Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 516

AHfJl1'1HCKHH

Jl3LIK BKAPTHHKAX
ENGLISH
THROUGH PICTURES

BOOKS 1,2

I. A. RICHARDS
and

CHRISTINE M. GIBSON

ws
00
WASHINGTON SQUARE PRESS, INC. • NEW YORK
PREFACE

ENGLISH THROUGH PICTURES

This book will teach you the first steps of English.


It gives you about 500 important words in sentences,
with the meaning shown through pictures.
Read each page like this:

The sentences will take on meaning for you as you


compare them with the help of the accompanying
pictures, page by page. The load on your memory is
kept light. All your attention can be given to seeing
how changes in the semences go along with changes in
the meaning. Learning English this way is more like
play than hard work.
If you have to work alone, it is best to work
through writing and wait for the p1,onunciaiion until
you have help. Study two or three pages together untii
you can give the sentences that go with the pictures.
When you are forming the sentences do not rely on
your mem0ry alone: try to understand in English what
the piciures say. If you do this you will be thinking i11
English from the very srart and that is the way to
a mastt"ry of the language.
xv
When you have worked through thirty pages of the
book in this manner, test your knowledge by answe-
ring in English the questions on pages 31, 32 and 33.
Compare your answers with those given on page 34.
Further questions with answers are provided at inter-
vals throughout the book.
I
YOU
I
I
••
I
I
I
I

·------··--------·-----------------·
YOU

I
I
I
I
I

••
I

I

••
I
HE

IT THEY

~
2
·------------ -----+------
' ------------
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
THEY
I

~~
IT I
I
I
I

~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
'
3
I am here. He is there.

She is here. She is there.

4
It is there.

It is here.

-----------------~------------------

They are here. They are there.

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

s
You ore there. You ore there.

---~--------------------------------~

You ore here.

6
It is there. They are there.

------------------ ------------------

7
This is a man. This is a woman.

------------------+------------------
That is a woman.

8
This man is here. That mon is there.

-----------------~------------------

This womon is here. That woman is there.

9
That is o table.
This is a table. That table is there.
this table is here.
It is there.

It is here.

·-----------~--~--+---------~--------

This is a hot. This is 0 hond.


It is a hot.

This is the thumb.


,,,,,,_,....... )

These ore the fingers.

10
This ~,my head. This is my hat.

My hat is in my hand. My hat is on my head.


It is in my hand. It is on my head.
This is
my hat.

------------------------------------
His hat is Her hat is
on his head. in her hand.

12
That Is your hat. Those ore your hots.
It is on the table. They ore on the table.

------------------+------------------
These are my hands. Those are your hands.
That is
your
right
hand.

I
I
I
I
This is This is : That is
my my your
right left left
hand. hand. hand.

13
He will take his hat
His hat is on the table. off the table.

·------------------------------------
He Is taking It off the He took it off the table.
table.

14
He is putting his hot on
He will put his hat on his his head.
head.

·-----------~------------------------
He put his "hot on his It was on the table.
head. It is on his head.
He put it on.

15
He will take his hat off He is taking his hat off
his head. his head.

·------------------------------------
t
I

I
His hat is in his hand. 1 He took his hat off.
I
It was on his head. 1
I
:
••
••

••

•••

•••

t
t
It ~ in his hand.
I
I
16
;This is a hat.
This Is a table.
~
These are hats.
£ c@:;,
This is a hand.

~ These are tables.

These are hands.

~v
--------------·--·-·----------------
This is a mc;m.
I
This is a woman.
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
•I
These are men. •I These are women.
'
'
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

2 3uu 1633 ii
I
I
This is a man. I This is a woman.

t ~
I
'
j
t

I

~
I

~
I
I
Thl1i1 I
I Thlsh
his hand. I her hand.
I
I
I
tt Is the man's hand. : It is the woman's hand.
I
I
I
I
I

------------------------------------·
I
I
I
I

~

~
I

••
I
I
I
This is a man's hat. I This Is a woman's hat.
It is on a man's head. I
I It is on a woman's head.
I
I
I Now it is in the woman's
Now It ls In the man's I
hands.
t
hends. I It is In her hands.
It Is In his hands. I

~ '•' ~
••
18
He will giv• his hat to He·ls giving his hatlo
the man. the man.

