
-
2.6.1.
70
, , ,
-
.

§ 2.7.

{ g1 , g 2 , g 3 } a, b c,

a 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 , b 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 , -

,c 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 .

2 3 1 3 1 2
[ a, b ] det f 1 det f 2 det f3 ,
2 3 1 3 1 2

f1 , f 2 , f 3 §2.5.

, (g k , f j ) ( g1 , g 2 , g 3 ), k j,
0, k j,

(a , b , c )

(a, b, c ) ([a, b ], c ) ( 1 det


2

2
3

3
2 det
1

1
3

1 2 3

3 det
1

1
2

2
)(g , g , g )
1 2 3 det 1 2 3 ( g1 , g 2 , g 3 ) ,
1 2 3
2. 71
, ,
3- . ( .
1.1.1.)
.1 . 2.6.1 -
1.6.3.
2 .

( e1 , e2 , e3 ) 1,
1 2 3

( a , b, c ) det 1 2 3 .
1 2 3

3 . § 2.5 f1 , f 2 , f 3 -

{ f1, f2 , f3 }
2.7.1.
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ).
.
,

f1, f 2 , f3 .
1 , 2 , 3, ,

1 f1 2 f2 3 f3 o.

g j , j [1,3] ,

1 ( f1 , g j ) 2 ( f2, g j ) 3 ( f3 , g j ) 0, j [1,3] .
(2.7.1)
72

( fi , g j ) , i [1,3] , j [1,3]
,i j
( fi , g j ) , 0. , -
0, i j

( f i , g i ) , i [1,3] -

g1 , g 2 , g 3 .

( fi , g j ) , i j
,
.

(2.7.1),
, i 0, i [1,3] ,

f1 , f 2 , f 3 .

§ 2.8.

a, b
2.8.1.
c [ a , [ b , c ]] .

2.8.1.

[ a , [ b , c ]] b( a, c ) c ( a, b) , a, b, c .
2. 73
.

, , a, b , c ,
, -

, (a, b ) (a, c ) .

x [ a , [ b , c ]]. -

x [b, c ] , a.
1º.

( x ,[ b , c ]) ( x, b, c ) 0 ,

{ x, b , c} , 1.4.1,

x b c, .

2º. ( x , a) 0 ,

( b c , a) 0 (b , a) ( c , a) 0.

3º. r, -
:

) r ( x) ,

b c;
) ( r , b) 0 (r , c) 0.( . . 2.8.1.)

(a , r , [ b , c ]) (a ,[ r , [ b , c ]]) . ,

( r , b) 0,
74

2.8.1.

( a , r , [ b , c ]) ( r , a , [ b , c ]) ( r , [ a , [ b , c ]]) ( r , x)

(r, b c) ( r , b) (r , c) ( r , c ).

, [ r , [ b , c ]] b,

0 , [ r ,[b, c ] ] b.

(a , r , [ b , c ] ) ( a, b ) .

b [ r ,[ b , c ] ] r b c sin sin( { r ;[ b , c ]})

r b c cos( ) (r, c) b (r, c) ,


2
2. 75

r [b, c ] .

(a , r , [ b , c ] ) (a, b ) ( r , c ) .

(a , r , [ b , c ] ) ,

(r, c) (a, b ) ( r , c ) (a, b ) .


, , .2º, ,

(a, c ) .

-
4( .§ . 4.5).

§ 2.9.

, ,
. , -
( )

, a b,
1

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } 2

3
76

2 , -

k i ; k , i 1,2,3 , -

1 1 1 2 1 3

2 1 2 2 2 3 (2.9.1)

3 1 3 2 3 3

, -
-
,
.
, -
k i ; k , i 1, 2,3 , ( -
) ,
.
, , 2.9.1,
,
.

{e1 , e2 , e3 }
11 12 13

{e1 , e2 , e3 } S 21 22 23 .

31 32 33
§ 1.8,
3
et pt ep; t 1,2,3 , -
p 1
2. 77

3 3

s si i; s 1,2,3; s st t ; s 1,2,3.
i 1 t 1

it – ( . § 2.3), -

{e1 , e2 , e3 } {e1 , e2 , e3 }

3 3 3 3
(ei , et ) it ( si e s , pt e p ) si pt (e s , e p )
s 1 p 1 s 1 p 1
3 3 3

si pt sp si st ; t 1,2,3 .
s 1 p 1 s 1

3
, si st it ; i, t 1,2,3
s 1

S
.

1 1 2 2 3 3 {e1 , e2 , e3 } ,
-
:

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

i i ( si i )( st t) i t si st
i 1 i 1 s 1 t 1 i 1 t 1 s 1
3 3 3

i t it t t .
i 1 t 1 t 1

1 1 2 2 3 3
78
,
.

, -
-

2 3 3 2 ,
3 1 1 3 ,

1 2 2 1 .

, .
3. 79

, -

. -
,
, -
, .

3 -
– –
. 3, 4 5 -
x, -
y
z, .

§ 3.1.

{O, g1 , g 2 }
L, r0 , -

a.
80

a
3.1.1. L.

L -
3.1.1.
r r0 a, –
.

r – , a
r r0 ( . 3.1.1) ,
1.4.2

r r0 a.

r r0 a ( , ).

.
. 3.1.1

-
x x0
L. r , r0
g y g y0
ax
a , .
g
ay
3. 81
-
3.1.2.
Ax By C 0, A B 0.

r r0 a -

x x0 y y0
det 0.
ax ay
ay (x x0 ) a x ( y y0 ) 0,
Ax By C 0, A B 0, A ay ; B ax ,
C a y x0 a x y0 , ,
. ,
A B 0

a o.
.

Ax By C 0,
3.1.3.
A B 0,
.

Ax By C 0, A B 0.
x0 y0 , Ax0 By0 C 0.
82
,
A( x x0 ) B( y y0 ) 0.
x0 B
r0 a .
y0 A

3.1.2 , , r0 -

a,
A( x x0 ) B( y y0 ) 0 . , -
.

: 3.1.1–3.1.3 ,

, , -
, -
-
: "
-
?"

3.1.4. A1 x B1 y C1 0, A1 B1 0
A2 x B2 y C 2 0, A2 B2 0
, -
, 0,
,
A1 A2 ; B1 B2 ; C1 C2 .
3. 83
.

A2 x B2 y C 2 0 .
1 1 1
A2 x B2 y C 2 A1 x B1 y C1

1
( A1 x B1 y C1 ) 0,

0, A1 x B1 y C1 0 .
A1 x B1 y C1 0 ,
A2 x B2 y C 2 0.

A1 x B1 y C1 0 A2 x B2 y C 2 0
-
. -
( 3.1.2) 0, ,
A1 A2 ; B1 B2 .
,
A2 x B2 y C1 0 A2 x B2 y C2 0 ,
, C1 C2 .

: -
. -
, ( . § 4.6)
P sec( 0) .
84
§ 3.2.

{O, g1 , g 2 } -
.
.
1 .
,
-
x2 x1
a r2 r1 , -
y2 y1
-
r r1 ( r2 r1 )
x1 r (1 ) r1 r2 .
r1
y1
,
, :
x2 x x1 y y1
r2 ; ( x2 x1 )( y 2 y1 ) 0;
y2 x 2 x1 y 2 y1
y y1 x, y2 y1
x x1 y, x2 x1.
,

x y 1
det x1 y1 1 0.
x2 y2 1

x1 x2
r1 , r2
3.2.1. y1 y2
x3
r3 ,
y3
3. 85
,

x1 y1 1
det x 2 y2 1 0.
x3 y3 1

2 .

, -
-

x0
r0 ,
y0
-
-
-

nx . 3.2.1
n .
ny

x x0 x
a r r0 , r
y y0 y
( .
3.2.1).

n r r0 (n , r r0 ) 0,

( n, r ) d, d ( n , r0 ) .
86
-

( n, r ) d (n , r r0 ) 0, -
d
r0 , , r0 n.
( n, n )

{O, e1 , e2 } -

nx ( x x0 ) n y ( y y0 ) 0,
nx x ny y d, d n x x0 n y y0 .

-
Ax By C 0, -
, -
A
n, n , -
g B
.

n -
3.2.1. L.

3 . - -
-
{O, e1 , e2 }
Ax By C 0, A B 0
, A2 B2 .
3. 87
A B C
cos ; sin ; ,
2 2 2 2 2
A B A B A B2

x cos y sin 0.
.
3.2.2.

. 3.2.2

,
,
Ax By C 0, A B 0
( , x
y ), -
Ax By C 0, A B 0.
,

L : (n, r ) d P , P
P ( . . 3.2.3).
88

. 3.2.3

\
, M
3.2.2.
R P ( P ),
0 ( 0 ), ,

M M n, M -
M L.

M P ,
3.2.1.
( n, R ) d .
3. 89
.

M P , 0 ,

M M n. ( n, R ) . M L,

( n, OM ) d ,

( n , R) ( n , OM M M) ( n , OM ) ( n , M M )

d ( n, n) d
.

( n, R ) d M M n, ,

( n, OM ) d , ( n , R) ( n , OM M M)

( n , OM ) ( n , M M ) d ( n, n) d.

n o , 0 , , M P.

{O, g1 , g 2 }
3.2.1.
L, ( n, r r0 ) 0. -
,
x1
r1 .
y1
90

1 . MK n, r r1 n. ( . .
3.2.4).

2 . K
,

( n, r1 n r0 ) 0.

( n,r1 r0 )
2
.
| n|
3 .

MK ,

. 3.2.4 n
| MK | | (r1 r0 , ) |.
| n|
4 . .
Ax By C 0, A B 0, ,
A
n .
B
A( x1 x0 ) B( y1 y0 )
| MK | .
A2 B2
, r0 L , -
, Ax0 By 0 C 0,

Ax1 By1 C
| MK | .
A2 B2
3. 91
-
3.2.3. ,
, .

, ,
3.2.2.
A1 x B1 y C1 0 A2 x B2 y C 2 0.
1) -
, ,
( A1 x B1 y C1 ) ( A2 x B2 y C 2 ) 0
,
2) , ,

( A1 x B1 y C1 ) ( A2 x B2 y C 2 ) 0
.

.
x
1 . r ,
y
,
A2 x B2 y C2 , ( A1 x B1 y C1 ) .

, 0, r
.
,
( A2 x B2 y C 2 )( A1 x B1 y C1 )
( A1 x B1 y C1 )( A2 x B2 y C 2 ) 0

r ,
, , .
92
2 . A1 x B1 y C1 0 A2 x B2 y C2 0 –
,
,
( A1 x B1 y C1 ) ( A2 x B2 y C 2 ) 0.

( A1 A2 ) x ( B1 B2 ) y ( C1 C2 ) 0
,
A1 B1 0, A2 B2 0 0
, A1 A2 B1 B2 0.

, :
A1 A2 0,
(3.2.1)
B1 B2 0.
A1x B1 y C1 0 A2 x B2 y C 2 0 -
, , .
, . 3.1.4
, 0,
A1 A2 B1 B2 .
A1 A2
1.6.2 det 0.
B1 B2

,
A1 A2
det 0 1.1.2
B1 B2
3.2.1 .
, ,
0, -
0.
3. 93
,

A1 A2 B1 B2 0.
.

3.2.4.
( A1 x B1 y C1 ) ( A2 x B2 y C 2 ) 0

-
.

§ 3.3.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }
S, r0 S -

p q.

p q -
3.3.1. S.

S
3.3.1.
r r0 p q, –
.
.

r – , p, q

r r0 ( . 3.3.1).
94

1.4.3 1.4.1

r r0 p q,
, , -

r r0 p q,
( , )
( , ).

. . 3.3.1

-
x px
S. r y , p py
g g
z pz
qx
q qy , .
g
qz

-
3.3.2.
Ax By Cz D 0, A B C 0.

r r0 , p q -
1.6.3
3. 95
x x0 y y0 z z0
det px py pz 0.
qx qy qz

A( x x0 ) B( y y 0 ) C ( z z0 ) 0, -
Ax By Cz D 0, A, B C
1.1.1

py pz px pz
A det ;B det ;
qy qz qx qz
px py
C det ,
qx qy

D Ax0 By0 Cz 0 , , , ,
. -
A, B

C p q -
2.5.1.

Ax By Cz D 0,
3.3.3.
A B C 0 -
.
.

,
Ax By Cz D 0, A B C 0
96
C 0

DA DB DC
x y z
A2 B2 C 2 A2 B2 C 2 A2 B2 C 2
det 0 C B 0,

C 0 A

C 0
DA DB
x 2
y z 0
A B2 A2
B2
det B A 0 0,

0 0 1

p q
0 C
p C q 0 C 0, , C 0,
g g
B A
B 0
p A q 0 .
g g
0 1

, , -
-
.

.
3. 97

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } -
3.3.1. , , -

:
x1 x2 x3
r1 y1 ; r2 y 2 ; r3 y3 .
z1 z2 z3
. ,

r2 r1 r3 r1 .
,

r r r1 -
.

r r1 ,
r2 r1 r3 r1 ,

( r r1 , r2 r1 , r3 r1 ) 0,
( § 2.7)
x x1 y y1 z z1
det x 2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 0.
x3 x1 y3 y1 z3 z1

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } -
3.3.2. ,
T
r0 x0 y0 z0 -
T
n nx ny nz .
98

. r ,

, r r0 n -

, . (r r0 , n ) 0.
{O, e1 , e2 , e3 }

nx ( x x0 ) n y ( y y 0 ) n z ( z z0 ) 0

, A nx ; B ny; C nz , -
, D nx x0 n y y0 nz z0 ,
Ax By Cz D 0.
-
3.3.1.
{O, e1 , e2 , e3 }
Ax By Cz D 0, A B C 0,
A
n B .
C

n -
3.3.2.
( r r0 , n ) 0.
A
B -
3.3.3.
C
Ax By Cz D 0, A B C 0.
3. 99
-
.

3.3.3.
{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } M -
x
r y ( r r0 , n ) 0.
z

. 1 . K M -

, MK n r r n.( .
. 3.3.2.)
2 . K ,

( n, r n r0 ) 0, ,
,

( n ,r r0 )
2
,
| n|

| MK |

n
|(r r0 , ) |. . 3.3.2
| n|
. -
.
100

A
n B
C
Ax By Cz D 0 .
| A( x x 0 ) B( y y0 ) C ( z z0 ) |
| MK | ,
A2 B 2 C 2

, , r0
, Ax0 By0 Cz 0 D 0,
A B C 0,
| Ax By Cz D|
| MK | .
2 2 2
A B C

A1 B1 C1 0 A2 B2 C2 0,
3.3.4.

A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0,
A2 x B2 y C 2 z D 2 0
,
.
.

. ,
0,
A1 A2 ; B1 B2 ; C1 C2
A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0,
A2 x B2 y C 2 z D2 0
3. 101

A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0,
A1 x B1 y C1 z D2 0.
D1 D2 ,
D1 D2 – ,
.

.
A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0
A2 x B2 y C2 z D2 0
. -
.
-
, x 0 z 0.
, -
,
x 0, x 0,
B1 y C1 z D1 0 B2 y C2 z D2 0.
0
, B1 B2 ; C1 C2 .

z 0,

z 0, z 0,
A1 x B1 y D1 0 A2 x B2 y D2 0,
B1 B2
, A1 A2 .
.
102

3.3.2. A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0, A1 B1 C1 0
A2 x B2 y C 2 z D2 0, A2 B2 C2 0
, -
,
0, ,
A1 A2 ; B1 B2 ; C1 C 2 ; D1 D2 .

-
3.3.4. ,
.

,
3.3.5. , -

A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0,
A1 B1 C1 0

A2 x B2 y C 2 z D2 0,
A2 B2 C2 0,

( A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 )
( A2 x B2 y C 2 z D2 ) 0,
0.

-
3.3.6. ,
.
3. 103
P,
3.3.7.
A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0,
A1 B1 C1 0,
A2 x B2 y C 2 z D2 0,
A2 B2 C2 0

A3 x B3 y C 3 z D3 0,
A3 B3 C3 0,
,
( A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 )
( A2 x B2 y C 2 z D2 )
( A3 x B3 y C 3 z D3 ) 0,
0
, -
P.
-
, 3.2.1 .

§ 3.4.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .
T
1. r x y z
- ,
104
ax
a ay
az
x0
r0 y0 ,
z0

a r r0 , -

r r0 a.

2.

- r r0 a
-
x x0 ax ,
y y0 ay ,
z z0 az ,
-

x x0 y y0 z z0
,
ax ay az
.

axa y az 0
, § 3.2 (1 ).

3. - a
-
,
3. 105
- x2 x1
- r2 r1 y2 y1 ,
-
z2 z1

x1
r1 y1 r r1 (r2 r1 ) r (1 ) r1 r2 .
z1 -

x2 x x1 y y1 z z1
,
r2 y2 x 2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1
z2 ( x2 x1 )( y 2 y1 )( z2 z1 ) 0 .

4. -
-

1- - (n1 , r ) d1 (n 2 , r ) d2 ,
n1 n2 – ,
, d1 d2 – .

, r0 , -
,
-
:

(n1 , r r0 ) 0,
(n2 , r r0 ) 0.

A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0,
A2 x B2 y C 2 z D2 0.
106
5. - -
-
a
2- -
r r0 ,

[ a , r r0 ] o
[a, r ] b, b [ a , r0 ] .

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } -

e1 e2 e3 a y z az y bx ,
det a x ay az b a z x a x z by ,
x y z a x y a y x bz .

,
,
. ,
ax , ay az -
, 0 0,
, ax , ay az -
, ,

bx a y z0 a z y0 ,
by a z x0 ax z0 ,
bz a x y0 a y x0 .
3. 107
, d -

R r r0 a -
, -
, S– -
, -
, -

. . 3.4.1
. 3.4.1

[ R r0 , a ]
S
d .
a a

§ 3.5.

.
, ,
, , -
, -

( r r01 , n1 ) 0
3.5.1.
( r r02 , n2 ) 0 -

n1 n2 .
108

( r r0 , n ) 0
3.5.2.
r r0 a , –
2

n a.
3.5.1–3.5.3

3.5.1

1 . 0, ,

r r01 a1 a1 a2 .
r r02 a2 . 2 . [a1 , a2 ] o .

(a1 , a 2 ) 0.
r r01 a1

r r02 a2 .

1 . 0, ,
r r0 a a [n1 , n2 ] .

(n1 , r ) d1 ,
2 . [ a , [n1 , n2 ]] o.
( n2 , r ) d2.
3. 109

( a , n1 , n 2 ) 0.
r r0 a

(n1 , r ) d1 ,
( n2 , r ) d2.

1 . 0 0,
r r01 a1 , a1 a2
r r02 a2 . r01 r02 a1 .

2 . [a 1 , a 2 ] o
[r01 r02 , a1 ] o.

[a1 , a 2 ] o
r r01 a1 (r01 r02 , a1 , a 2 ) 0.
r r02 a2 .

- [a1 , a 2 ] o
r r01 a1 (r01 r02 , a1 , a 2 ) 0.
r r02 a2 .
110
3.5.2

- 1 . 0, ,

r r01 p1 q1 [ p1 , q1 ] [ p2 , q2 ]

(r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) 0.
r r02 p2 q2 .

2 . [[ p1 , q1 ],[ p2 , q 2 ]] o
(r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) 0.

1 . 0, ,
r r01 p1 q1 [ p1 , q1 ] [ p2 , q2 ]
r r02 p2 q2 . (r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) 0.

2 . [[ p1 , q1 ],[ p2 , q 2 ]] o
r r01 p1 q1 (r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) 0.
r r02 p2 q2 .
- ( [ p1 , q1 ],[ p 2 , q 2 ]) 0.
r r01 p1 q1

r r02 p2 q2 .
3. 111

- ( p, n ) 0
( n , r0 ) d.
r r0 p q ( q, n) 0

( n, r ) d.

( p, n ) 0
( n , r0 ) d.
r r0 p q ( q, n) 0

( n, r ) d.

- 1 . 0, ,

r r0 p q [ p, q ] n.
( n, r ) d. 2 . [[ p, q ], n ] o.

3.5.3

1 . ; ; 0,
r r01 a , a p q
r r02 p q. (r01 r02 , p, q ) 0.
112

( a , p, q) 0,
2 .
(r01 r02 , p, q ) 0.

1 . 0, ,

r r01 a a [ p, q] .

r r02 p q. 2 . [ a ,[ p , q ]] o.

( a , n) 0
r r01 a ( n, r0 ) d.
( n, r ) d.

( a , n) 0,
r r01 a (r0 , n) d.
( n, r ) d.
1 . 0, ,

r r01 a a n.
( n, r ) d. 2 . [a, n ] o.
1 .
; ; 0, ,
(n1 , r ) d1 ,
(n 2 , r ) d2 n n1 n2 .

( n, r ) d. 2 . [ n ,[ n1 , n2 ]] o.
3. 113
, 3.5.1–3.5.3
.

-
5
. , , ,

(n1 , r ) d1 ,
(n 2 , r ) d2,

r r0 a.

, -

a [ n1 , n 2 ] , r0

n1 n2 .
, r0 n1 n2 ,

(n1 , r0 ) d1 ,
,
(n 2 , r0 ) d2

(n1 , n1 ) (n1 , n2 ) d1 (n1 , n 2 )


det , det
(n2 , n1 ) (n2 , n2 ) d2 ( n2 , n2 )

5
, -
-
, , , .( ., -
, 3.5.2.)
114

(n1 , n1 ) d1
det ( . 1.1.2).
(n 2 , n1 ) d 2
, -

n1 n2 0.

r r0 a,

, r0 a . -
, -

, n1 [ a , r0 ] n2 [ a , n1 ] . -
, ( .§
2.8),

n2 [ a , n1 ] [ a , [ a , r0 ]] ( a , r0 ) a ( a , a ) r0 ( a , r0 ) a a r0 .

d1 d2 , , d1 (n1 , r0 )

d2 (n2 , r0 ) . r0 a
.

-
.

(n, r ) d0 -
3.5.1.
r r0 a. -
.
3. 115

.1 . , , (n, a ) 0, ,
.

, (n, a ) 0.
2 . r r0 n, r –

-
, –

( . 3.5.1).

-
3.5.1
, -

( n , r0 a) d0 .

d ( n , r0 ) d ( n , r0 )
, , r r0 a.
( n, a ) ( n, a )

R
3.5.2.
r r0 a.
, -
.

.1 . R
, ( . 3.5.2). -

rx -
.

| R rx | .
116

2 . rx

( a , R rx ) 0

rx r0 a, , -
, -
,

( R r0 , a )
. 3.5.2 rx r0 a
2
|a |

( R r0 , a ) ( R r0 , a )
( R r0 a , R r0 a)
2 2
|a| |a|

( R r0 , a ) 2
| R r0 | 2 .
2
|a|
,
2 2 2
p q ( p, q ) 2 [ p, q ] -

[ R r0 , a ]
§ 3.4 .
|a|

r r01 a1
3.5.3.
r r02 a2 .
3. 117

. 1 . a1 a2 ,
, . 3.4.1 -

S | [r02 r01 , a1 ] |
.
| a1 | | a1 |

2 . a1 a2 -
,
,
, -

r01 , -

r02 ( . 3.5.3).

, -

a1 , a 2

. 3.5.3 r02 r01 , , -


,
,
, -

(r02 r01 , a1 , a 2 ) –

. ,

| (r02 r01 , a1 , a 2 ) |
.
|[a1 , a 2 ]|
118

( n, r ) [ p, r ] q. -
3.5.4.
R – .

n, [ n ,[ p, r ]] [ n , q ] . -

R § 2.8,

p ( n , R) R ( n , p ) [ n , q ] .
R ,

( n , R) , ,

( n , p) 0,
p [ n, q ]
R .
( n , p)
4. 119

§ 4.1.

{O , g1, g 2 }
, ( ,
).

, L
4.1.1.
r F( ) (
Fx ( )
r ,
g Fy ( )
Fx ( ), Fy ( ) – ,
, ),

1. r F( )
L.

2. r0 , L,

0 , , -

r0 F( 0) .
120

G ( x , y) 0, -
x Fx ( )
, .
y Fy ( )
1 .
4.1.1.
r r0 a, a – , r0 –
. -

x x0 ax
, ( , ),
y y0 ay
Fx ( ) x0 ax
, ( , ),
Fy ( ) y0 ay
Ax By C 0 , A B 0,
G ( x , y ) Ax By C .
2 .
x0
R -
y0

x x0 R cos
, [0,2 ) ,
y y0 R sin
Fx ( ) x0 R cos
, [0,2 ) ,
Fy ( ) y0 R sin

( x x0 ) 2 ( y y0 ) 2 R 2 ,
G( x, y) ( x x0 ) 2 ( y y0 ) 2 R2 .
4. 121
,
4.1.2.
m
pk qk
k x y 0, pk qk – -
k 0

, k -
.

N max { pk qk }
4.1.3. k [ 0,m ]
, -
4.1.2, k,
k 0. -
, -
,
.
x 3y 2 0 (N 1)
4.1.2
-
). - y x2 0 (N 2)

xy 1 0 (N 2)

” x3 y3 xy 0 (N 3)

4.1.1. .
.
L

{O, g1 , g 2 } G ( x , y) 0 N.

{O, g1 , g 2 } . ,
(1.8.2), :
122
x 11 x 12 y 1 ,
y 21 x 22 y 2 ,

L “ ”
G( 11 x 12 y 1, 21 x 22 y 2 ) 0.

4.1.2, N N ,
“ ” -
. -

{O, g1 , g 2 }
{O, g1 , g 2 } , N N N N .

: , -
.

1 . -
4.1.4. x 0,
y 0, -
x y 3 0
,
3.

2 . x2 y2 4 0
2 .

. -

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .
4. 123
, L
4.1.4.
r F( ) (
x Fx ( )
y Fy ( ) ,
z Fz ( )
Fx ( ), F y ( ), Fz ( ) – ,
, ),

1) r F( ) -
L,

2) r0 , L, -
0 , ,

r0 F( 0 ) .

G ( x, y, z ) 0,
H ( x, y , z ) 0,

x Fx ( )
y Fy ( ) , , , -
z Fz ( )
, G 2 ( x, y, z ) H 2 ( x, y, z ) 0.

1 . -
4.1.3. x 2
y 2
0, z
.
124
2 .
R 2 a
:
x R cos ,
y R sin , ( , ),
z a
z
x R cos ,
a
z
y R sin .
a

§ 4.2.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } – , ,
: , .

, S
4.2.1.

r F( , ) (
Fx ( , )
r Fy ( , ) ,
g
Fz ( , )
Fx ( , ) , Fy ( , ) , Fz ( , ) – -
, , , -
, ),
4. 125
1)

, r F( , )
S,

2) r0 , S, -
,
0 , 0 , -

r0 F( 0 , 0 ).

G( x, y, z) 0 ,

x Fx ( , ),
y Fy ( , ), , .
z Fz ( , ).

4.2.1. x0
R y0
z0

x x0 R cos sin ,
0 2 ,
y y0 R sin sin ,
0 ,
z z0 R cos ,

(x x0 ) 2 (y y0 ) 2 ( z z0 ) 2 R2 .
126
,
4.2.2.
m
pk q rk
k x y kz 0, pk , q k rk –
k 0

, k
.

N max{ pk qk rk } -
4.2.3. k [ 0,m]
, ( -
4.2.2), k,
k 0. -
, -
, -
.

4.2.2 x2 y2 1 0 (N 2)
-
-
). x2 y2 z2 R2 0 (N 2)

4.2.1. .

4.1.1.

: , -
.
4. 127
§ 4.3.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

r F( ), , -
.

4.3.1. , , -

a.
,
, -
.
.

r F( ) NM ( . . 4.3.1),
,

NM a,
, , -

r( , ) F( ) a, , ( , ).
Fx ( )
F( ) Fy ( )
g
Fz ( )
ax
a ay ,
g
az
x Fx ( ) y Fy ( ) z Fz ( )
.
ax ay az
128
, -
4.3.1.
- 3, -
, -
, ,
- , -
,

x 3 cos 3 cos 0
y 3 sin , F( ) 3 sin ;a 0 .
z 0 1

,
, x2 y2 9
z, ,
N 2.

. 4.3.1 . 4.3.2
4. 129

4.3.2. ( ),
,
, A ( )

r0 .
,
,
.
.

r F( ) NM ,
( . . 4.3.2)

NM (r0 F ( )) , , , -

r( , ) (1 ) F( ) r0 , , ( , ).
x0
r0 y0 , -
g
z0

x Fx ( ) y Fy ( ) z Fz ( )
.
x0 Fx ( ) y0 Fy ( ) z 0 Fz ( )

,
4.3.2.
- 3, -
, -
, ,
130
- ,
0
r0 0 ,
1
( . 4.3.1):
x 3 cos y 3 sin z
, [0,2 ) .
3 cos 3 sin 1
,
x2 y2
, ( z 1) 2 0,
9 9
N 2.

§ 4.4.

{O, e1 , e2 } L.

4.1.2 4.1.3
4.4.1. , L
,

Ax 2 2 Bxy Cy 2 2 Dx 2 Ey F 0, (4.4.1)
A, B C , x
y , -
L.
4.4.1 -
,
4. 131

{O , e1 , e2 } ,
.
-
4.4.1. ,
(
a b 0, p 0) ( -
) :
4 . 4. 1
- - -

0 0 0

x2 y2 y 2
a2
1
a2 b2 x

x2 y2
0
a2 b2

2
y 0
x
2
x2 y2 y a2
0
a2 b2 x

x2 y2 x2 y2 y 2
2 px
1 1
a2 b2 a2 b2
132

A B
det AC B2
B C
.

1 . , -
: B 0 A C.
, B 0, -
4.4.1. A C, ,
,

e1 e2 ; e2 e1 ; OO o, -
,
x y;y x § 1.8. ,
,
C B A B
det det .
B A B C
2 . B 0, 4 . 140.
B 0, -

{O , e1 , e2 } ,

O 0 , ,
4
xy
. . -
( . § 1.8):

e1 e1 cos e 2 sin
OO o,
e2 e1 sin e 2 cos

{O, e1 , e2 } {O , e1 , e2 }
4. 133
x x cos y sin ,
y x sin y cos .
“ ” “ ”, -
4.4.1
A( x cos y sin ) 2
2 B( x cos y sin )( x sin y cos )
C ( x sin y cos ) 2 2 D( x cos y sin )
2 E ( x sin y cos ) F 0,

2 2
Ax 2B x y Cy 2D x 2E y F 0 .
,
A A cos 2 2 B cos sin C sin 2 ,
2
2B 2 A sin cos 2 B cos
2
2 B sin 2C sin cos ,
C A sin 2 2 B sin cos C cos 2 .

B 0 ,
2 B cos 2 ( A C ) sin 2 0,
, ,
2B 1 2B
tg 2 ; arctg , A C,
A C 2 A C
A C, . -
4
,

A C
tg 2 tg 1 0, B 0,
B
, B 0, .
134
3 . ,
A C . ,

1 ctg 2 2 1 ( A2BC ) 2 1
sin 2 2
0
4
2B A C
sin 2 ; cos 2 .
4B 2 (A C)2 4B 2 ( A C) 2
A C
1 cos 2 1 cos 2
A A B sin 2 C
2 2
A C A C A C
cos 2 B sin 2
2 2 2
A C A C 2B
B
2 4B 2 ( A C ) 2 4B 2 ( A C ) 2
A C 1
4B 2 ( A C) 2 .
2 2
,
A C 1
C 4B 2 ( A C)2 .
2 2

A 0
det
0 C
A C 1
AC ( 2 )4
2
(4 B 2 ( A C ) 2 )

A B
AC B2 det ,
B C
4. 135

-
. ,
A C A C.
4 . , B 0, -
0 0
Ax 2 Cy 2 2 Dx 2 Ey F 0.
0. , A 0 C 0

D E D2 E2
A x ( A ) 2
(
C y
C ) 2
A C
F.

D2 E2
P F, , -
A C

e1 e1 , D
x x ,
e2 e2 , A
E
D E y y ,
OO e1 e2 , C
A C
2
Ax Cy 2 P , ,

2 2
x y
1; P 0,
P P
( | |
A
) ( 2
| |
C
) 2

2 2
x y
0; P 0,
| C |2 | A |2

, ,
:
136
x2 y2 x2 y2 x2 y2
0; 1; 1 0,
a2 b2 a2 b2 a2 b2
x2 y2 x2 y2 x2 y2
0; 2 1; 2 1 0.
a2 b2 a b2 a b2

-
( . 4.4.1),
1 -
x y .

5 . 0. 0, , AC A 0,
C 0 ( A 0( !). ,
x y ), -
2
Cy 2 Dx 2 Ey F 0

E E2
(
C y
C
) 2

C
F 2 Dx, C 0.

D 0
E E2
C y ( C
) 2

C
F,

2
y a2; y 2
0; y 2
a2 .

D 0,
E 2D 1 E2
( y
C
) 2

C
x (2D C
F ( )),
, , y 2 2 px , y 2 2 px ,
p 0.
4. 137
( .
4.4.1), :

e1 e1 ,
x x,
e2 e2 ,
y y.
OO o,

. 1 . 4.1.1 , -
, -
4.4.1 , -
.
2 . , -

,
4.4.1, . ,
( . § 5.4),
-
,
4.4.1, -
.
3 .
,
– -

4 . 4.4.1

,
,
,
.
138

1.

§ 4.5.

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } .

4.2.2 4.2.3
4.5.1. , S
,

A11 x 2 A22 y 2 A33 z 2


2 A12 xy 2 A13 xz 2 A23 yz (4.5.1)
2 A14 x 2 A24 y 2 A34 z A44 0,

A11 ; A22 ; A33 ; A12 ; A13 ; A23


, x, y z -
, S.

, (4.5.1)
,

, -
.

-
4.5.1.

{O , e1 , e2 , e3 } , -
-
:
4. 139

x 2 y 2
a2 b2 x2 y2
z 2 a2 b2 x2 y2
1 1
b2 z2 a2 b2
0 z
b2

x2 y2
1 x2 y2
a2 b2 0
a2 b2 x2 y2
z 1
z a2 b2
z

2 -
x a2
y,z y 2
2 px
x2 y2
0
a2 b2 z
z

x2 y2
a2 b2
x 2 a2 y,z
z2
x2 0 y,z 0
c2
140

- -

x2 y2 z2 x2 y2 x2 y2 z2
1 2z 1
a2 b2 c2 a2 b2 a2 b2 c2

- -

x2 y2 x2 y2 z2
2z 1
a2 b2 a2 b2 c2

a 0, b 0, c 0, p 0.

, ,

4.4.1,
, -
4.5.1 , -
§ 12.2.

-
2.
4. 141
§ 4.6.

, .

-
.

{ , },

OM , ( OM , OP ) ,

0, 0 2 .
O ,
OP – .
. 4.6.1
( . 4.6.1). -
.
-
:

x2 y2 ;
x cos ,
x y
y sin , cos ; sin .
2 2 2
x y x y2

, .
142
, -
, -
x2 y2 1,
1.
, 1 , -
– , -

(1 cos ) p 0, 0 p 0 – ,
-
, -
p :
0 1, 1 1. -
4.6.2.

. 4.6.2. -
4. 143
, -
(1 cos ) p 0 -
. ,
x
x2 y2 cos ,
2
x y2

x
x2 y 2 (1 ) p 0,
2
x y2
, , 0
2 2 2 2
p 0 (1 )x y 2 px p .
1, . 1,
:
p 1 p2
(x 2
)2 2
y2 2 2
.
1 1 (1 )
, 4 4.4.1,
, 0 1 -
, 1– -
.

(1 cos ) p 0, ( -
) , -
, -
, 4.4.1.
, 0 p 0 , 0
p 0 – , p 0 cos 1–
.
144

. 4.6.3.

, -
4.6.1.
(1 cos ) p 0 p 0, 0,
.

, ,
, -
, 4.6.3.

, -
,
.
4. 145
-
{ , , }, ( . 4.6.4),

OM , (Ox, OP) , (OM , Oz ) ,

0; 0 2 ; 0 .

-
-
, -
-
. ,

-
-

1.
-

. 4.6.4

x cos sin ,
y sin sin ,
z cos ,
146
x y
x2 y2 z 2 ; cos ; sin ;
2 2 2
x y x y2

z
cos .
2
x y2 z2

, -
-
-
,

.
-

-
{ , , h}
. 4.6.5),

OM , (Ox, OP) ,
. 4.6.5

0; 0 2 ;h ( , ).
-
:

x cos , x2 y2 ;
y sin , x y
cos ; sin ;h z.
2 2 2 2
z h, x y x y
5. 147

§ 5.1.

C m n (
5.1.1.
ji i [1, n] , j [1, m] ) -

A m l (
jk j [1, m] , k [1, l ] ) B -
l n ( ki k [1, l ] ,
i [1, n] ),
l

ji jk ki i [1, n] , j [1, m] .
k 1

– C –
m n l,
C A B .

. 5.1.1.
,
5.1.1. .
1 . A 2 2, B –
2 1, C 2 1.
148
C A B
11 12 11 11 11 12 21
.
21 22 21 21 11 22 21

11 12 ... 1i ... 1n

11 12 ... ... ... ... ... 1l 21 22 ... 2i ... 2n

21 22 ... ... ... ... ... 2l ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

j1 j2 ... ... ... ... ... jl ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

m1 m2 ... ... ... ... ... ml ... ... ... ... ... ...

l1 l2 ... li ... ln

11 12 ... 1i ... 1n

21 22 ... 2i ... 2n

... ... ... ... ... ...

j1 j2 ... ji ... jn l
... ... ... ... ... ...
ji jk ki
m1 m2 ... mi ... mn
k1

. 5.1.1

2 . A 2 2, B – 1 2,
C 1 2.
11 12
C B A 11 12
21 22

11 11 21 12 12 11 22 12 .
5. 149

3 . , A B 2 2,
C 2 2.

,
:
1) ,
A B B A ,
2)

A ( B C ) ( A B ) C ,
3) -
A ( B C ) A B A C .

, -
,
.
, ( , )
A E
. § 1.1) A .
1
A
5.1.2.
A ,
1 1
A A A A E .
150

. , A ,
, det A 0 6.
A , det A 0,
5.1.3.
, , det A 0,
– .

, -
5.1.1. .

, A
1 1
: A 1
A 2
.
1 1
A A 1
E A A 2
E ,

1 1
A A 1
A A 2
E E O .
1
A 1
, -

1 1 1 1
A 1
A ( A 1
A 2
) A 1
O O
1
, , A 1
A E ,
1 1
A 1
A 2
O .

6
n -
6.
5. 151

11 12
, A
21 22
1
det A 0, A
1 1 22 12
A . (5.1.1)
det A 21 11
7
n -
:
det ( A B ) det ( A ) det ( B ) ;
1 1
det A , det A 0.
det A

, -
5.1.2.

11 1 12 2 1 ,
21 1 22 2 2

A x b ,
1 1 11 12
x ; b ; A ,
2 2 21 22
1
( A ) –
1
x A b .

-
5.1.3. (1.8.2) -

7
n 2 -
1.1.9, n 6.
152

g1 g1
1 1 1
T
g2 S g2 ; 2 S 2 2 ,

g3 g3 3 3 3

S – .

5.1.1. T
( A B )T B A T
.

, A B -
, , -
, .

ik , kj , ij A , B
C A B . , -
5.1.1,
l

ij ik kj .
k 1
, , -
1.1.8,
l l l
T T T T T
ij ji jk ki kj ik ik kj ,
k 1 k 1 k 1
, 5.1.1,
.

.
5. 153
,

g1 g1
T
g2 S g2
g3 g3

g1 g2 g3 g1 g2 g3 S .

-
.

Q
5.1.2.
n- x -

n- , Q
.
.

11 12 ... 1n

21 22 ... 2n
Q . x
... ... ... ...
n1 n2 ... nn

0
...
1 , i.
...
0
154
0 1i 0
... ... ...
Q 1 ii 0 i -
... ... ...
0 ni 0
.

-
5.1.2.
A B
1 1 1
( A B ) B A .
.

1
1 . ( A B ) -

n x c . -
1
( A B ) x c , ,
x A B c ( . 5.1.1 5.1.2).

2 . , ,
1
A x B c
1 1
B A x c .

3 .
1 1 1
( A B ) x c B A x c ,
5. 155
-

1 1 1
(( A B ) B A ) x o ,
5.1.2
x ,
1 1 1
( A B ) B A .
.

1 T
( A ) ( A T) 1 .
5.1.1.

Q , -
5.1.4. 1 T
Q Q , .

, -
, .

Q -
5.1.3.
det Q 1.
.
1 T
Q Q
Q , 5.1.2 -
T T
Q Q Q Q E . ,

det 2 Q 1,
156
-
-
;

- -
;

- det E 1.

Q ,
5.1.4.
det Q 1
cos sin
, – , -
sin cos
det Q 1 –
cos sin
.
sin cos
.