---------·--------------------------
He gave it to the man. It Is in the man's hands
He gave it to him. now.

2• 19
The man will give his He is giving his hat
hat to the woman. to the woman.

----------------------~-------------
He gave it to the
woman.
He gave it to her. It is in the woman's
hands now.

20
I
I
I
I
I

The woman wm put the : She is putting it on the


hat on the table. lI table.
f
I
I
I
I

-------------------------------------

It was In her hand.


It ls on the table.
This is a shlp. These are ships.

-- --JM;:-- ---
- -- - --
-----------------------------~-------
These ships are on the
water.

This ship is in the bottle.

-
This is water.

22
Cr
This is water. 11
This is a glass.
It is on the table.

The bottle
is in a
man's hand.

------------------ ·-----------------
The glass and the water
are on the floor.

23
This is a bottle A This is a glass

and this U and this is


a glass.~
RabottM~
~These
0 are glasses.

and
this ore bottles.

·--------~----------------·----------
0
)!
That man and that \
woman are there.
I
I
I
I
,
I

I
I
That Is a bird and I
that is a bird. I
I
Those are birds. I This man and this
I
They are birds. I
I
woman are here.
I

24
I

This is a man. :

I
This is an arm.
These are his arms.:
~

These are his legs. This is a leg.

These are his feet.


This is a foot~
·------------------------------------
This is a table. This is a seat.

-These are its legs.-


These are its legs. ==
Its feet are on the floor. Its feet are on the floor.

25
This is a room.

This is This a door.


a door.

0
CJ
is a pidure.
0

This is the floor of the room.


------------------------------------
These are the windows of the room.

This is a window and this is a window.

This window This window


is shut. is open.

26

'
This door is open. This door is shut.

This is a wall of the This is a picture of


a man and a woman.

This is the cord


of the picture.
This is
a wall.
A picture is
on this wall.

This is the floor of the


room.
rhis is the· frame of the
picture.
27
This is a house.

This is the door of the house.

------------------------------------~
These are houses.
The man
will go
to his house.

:•

•••
•••
'''
I

-------------------------------------
The man went 11
to his house. CQ
He is there. • ~-...~ He is at his door.
He is at the door
of his house.

~h He was here.
CID
This is a question mark.

What is this?
?•
It is a hat.
"What is this?" is a We put question marks
question. after questions.
"It is a hat," is an
answer.

-------------------------------------

"Is this a hat?" "Is this a hat?"


That is a question. "Ne, it is no# a hat. It is
"Yes, it is." a hand."
That is an answer. That is an answer.

30
QUESTIONS

a What ls this?
t1t
";-s: ....•.•z
- - ::: -..: - - --
It is o b What is this?
·-----------------"---~
c What Js this? ----------------------
d What is this?

r==ll
~-~-~------------------------------·~
e What Js this? f What is this?
I
_______ ... ______ ..... -..... --···-------------- -----------
g What is this? h What is this?

This page is page 31. The answers are on page 34.


31
QUESTIONS
o Whatarethese? b Whatarethese?

tit t
And what Is this?
ui~o
And what Is this? ~
c What are these? d What are these?

EE 83 83
And what Is f.J
e Whatarethese?
And what is thlsll

f What is this?

h What is this?
g' What are these?

~~
And what is t h i 0
What is in it?
---------- ---- --- -- -- ..... _... __________ --· ---------- ....
This page is page 32. The answers are on page 34.
i'
QUESTIONS
a Is the hat on b Is the man in
the table? the room?

~
c Is the picture on d Is the bird on
the wall? the seat?

e Is the glass in
the woman's hand?
These are answers to questions on pages 31, 32, and
33. This page Is page 34.

Page31

a It is a house. b It Is a ship.
c It is a table. d It is a bottte.
e It Is a leg. f It is an arm.
g ltisalegof h It is an arm of a seat.
a table.

Page32

a They are three b They are glasses.


men. That is a That is a glass.
woman. d They are windows.
c. They are fingers. That is a door.
That is the thumb. f It is a picture of a
e They are houses. man and a house.
That is a street. That is the frame of
the picture. (Its frame)
g They are feet. h That is a room
That is a foot. A table is in it.