11 12
Q , -
21 22

T 11 12 11 21
Q Q E
21 22 12 22
, ,
2 2
11 12 11 21 12 22
1 0
2 2
.
11 21 12 22 21 22
0 1
5. 157

2 2
11 12 1,
11 21 12 22 0,
2 2
21 22 1,

,
5.1.3, , det Q 1.
det Q 1.

11 22 12 21 1,
2 2 2 2
( 11 12 ) ( 21 22 ) 2( 11 22 12 21 ) 0
( 11 22 )2 ( 12 21 )2 0, ,

11 22 ,

12 21 .

2 2 2 2
, 11 12 1; 21 22 1
2 2
0 11 1; 0 21 1,
11 cos
,
21 sin
Q ,
2 2
, 11 21 1.

det Q 1 .

.
158

5.1.1. .
.

§ 1.8 , S –
-
:

cos sin cos sin


,
sin cos sin cos
– .

S 5.1.4.

§ 5.2. .

(
, ,
, ,
)
,
.

, Â , -
5.2.1. -
, , -

.
5. 159
 :
y Aˆ x, x , y . y
x, x– y.

– –
5.2.2. , ,
.

, : -
, y ( x ), x .

1 . x
5.2.1.
y, -

x l,
,

y P̂rl l x -
l.
, Aˆ P̂rl .

2 . [ , ]
f( ) -
f ( ) – ,

d
f ( ) f ( ),
d
d
 .
d
160

3 . x -

x –
. ,
, .
4 . [ , ]

f( ) f ( )d ,

(f) f ( )d , -

[ , ].

 ,
5.2.3. )P Q,
, -
P
Q.

:
Aˆ : P Q. M P M
Q, M Aˆ M ( -
M Aˆ (M ) ), M -
M, M– M .

Aˆ : P Q -
5.2.4. , Q -
.
5. 161
 P
5.2.5. P.

5.2.6.
M Aˆ M M Bˆ M -
( ) .

M Bˆ Aˆ M .
, ,
.

,
5.2.7. Aˆ : P P,
Aˆ : P
1
P, , M -
P
Aˆ 1 ( Aˆ M ) M.

P, Â
5.2.8.
, Â .
P,
 ,  .
P, Â ,
-
 .

§ 5.3.

{O, g1 , g 2 } M -
M , , 5.2.6,
162
M Aˆ M . -

x x
rM rM , x y
g y g y
x Fx ( x , y )
x y , -
y Fy ( x , y )
x Fx ( x , y )
y Fy ( x , y )

rM Aˆ rM {O, g1 , g 2 } .

, -
Fx ( x , y ) Fy ( x, y ) .

rM ArM -
5.3.1.
,

{O, g1 , g 2 }
x 11 x 12 y 1 ,
y 21 x 22 y 2 .

x x 1
Aˆ ,
g y
y 2


11 12
g
21 22
5. 163
A( -

A) {O, g1 , g 2 } .

rM ArM -
5.3.2.
, -
5.3.1 , , 1 2 0.
1 2 0, Â
.

:
5.3.1.
- A,
-

, “
”, “ ”, -
0

1
,
g 0 2

1 2 – ;

-
-
,
;
-
.

A -
5.3.1. :
164

ˆ (r
1 . A r2 ) Aˆ r1 Aˆ r2 r1 , r2 .
1

ˆ( r )
2 . A Aˆ r r, .
.

-
, . -
, 1º

x1 x2
Aˆ (r1 r2 ) 11 12
( )
21 22 y1 y2
x1 x2
11 12 11 12
Aˆ r1 Aˆ r2 .
21 22 y1 21 22 y2

A -
5.3.2.

ˆ (r
1 . A r2 ) Aˆ r1 Aˆ r2 r1 , r2 ,
1

2 . A( r) Ar r, ,
.
.

r x g1 y g 2 Ar x g1 y g2 – -
,

x g1 y g2 A ( x g1 y g2 ) x A g1 y A g2 .

Aˆ g1 11 g1 21 g2 Aˆ g 2 12 g1 22 g2 ,
5. 165

x g1 y g 2 x Aˆ g1 y Aˆ g 2

( 11 x 12 y ) g1 ( 21 x 22 y) g 2 .

g1 g2
x 11 x 12 y x 11 12 x
, .
y 21 x 22 y y 21 22 y

ax
, a, a -
g
ay

{g1 , g 2 } , Â a

ax ax
Aˆ a 11 12
.
g ay 21 22 ay

5.3.1 5.3.2 .

-
5.3.1.
A {g1 , g 2 }
A g1 A g2 .
-
5.3.2. -
-
, -

.
166
, ,
5.3.1.
:
1 . -
-
ˆ Bˆ
: A Aˆ Bˆ g .
g g

1
2 . A ,
A,
1 1
A g
A g
.

,
.

{O, g1 , g 2 }
5.3.3.

A g
. {O, g1 , g 2 }

1
A g
S A g
S , S – -

{O, g1 , g 2 } {O, g1 , g 2 } .
.

A r Aˆ r , -
g
g g

– r Aˆ r , S – -
g
g g

{O, g1 , g 2 } {O, g1 , g 2 } ,
5. 167

r S r r S r .
g g g g

1.8.2 -
1
S ( S ), -
,

S r Aˆ S r r S 1
Aˆ S r
g g
g g g

r Aˆ r , r (
g
g g g

5.1.2)
1
Aˆ S Aˆ S .
g g

det Aˆ .
g
5.3.3.
.
-
, 5.3.3 -
S
1 1
det Aˆ det ( S Aˆ S ) det S det Aˆ det S
g g g

1
det Aˆ det S det Aˆ .
det S g g

.
168
-
5.3.2. , -
-
x 3y 2 0.

.
M -
x0
r0 ,
y0
M –
M – -
-
x0
r0 .
y0
. 5.3.1
. 5.3.1 , M
x 3y 2 0 , -
M.
x 3y 2 0
,

x x0 1
. , -
y y0 3
M

x0 x0 , 9 3 1
x0 x0 y0 ,
y0 y0 3 , 10 10 5
3 1 3
x0 3y0 2 0 y0 x0 y0 .
10 10 5
5. 169
,
,

9 3 1
x0 10 10 x0 5 ,
y0 3 1 y0 3
10 10 5

9 3
Aˆ 10 10 .
e 3 1
10 10

§ 5.4.

, (
A: P P)
, -
.

x x 1
A ,
5.4.1. y g y 2
P ,
11 12
Aˆ g
,
21 22

11 12
det 0, -
21 22
.
170

5.4.1
det A g
0
). ,
.

5.3.3 -
, -
, det A g
0 -
.

5.4.2. , .

.
1
det Aˆ g
0, Aˆ ,
g
( . § 5.1),
1.1.2

x x

1
g
y y 2

x
y
x
. ,
y
5. 171

, Â
,

x x
Aˆ g
1 1
, 1
Aˆ g
1 1
.
y y 2 2 2

, -
5.4.1. 5.3.2, .
,
, -
?

-
5.4.3. ,
, -
.
.

x 11 x 12 y 1 ,
y 21 x 22 y 2 ,

g1 11 g1 21 g2; g2 12 g1 22 g2 .

T
det Aˆ det Aˆ
11 12
det 0,
21 22
172

g1 g2 ( 1.6.2)
.

1.8.2 5.3.1, ,

, { g1 , g 2 } -

{g1 , g 2 } Â , -

{g1 , g 2 } { g1 , g 2 }
S Aˆ .g
-
, , , -
, ,
.

,
-
.

-
5.4.4. .
.

x x0 p
, p q - (
y y0 q
) , -
x x 1
Aˆ .
y y 2
5. 173
-

x ( x
11 0 12 y0 1 ) ( 11 p 12 q) ,
y ( x
21 0 22 y0 2 ) ( 21 p 22 q) .

, 11 p 12 q 21 p 22 q 0,
. ,

11 p 12 q 0
,
21 p 22 q 0
11 12
det 0
21 22

1.1.2 ( ) p q 0
, .

-
5.4.5. ,

.
.
, -

.
, . -
, -
-
.
, . , -
.
174
,

5.4.6. .
.
xi
M i ; i 1,2,3
yi
( . 5.4.1) M i ; i 1, 2,3

. 5.4.1

xi x2 x1
. ,
yi x3 x2
y2 y1
, 1, ,
y3 y2
5. 175
x2 x1 y2 y1
.
x3 x2 y3 y2

x 11 x 12 y 1 ,
y 21 x 22 y 2 ,

x2 x1 11 ( x2 x1 ) 12 ( y2 y1 )
x3 x2 11 ( x 3 x2 ) 12 ( y 3 y2 )
11 ( x3 x2 ) 12 ( y3 y2 )
.
11 ( x3 x2 ) 12 ( y 3 y2 )
y2 y1
, .
y3 y2
, -
,
.
:

M1 M 2
( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2

M3M2 ( x3 x2 ) 2 ( y3 y2 ) 2

( x3 x2 ) 2 ( y3 y2 ) 2 ( x3 x2 ) 2 ( y3 y2 ) 2
( x3 x2 ) 2 ( y3 y2 ) 2 ( x3 x2 ) 2 ( y3 y2 ) 2

M 1M 2
(x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2
.
( x3 x2 ) 2 ( y3 y2 ) 2 M 2M3

.
176
, 5.4.6 ,
-
.

-
5.4.7. , ,
.

M 1M 2
, . M 3M 3 , -
M 3M 4
M4 M2 .
,
5.4.6 M 4 M 2 M 3 M 3 M4M2M3 M3 –

. 5.4.2). , M2 M4 M3 M3 .

. 5.4.2
5. 177
5.4.7

M1 M 2 M1 M 2 M 1M 2 M 1M 2
.
M3M4 M3 M2 M 3M 2 M 3M 4

-
5.4.8. -
, -

.
.

. 5.4.3

{g1 , g 2 } O. 5.4.3
.
O , -

{O , g1 , g 2 } .
178
M
x y, -
M x y ( . 5.4.3),
5.4.6

OM 1 O M1
x x ;
g1 g1

OM 2 O M2
y y .
g2 g2

-
.

1.8.3 , -
.

n -
5.4.2. P, .

a b -
, 0, ,

[a, b ] n -
, 0, ,

[a, b ] n.
5. 179

1 . S –
5.4.9. S – -
-

11 12
S det S.
21 22

2 .
-
,
11 12
det 0, -
21 22

11 12
, det 0.
21 22

-
. , -

g1 g2 ,

g1 Aˆ g1 11 g1 21 g2 g2 Aˆ g 2 12 g1 22 g2 ,
, 5.3.2, 11 , 12 , 21 22

A,
11 12
Aˆ .
g
21 22
180
( . §2.4) -

, g1 g2 ,

S [ g1 , g 2 ] , , -

,– S [ g1 , g 2 ] .

[g1 , g 2 ] [ 11 g1 21 g2 , 12 g1 22 g2]

( 11 22 12 21 )[ g1 , g 2 ] det Aˆ [ g1 , g 2 ] ,
g

S det A g
S , ( 5.4.2)

{g1 , g 2 } ,
det A g
0

det A g
0.

, , -
, , -
.

, -
5.4.10. 4.4.1:
- -
;
- , -
-
.
5. 181
.

.
1 . 5.4.6 5.4.8
, , ,
. -
,
. ,
,
.
2 . -
,
, , ,
.

.
5.4.6.
3 . -
. ,

.
4 . ,
, -
5.4.5 5.4.6 , -
.
.
4.4.1 5.4.1 ,
,

:
2 2 2 2
x y 1; x y 1;
(5.4.1)
2 2 2 2 2
x y 0; y 1 0; y 2x 0; y 0.
182

,
, -
-
(5.4.1),
-
-
.

" ". -
§ 9.4 ( 9.4.1),
.

5.4.11. ,

.
.

p q -

p q . ,
e e
( )

11 12 11 12
p ,
e 21 22 21 22
5. 183

11 12 11 12
q
e 21 22 21 22
.

p q

{e1 , e2 }
( 11 12 )( 11 12 )
( 21 22 )( 21 22 ) 0

2 2 2 2 2
( 11 12 21 22 ) ( 11 12 21 22 )
2
( 11 12 21 22 ) 0,

2 2
U 2V U 0.
:
1) U V 0,
-
.
2) U 0 V 0, 0,
– .
3) , U 0,
p q
2V
( ) 2

U
( ) 1 0,

V V2
( ) 1, 2 U U2
1 -

U.

.
184
§ 5.5.

P -
5.5.1.
Q
*
x x 1
*
Qˆ ,
y e y 2

11 12
Qˆ e
21 22

,
, 5.1.3
det Q e
1, det Q e
1. -
§ 5.4 ,
. -
.
, -
,
-
5.5.1. ,
.
.

{e1 , e2 } {e1 , e2 } S . -
5.1.1, -
1 T
S S ,
1 T
Q {e1 , e2 } , Qˆ e Qe.
5. 185

{e1 , e2 } ,
Q, 5.3.3,
1
Qˆ S Qˆ S .
e e
1
Qˆ e . 5.1.1 5.1.2, -

S Q e,

1 1 1 1 1
Qˆ ( S Qˆ S ) 1
S Qˆ ( S ) 1
e e e
1 1 T T T
S Qˆ S S Qˆ ( S )T
e e

T 1 T
( S Qˆ S )T ( S Qˆ S )T Qˆ .
e e e
1 T
Qˆ e Qe ,

Q̂ {e1 , e2 } .

-
5.5.2. :
1) ;
2)
;
3) .
.

1 . Q̂

e
186

{O, e1 , e2 } . , § 2.3, -

a b
1 1
a b -
e 2 e 2

T
1
(a, b) 1 1 2 2 1 2 a b .
2 e e

a b,
Q̂ e , -

(Qˆ a , Qˆ b ) Qˆ a Qˆ b
e e

( Qˆ a ) T Qˆ e b
e
e e
T
T
a Qˆ Qˆ b
e e
e e
T
1
a Qˆ Qˆ b
e
e e
T T

a E b a b ( a , b ).
e e e e

(Qˆ a , Qˆ b ) (a, b) a, b ,
-
.
5. 187
2 .

Qˆ a (Qˆ a , Qˆ a ) ( a, a ) a a .

3 . 2 -
,
.

, -
,
.

-
5.5.3. -

.
.

1 . 5.3.1 5.3.2, -
5.3.1 5.3.1, -
,

{e1 , e2 }

-
.

2 . 5.4.11 ( , -

, ) { 1, 2},
188
 -

{e1 , e2 } . -
1 2 , ,

1 2
e1 ; e2 ; 1 1 ; 2 2 .
1 2

, {e1 , e2 } – .

3 . , Q̂ ,

{e1 , e2 } -

{e1 , e2 } , , -
Q̂ e .

1 0 e1 e1 T e1 T e1
1
; Qˆ ; 1
Aˆ ,
0 2 e2 e2
e
e2
e
e2
2 2

0
( Aˆ
T
e
1
0

T
e
)e 1 o .
2 e2 o

T 0 T
Aˆ Qˆ
1
{e1 , e2 } ,
e 0 2
e

,
5. 189
0
Aˆ Qˆ
1
.
e e 0 2

, -

"( . 5.3.1).

§ 5.6.

G
5.6.1. ,
x y -
, -
xy , -
:
1) x ( yz ) ( xy ) z ;
2) e, ,
x G xe ex x;
3) x x 1, -
1
, x x e.
, , xy yx x, y G,
.
, :
5.6.1. 1) -
,
e– 0.
2)
,
e– 1.
190
3)
-
.
4)
-
.
6. 191

§ 6.1.

,
1, 2, 3, ..., n . ( -
)
{k 1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n } . ,
n!.

, ki kj -
6.1.1.
( , -
), i j ki kj.
{k 1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n }
(k1 , k 2 ,..., k n ) . , (3,1,4,2) 3 .

11 12 13 ... 1n

21 22 23 ... 2n

A 31 32 33 ... 3n ij ; i, j [1, n].


... ... ... ... ...
n1 n2 n3 ... nn
192
( )
6.1.2.
A n n
det A ,

( k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n )
det A ( 1) 1k1 2 k2 ... nk n ,
{ k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n }

{k 1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n } –
,
A .
,
, -
n!.
6.1.2 , -
-
.

6.1.2
6.1.1.
1.1.9 1.1.10.

§ 6.2.

6.2.1. .
.
-
T
B A
( m1 , m2 ,..., mn )
( 1) 1m1 2 m2 ... nmn ,
6. 193
, , k mk mk k ,

T ( m1 , m2 ,..., mn )
det A ( 1) m11 m2 2 ... mn n .
{ m1 ,m 2 ,..., mn }

,
( m1 , m2 ,..., mn )
( 1) 1k1 2k2 ... nk n , 1, 2, 3, ..., n –
, k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n – .
, -
: km i, i
i
-

(m1 , m 2 ,..., m n ) (k1 , k 2 ,..., k n ) .


, mi mj ,
mi mj i j, k mi
km j , i : k mi i, , ,

k mi i j km j mi mj .
, .

T ( k1 , k 2 ,..., k n )
det A ( 1) 1k1 2k2 ... nk n det A .
{ k1 ,k 2 ,..., k n }

6.2.1 -
6.2.1. .
A , -
6.1.2, -
194
,
.
6.2.1.
11 12 13 1n

, 21 22 23 2n

ik i 31 32 33 3n

jk j -
, - n1 n2 n3 nn
-
“ ”
, - . 6.2.1

.
, -
“ ”
, -
6.1.2, , , -
.
, -
6.2.1. ,
, .

6.2.2. .
.
,
.

( k1 , k 2 ,..., k n )
( 1) 1k1 2k2 ... nk n ,
{ k1 ,k 2 ,..., k n }

,
.
6. 195

{k1 , k 2 , ... k i , k i 1 , k i 2 ..., k n } .


ki ki+1, -
, {k1 , k 2 ,...ki 1 , k i 2 ,..., k n } , -
,
ki ki 1 .
, -
, , -
.
, , -
l , l+l+1
,
2l 1
( 1) 1, -
.
.
, -
6.2.2. , .
.

-
, , , , ,
. -
.

k -
6.2.3 " " ,
-
,k
-
).
" -
.
196
.

A k
ik ik ik , i=1,2,...,n. -

( k1 ,k 2 ,..., k n )
( 1) 1k1 2 k2 ... ik ... nk n
( k1 , k 2 ,..., k n )
( 1) 1k1 2k 2 ...( ik ik )... nk n
( k1 , k 2 ,..., k n )
( 1) 1k1 2k 2 ... ik ... nk n
( k1 ,k 2 ,..., k n )
( 1) 1k1 2 k2 ... ik ... nk n .
n!
det A k -

, det A det A det A , k -

A A -

ik ik , i=1,2,...,n.

6.2.3. .

-
6.2.4. , -
.
.

, , -
, ( 6.2.3) -

, -
. 6.2.2.
.
6. 197
n n
6.2.4. ,
det ( A B ) det A det B .
.

1 . C A B . A , B
C ij , kl pq . -
n
, 5.1.1, pq pj jq
j 1

det C
11 11 12 21 ... 1n n1 ... 11 1n ... 1n nn

21 11 22 21 ... 2n n1 ... 21 1n ... 2n nn


det .
... ... ...
n1 11 n2 21 ... nn n1 ... n1 1n ... nn nn

-
1, 2, 3, ..., n , -
. -
[i1 , i 2 , i3 ,..., i n ] .
( 6.2.3)
det C
1i1 1i2 ... 1in

2i1 2i2 ... 2in


i11 i2 2 ... in n det
[ i1 , i2 ,...,in ] ... ... ... ...
ni1 ni2 ... nin

i1 1 i2 2 ... in n det A .
[ i1 ,i2 ,...,in ]
[ i1 , i2 ,...,in ]
198

[i1 , i 2 , i3 ,..., i n ] (
{i1 , i 2 ,..., i n } ) ,
n
n , -
6.2.2 n! .
2 . , , A
{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

, A , -
,
6.2.2 .

A ,
{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

,
ik ; k [1, n]
.
,
,
{i1 , i2 ,..., in } , , ,
A
{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }
( i1 ,i2 ,...,in )
det A ( 1) det A .
{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

3 . det C , -

( i1 ,i2 ,...,in )
det C det A ( 1) i11 i2 2 ... in n
{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }
T
det A det B ,
6. 199
6.2.1
det ( A B ) det A det B .

§ 6.3.

n A -
i1 , i 2 ,..., i k j1 , j 2 ,..., j k ,
1 k n.
k, -
6.3.1. ,
i1 , i 2 ,..., i k j1 , j 2 ,..., j k ,
j , j2 ,..., jk
k- M i 1, i .
1 2 ,...,ik

n k,
6.3.2. ,
i1 , i 2 ,..., i k
j1 , j 2 ,..., j k , , -
M i j1, i, j,...,
2 ,..., j k
i
,
1 2 k
j , j2 ,..., jk
M i 1,i .
1 2 ,...,ik

A i j ,

ij . A
, A
(n 1) (n 1) .
200

A -
6.3.3.
j
Mi ij .

6.1.2 – A –
(n 1)! , ij ,
.

det A ij Dij .

Dij
6.3.4.
ij .

, 6.1.2
n n
det A ij Dij kj Dkj j [1, n] i [1, n], (6.3.1)
j 1 k 1
-
, -
,
j
Dij ( 1)i j
Mi .
6.3.1.
.

1 . 6.1.2
(1,k 2 , k3 ,..., k n )
det A 11 ( 1) 2k2 ... nk n ,
{1, k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n }
( k 2 ,..., k n )
D11 ( 1) 2k 2 3 k3 ... nk n ,
{ k 2 ,..., k n }

, (1, k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n ) (k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n ) ,


6. 201
D11 -

n 1, A -
. ,
1
D11 M 1.

2 . A , ij -

A , i
, i 1 , -
j , j 1 -

. A

det A ( 1) i 1 j 1
det A ( 1) i j
det A .
( 6.2.3)

, , (6.3.1)
Dij . -

Dij ( 1) i j
D11 .

3 . , , ij -

ij A ,
j 1
Mi M 1.

4 .
j 1
Mi M 1 D11 ( 1) i j Dij ,
j
Dij ( 1) i j M i .

.
202
i-
6.3.1. n
i
det A ( 1) k i
ki Mk
k 1

n
i
det A ( 1) k i M ki M k .
k 1

A
6.3.2.
n

ij Dis js ,
i 1

1, j s
det A js – -
0 , j s
( . § 2.2).

6.3.4
det A 1j D1 j 2j D2 j nj Dnj , -
j s .

j s.
1 j D1s 2j D2 s ... nj Dns
s -
, s j .
6.2.2.

.
6. 203

A ,
6.3.2.
1
A
i
( 1) i j M j
ij ; i, j [1, n] .

A B ,
ij ij ; i, j [1, n] . pq –

A B , , 5.1.1
6.3.2,
j
n n
( 1) j q M q 1 n

pq pj jq pj pj Dqj
j 1 j 1 j 1

1
pq pq ; i, j [1, n] .

B A 1.1.4
A B B A E ,
, 5.1.2 5.1.1,
1
B A .

.
(5.1.1).

I i1 i2 ... ik J j1 j2 ... jk ,
, 6.3.1,
204
j1 , j2 ,..., jk
6.3.3
).
j1 , j 2 ,..., j k
det A ( 1) I J
M i1j1,i,2j,...,
2 ,..., j k
i k M i1 ,i 2 ,..., ik .
{i1 ,i2 ,..., i k }

, -
i1 , i 2 ,..., i k .

n- :
6.3.1.
x aa ... a
a xa ... a
n det a a x ... a .
... ... ... ... ...
a a a ... x
. 1 . ,
x a (n 1) . -
,
,
( .
6.2.4 6.2.3):

1 1 1 ... 1
a x a ... a
n (x a (n 1)) det a a x ... a .
... ... ... ... ...
a a a ... x

2 . , , -
, a,
6. 205
1 1 1 ... 1
0 x a 0 ... 0
n (x a(n 1)) det 0 0 x a ... 0 .
... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... x a

3 . n 1
6.3.1
,
n (x a (n 1))( x a) n 1
.

§ 6.4.

n n -
:
11 1 12 2 ... 1n n 1 ,
21 1 22 2 ... 2n n 2 ,
(6.4.1)
...............................................
n1 1 n2 2 ... nn n n ,
n
ji i j ; j [1, n] -
i 1

A x b , A
ji , x b – i j .

{ 1, 2 ,..., n }
6.4.1.
,
-
.
206

(6.4.1)
6.4.1 , -

).
, det A 0 -

i
i ; i 1,2,..., n ,

i – , -

A i -

b :

11 12 ... 1 ... 1n

21 22 ... 2 ... 2n
i det .
... ... ... ... ... ...
n1 n2 ... n ... nn

i-

1 . ,
1

2
(6.4.1) x , -
...
n

ji i j ; j [1, n] .
i 1
6. 207
j [1, n]
D jk -
j,
n n n
D jk ( ji i ) j D jk k [1, n] .
j 1 i 1 j 1

( -
) :
n n n
( ji D jk ) i j D jk .
i 1 j 1 j 1

ik (
6.3.2), , ,
n n

j D jk k ik i k k ,
j 1 i 1

k k ,k [1, n] . , ,

k
k , k [1, n] . (6.4.2)

, ,
k k ,k [1, n]
0 , ,
(6.4.2), .

2 . ,
k
{ i ,i [1, n] } -

. , i
(6.4.1):
208
n n n n n
i 1 1
ji ji ( k Dki ) k( ji Dki )
i 1 i 1 k 1 k 1 i 1
n
1
k kj j , j [1, n].
k 1
-
6.3.2.

§ 6.5.

A m n.
1 k min{ m, n} .
A k ,
k.
k k ,
, k, -
(k 1) -
k (c . 6.3.1).

,
6.5.1.
A , -

rg A .

,
6.5.2. , .

( ) , -
6.5.3. , .
6. 209
nm :

11 12 1n

21 22 2n
a1 ; a2 ; ... ; an
... ... ...
m1 m2 mn

1 0
2 0
b ; o .
... ...
m 0
( )
, , -
, b
a1 , a 2 , ... , a n , 1 , 2 , ... , n ,
n
, b i ai .
i 1

( )
6.5.1 ( ) -
.
).
.

1 . r.
,
A .
i -
j
.
210

11 ... 1r 1j

... ... ... ...


det ,
r1 ... rr rj

i1 ... ir ij

r 1
r.
2 . ,

i1 D1 i2 D2 ... ir Dr ij M 0,
M 0 – , D1 ,..., Dr –
, i. -
, ij 1 i1 2 i2 ... r ir ,
Ds
s , s [1, r ] i.
M
.

a1 , a 2 ,..., a n -
6.5.4.
,
1 , 2 ,..., n, ,
n n

i ai o , ( i 0 ).
i 1 i 1

( ) -
6.5.1. , ,
.
. 1.4.1.

6.5.2. , -
.
6. 211
.

, k -
, -
, :

11 12 1k 0
21 22 2k 0
1 2 ... k .
... ... ... ...
m1 m2 mk 0

11 1k 1, k 1 1n

21 2k 2,k 1 2n
1 ... k 0 ... 0
... ... ... ...
m1 mk m ,k 1 mn

, -
6.5.2. , ( ) -
.
.

,
n.

6.5.2 .
.
212
:

. 6.5.1
.
n 1
, an i ai . -
i 1
( i 1,2, ,n 1) i
i .
an ,
, -
.

6.5.3 -
.
).
.

1 . ,
.
r 0. , -
r .
r , ,
.

2 . k r ,
. -
A . R r, A -

A .
6. 213

, R r k A ,
, ,
A 6.5.2.

§ 6.6. m
n

m n -
:
11 1 ... 1n n
12 2 1,

21 1 22 2 ... 2 n n 2,
(6.6.1)
..............................................
m1 1 m2 2 ... mn n m,

ji i j , j [1, m] ,
i 1

A x b , A -

m n ji , x b -

i ,i [1, n] , j ,j [1, m] .

{ 10 , 0
2 ,..., 0
n }
6.6.1.
(6.6.1),
.
214
-

0
1
0
x0 2
.
...
0
n
(6.6.1)
(6.6.1).

(6.6.1)
6.6.2. , , -
– .

11 12 ... 1n
6.6.3.
21 22 ... 2n
A -
... ... ... ...
m1 m2 ... mn
(6.6.1),

11 12 ... 1n 1

21 22 ... 2n 2
A b
... ... ... ...
m1 m2 ... mn m
– .

(6.6.1) ,
6.6.4. 0 j [1, m] ,
j
– -
.
6. 215
(6.6.1) ,
6.6.1 ,
– .
).
.

(6.6.1) { 1 , 2 ,..., n },
-
:
1 a1 2 a2 ... n an b ,
T
ai 1i 2i mi ,i [1, n] .
-
, -
, -
. , -
6.5.3 ( ) rg A rg A b .

-
r. ,
-
, 6.5.1 ( -
r
) b i ai , -
i 1

r n
b i ai 0 ai .
i 1 i r 1

, (6.6.1) -
{ 1, 2 ,..., r ,0,...,0} , .
216
.
6.6.1.
Ai x Bi y Ci 0, i [1, n]
,
,
A1 B1 A1 B1 C1
A2 B2 A2 B2 C2
rg rg .
... ... ... ... ...
An Bn An Bn Cn

§ 6.7.

§ 6.6 ,
(6.6.1) , -
. , (6.6.1)
.
(6.6.1)
.

-
6.7.1. (6.6.1)
.
.

i
1
i
xi 2
, i [1, k ] –
...
i
n

, A xi o i [1, k ] .
6. 217
k
y i xi .
i 1

n n
A y A i xi i( A xi ) o .
i 1 i 1

-
6.7.2. (6.6.1) -
-
(6.6.1).
.

x – , y –
,
A x o , A y b .
-
A ( x y ) A x A y o b b .
.

-
6.7.3. (6.6.1)
(6.6.1).
.

x y – ,
A x b , A y b. -

A( x y ) A x A y b b o .
.
218
1 . 6.7.1–6.7.3. ,

, -

.
2 . -
, , ,
, , , -
.
3 . -
, ,
,
, 6.7.1, -

, -
6.5.4.

(6.6.1) n rg A
6.7.1.
.

1 . (6.6.1)
11 1 ... 1n n
12 2 1

21 1 22 2 ... 2n n 2

...............................................
m1 1 m2 2 ... mn n m

,
A|b , r min{ m, n} ,
.
6. 219
6.5.1 ( ) m r -
r -
, , , , -
r -
.
,
r 1, r 2 ,..., n.

1 ,..., r ( , -
, ), r 1 ,..., n – -
( , , ).

11 1 12 2 ... 1r r 1 1r 1 r 1 ... 1n n ,
21 1 22 2 ... 2r r 2 2r 1 r 1 ... 2n n ,
......................................................................................
r1 1 r2 2 ... rr r r r ,r 1 r 1 ... r ,n n .

-
r 1 1 ,..., n n r -
( 6.4.1)
:
j

n r

11 ... 1 1, r k k ... 1r
k 1
(6.7.1)
1
j det ... ... ... ... ... ,
M n r

r1 ... r r ,r k k ... rr
k 1

j [1, r ] , M – .
220
2 . , (6.7.1),
k 0 ; k [1, n r ] , -
(6.6.1).

. -
( 6.2.3)
:

n r

j jk k ,
k 1 (6.7.2)
j [1, r ] ; r i i ,i [1, n r ] ,

11 ... 1,r k ... 1r


1
jk det ... ... ... ... ... ,
M
r1 ... r ,r k ... rr

j [1, r ] , k [1, n r ] .

, (6.7.2)

1 11 12 1, n r r 1

2 21 22 2,n r r 2
. (6.7.3)

r r1 r2 r ,n r n
6. 221

1 11 12 1, n r

2 21 22 2,n r

r r1 r2 r ,n r 2
,
r 1 1 0 0
r 2 0 1 0 n r

n 0 0 1

3 . 1 1, 2 3 ... n r 0,
{ 11 , 1
2 , ... , 1
r , 1, 0, ... , 0} .
1 0, 2 1, 3 ... n r 0
{ 12 , 2
2 , ... , 2
r , 0 , 1, ... , 0} . , -
,
1 2 3 ... n r 1 0, n r 1
n r n r n r
{ 1 , 2 , ... , r , 0, 0, ... , 1} .
-
.

4 . , n r
(6.6.1) -
. , ,

1 1 1
1 2 ... r 1 0 ... 0
2 2 2
1 2 ... r 0 1 ... 0
. (6.7.4)
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
n r n r n r
1 2 ... r 0 0 ... 1
222
, , , ,
n r, ,
, , ,
, n r,
n r, -
.

6.7.1. (6.6.1)
n rg A ,
(6.6.1), n –
(6.6.1), A –
. (6.7.4) -
.

(6.6.1)
6.7.2. -
, -
.
.

{ 1, 2 ,..., n}
(6.6.1). (n r 1) n

1 2 ... r r 1 r 2 ... n
1 1 1
1 2 ... r 1 0 ... 0
2 2 2
1 2 ... r 0 1 ... 0 , (6.7.5)
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
n r n r n r
1 2 ... r 0 0 ... 1
6. 223
, , , ,
n r. , r
( -
(6.7.3)) n r . ,
,
, (6.7.5),
r -
n r. ,
n r, , , n r.

, 6.5.1 ( ), -
r ,
(6.7.5) -
, , ,
(6.6.1)

1 2 n r
1 1 1 1
1 2 n r
2 2 2 2

... ... ... ...


1 2 n r
r r r
... r ,
1 2 n r
r 1 1 0 0
r 2 0 1 0
... ... ... ...
n 0 0 1

i i [1, n r ] – .

(6.6.1)
6.7.1.
224
1 2 n r 0
1 1 1 1 1
1 2 n r 0
2 2 2 2 2

... ... ... ... ...


1 2 n r 0
r r r r r
1 2 ... n r 0
,
r 1 1 0 0 r 1
0
r 2 0 1 0 r 2

... ... ... ... ...


0
n 0 0 1 n
0
1
0
2

...
0
r
0
r 1
0
r 2

...
0
n
-
(6.6.1), i i [1, n r ] –
.

x0 – ( , , ) -

(6.6.1), x – -
. 6.6.3
(6.6.1) y
y x x0 . x y x0 .

.
6. 225
6.7.1 6.7.2
(6.6.1) n m
6.7.2. , ,
-
rg A n.
, -
(6.6.1) ,

det A 0.

, ,

(6.6.1) ,
6.7.3 ,
). T
y 1 2 ... m -

11 1 21 2 ... m1 m 0,
12 1 22 2 ... m2 m 0,
...............................................
1n 1 2n 2 ... mn m 0
T
A y o ) -
m

i i 0 -
i 1
T
b y 0 ).
.

(6.6.1) , -
x b A x .
226
T
b y ,
T
A y o .
T T T T
b y ( A x )T y x A y x o 0.

.
T
b y 0
T
A y o . -
T
A y o
T
A y o,
T
b y 0
, -
. ,
6.7.1 6.7.2,

T T
T A T A
m rg A m rg rg A rg ,
b b

-
, rg A rg A | b , -
6.6.1
A x b .

“ ”( . 10.6.4 10.6.5).
6. 227
§ 6.8. .

6.7.3 6.7.4 ,
, , , -
. -
(
) .

,
(6.6.1),
, .

-
-
,
.

“ ”
( . , ij 0
i j ), -

.
m n (n m) , .

a11 a12 a13 ... a1, m 2 a1, m 1 a1, m a1, m 1 ... a1n
0 a 22 a 23 ... a 2 ,m 2 a 2 ,m 1 a 2 ,m a 2 ,m 1 ... a 2n
0 0 a 33 ... a 3, m 2 a 3, m 1 a 3, m a 3, m 1 ... a3n
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 0 am 1,m 1 am 1,m am 1,m 1 ... a m 1, n

0 0 0 ... 0 0 a mm a m, m 1 ... a mn

:
228
- ( );
- ( -
);

- ( , -

);
- (
);
-

, -
).
(
) -
.

. :
- i j A
m n
S 1
n n, ,
, n
E i j-
;
- i A
0 A
S 2
, -
m m E
i ( -
) ;
6. 229
- i j A -

S 3
m n, -
m E -
, i j
, (
i A ).

( . 8.4.3) , -
S -
S A ,
rg ( S A ) rg A .
det S 1
1 , det S 2
0 det S 3
1,
A .

,
-
6.8.1. ,
,
.

A
6.8.2.
S
A , A
T
S
A , .
230

. , , S ,
A .

S
1
E A , E S A -
A
1 1 1
E A S A A A S E .
, -
1
A B
A| B ( ,

B A ),
A . -

B .

:
6.8.1.
1 2 3 4 5 7,
3 1 2 2 3 4 3 5 2,
2 2 3 2 4 6 5 23,
5 1 4 2 3 3 3 4 5 12.
6. 231
.
1 .

1 1 1 1 1 7
3 2 1 1 3 2
.
0 1 2 2 6 23
5 4 3 3 1 12

2 . .
) ,
, . , -
, -
, , -
, ( 3 ),
. -
: -
( 5) 1 .
, , : -
. -

1 1 1 1 1 7
0 1 2 2 6 23
;
0 1 2 2 6 23
0 1 2 2 6 23
)
, .

, – . -
232
1 1 1 1 1 7
0 1 2 2 6 23
;
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
) , -
,
,
.

3 .
, .
. ,
) , -
2( 6.6.1 -
);
)
6.7.1 n rg A 5 2 3 -
.

4 .
,

-
.
,
, ,
– :

1 2 7 3 4 5 ,
(6.8.1)
2 23 2 3 2 4 6 5.
6. 233
( 1) ,

.
(6.8.1) -
16
23
, 0 .
0
0
-

1 2 7,
2 23.

1 2 0 3 4 5 ,
2 0 2 3 2 4 6 5

-
, 6.7.1.
1
2
1
0
0

1 2 1,
2 2.
234
1 5
2 6
0 0 – -
1 0
0 1
.

-
:

1 1 1 5 16
2 2 2 6 23
3 1 1 2 0 3 0 0 ; 1, 2, 3.

4 0 1 0 0
5 0 0 1 0

: -
, -
, -
, ,
, .
7. 235

§ 7.1.

, x, y, z , ,
7.1.1. 8
, -
,
1 . x, y

, -
x y, , -

) x y y x;
) x ( y z) ( x y) z ;
) o,
, x -
x o x;
) x -
( x) , -
, x ( x) o .

8
« x y»
(x y) « x y » (x y)
x, y .
236
2 . x -
,
x -
, :
) 1x x ;
) ( )x ( x) .
3 .
-
:
) ( )x x x;
) ( x y) x y x, y ;
, .
. 1 . “ ”

.
2 . -
, -
( . § 5.6).
9
:
7.1.1. 1 . .
2 . .
3 . n .
4 . ,
n.
5 . m n.

9
, -
.
7. 237
6 . C[a,b] – ,
[a,b].
7 . m
n .

, -
7.1.1.
, (n, r ) ,
. ,

, , -
7.1.2. , .

-
7.1.3. R ?
.
-
.
1 . “ ” .

,
.
2 . “ ” -
, “
” -
, -
-
,
“1”.
238

7.1.1. .
.

o1 o2 .
, 1 ) 7.1.1
,
o1 o2 o1 o2 o1 o2 .

o1 o2 .

x -
7.1.2. 0x o.
.

x = 1x = (0 + 1) x = 0 x + 1x = 0 x + x.
x = 0x + x y,
x, , 0x o .
.

-
7.1.3. .
.

x -
y1 y2 . , 1 ) -
,
x y1 o x y2 o .
y2 ,
7. 239
y2 (x y1 ) y2
-
. , ,
y 2 ( x y1 ) ( y2 x) y1 o y1 y1 .
y 2 y1 .
.

x
7.1.4. ( 1) x .
.

7.1.2–
7.1.3
o = 0 x = (1 1) x = 1x + ( 1) x = x + ( 1) x .
, x
( 1) x .
.

§ 7.2 ,

n
1 . i xi
7.2.1. i 1

x1, x 2 ,..., x n -
.
2 . x1 , x 2 ,..., x n -
,
1 , 2 ,..., n , -
n
, , i xi o.
i 1
240
3 . x1 , x 2 ,..., x n -
, -
n

i xi o ,
i 1

1 2 ... n 0.

-
7.2.1. , -
,
.
.
1.4.1, -
“ ” “ ”.

7.2.2. x1 , x 2 ,..., x n , -
x1 , x 2 ,..., x n .
.

,
k n
x1 , x 2 ,..., x n .
k

1 , 2 ,..., k , , i xi o.
i 1

k n

i xi 0 xi o, -
i 1 i k 1
x1 , x 2 ,..., x n .

.
7. 241
-
7.2.2. n ,
1 . ;
2 . ,
n 1 , n -
, .

n-
7.2.3. n
, , -
n . n -
n

n
dim( ).

7.2.1. -
.
.
n

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } x. , -
, {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n , x}
7.2.1 x -
g1 , g 2 ,..., g n . -
.

. ,

n n
x i gi x i gi . ,
i 1 i 1
n
( i i )gi o,
i 1
242
,
g1 , g 2 ,..., g n .
.

.
, , , -
. 7.2.1
.

7 . 2. 1

- -

2
- .

3 ,
.

1 0 0 0
n 0 1 0 0
n- nc 0 ; 0 ; 1 ; ... 0 .
... ... ... ...
0 0 0 1
7. 243

n+1 n+1
-
- P1 ( ) 1 ; P2 ( ) ;
2 3
P3 ( ) ; P4 ( ) ;
, n
... ;
n 1 n
Pn ( ) ; Pn 1 ( ) .

nm nm
m n,
m n , , 1.

10
.
,

[a,b]

n r
- .
-
m
n

-
-
r

10
n n 1
, ,
{ 1, cos , cos 2 , , cos n } ,
7.2.2.
244
§ 7.3.

,
7.3.1. , -
,
x, y :
1) x y ,
2) x .

: 7.3.1 ,
, ,
, -
.

1 . ,
7.3.1. ,
, -

.
2 . ,
n, -
C[ , ] .
3 . n

n r
n r.
4 .
:
) ;
) ,
.
7. 245

1 2 -
7.3.2.
.

1 . 1 2 -
x , ,
x 1 x 2 . -

1 2
1 2 .

2 . 1 2 -
x , -
1 2 . -

1 2 -
1 2.

3 . 1 2
x1 x2
, x1 1 x2 2. -
1 2

1 2.

4 . 1 2 -

x1 x2 , x1 1
x2 2 1 2 {o} .
1 2.

,
246
, 1
7.3.1.
2 .

1 2
7.3.2.

dim( 1 2 )
dim( 1 ) dim( 2 ) dim( 1 2 ).

1 . 1 2
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } k. -
{g1, g 2 ,..., g l }
1 {g1, g 2 ,..., g m } 2.

x 1 2

{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1, g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m } .

2 . ,
{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1, g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m } -
.
, , -
:
l k m

i gi jgj p gp o. (7.3.1)
i 1 j 1 p 1

m
~
x
, pgp 2 ,
p 1
7. 247
, ,
m l k
~
x pgp ( i gi jg j) 1.
p 1 i 1 j 1
, ~
x , , -
1 2
(7.3.1)
i 0 , i [1, l ] ; p 0 , p [1, m] .
{g1, g 2 ,..., g k } – ,

j 0, j [1, k ] ,
(7.3.1), . ,
{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1, g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m }
– .

3 . 2 ,
{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1, g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m }
1 2.
1 2
dim( 1 2 ) l k m (k l ) (k m) k
dim( 1 ) dim( 2 ) dim( 1 2 ).

7.3.1.
dim( 1 2 ) dim( 1 ) dim( 2 )
x ( 1 2 )
x1 x2 , x1 1 x2 2,
,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g l , g1 , g 2 ,..., g m }
1 2 .
248

7.3.3. { x1, x 2 ,..., xk } -


-

L {x1 , x 2 ,..., x k } .

, n, -
7.3.2.
2
{1, , ,..., n } -
C[ , ] .

{x1 , x 2 ,..., x k } ,
L{x1, x2 ,..., xk } , -
k
x i xi
i 1

,
7.3.3. L{x1, x2 ,..., xk } , -
m , m –

{x1, x 2 ,..., xk } .
.

1 . , -
k
x i xi ( ,
i 1

i )
7. 249
7.1.1, -
.

2 .
{x1 , x2 ,..., xk } m k.
,
x1, x 2 ,..., x m .
m
xj ji xi ; j [m 1, k ]
i 1
-
x1 , x 2 ,..., x m .

3 . , l (l m)
.
l y1 , y 2 ,..., y l ,
, -
x1, x 2 ,..., x m ,
m
yj ji xi ; j [1, l ].
i 1

y1 , y 2 ,..., y l :
l l m m l

j yj j ji x i ( ji j ) xi o.
j 1 j 1 i 1 i 1 j 1

x1 , x2 ,..., x m ,

i -

ji j 0, i [1, m].
j 1
250
( 6.7.1)
l rg ji l m 0
, , -
, rg ji m. , l
m ,
l rg ji l m 1,

y1 , y 2 , ..., y l , o.

,
7.3.4. x x0 , x0
, x –
, -
( -
) .

. 1 .
.

2 . dim( ) k, k -
.

, x y
7.3.1. , -

z x (1 )y ,
– .
7. 251
§ 7.4.

1 , 2 ,..., n
7.4.1. n
x i gi
i 1
( ) -
n
x
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .

, 7.2.1 x -
n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } n-
, -
x {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } :
1

2
x g .
...
n

n
-

n
.

n
:“ ” {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } “ ”
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
n n
x: x i gi x i gi .
i 1 i 1
252
, , “ ” -
“ ”:
n
gj ij gi ; j [1, n]. (7.4.1)
i 1

S , j ( j [1, n])
7.4.2.
ij -
“ ” “ -
”,
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } {g1, g 2 ,..., g n } .

,
1.8.2

1 , 2 ,..., n 1 , 2 ,..., n -
7.4.1. n
i ij j, i [1, n] , -
j 1

, ij –

S .

(7.4.1)
n n n n n n

i gi x jgj j ij g i ( ij j )gi ,
i 1 j 1 j 1 i 1 i 1 j 1
n n
( i ij j )g i o.
i 1 j 1
7. 253
(
, ) ,
. ,
n

i ij j i [1, n] .
j 1

, , “ ”
“ ”
T
S , -
“ ” -
“ ” .

, x g x g -
,
n
i1 ij j1 , i [1, n] ,
j 1

x g S x g ( . §5.1).

, (7.4.1) -

g1 g1
g2 T g2
S
... ...
gn gn
g1 g2 ... g n g1 g2 ... g n S .

,
.
254
n n
x i gi y i gi ,
i 1 i 1

n
1 . :
n n
, i gi x y i gi ,
i 1 i 1

x y x g
y g
.

n
2 . : x y ( i i )gi ,
i 1

x y g
x g
y g.

3 . :
n n
x i gi ( i )gi ,
i 1 i 1

x g
x g
.

, -
( -
), -
.

§ 7.5.

:
P2 ( ) , 2,
.
7. 255
-
:
2 2
( 1 1 1 ) ( 2 2 2 )
2
( 1 2) ( 1 2) ( 1 2) ,
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2.

1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 ; .
1 2 1 2

, ,
, , -
,
.

-
.

1 2
7.5.1. ,
F̂ : 1 2 , ,
x, y 1

1 . Fˆ ( x y) Fˆx Fˆy ;
2 . Fˆ ( x) Fˆx.
F -
1 2 .
256
, F
( ),
) 1 2 (F
);
) 2 -

1 (F ).

7.5.1 1
-
). 2 ,
.
.

dim( 1 ) dim( 2 ). ,
x 1 -

2, , -

, 1 2 .

, n dim( 1 ) dim( 2 ) m, 1 2
. n
1 n 2,
. -
,
-
n 1.

n m
, , , n m.
.
7. 257

7.1.2.
R R ( ,
7.1.3) -
:
x ln( y ) y e x ; x R; y R .

7.5.1 -
n
n
n , -
n
, §§ 6.5–6.7 .
,

-
7.5.2. n

, -
.
.
n
-
n ,
6.5.3 ( ).

n
k
7.5.1. , , -
,
, min{n, k } .

,
7.5.2.
det S 0.
.
, det S 0, rg S n
.
258
g1 , g 2 ,..., g n ,
, {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } – .

, -
, -
S -

x g y g S x g S y g x g x g .

1
T S ,
7.5.3.
S , -
.

g1 g1
g2 T g2
T x g
T x g,
... ...
gn gn
g1 g2 gn g1 g2 gn S , x g
S x g

7.4.1.

n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n
x i gi .
i 1
7. 259
m
7.5.4. n
n

ji i 0, j [1, m]
i 1
n
.
.

,
6.7.2 -

n
n
ji i 0, j [1, m] , -
i 1
n
T
1 2 ... n .

n
,
,
– -
.

7.5.5. m n
n

ji i j , j [1, m]
i 1
n
.
.
, 7.5.4.
260
, g1 , g 2 , g 3
7.5.1. 3
x
, :
1 1 2 3
x 3 , g1 1 , g2 1 g3 0 .
1 1 0 1

. 1 . g1 , g 2 , g 3 -
3
,
7.2.2), -
. 7.5.1 -
3

1 2 3
rg 1 1 0 3,
1 0 1
,
1 2 3
det 1 1 0 4 0.
1 0 1
2 . x
1, 2, 3. x 1 g1 2 g2 3 g3 ,

1 1 2 3
3 1 1 2 1 3 0 .
1 1 0 1
7. 261
3 .
,

1 2 2 3 3 1,
1 2 3,
1 3 1,

( , –
6.4.1 – § 6.8),
1 2, 2 1, 3 1. , -
x { g1 , g 2 , g 3 },

2
xg 1 .
1

3
,
7.5.2. {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ,
:

1 2 3 7
g1 1 , g2 1 , g3 0 , g1 3 ,
1 0 1 3
16 22
g2 5 g3 7 .
9 8
262

. 1 . x , x x -
x : -
, {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } {g1 , g 2 , g 3} .
( 7.4.2 7.4.1)

x G x x F x ,

G F -
g1 , g 2 , g 3
g1 , g 2 , g3 ,

1 2 3 7 16 22
G 1 1 0 F 3 5 7 .
1 0 1 3 9 8

S
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } {g1 , g 2 , g 3} ,
x S x . x G x
x F x ,
1
x G F x ,
G, , .
1
S x G F x
x , 5.1.2 ,

1
S G F .
7. 263
2 .
1
1 2 3 7 16 22
1 1 0 3 5 7 ,
1 0 1 3 9 8
, , , § 6.8,
1
G F ,

2 3 4
S 1 2 3 .
1 3 4

,
7.5.3. 3, -
:
2
x1 ( ) 1 2 3 3,
2
x2 ( ) 1 8 6 5 3,
2
x3 ( ) 10 5 8 3,

2
y1 ( ) 1 4 5 3,
2
y2 ( ) 3 2 6 3 3,
2
y3 ( ) 4 2 5 8 3.

. 1 . 7.4.1 -
. 1 -

x 1 1x 2 x2 x ,
3 3
264

2 –
y 1 1 y 2 y2 3 y3 .
, -
( . 7.5.4).

2
1 2 3 4 0.
3

, 1

1 1 1 0
2 2 8 10
1 2 3 ,
3 1 6 5
4 3 5 8

1 , 2 , 3 – , -

2
1 2 3 4
3

1 1 0
2 8 10
1 2 3 4 ( 1 2 3 ) 0,
1 6 5
3 5 8
7. 265

1 , 2 , 3 ,

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 -

1 2 2 3 3 4 0,
1 8 2 6 3 5 4 0,
10 2 5 3 8 4 0.
, , ,
§ 6.8,
1 4 7
2 1 4
1 2 ; 1, 2
3 2 0
4 0 5
,
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , , -
, ,
1
4 1 2 2 3 0,
7 1 4 2 5 4 0.

, 2:
22 1 9 2 14 3 0,
11 1 6 2 7 4 0.

, 1 2 -
266
4 1 2 2 3 0,
7 1 4 2 5 4 0,
22 1 9 2 14 3 0,
11 1 6 2 7 4 0,

1 2
2 6 ,
1
3 7
4 2
, , 1 2
dim( 1 2 ) 1 ,
2
6 .
7
2
8. 267

§ 8.1.

x
8.1.1.

y . ,
,
,
y Aˆ x .
y
x, x – y.
§ 5.2, ,
, , . , -
, ,
, , -
.

y Ax ,
8.1.2.
x, x1 , x2

1 . A( x1 x 2 ) Ax1 Ax 2
ˆ ( x)
2 . A Aˆ x .
268
1 . 2- -
8.1.1.

1 a11 a12 1
,
2 a21 a 22 2

1
x -
2

1
y .
2

2 .

, -

3 . Pn ( ) -

, 1 ,2 3 -
8.1.1. .

A,
8.1.2. x -
a ?

. a o, A– ,
.
8. 269
§ 8.2.

A B ,
8.2.1.
x : Aˆ x Bˆ x .
Aˆ Bˆ .

A B
C, A B, -
x -
Ax Bx .

-
8.2.1. .
.

x, y ; – , C A B,
Cˆ ( x y) A( x y ) Bˆ ( x y)
Aˆ x Aˆ y Bˆ x Bˆ y
( Aˆ x Bˆ x) ( Aˆ y Bˆ y )
( Aˆ Bˆ ) x ( Aˆ Bˆ ) y Cˆ x Cˆ y.

O , -
8.2.2. x
-
.
270
, A, -
8.2.3.
, Â , -
x -
ˆ ).
( Ax
,
.
-
:
Aˆ Bˆ Bˆ Aˆ ;
( Aˆ Bˆ ) Cˆ Aˆ ( Bˆ Cˆ ) ;
Aˆ Oˆ Aˆ ; Aˆ ( Aˆ ) Oˆ .

A
8.2.4.
, Â ,
x
( Aˆ x ) .

8.2.2. ,

( Aˆ ) ( ) Aˆ ; 1Aˆ Aˆ ;
( ) Aˆ Aˆ Aˆ ;
( Aˆ Bˆ ) Aˆ Bˆ .
.
. ,

x :( ) Aˆ x
Aˆ (( ) x) Aˆ ( x x) Aˆ x Aˆ x .
8. 271
,
8.2.1. , -
.
.
7.1.1, 8.2.1–8.2.4 8.2.1, 8.2.2.

A B -
8.2.5.
, Aˆ Bˆ , -
x -
Aˆ ( Bˆ x ) .

-
8.2.2. , -

Aˆ ( Bˆ Cˆ ) ( Aˆ Bˆ )Cˆ ; Aˆ ( Bˆ Cˆ ) Aˆ Bˆ Aˆ Cˆ ;
( Aˆ Bˆ )Cˆ Aˆ Cˆ Bˆ Cˆ .
.
-
. , x, y ,
Aˆ Bˆ ( x y ) Aˆ ( Bˆ x Bˆ y )
Aˆ ( Bˆ x) Aˆ ( Bˆ y ) ( Aˆ Bˆ ) x ( Aˆ Bˆ ) y.
-
.
( Aˆ ( Bˆ Cˆ )) x Aˆ ( Bˆ Cˆ x ) Aˆ ( Bˆ (Cˆ x)) ,
, ,
(( Aˆ Bˆ )Cˆ ) x Aˆ Bˆ (Cˆ x) Aˆ ( Bˆ (Cˆ x)) ,
.
.
.
272
:
( , -
, ),
AB B A.

AB BA
8.2.6.
A B.
.

8.2.1. n
k
Pn ( ) k :
k 0

A, -
, B –
.

. AB B A. Pn ( )

d d n n
Aˆ Pn ( ) Pn ( ) ( k
k
) k k
k 1
,
d d k 0 k 1
n n
k k 1
Bˆ Pn ( ) ( k ) k .
k 0 k 0

n n n
Bˆ ( Aˆ Pn ( )) ( k k
k 1
) k k
k
k k
k

k 1 k 1 k 0
n n
d
A( Bˆ Pn ( )) ( k
k 1
) (k 1) k
k
,
d k 0 k 0
8. 273
n n
( Aˆ Bˆ Bˆ Aˆ ) Pn ( ) ( (k 1) k
k
) ( k k
k
)
k 0 k 0
n
k
k Pn ( ).
k 0

, -
.

8.2.1 , -
Aˆ Bˆ Bˆ Aˆ -
. -

E ( -
8.2.7. ) , x -

,
Êx x x .
:
Aˆ Eˆ Eˆ Aˆ Aˆ Aˆ , E.

B A
8.2.8. 1
A , AB BA E .

f ( ),
8.2.1.
[ , ]
(k )
f ( ) 0;k 0,1, 2, ... , -
df
Âf Bˆ f f ( )d
d
274
– -
.
,
d
Aˆ Bˆ f f ( )d f( ) Eˆ f
d
df
Bˆ Aˆ f d f( ) f (a) f( ) Eˆ f .
d

. 1 .
. ,
O . ,
Oˆ x o x , B

( Bˆ Oˆ ) x Bˆ (Oˆ x ) o x ,
, , Bˆ Oˆ Eˆ -
B.

2 . , ,
.( , -

5.1.1.)

3 . -
AB E
BA E , , -
,
n
k
Pn ( ) k A B,
k 0

B
8. 275
,
n
k
A k -
k 0
n
k 1
k .
k 1

§ 8.3.

n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
m
A { f1 , f 2 ,..., f m } .
n
§ 7.2 , x
1
n
2 m
x i gi , x g
.
i 1 ...
n

y Aˆ x , -

n n
y Aˆ x Aˆ ( i gi ) i Aˆ g i .
i 1 i 1

m
-
m
Aˆ g i ki fk i [1, n] , , ,
k 1
m n
y ( ki i ) fk .
k 1 i 1
276

2
, y f
– -
...
m
m
, y k fk . , -
k 1

k ki i ;k [1, m] .
i 1

. ,
n m
Aˆ :
m n ki .

m n, -
8.3.1.
Âg i :
11 12 ... 1n

21 22 ... 2n
Aˆ ,
fg ... ... ... ...
m1 m2 ... mn

A -

n m
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } { f1 , f 2 ,..., f m } .
8. 277
n

k ki i ;k [1, m]
i 1

y f
Aˆ fg
x g
(8.3.1)

:
n

k1 ki i1 ;k [1, m] .
i 1

8.3.1. Aˆ : n m

m n .
.

,
n m
Aˆ :
8.3.1 m n.
,

1 11 12 ... 1n 1

2 21 22 ... 2n 2

... ... ... ... ... ...


m m1 m2 ... mn n

n m
Aˆ : , -
.
.
278
1 . c -
8.3.1. ,

Oxy .
Aˆ g1 1 g1 0 g 2 0 g 3 1 0 0
Aˆ g 2 0 g1 1 g 2 0 g 3 , A g
0 1 0 .
Aˆ g 0 g1 0 g 2 0 g 3 0 0 0
3

Aˆ : n n
,
n
,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , , n. -
§ 1.1 § 5.1 -

1 . : Aˆ Bˆ Aˆ Bˆ .
g g

8.2.1 Aˆ Bˆ ,
x n
: Aˆ x Bˆ x ,
Aˆ x g
Bˆ x g
x n
. ,
g g

5.1.2, Aˆ Bˆ , ,
g g

Aˆ Bˆ Aˆ Bˆ .
g g
8. 279

2 . : A B g
A g
B g
.

n n
, Aˆ g i ki g k Bˆ g i ki gk
k 1 k 1
,
( Aˆ Bˆ ) g i Aˆ g i Bˆ g i
n n n

ki gk ki gk ( ki ki )g k .
k 1 k 1 k 1

3 . : Aˆ Aˆ .
g g

n
Aˆ g i ki gk ,
k 1
n
( Aˆ ) g i Aˆ ( g i ) ( ki )g k .
k 1

4 . : AB g
A g
B g
.

n
( Aˆ Bˆ ) g i Aˆ ( Bˆ g i ) Aˆ ( ki gk )
k 1
n n n n
ˆ
ki Ag k ki jk g j ji gj,
k 1 k 1 j 1 j 1
n

ji jk ki , -
k 1
5.1.1.
280
1 1
5 . : A g
A g
.
, .
8.2.8 ,

A 1A AA 1
E,
3 , ,
1 1
A g
A -
1 1
A g
A g
A g
A g
E g
, -

A g
.

-
8.3.1. n m
, m n.
.

8.3.1
-
n m
-
m n. , 7.5.1
( ), .

, Â –
fg
n m n
Aˆ : .
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
8. 281
m
G , –
{ f1 , f 2 ,..., f m } { f1 , f 2 ,..., f m } , F . -

 Aˆ .
fg fg

Aˆ fg
8.3.2.
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } { f1 , f 2 ,..., f m }
 {g1, g 2 ,..., g n }
fg

{ f1 , f 2 ,..., f m }
1
Aˆ F Aˆ G .
fg fg

7.3.1 {g1, g 2 ,..., g n } -


{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } x – , y –
 , -
x g
G x g
y f F y f
,

1 1

2 2
x g ; x g
,
... ...
n n
282

1 1

2 2
y f
; y f
.
... ...
m m

y f
Aˆ x g
y f
Aˆ x g
,
fg fg

, -

1 1
y f
F y f
F Aˆ x g
fg
1
F Aˆ G x g
.
fg

,
1
( Aˆ F Aˆ G ) x g
o ,
fg fg

x g
5.1.2 .

8.3.2. n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1, g 2 ,..., g n }

1
Aˆ S Aˆ S .
g g
8. 283

8.3.3. n
.
.

8.3.2
1
det Aˆ det ( S Aˆ S ),
g g

1 1
det( S Aˆ S ) (det S )(det Aˆ )(det S )
g g

1 1
det S ,
det S
det S 0, ,

det Aˆ det Aˆ .
g g

, , 8.3.2 -
, –
.

§ 8.4.
, -
, , -
-
.

A
x ,
Ax . ,
.
284
“ -
?”

A – , -
8.4.1.
.
1 . Âx x -
.
n
2 . , ,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , -

rg  .
g

Ax
y1, y 2 . x1 x2 , ,
Ax1 y1 Ax 2 y2 .
A :
y1 y2 Aˆ x1 Aˆ x 2 Aˆ ( x1 x 2 ) .
y Aˆ x Aˆ ( x )
.

n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .
x
, -
A -

Aˆ g1 , Aˆ g 2 ,..., Aˆ g n , –
-
{ Aˆ g1 , Aˆ g 2 ,..., Aˆ g n } .
8. 285
{ Aˆ g1 , Aˆ g 2 ,..., Aˆ g n }
,
k.
, 7.4.1, ,
*
k, 7.5.2 ,
rg A g
k.

n
A
8.4.1. .
A rg  .

rg Aˆ rg Aˆ n -
g
8.4.1.
.

-
8.4.2.
A, -
, -
dim( ).
.

-
, 8.4.1.

A B
8.4.2. .
286
.

AB .
8.4.2
, B.
, AB
A, , , -
AB -
A.

A ,
8.4.3.
B
rg ( A B ) rg ( B A ) rg B .
.

A B
A B -
.
1
det A 0, A
8.4.2 , , rg ( A B ) rg B ,
1
– rg B rg ( A A B ) rg ( A B ).
rg( A B ) rg( B A ) rg B .

.
8. 287

. 1 . B ,

A B B A ,
det A 0
rg ( A B ) rg B
rg ( B A ) rg B .
, B -

B ,

B -

, A B
B A , ,

rg B rg B .
2 . -
. :
1 0 0 0 0 0
.
0 0 0 1 0 0

-
,
ker  .

A
8.4.2.
x , , Ax o.
288
n
rg Aˆ r , ker A -
8.4.4.
dim( ker Aˆ ) n r .
.

, ker A
7.4.1.

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } Â
Aˆ g ij . 8.4.1 rg A
g
r -
. -
1

n 2
x x g
A
...
n
n

ij j 0; i [1, n].
j 1

, -

ij j 0; i [1, n]
j 1

A,

, , 6.7.1,
n rg A g
n r.

.
8. 289

§ 8.1, ,
,
.

§ 7.5 -
, . -
-
. .

y Aˆ x , x , y
8.4.3.
( -
), Aˆ x1 Aˆ x 2
x1 x2 , x1 , x 2 .

y Aˆ x , x , y .

y Aˆ x , x , y
8.4.4.
(
), -
.
-
, , , . 8.4.1
.

, , A -
n n
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n
, -
8.3.1.
290
8.4.1

 g
n, -
8.4.5.
-
Aˆ g1 , Aˆ g 2 ,..., Aˆ g n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
A
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }.

, -
n m m
Aˆ : ,
– ker Aˆ o . , -
8. 291
,
8.4.5. , ,

.
.

1º. {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } { f1 , f 2 ,..., f m } -


n m
Aˆ : Â fg
,

rg Aˆ m.
fg

Aˆ x g
y f
6.6.1 ( )
fg
m
y f
,

rg Aˆ y m. , A
A .

2º. rg Aˆ n. , 6.4.1 ( ), -
fg

Aˆ x g
o f
-
fg

, . A
.

, ,
, , ( . -
5.2.4).
, , -
, -
. -
,
292
7.5.1 ( ), -
, -
-
.

1 . Pr ,
8.4.1. -
-
, , ,
3 1
, , ,
-
.
, ,

, -
.
, -

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } , -
, -
T
e1 1 1 1 .
e

, r -
x
r y ,
e
z

(r,e )
r 2
e
e
8. 293
x y z
x 3
x y z , -
y
3
z x y z
3
1 1 1
1
Pr Pr 1 1 1 .
e 3
1 1 1

, , e1
1
, , 8.4.5,

Pr
1
Pr 1 1 1.
ee 3

2 . Â
11 12
-
21 22

11 12
.
21 22

, -
-

11 12 0
.
21 22 0
294
3 3
 :
8.4.1.
1 2 3
Aˆ 2 3 4 .
3 5 7
. ,
-
.

1 1

.1 . x 2 y 2 – -

3 3

y Aˆ x . – x, ,
Aˆ x o ,

1 2 2 3 3 0,
Aˆ x 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 0,
3 1 5 2 7 3 0,

1 1
2 2 . ,

3 1

1
2 ,
1
, .
8. 295
, -
,
1 2 3 1 2 3
rg 2 3 4 rg 0 1 2 2 3
3 5 7 0 0 0
– .

2. Â
y , , y Aˆ x x . -
y -

1 2 3 1 1

2 3 4 2 2 ,
3 5 7 3 3
, ,
1, 2, 3

. , ,
6.6.1 ( ),
.

1 2 3 1

rg 2 3 4 2

3 5 7 3

1 2 3 1 1 2 3
rg 0 1 2 2 1 2 rg 2 3 4 2
0 0 0 1 2 3 3 5 7
296
, ,
1 2 3 0, , , ,

A -

1 1 1
2 1 1 2 0 1 , 2 ,

3 0 1

1 2 3 0.
, ,
3 3
y , -
.

§ 8.5.

8.5.1.

A, -
x : Aˆ x .

1 . -
8.5.1. -
-
Oxy , -
-
, -
-
. 8.5.1
8. 297

Oz ( . . 8.5.1).

2 . -
f( ),
( , ) , n -

1 2 n
{e ,e , ... , e },
1 , 2 ,..., n – ,
.

A, -
8.5.1. n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,

11 ... 1r 1, r 1 ... 1n

... ... ... ... ... ...


r1 ... rr r ,r 1 ... rn
,
0 ... 0 r 1,r 1 ... r 1,n

... ... ... ... ... ...


0 ... 0 n,r 1 ... nn

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g r } -
A.
298
.

. A
.
{g1, g 2 ,..., g r } -
,
8.3.1
.
r
, k gk ,
k 1
r
Aˆ ( k gk )
k 1
r r r
ˆ
k ( Ag k ) k ik gi
k 1 k 1 i 1
r r r
( ik k ) gi i gi .
i 1 k 1 i 1

7.4.1 , – . -
.

. -
A, -
{g1, g 2 ,..., g r } . -
, , , -
, . -
,
r n
Aˆ g k ik gi 0g i ; k [1, r ]
i 1 i r 1
8.4.5 .

.
8. 299
,
8.5.1.
A

A 1.

. x , –
A, , , y Aˆ x .
A , -
1
A x, y
1
x A y, -

A 1.

" -
", -
.

f
8.5.2.
A,
, , Aˆ f f .
A, -
f.

, , , f -
Aˆ Eˆ ,
f ker( Aˆ Eˆ ) .
300

, A,
n
, n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
Aˆ g1 1 g1 ; Aˆ g 2 2 g2 ; ... ; Aˆ g n n gn .
, -

Aˆ g k 0 g1 0 g2 k gk 0 gn ; k [1, n] .
, 7.2.1, , ,
8.3.1, , -
A

1 0 ... 0
0 2 ... 0
Aˆ ,
f ... ... ... ...
0 0 ... n
-
.

, , A -
8.5.2. f -
, f

A2 AA
2
.
8. 301
. Aˆ f f , -

Aˆ 2 f Aˆ ( Aˆ f ) Aˆ ( f ) 2
f.

n
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } , -
n
n
f f i gi ,
i 1

A Aˆ k j .
g

n
Aˆ f f
Aˆ f g
f g
,
g

11 1 12 2 ... 1n n 1 ,
21 1 22 2 ... 2n n 2 ,
...................................................
n1 1 n2 2 ... nn n n ,

( 11 ) 1 12 2 ... 1n n 0,
21 1 ( 22 ) 2 ... 2n n 0,
(8.5.1)
........................................................
n1 1 n2 2 ... ( nn ) n 0.
302
-
,
(8.5.1), ,
6.7.2,
(8.5.1). , ,

: det kj kj 0
11 12 ... 1n

21 22 ... 2n
det 0. (8.5.2)
... ... ... ...
n1 n2 ... nn

det Aˆ Eˆ 0 -
g
8.5.3.
,
det Aˆ Eˆ –
g
n
A, .

8.5.2. n
.
.

, Aˆ Eˆ , ,
Â Ê . ,
8.3.3, .
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } :
det Aˆ Eˆ det Aˆ Eˆ .
g g

.
8. 303
-
n , -
6.1.2 (8.5.2).

n
,
-
:

(8.5.2), -
(8.5.1)
, , -

, .

8.6.1 8.6.2. ,
, -
. -
, ,
, -

f( ) e ( – ) -
, -
df
f.
d

§ 8.6.

8.6.1.
.
304
.
-
n , -
11
, ,
.
.

8.6.1 -
. , Oxy -
k -
. ,
( . § 5.5).

cos sin 2
det 0 2 cos 1 0,
sin cos
cos i sin . , k -
.
n

8.6.2. -
, -
.
.
,
(8.5.1) .
-
i, , (8.5.1), -

n
f u wi , u w– , -
n .

11
, , .
8. 305
, u w . -
: u w. Aˆ f f ,
Aˆ (( i ) w) ( i )w , Aˆ w w, – -
, -
.
-
ˆf
: A f .
Aˆ (u wi ) ( i)(u w i) ,
A
( Aˆ u ) ( Aˆ w) i ( u w) ( u w) i,
,
Aˆ u u w,
Aˆ w u w.
, A -
,
u w,

Aˆ ( u w) Aˆ u Aˆ w ( u w) ( u w)
( )u ( ) w.

8.6.1.
A, -

1 2 2
2 1 2 .
3 2 3
306
:
1 . , A -
.
(8.5.1) – (8.5.2). -
( .
1.1.1),

1 2 2
det 2 1 2
3 2 3
(1 )( 1) 2 2(2 6 6) 2(4 3 3 )
3 2 2
1 ( 1)( 1).
, 1 1
– 2 i 2 i – -
12
.

2 . . 1 1, ,
(8.5.2)
2 2 2 1 0
2 2 2 2 0 .
3 2 2 3 0
-
, 1 , 2 3

1 0
1 1 1
2 0 .
1 0 0
3 0

12
. 3.
8. 307
, f1 , -
1 1,

1 0
2 1 0.
3 1

3 . 2 i,
(8.5.1)

1 i 2 2 1 0
2 1 i 2 2 0
3 2 3 i 3 0
13
,
1 i. ,

1 1 i 1 i 1 0
2 1 i 2 2 0
3 2 3 i 3 0

,
1 0
1 1 i 1 i
2 0 .
0 1 3i 2i
3 0

13
3.
308
,
( i)
1 0
1 1 i 1 i
2 0 .
0 3 i 2
3 0

3 3 i,
:
1 2
f2 2 2 0.
3 3 i
4 . , , -
, 3 i,

1 2
f3 2 2 0.
3 3 i
, f2
f3 , 2 3 ,
f2
f 3 .)

5 . A -
, 8.6.2 A -
0
1 , 1 1,
1
8. 309
, -
2 0
u 2 w 0 , -
3 1

1 2 0
2 1 2 2 0 ; 1, 2.

3 3 1
, -

1 1 2 2 3 3 0
., , 8.4.1).

, -
8.6.3. -
A,
, -
A.
.

Aˆ f1 f1 Aˆ f 2 f2 . , -

Aˆ ( f1 f2 )
Aˆ f1 Aˆ f 2 f1 f2 ( f1 f 2 ),
.

.
310
, -
8.6.1. , ,
, -
( , , )
A.

8.6.4.
 -
B̂ ,
 B̂ .
.

– -
 ,  f f f .
Bˆ Aˆ f Bˆ ( f ) , -
A B
Aˆ ( Bˆ f ) ( Bˆ f ) f .
, B̂ f f ,

– B.
.

, -
8.6.5. , -
.
.

.
m
f 1 , f 2 , ..., f m A, -
.
8. 311
,
m 1 f 1 , f 2 ,... , f m , f m 1 ,
.
:
-
f 1 , f 2 ,... , f m , f m 1
1 f1 2 f2 ... m fm m 1 fm 1 o , (8.6.1)
, -
m 1 0.
 (8.6.1):
Aˆ ( 1 1 f 2 f2 ... m fm m 1 m 1f )
1 1 1 f 2 2 f 2 ... m m fm m 1 m 1 fm 1 o.
(8.6.2)
, (8.6.1)
m 1 -
(8.6.2),

1 ( 1 m 1 ) f1 2 ( 2 m 1 ) f2 ...
m ( m m 1 ) fm o.
,
f1 , f 2 ,..., f m ,

1 2 ... m 0.
(8.6.1) m 1 0, -
, -

f1, f 2 , ... , f m
f 1 , f 2 ,... , f m , f m 1 .

.
312
n
A
8.6.1. -
) n , -
.

n
A, ,
8.6.6. n , -
, -
A, -
,
A.
.
8.6.5 -
§ 8.5.

– -
8.6.7.
A,
0 k.

1 dim( ) k.
.
n
{g1, g 2 ,..., g m , g m 1,..., g n } ,

m dim( ) .

Aˆ g i 0 g i ; i [1, m] ,
Aˆ Eˆ g , -
( . §8.5),
8. 313
Aˆ Eˆ g

0 0 ... 0 1,m 1 ... 1n

0 0 ... 0 2,m 1 ... 2n

... ... ... ... ... ... ...


.
0 0 ... 0 m ,m 1 ... mn

... ... ... ... ... ... ...


0 0 ... 0 n,m 1 ... nn

det Aˆ Eˆ g
( 0 ) m Pn m ( ).
( 0 )
Pn m ( ) , m k, k –
0 det Aˆ Eˆ g .

1 m , -
( ).

, -
, 0

k, k,

8.6.2. ,
1 1
.
0 1
314
. :

1 1
det (1 )2 0,
0 1

1, 2 1
k 2.
0 1 1 0 1
x 0.
0 0 2 0 0
, ,
-
(m dim( ) 1 ), -
1 2.

8.6.2, 8.6.5 8.6.6 ,


, -

,
.

n
A -
8.6.8.
, A
.
.
n
A , -
, , -
, det A 0.
n
-

.
8. 315

1 11 12 ... 1n 1

2 21 22 ... 2n 2
.
... ... ... ... ... ...
n n1 n2 ... nn n

6.4.1 ( ) , -
-
,
, ( -
),
6.7.1 (
).

Q
8.6.2.
k 2 k -
Q . ,
1 0
Q Q Q E .

n
A -
8.6.9 .

).
.

,
n
 { f1 , f 2 ,..., f n } .
 -
n
k
 k 0.
f
k 0
316
 f, -
, ( .
8.5.2)
n n
k k
( k Aˆ f ) f k ( Aˆ f
f )
k 0 k 0
n

k ( Aˆ f ( Aˆ f ...( Aˆ f
f )...))
k 0
n n
k k
k( f ) ( k ) f 0 f o.
k 0 k 0

-
n
, x .
5.1.2 ,
n
k
k Aˆ f
Oˆ f .
k 0

,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n n
k 1
k Aˆ g k ( S Aˆ f
S )k
k 0 k 0
n
1 1 1
k ( S Aˆ f
S S Aˆ f
S ... S Aˆ f
S )
k 0

n n
1 k 1 k
k( S Aˆ f
S ) S ( k Aˆ f
) S
k 0 k 0
1
S Oˆ f
S Oˆ g .

.
8. 317
:
,
.

§ 8.7.

,
,
. -
, , § 5.2,
.

x
8.7.1. -
, f (x ) . ,
f (x ) .
1 . n
8.7.1.
1

2
, -
...
n
n

i i , i ,i [1, n] – -
i 1
.

2 . -

, f ( x) | x |.

3 . x( ) ,
[ 1,1] f ( x) x(0) –
318
” ”, (x) ,
x( )
.
4 . x( ) ,
[ , ], -

, f ( x) p ( ) x ( )d , p( ) – -

[ , ] .
5 .
11 12

21 22

11 12
det 11 22 12 21 .
21 22

f (x ) -
8.7.2. ( ),
x, y :
1 . f (x y) f ( x) f ( y ).
2 . f ( x) f ( x).
, 1 ,3 4 -
8.7.1. , 2 5 –
.

n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -
n
x i gi .
i 1
8. 319

n n n
f ( x) f( i gi ) i f (gi ) i i ,
i 1 i 1 i 1

i f (gi ) , i [1, n] – , -
.

n
f (x ) -
8.7.1.
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } -

f g 1 2 n , -

1 2 n
n

n
f ( x) i i
i 1

f ( x) f g
x g
.

n
( ) -
8.4.5,
n
-
n 1
.
-
n n
.
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , -
n
S ij , gj ij gi j [1, n] .
i 1
320
x
n n
x i gi i gi , -
i 1 i 1
f (x ) – -

n n
f ( x) i i i i .
i 1 i 1

i i . -
,
n n n

i f ( gi ) f( ki g k ) ki f ( g k ) k ki ,
k 1 k 1 k 1
.

n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -
8.7.2.

f g 1 , 2 , ..., n

f g 1 , 2 , ... , n
n

k i ik ;k [1, n] , ik –
i 1

S –
.

f g
f g
S , ,
n
, -
( . §7.3).
8. 321
( ) .
)

-
, -
, .

n
, {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -
8.7.2. -
p( x ) q ( x)

p q g 1 1 2 2 ... n n

p g 1 2 ... n ,

p g 1 2 ... n

q g 1 2 ... n .

, § 8.2,

,
8.7.3. , -
.

, -
8.7.3. , ( -
) .
8.7.1
n-
,
322
n . ,
n
-
n , -
n

n
.

n n
, ,
8.7.4. n.

n
n ,
.
n n
{r1 , r2 ,..., rn }; ri i [1, n] . f

n
n
, f r,
i i
i 1
f,

2
f r
.

-
n n
f {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {r1 , r2 ,..., rn }
, n, rg
, -

ij ri ( g j ) ; i, j [1, n] – -
ri gj.
8. 323
n
, {r1 , r2 ,..., rn } – ,
8.7.3. n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } – ,
T 1 T T
f r
( rg
) f g
f g
f r rg
.

rg
E ,
8.7.4.
1, i j
ij ij ; i, j [1, n] ,
0, i j
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {r1 , r2 ,..., rn } -
( ).
n
, {r1 , r2 ,..., rn }
n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , -
n n
f (x ) -
T
f r
f g
.

( )

n
n ,
n
, ,

n n n
, . -
n
.
n n n
, , n-
, , . -
n n
,
-
.
324
n
x – , X( f ) –
n n
, , X(f) f ( x) f .
n
, X( f ) ,
n
. ,
X( f
1 1 2 f2 ) f ( x)
1 1 2 f 2 ( x)
n
1 X ( f1 ) 2 X ( f2 ) 1 , 2 ; f1 , f 2 .
n
, X(f) f , ,
n
8.4.1, – .
n
X ( x) : ,
n
y X ( f ( x)) x ;y . -
, ( ) X( f )
f (x ) , , , , . -
, y X ( f ( x )) – ,
n
,
n
7.5.1 dim( ) dim ( ) n.
, ,
n n
dim ( ) n dim( )
n
.
, ,
n n
y X ( f ( x)) x ;y
-
n n
, -
n

n n
, ,

n n
x( f ) f ( x) ; x ; f .
9. 325

§ 9.1.

-
9.1.1. x y -
B( x , y ) ,
1) B( x1 x2 , y ) B ( x1 , y ) B( x2 , y )
x1 , x 2 , y ; , ,
2) B( x, y1 y2 ) B( x, y1 ) B ( x, y 2 )
x, y1 , y 2 ; , ,
,
).
1 . F (x )
9.1.1.
G( y) , ,
B( x , y ) F ( x )G ( y )
.
2 .
B( x, y ) K ( , ) x( ) y ( ) d d

x( ) ( K ( , ) y ( )d )d ,
K( , )
326

: ,

[ , ] .
3 .
-
.

n
.

n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -
B( x , y ) .
.
n
, x i gi
i 1
n
y j gj , , 9.1.1, -
j 1

n n n n
B( x, y ) B( i gi , jgj) i B( g i , j gj)
i 1 j 1 i 1 j 1
n n n n

i j B( g i , g j ) ij i j .
i 1 j 1 i 1 j 1

ij B( g i , g j )
9.1.2.
B( x , y )
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , B g ij – -
.
9. 327
n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

n n n n n n
T
( x, y ) ki k i k1 ki i1 1k ki i1
k 1 i 1 k 1 i 1 k 1 i 1

11 12 ... 1n 1

21 22 ... 2n 2
1 2 ... n
... ... ... ... ...
n1 n2 ... nn n
T
x g
B g
y g
,

x g
y g

x y .

S –
9.1.1.
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } {g1, g 2 ,..., g n } ,
T
B g
S B g
S .

n
( . § 7.3)
n
gk ik gi , k [1, n] ,
i 1
328

n n

kl B( g k , g l ) B( ik g i , jl gj)
i 1 j 1
n n

ik jl B( g i , g j )
i 1 j 1
n n n n
T
ik jl ij ki ij jl
i 1 j 1 i 1 j 1

k , l [1, n] .

det B g
det B g
det 2 S .
9.1.1.
.
9.1.1, ( -
6.2.1 6.2.4).

, -

9.1.2. .
.
8.4.3 -
S .

B( x , y ) -
9.1.3. ,
x y
B ( x, y ) B ( y, x ) .
9. 329

9.1.2. n
, -
.
.

ij B( g i , g j ) B( g j , g i ) ji

i, j [1, n].
. ,

ij ji i, j [1, n] ,
n n n n
B ( y, x ) ji j i ji i j
j 1 i 1 j 1 i 1
n n

ij i j B( x, y ).
i 1 j 1

§ 9.2.

-
9.2.1. x
( x) B ( x, x) , B(x,y) – -
, ,
( -
).
-

, -
.
330
, (x)
B( x, y ), -
x y
(x y) B ( x y, x y )
B( x, x ) B( x, y ) B( y, x) B ( y , y )
( x) 2 B ( x, y ) ( y) ,
(x y) ( x) ( y)
B( x, y ) .
2
n
-
9.2.2. 1
(x y) ( x) ( y ))
2
(x).
n
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } , -

n n
( x) ki k i
k 1 i 1

11 12 ... 1n 1

21 22 ... 2n 2
1 2 ... n
... ... ... ... ...
n1 n2 ... nn n
T
x g g
x g
,
n
x g
– x i gi
i 1
. , ,
T
g
S g
S , -
9.1.1.
9. 331
, -
(x ) , -
. , -
B( x , y )
1
( B( x , y) B ( y , x )) , -
2
(x ) , B( x , y ) ..
,
ij ji ji ij
ij ji , i, j [1, n] ,
2 2
– .
3

9.2.1.
B1 ( x, y ) 1 1 3 2 2 2 1

3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2

1 3 0 1

1 2 3 1 3 1 2 ,
2 1 0 3

1 3 0
1 3 1
2 1 0
9.1.2 .
3

2 2
1 ( x) 1 3 2 4 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 .
332
B2 ( x , y ) 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1

1 3 3 1 2 3 3 2

1 2 1 1

1 2 3 2 3 1 2 ,
1 1 0 3

1 2 1
2 3 1 ,
1 1 0
3

2 2
2 ( x) 1 3 2 4 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 3,

1 ( x)
1 2 1
2 3 1 .
1 1 0

-
,
.

(x ) -
9.2.3. n
{g1 , g 2 , ..., g n } ,

n
2
( x) i i ,
i 1

i i [1, n] – .
9. 333
, , i ,i [1, n]
0 1, , -

9.2.1 n
,
). .
.

.
2
1 . n 1 (x ) = 11 1 . 11 0,
, 11 0, , -

1 11 1, .

2 . , -
, n 1 ,
n .
, 11 0. -
,
ii ,i [2, n] .

ii ,i [1, n] , -
, 12 0. , -

1 1 2 , 2 1 2 , 3 3 , ..., n n,
334
(x ) = 2 12 12 2 21 2
2
F( 1, 2 , 3 ,..., n ),
F ( 1 , 2 , 3 ,..., n ) 1 2 .

3 . ,
1:
n n
( x) ik i k
i 1 k 1
n n n
2 1i
11 ( 1 2 1 i) ik i k ,
i 2 11 i 2 k 2

,
n n n n n

k i ( k )( i ) ( k )2
k 1 i 1 k 1 i 1 k 1
n n n
2 2
( 1 k) 1 2 1 k ( k )2
k 2 k 2 k 2
n n n
2
1 2 1 k k i .
k 2 k 2 i 2

n n n
2 1i 1i 1k
( x) 11 ( 1 2 1 i 2 i k )
i 2 11 i 2 k 2 11
n n
1i 1k
( ik ) i k
i 2 k 2 11

n n n
1i 2 1i 1k
( x) 11 ( 1 i) ( ik ) i k .
i 2 11 i 2 k 2 11
9. 335
,
– , 1
, , -

k ki i ,k [2, n] .
i 2

4 .
(x )
n
1i
1 11 ( 1 i ),
i 2 11
n
(9.2.1)
k ki i ; k [2, n] ,
i 2
.
, 11 0, -

12 1n
11 11 ... 11
11 11
T 0 22 ... 2n

... ... ... ...


0 n2 ... nn

, , (9.2.1) – -
. T :
1
S T ( . 7.5.3), -
.

.
336
: , -
, ,

n
.

(
) . -
( -
) , -
.

, {g1, g 2 ,..., g n }
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } S -

T
g
S g
S .
S -

g
( . § 6.8).

S , g
, -
6.8.2 g
. -

, S -
,
. , g
-
,
, , -

,
9. 337

g
, x g
S x g

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , -
.
.
3

9.2.1.
2 2 2
( x) 2 1 2 4 3 8 1 2 2 1 3 8 2 3 .
. (x )
2 4 1
4 1 4 .
1 4 4

1º.
:
-
;
- -
,

2 5 1
5 3 0 .
1 0 4

,
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
338
1 0 0
, 0 1 0 .
0 1 1

2º. -
, , -
5. -
.
:

93 0 3 3 0 0
0 3 0 5 1 0 .
3 0 4 5 1 1

3º. ,
, 31.
, -

93 0 0 3 0 3
0 3 0 5 1 5 .
0 0 3751 5 1 26

3 0 3
5 ; 1 ; 5
5 1 26
9. 339

1 3 1 3 3,
2 5 1 2 5 3,
3 5 1 2 26 3 ,

:
2 2 2
( x) 93 1 3 2 3751 3 .

§ 9.3.

,
, ( ) -
n
. -
.

9.3.1.
(x ) rg .
n
-
9.3.1. .
.

9.1.2
.
-
.
, 8.4.3 9.1.1
-
.
.
340

1 . -
9.3.2. ( ) -
n
(x )
-
rg .
2 . -
( ) -
n
(x )
-
rg .
3 . -

n
(x ) -

sgn rg rg .

9.3.2 , -
n
(x ) -
- , -
).
( )
.
.

1 . (x )
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
n n
(x ) ij i j
i 1 j 1
9. 341
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , (x ) :
k m
2 2
( x) i i i i ;
i 1 i k 1

m n, i 0, i [1, m]

p q
2 2
( x) i i i i ;
i 1 i p 1

q n, i 0, i [1, q ] .
, -
ij ij

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n }
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } {g1, g 2 ,..., g n } , ,
n n

s sj j; s [1, n] s sj j ; s [1, n] .
j 1 j 1
(9.3.1)
2 . (x )
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
n n n
x k gk i gi jgj :
k 1 i 1 j 1
k m p q
2 2 2 2
i i i i i i i i
i 1 i k 1 i 1 i p 1

k q p m
2 2 2 2
i i i i i i i i. (9.3.2)
i 1 i p 1 i 1 i k 1
342
3 . . , k p,
, x -

i 0 i [1, k ] ; i 0 i [ p 1, n] .
, n, k p.
(9.3.1),

{ 1, 2 ,..., n }.
-
, , 6.7.1 -
, , x -
.
, (9.3.2), -
i; i [1, m] i; i [1, q ] ,
i 0 i [1, k ] ; i 0 i [ p 1, n]
, i 0 ; i [1, p].
(9.3.1) n -
n

s sj j ;s [1, n] n -
j 1
, -
, x -
.
, k p.
4 . ,
k p. ,
k p.
5 . 9.3.1 m q, k m p q.

.
9. 343

.
1 . (x )
9.3.3. -
, ( x) 0 -
x .

2 . (x )
-
, ( x) 0 -
x .

3 . ( ) , -
, (x ) -
( ) .

4 . ( x) 0 ( ( x) 0) x ,
, -
( ) -
.

9.3.3. n
,
( ) , -
( )
.
.
9.3.2 -
( )
-
( ).
344

-
9.3.4 n
-
). , -
,

11 12 ... 1k

21 22 ... 2k
det ; k [1, n] ,
... ... ... ...
k1 k2 ... kk

.
.

1 . .
k 1 . , -

k n 1

n 1
n 1
2
( x) i .
i 1
2 . ,
, n -
. , -
n , ,
n:
9. 345
n 1 n 1 n 1
2
( x) ki k i 2 kn k n nn n.
k 1 i 1 k 1
-
( x) , n 1 ,

(x ) n 1 , , -
, . , -
( x)

n 1

k ki i ; k [1, n 1] ,
i 1
n 1
2
( x) i .
i 1

(x )

n 1 n 1
2 2
( x) i 2 in i n nn n
i 1 i 1

n 1
2 2 2
( x) ( i 2 in i n in n )
i 1
n 1 n 1
2 2 2 2
( nn in ) n i nn n ,
i 1 i 1

n 1
2
nn nn in ; i i in n ; i [1, n 1] .
i 1
346

1 1 0 0 1, n 1

2 0 1 0 2,n 2

,
n 1 0 0 0 1 n 1,n n 1

n 0 0 0 0 1 n

,
.
3 . , 9.1.1 -
.

, -

11 12 ... 1n

21 22 ... 2n
det
... ... ... ...
n1 n2 ... nn

n. -
(x ) , -
(x ) nn .

nn 0
n n nn , -
n
2
( x) i .
i 1
, (x ) -
n, , -
, .

.
9. 347
-
-
“ ” § 10.3.
-
, -
.

-
9.3.1. n
-
, -
-
, – .
.

(x ) -
, (x ) , , -
.
, k-
, , -

11 12 ... 1k

21 22 ... 2k
det
... ... ... ...
k1 k2 ... kk

11 12 ... 1k

21 22 ... 2k
( 1) k det 0 k [1, n] .
... ... ... ...
k1 k2 ... kk

.
348
§ 9.4.

-
-
, -
4.4.1.

Oxy
{g1 , g 2 } O.
4.4.1
Ax 2 2 Bxy Cy 2 2 Dx 2 Ey F 0, A, B, C, D, F
E , A, B C
( A B C 0 ).
, -
A, B C ,
( . 9.1.1). -
2 2
, Ax 2 Bxy Cy

( x, y ) Ax 2 2 Bxy Cy 2
A B
{g1 , g 2 } .
B C

9.2.2 9.3.1 , rg –
sgn – ( x, y )
, , rg sgn -
. -
,
-
, , , -
.
9. 349
-
D, F E, ,
,
A, B, C, D, F E.
3

( x, y, z ) Ax 2 2 Bxy Cy 2 2 Dxz 2 Eyz Fz 2

A B D
B C E {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .
D E F
3
, ,
( x, y,1) 0, ,
3
z 1. -
, z 1 -
. -
( x, y , z ) .

S {g1, g 2 , g 3 }
9.4.1.
{g1, g 2 , g 3 } , z 1
,
11 12 13
S 21 22 23 .
0 0 1
.

Oxy -

x 11 x 12 y 13 ,
y 21 x 22 y 23 ,
350
z 1 z 1,
x 11 12 13 x
y 21 22 23 y .
1 0 0 1 1

S -

11 12
det 0.
21 22

-
, ,
z 1 . rg sgn
, rg sgn
. , -

-
9.4.1.
Oxy rg , rg , sgn
sgn
.

rg , rg , sgn sgn
,
4.4.1, 9.4.1
,
, ,

.
9. 351
9.4.1

rg sgn rg sgn

x 2 y 2
1 1 3 1 2 2
a2 b2
2 x 2 y 2
1 3 3 2 2
a2 b2
x2 y2
3 0 2 2 2 2
a2 b2
x 2 y 2
4 1 3 1 2 0
a2 b2
5 . x2 y 2
0 2 0 2 0
a2 b2
2
6 y 2 px 3 1 1 1

7 -
2
y a2 2 0 1 1

8 -
2
- y a2 2 2 1 1

9 -
y 2
0 1 1 1 1

,
1 .
-
352
.
( x, y, z ) , -
z 1 , , -
0 0
, 0 1 0 .
0 0
-
1 0 1
S 0 1 0 , , -
1 0 1

z 1 , , -
, . ,

T
g
S g
S
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
2 0 0
0 1 0 .
0 0 2

2 . -
, , -
A B
I1 A C I2 det . -
B C
§4.4.
9. 353
3 . , ,
-
.

§ 9.5.

n
9.2.1 ,
(x ) . -
, {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n
2
(x ) i i 1 2 ... n 1 n .
i 1

n
(x )
9.5.1.
1 minn ( x)
x

n maxn ( x) , x
x
n
2
i 1.
i 1

.
n
2
( x) i i ,
i 1

1 2 ... n 1 n

n n n n
2 2 2 2
i i n i 1 i i i .
i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1
354
n
2
i 1,
i 1

n n
2 2
i i n 1 i i .
i 1 i 1

T
x 0, 0, ...,1 ,
T
x 1, 0, ..., 0 – .

§ 9.6.

,
,
, ,
.

-
9.6.1. k { x1, x 2 ,..., xk } -
Q ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x k ) ,
j [1, k ]
Q ( x1 ,..., x j x j ,..., x k )
Q( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x k ) Q( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x k )
x ,x , ,
, -
, , k- .
9. 355
1 . k -
9.6.1. F1 ( x), F2 ( x), , Fk ( x) ,
Q ( x1 , x 2 , , x k ) F1 ( x1 ) F2 ( x 2 ) Fk ( x k ) ,
k .

2 . -
-
.

3 . n -
n
n , -

.
356

10

§ 10.1.

”, “ ”, “ ” -
. ,
, -
.

10.1.1. x y
( x, y ),
, , -
:
1) ( x , y ) ( y, x );
2) ( x, y ) ( x, y );
3) ( x1 x 2 , y ) ( x1 , y ) ( x 2 , y );
4) ( x, x ) 0 ,
( x, x ) 0 x o,
, E.
: 1–4 ,
( 2
3) ( 1) ,
, , -
( 4) -
. , -
, -
.
10. 357
1 . -
10.1.1. , §
2.2, .
2 . n
1 1

2 2
x ; y
... ...
n n
,
n
( x, y ) i i , -
i 1
.
3 .
[ , ]

( x, y ) x ( ) y ( )d .

10.1.1.
?
. , , 3 -
10.1.1.

E
10.1.2.
1) ( ) x
x ( x , x) ;
2) x y
x y .
358
: -
... -
,
-
, , ,
,

.

x, y E
10.1.1
( x, y) x y .

).
.

x, y E x y E.
4 10.1.1
2
0 (x y, x y) ( x, x) 2( x, y ) ( y, y )
2 2 2
x 2( x, y ) y .

, ,
2 2 2
( x, y ) x y 0.
.

, -
10.1.2. ,
x y .

x, y E
10.1.1
x y x y .
).
10. 359
.

2
x y (x y, x y) ( x, x) 2( x, y ) ( y, y )
2 2
x 2 x y y ( x y )2 ,
x y x y -
.

,
10.1.1 (2 ) :

n n n
2 2
i i j k ; i, i , i [1, n] ;
i 1 j 1 k 1

n n n
2 2 2
( i i) j k ; i, i , i [1, n] ,
i 1 j 1 k 1

10.1.1 (3 ) -
:

| x( ) y ( ) d | x 2 ( )d y 2 ( )d ;

( x( ) y( )) 2 d x 2 ( )d y 2 ( )d .
360
E
10.1.3. x y
[0, ] ,
( x, y )
cos .
x y
( 10.1.1) ,
E.
E x y -
10.1.4. ,
( x, y ) 0 .
, -
.

§ 10.2. .

n
E
10.2.1. {e1 , e2 ,..., en } ,
(ei , e j ) ij i, j [1, n].
n
E
10.2.1 .

).
.
n
1 . E , ,
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } .
{e1 , e 2 ,..., e n } . -
-
.
10. 361
e1 g1 . e2
e2 g2 e
21 1 , 21 – .

21 , (e1 , e2 ) 0, ,

(e1 , e2 ) (e1 , g 2 21 1e)


(e1 , g 2 )
(e1 , g 2 ) 21 (e1 , e1 ) 0; 21 .
(e1 , e1 )
, e2 o. ,
o e2 g2 e g2
21 1 21 g1
g1 g2 ,
( .
7.2.2).

2 . , k 1
, ek
k 1
ek gk kj ej .
j 1

, (e k , e i ) 0 i [1, k 1] ,
(e j , ei ) 0; j [1, k 1]

k 1
(ei , ek ) (ei , g k kj ej ) (ei , g k ) ki (ei , ei ) 0;
j 1

(e i , g k )
ki ; i [1, k 1] .
(ei , ei )

, ek o. -
k 1
: ek gk kj ej o.
j 1
362
ei , i [1, k 1]
gi ; i [1, k 1] ,
g i ; i [1, k ] , -
. , ek o.

3 . -
gi ; i [1, n] , -
ei ; i [1, n] ,
{e1 , e2 ,..., en } ,
ek
ek ;k [1, n] .
ek

, , -
. -
, , -
.

§ 10.3.

{ f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k } -
.

E -
10.3.1. { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k } -
10. 363
( f1 , f1 ) ( f1 , f 2 ) ( f1 , f k )
( f 2 , f1 ) ( f 2 , f 2 ) ( f2 , fk )
f
.

( f k , f1 ) ( f k , f 2 ) ( fk , fk )

n
E {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .
n n
x i gi y j gj,
i 1 j 1
10.1.1,
n n n n n n
( x, y ) ( i gi , jgj) i j ( gi , g j ) ij i j ,
i 1 j 1 i 1 j 1 i 1 j 1

ij (gi , g j ) i, j [1, n] – g
, -
.

, , -
( . 1 . 10.1.1),
, -
. ( . 9.1.2) -
-
:

T
( x, y ) x g g
y g

( g1 , g 1 ) ( g1 , g 2 ) ... ( g1 , g n ) 1

( g 2 , g1 ) ( g 2 , g 2 ) ... ( g 2 , g n ) 2
1 2 ... n ,
... ... ... ... ...
( g n , g 1 ) ( g n , g 2 ) ... ( g n , g n ) n
364
x g
y g
– ( ) -

x y {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } . , -
§ 2.3. § 9.2.

, , e
E ,
, ,
n
T
( x, y ) x g
y g i i .
i 1

g
10.3.1.
det g
0.
.

10.1.1 ,
, ,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } (
S ) 9.1.1 -

T
g
S g
S ; det g
det g
(det S ) 2 ,

det S 0,
, sgn ( det g
) ,
. , ,
det e
1, -
, det g
0.

.
10. 365
{ f1 , f 2 ,..., f k } En -
10.3.1.
,
.
.

{ f1 , f 2 ,..., f k } , -
. ,

1 , 2 ,..., k , ,

1 1f 2 f2 ... k fk o.
fi i [1, k ] , -

1 ( f i , f1 ) 2 ( f i , f 2 ) ... k ( fi , f k ) 0 i [1, k ] .
, ( . § 1.1),
,
,
1 , 2 ,..., k , , ,
( .
6.5.2 6.5.2).

, { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k }
,
10.3.1.

9.3.4.

-
9.3.4 n
,
366
, -
).

11 12 ... 1k

21 22 ... 2k
det ; k [1, n] ,
... ... ... ...
k1 k2 ... kk

.
.

1 . § 10.1 , -
-
, -
-
. , -
,
,
.

2 . ,
( ) -
. , -
n
-
,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
.

-
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } ; k [1, n] .
( ) -
10.3.1 -
,
10. 367

11 12 ... 1k

21 22 ... 2k
det
... ... ... ...
k1 k2 ... kk

( g1 , g1 ) ( g1 , g 2 ) ... ( g1 , g k )
( g 2 , g1 ) ( g 2 , g 2 ) ... ( g 2 , g k )
det 0;
... ... ... ...
( g k , g1 ) ( g k , g 2 ) ... ( g k , g k )
k [1, n].

x
10.3.2. n
E {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

1
x g g
b g,
( x , g1 )
( x, g2 )
– , b .
g g ...
( x, gn )
.
n
x i gi gk ,
i 1
k [1, n] .
n

i ( gi , g k ) ( x, g k ) , k [1, n] ,
i 1
368
. -
10.3.1 ,
1
x g g
b g.

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } -
10.3.2. n
E
n
x e
i i En
i 1

i ( x, ei ) , i [1, n] .

: i ( x, ei ) , i [1, n] -
, -
x -
. -
-
-
-
( . § 12.3).

§ 10.4.

5.1.4 Q , -
T 1
Q Q , ,

T T
Q Q Q Q E det Q 1.
, -
.
10. 369
( ) En
10.4.1. -
.
.

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } {e1 , e2 ,..., en } En S


.
T
, e
S e
S

T T
S S , E S S .
S , -
1 T
S S .

T
E S S
n
T
kl ki il ; k, l [1, n] , n 3
i 1
§ 2.9.

, -
10.4.2. E n
,
.
.

Aˆ f g f g ,
g
T
f T
g Aˆ f T
g .
g
370
,
T
f T
g Aˆ Aˆ f g
2
f T
g f g .
g g

T
Aˆ Aˆ Aˆ Eˆ ,
g g g
T 2 T 2
f g f g f g f g . , , 1, -
f .

-
, , ,

A ,
10.4.3.
A Q R , Q – -

, R – -
,
.
.
14
,
A Q1 R1 Q2 R2 .
A R1
R2 , Q1 Q2 , ,
.

14

. -
.
10. 371

T 1
Q2 Q1 R2 R1 ,
1
R1 – .

1
, R2 R1 . -
, ,
. ,
1
R2 R1 ,
( -
T 1
Q2 Q1 ) -
.

,
, -
. R1 R2
,
1
R2 R1 E , -
.

, 10.4.3 -
A x b -

A –
R Q ,

T
R x Q b .
372
§ 10.5.

E E1 .
E2 E x, E1 .

E
10.5.1. x, , ( x, y ) 0 y E1 E
E1 .

k -
10.5.1. n
E1 E
n k.
.

n
E -
E2 –
E1 .

E1 {g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } . -
x E2
E1 ( . 7.4.1),
( x , gi ) 0 ; i [1, n]
:

11 1 21 2 ... n1 n 0,
12 1 22 2 ... n2 n 0,
..........................................
1k 1 2k 2 ... nk n 0,
10. 373

1i 1

2i 2
gi e ;i [1, k ] x e .
... ...
ni n

(
x ), -
E2 , k -
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } . ,
6.7.1, n k , -
E2 .

E2 –
10.5.2. E1 E, E1 E2 .
.

x E2
( y, x) 0 ; y E1 . , -
y E1 ( x, y ) 0 ; x E2 , E1 -
E2 E.

E y
10.5.2. x -
E ,
1 . y E ;
2 . (x y, z ) 0 z E .
374
E E k- -
10.5.3. , y – x E
E – .
.

E {g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } ,
k
y E y i gi .
i 1

(x y, z ) 0 z E -
x y
E , (x y, g j ) 0 j [1, k ] , , ,

i ,i [1, k ]

k
(x i gi , g j ) 0 j [1, k ]
i 1

k
(gi , g j ) i ( x, g j ) j [1, k ] .
i 1
(
g1 , g 2 ,..., g k , .
10.3.1) , 6.4.1 ( -
) .

, {e1 , e2 ,..., ek } E
, x E
k
y ( x, ei )ei .
i 1
10. 375
E4 -
10.5.1.

1 2 3 4 0,
2 1 2 0
E .

E4 E .
.
1 . E
g1 g2 , -
{e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 } -

, E ,
,
1 1
2 2
g ; g .
1e 1 2 e 0
0 1

2 . dim E 2, -
E 10.5.1 2.
g3
g4 , ,
1 2
1 1
g3 e
; g4 e
,
1 0
1 0
376

E , -
-
.

3 . g1 , g 2 , g 3 g4 -
4 4
E , E

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 } .

A -
4
E E , ,
ˆ
Ag 1 g 1 ; Aˆ g 2 g2; Aˆ g 3 o; Aˆ g 4 o,
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 }
:

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
Aˆ .
g 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

4 . , {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 }
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 }

1 1 1 2
2 2 1 1
S ,
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
10. 377
1
Aˆ S Aˆ S , ,
g e
1
Aˆ S Aˆ S , , § 5.1
e g
§ 6.8, ,


e
1
1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2
2 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 1 1
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
2 4 1 1
1 4 8 2 2
.
11 1 2 6 5
1 2 5 6

: -
, -
. , E
[ , ] -

( x, y ) x ( ) y ( )d ,

E –
n
k
Pn ( ) k , n, -
k 0

x( ) – E – E
[ , ]
x( ) .
§ 12.3.
378
§ 10.6.

-
, 8
,
.
-
, .

A ,
10.6.1. E,
A, x, y E -
( Ax , y ) ( x, A y) .

,
10.6.1. , -
, -

( x, y ) x ( ) y ( )d

d
 ( ) -
d
d
 .
d
, -

dx( )
( Aˆ x, y ) y ( )d
d

dy ( )
x( ) y ( ) x( ) d
d
10. 379
dy ( )
x ( )( )d ( x, Aˆ y ) .
d

n
E
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -

A A , ,
. A A -
A g
A g
, x

y {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } –
1 1

2 2
x g
y g ,
... ...
n n

( Ax , y ) ( x, A y)
T
( Aˆ x g
)T g
y g
x g g
Aˆ y g
, (10.6.1)
g g

g
– En .

T T
( A B )T B A -

T T
x g
( Aˆ g g
Aˆ ) y g
0,
g g
x y, ,
,
5.1.2, -
, , , – ,
380
T 1 T
Aˆ g g
Aˆ O Aˆ g
Aˆ g
,
g g g g

, , {e1 , e2 ,..., en }
T
Aˆ Aˆ e .
e

( x, Aˆ y ) 0 x, y E, Â .
10.6.1.
.

x, y E ( x, A y) 0.
x Ay.
( A y, A y ) 0 10.1.1 ,
Ay o . , y -
8.2.2 , A O.
.

-
10.6.1. n
E .
.

n
E A ,
A,
1 T

g
Aˆ g
A.
g

A . , A
A A . ,
x, y E
10. 381
( Ax , y ) ( x, A y) ( Ax , y ) ( x , A y) .
, ( x, ( A A ) y) 0, -
10.6.1 A A O.
.

A B, -
10.6.2. E,
( AB ) B A .
.

x, y E
(( AB ) x , y ) ( x , ABy ) ( A x , By ) ( B A x , y ) .
, ((( Aˆ Bˆ ) Bˆ Aˆ ) x, y ) 0 x , y E
10.6.1 ( AB ) B A O.

(A ) A.
10.6.3.
.

x, y E
(( A ) x , y ) ( x, A y) ( Ax , y ) .
, (( A ( A ) ) x , y ) 0 x, y E -
10.6.1 A (A ) O.

.
382
-
10.6.4. n
A E A .
.

1 . , A , -
ker A , –
A.
, y ker A , ,
A y o,
b Ax , x En,

(b, y ) ( Ax , y ) ( x, A y) 0.

2 . ker A . ,

8.4.3

dim( ker Aˆ ) n rg Aˆ
1 T T
n rg ( Aˆ ) n rg Aˆ n rg Aˆ .

, , 8.4.1
A rg A , dim( n rg Aˆ
10.5.1.
, dim( ker Aˆ ) dim( )
ker  ker  .

.
10. 383
: 1) 10.6.4 -
, -
6.7.3 ( ),
Ax b , b -
A.
2) , y b -
m
E -
, -
:

A x b -
10.6.5
-
,
T
). A y o -

b .

§ 10.7.

R,
10.7.1. E, ,
x, y E
( Rˆ x, y ) ( x, Rˆ y ) .

A A ,
10.7.1.
AA A A -
A.
, A A, , ,
x, y E.
384
( A Ax , y ) ( Ax , Ay ) ( x , A Ay ) ,
.

-
.

R En -
10.7.1. ,
.
.
1 T
10.7.1 Rˆ g
Rˆ g
g g

{e1 , e2 ,..., e n }
T
R̂ R e
R e
.

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } . S , §
1 T
10.4, , S S .
T 1 T
Rˆ ( S Rˆ S )T ( S Rˆ S )T
e e e
T T T T
S Rˆ ( S T T
) S Rˆ S
e e
T 1
S Rˆ S S Rˆ S Rˆ .
e e e

T
: Rˆ e
Rˆ e , x, y En
( Rˆ x, y ) Rˆ x ( Rˆ
T
y e
x e )T y e
e e
T T T T
x e
Rˆ y e
x e
Rˆ y e
x e
Rˆ y ( x, Rˆ y ).
e e e

.
10. 385

En -
10.7.1 -
, .

-
10.7.2. n
R E .
.

: -
R
i, 0.
8.6.2 R
. -
x y, ,

Rˆ x x y,
Rˆ y y x.
: – y,
– x,

( Rˆ x, y ) ( x, y ) ( y, y ),
( x, Rˆ y ) ( x, y ) ( x, x).

R, ,
2 2
( x y ) 0.
, 0.

.
386
,
10.7.3. , -
.
.

R -
Rˆ f1 f
1 1 Rˆ f 2 2 f2 , f1
f2 – A 1 2 – -
.
: – f2 , – -
f1 ,

( Rˆ f1 , f 2 ) ( 1 f 1 , f 2 ), ( Rˆ f1 , f 2 ) 1( f1 , f 2 ),
( f1 , Rˆ f 2 ) ( f1 , 2 f 2 ) ( f1 , Rˆ f 2 ) 2 ( f 1 , f 2 ).

, R – -
,
( 1 2 )( f1 , f 2 ) 0,
( f1 , f 2 ) 0.

E – -
10.7.4.
R, E, E
– E E. E –
R.
.

E R,
x E : Rx E . E –
E , x E x E : (x , x ) 0.
10. 387
E – R,
( Rx , x ) 0. -
R ( x , Rx ) 0. ,
Rˆ x E x E , E
R.
.

R En
10.7.1. ,
R.
.

R En ,
, 1. -
10.7.2 .
(8.5.1) 1

e1 . ,

e1 1. n 1, .

E1 – e1 , -

R. En 1
– E1.
n 1
10.7.4 E –
R.

R
n 1
E . , R – ,
388
E n 1, En 1

R 10.7.4 , ,
n
x, y E : ( Rx , y ) ( x , Ry ) ,
x, y En 1.
, -
2 -
e2 . ,

e2 1. 2 1,

, ( e1 , e2 ) 0.

n 2, . -
E2 – { e1 , e2 }
n 2
E , 3
e3 .

En .
.

, 10.7.1, -
10.7.2. R
n
E .
.

§ 8.5.

-
10.7.3. ,
, -
.
10. 389
.

10.7.1.

R En n
10.7.4. , -
.
.

R
, -
R e
, , -

. 10.7.1 Â
.

R , -
10.7.5.
Q ,
1 T
D Q R Q Q R Q
.
.

R
En , -
Q -
-
,
,
10.7.1.

.
390
A B -
10.7.2.
En
, Aˆ Bˆ Bˆ Aˆ .
.

.
Aˆ a a Bˆ a a,
Bˆ Aˆ a Bˆ a a ; Aˆ Bˆ a Aˆ a a,
, , , ( Aˆ Bˆ Bˆ Aˆ ) a o . -
a– ,
, ,
n
E ,
. AB BA O.
.
A B
, ˆa
, A a. , -
A .

, b Ba
A. ,
AB BA
Aˆ b Aˆ Bˆ a Bˆ Aˆ a Bˆ a Bˆ a b.
A ,
, a b -
. b a , b Ba , Bˆ a a.
,a– B.
.
10. 391
§ 10.8.

Q,
10.8.1. E, (
), x, y E -
(Qx , Qy ) ( x, y ) .

10.8.1 , -
.
,

Qˆ x (Qˆ x, Qˆ x ) ( x, x) x ;

(Qˆ x, Qˆ y ) ( x, y )
cos cos ; x, y E,
Qˆ x Qˆ y x y

– x y, –
Qx Qy .

Q
10.8.1. , ,
1
Q Q .
.

10.8.1 x, y E (Qx , Qy ) ( x, y ) ,
,
( x , Q Qy ) ( x , y) ( x ,(Q Q E ) y ) 0.
10.6.1 ,
Q Q E O.
392
Q Q E O , Q Q E.
Qˆ Qˆ Qˆ Eˆ Qˆ , , -
, Qˆ Qˆ Qˆ Qˆ Eˆ
QQ E. , 8.2.8
1
Q Q .

Q̂ Qˆ 1
.
10.8.1.

En -
10.8.2. .
.

Q .
1
Q Q 10.8.1 § 8.3 (4 ) -

1 1 T
Q e
Q e
Q e
Q e.
1 T
Q e
Q e
, , -

5.1.4, Q e.
.

En

, En
10.8.3. ,
-
.
10. 393
.

1º. Q -
1 T
Qˆ Qˆ . x, y En
e e

T
(Qˆ x, Qˆ y) Qˆ x e
Qˆ y e
( Qˆ e
x e ) T Qˆ e
y e
T T T 1 T
x e
Qˆ e
Qˆ e
y e
x e
Qˆ e
Qˆ e
y e
x e
y e
( x, y).

,
{e1 , e2 ,..., e n } .
2º. {e1 , e2 ,..., en } -
, -
. ,
S ,
,
1 1 1 1 1 1 T
Qˆ ( S Qˆ S ) S Qˆ S S Qˆ S
e e e e
T T T T T T T
S Qˆ S S Qˆ ( S ) ( S Qˆ S )T
e e e
1 T
( S Qˆ S )T Qˆ .
e e

A En det Aˆ 0
10.8.4

). A QR , Q ,
R – -
.
394
.

1 . , A A ( .
10.7.1) -
. , Aˆ Aˆ f f,
, , (A ˆ Aˆ f , f ) ( Aˆ f , Aˆ f ) 0
f o, – (Aˆ Aˆ f , f ) ( f , f ) (f , f ),
( Aˆ f , Aˆ f ) (f, f). 0 -
,
Aˆ f o f o ,
Aˆ f 0f det Aˆ 0.

2 . {e1 , e2 ,..., en } – ,
A A. -
Aei ; i [1, n] ,
( Aˆ ei , Aˆ e j ) ( Aˆ Aˆ ei , e j ) i (e i , e j ) i ij ;i, j [1, n] .

1
, ei Aˆ ei ; i [1, n] – -
i

3 . Q , -
{e1 , e2 ,..., en } -
{e1 , e2 ,..., en } , , -
R Q 1A.
, , A QR .
,
Rˆ ei Qˆ 1 Aˆ ei Qˆ 1
i ei i ei ;i [1, n]
10. 395
, ei , i [1, n] -
R, -

i , , R e
{e1 , e2 ,..., en } .
10.7.1 R .
4 . , , .
A A R2 ,
A QR A R Q ,
A A R Q QR R Q 1QR R R,
2
R A A R .
, -
R1 R2 -
, , A A R12 ; A A R22 R12 R22 O.
, R1 R2 ( .2 )
, .
, § 8.2,
Rˆ12 Rˆ 22 Rˆ12 Rˆ1 Rˆ 2 Rˆ 2 Rˆ1 Rˆ 22
( Rˆ 1 Rˆ 2 )( Rˆ1 Rˆ 2 ) Oˆ .
R1 R2
8.6.8 R1 R2
( R1 R2 )( R1 R2 ) O R1 R2 O.
, R – , -
A . Qˆ Aˆ Rˆ 1
, , -
A.
396
.1 . -
5.5.2
-
, -
, – -
,
.

2 . A ,
10.8.2, -
-
R , -
.

E2
10.8.1.
2 1
A Aˆ e0 .
0 2
.

1 . ,
10.8.2. A A -
0 0
( ) {e1 , e2 }

T
Aˆ Aˆ Aˆ Aˆ e0
Aˆ e0
Aˆ e0
e0 e0

2 0 2 1 2 2
.
1 2 0 2 2 3
10. 397

2 1
1 1; 2 4 ; f1 e0
; f2 e0
,
1 2

( , -
10.8.2)
{e10 , e20 } , -
{e1 , e2 } :

2 1
f1 3 f2 3
e1 ; e2 ,
f1 1 f2
2
3 3

{e1 , e2 } :
1
1 3 1
e1 Aˆ e1 ; e2 Aˆ e2
1 2 2

3
1 2
1 2 1 3 3
.
2 0 2 1
2
3 3
398
2 .
2 1 1 2
3 3 3 3
G F
1 2 2 1
3 3 3 3
( )
0 0
{e , e }1 2 {e1 , e2 } {e1 , e2 }
, 7.5.2, -
Q
1
Qˆ F G .
e0

,

{e1 , e2 } {e1 , e2 }
(
)
Gˆ 1

{e1 , e2 } {e10 , e20 } {e10 , e20 } {e1 , e2 } .
1
ˆ
, Q Fˆ Gˆ .
e0 e0 e0

, (8.3.1) (7.4.2), -
1 1
Gˆ 1
Gˆ e0
, Qˆ e0
F G .
e0

, G ( -
, ), -

1 T
Qˆ F G F G
e0
10. 399

1 2 2 1 2 2 1
3 3 3 3 3 3
,
2 1 1 2 1 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3
.

3 . R Q 1A,
1 1 T
Rˆ e0
Qˆ Aˆ Qˆ Aˆ Qˆ Aˆ
e0 e0 e 0 e0 e0 e0

2 2 1 4 2
3 3 2 1 3 3
,
1 2 2 0 2 2 5
3 3 3 3
, ,
2 2 1 4 2
3 3 3 3
Aˆ Qˆ Rˆ .
e0 e0 e0
1 2 2 2 5
3 3 3 3
400

11

§ 11.1.

U -
11.1.1. a b -
15
ab , -
, , -
:
1 . ab ba ;
2 . ab ab ;
3 . a1 a2 b a1 b a2 b ;
4 . aa – -
,
a a 0 a o,
, .

-
, -
, “ ”.

: 1 ,
-
-
.

15
-
3.
11. 401
, , ab b a ,
a b ab , , -
a i:
ia ia (i)(i) a a ( i) 2 a a i2 a a a a ,
ia ia , a a
4 .

ab b a -

a b ba b a ba ab ,

, -

ia ia ii a a a a ,
4 .

1 . n
11.1.1.
1 1

2 2
a ; b , i , i ; i [1, n]
... ...
n n

– , ,
n
ab i i ,
i 1
.
402
2 .
[ , ] -

ab a( )b( )d .

, , -
, . -
, :
a a bb ab ba .
,
2
a a bb ab ab ab ab b a a, b U .
Un
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n }
.

:
1

2
ab 1 2 n g

g1 g1 g1 g 2 g1 g n 1

g 2 g1 g2 g2 g2 gn 2
1 2 n ,

g n g1 gn g2 gn gn n
11. 403

g
– U n.

, gi g j g j gi , -
T
g g
.

A ,
11.1.2. T
A A, .

A ,
T T
A A E A A E , -
.

,
. ,

T T
det ( A A ) det A det A det A det A
2
det A det E 1.

§ 11.2.

, -
10.
-
, -
.
404
A,
11.2.1. U, ( -
), a, b U
Aˆ a Aˆ b ab .

: , -
n
U , -
.

A ,
11.2.2. U,
A, a, b U -

Aˆ a b a Aˆ b .

A B,
11.2.1. U, -
: ( AB ) B A ( Aˆ ) Aˆ .
.

.
( Aˆ Bˆ )a b Bˆ a Aˆ b a Bˆ Aˆ b a, b U .
11.2.2,
( AB ) B A .

( Aˆ )a b Aˆ a b a Aˆ b a Aˆ b a, b U
.

.
11. 405
, -
n
U ,

A , -
11.2.2. n
A U , {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

1 T
Aˆ Aˆ ,
g g

(10.6.1) -
.

§ 11.3.

A,
11.3.1. , -
( ), A= A .
: , -
n
U ,
, -
n
E . -
:
1 .
.
2 . , -
-
, .
3 .
,
.
406
4 . -
n
U
.

A
11.3.2. , -
-
.

A B -
11.3.1. ,
Aˆ Bˆ Bˆ Aˆ , .
.

. Aˆ a a Bˆ a a,
Bˆ Aˆ a Bˆ a a,
Aˆ Bˆ a Aˆ a a,
, , , ( AB BA) a o. -
a– , -
,
, ,
.
AB BA O.
. A B
, ˆa
, A a. -
, -
, .
11. 407
,
b Ba A. -
, AB BA
Aˆ b Aˆ Bˆ a Bˆ Aˆ a Bˆ a Bˆ a b.
A ,
, a b -
. b a b Ba Bˆ a a. a
– B.
.

A
11.3.2
-
). B̂ Ĉ ,
A .
.

– f– -

A, -
. , dim 1.
A B ( 11.3.1)
,