Page33

a Yes, It is. b Yes, he is.


c No, It is not. d No, it is not.
It is on the floor. It is on the floor.
e No. It is in the f No, it is not in the
man's hand. glass.
g No. It is on the h Yes, they are at the
water. door.
34
What is this? What is the time?
This is a dock. The time is two (2:00}.
What is the time? It was one (1 :00).
The time is one (1 :00). It will be three (3:00}.
One hand is at one.

What is the time? What is the time?


The time is four (4:00). Now the time is six
It was three (3:00}. (6:00).
It will be five (5:00). It was five (5:00).
It will be seven (7:00).

35
What is the time? What is the time?
Now the time is eight Now the time is ten
(8:00). (10:00).
It was seven (7:00). tt was: nine (9:00).
It will be nine (9:00). It will be eleven ( 11 :00).

-------------------------------------

These are the numbers


from one to twelve.
What is the time?
The time is twelve One, two, three, four,
(12:00). five, six, seven, eight,
It was eleven (11 :00). nine, ten, eleven,
It will be one (1 :00). twelve.
The two hands are at
twelve now.

36
What are things?
This Is a man.
t

~
I
I
I
I
A house is a thing. I
I
Houses are things. I

A hat is athing~
are things. j .Thlslsoglrl
,~ Men and women and
t
Doors and windows are boys and girls are not
things. things. They are
Tables and seats are persons.
things. You are a person.
rh;,.~-;..;t;~p;;~~;--------------------
in this room.
They are a boy and a The girl will go to the
girl. window.

The girl is at the door. She will be wi~


The boy is at the at the window.
window. She will be with him at
the window.
The girl is going to the She went to the window.
window. Where is she now?
Where was she? She is at the window
now.

She was at the door.

n
Of l (J l I ff l
These books are together
on the shelf.

They are at the window


together. These books are not
She is with him at the together. They are on
window. the shelf, but they are
He is with her at the not together.
window.
38
They ore going from the
The girl and the boy will window.
go from the window. They were ot the
window.

-------------------"No'°;lh;;~;;~tth;---
They went from the door together•
.window. The boy is with the girl
She went with him and at the door.
he went with her. She is at the door again.

39
This is my head. That is her head.

These are my eyes. Her eyes are open.

This is Her eyes are shut.


This is the
one other
eye. eye.

40
My eyes are open. Now her eyes are open.
I see. She sees.
Her eyes are shut. What does she see?
She does not see. She sees me.

I see her. I see her.


She does not see me. Our eyes are open.

Her eyes are open. Her eyes are shul.


~ ~

She sees.· They were open.


They were shut. She saw.
She did not see. What did she see?

... ,,.•..
,..... ; ....
She did not see me. She saw me.

41
A man has two eyes. A man has a mouth.
I have two eyes. I have a mouth.
<D> <ID
These are my eyes.

A man has a nose.


I have a nose.

~Q
CD>' r <D> l
:
,-_ ,.-P This is my nose. :

'
I

This man's mouth is


open.
He is saying "mouth." His mouth is shut.
He will say "mouths."~
£

' (mout~
His mouth is shut.

~
He is not saying
He is not saying
"mouths" now.
t
He is saying "mouths."

He said "mouths."
,.

His mouth is shut again.


"mouth."
42
Thate are three boob.

~They are on a shelf.

[]]] I have the book in my


hand now.
This~is between the
It was on the shelf. It
was between the other
other two books. two books on the shelf.

-------------------------------------
, These are the fingers of
These are the pages of
the book. myhon""
This
nger
These are the covers of is
the book. tween
ese othe two
The pages are between fingers of my hand.
the covers of the book.

43
My nose Is between my My mouth Is under my
eyes. nose.

And it is between my My nose is over my


eyes and my mouth. mouth.
Our noses are over our
mouths.

------------------------------------
I
I

The light Is over the


I This is a clock.
I
table. I
I
0 •

i
I
I It is on the wall.
--
,,,.. _..
I
I
I
I
It is over the
bookshelves.
'11 \" I
""""'-
I
I
"""
I
I 11111111111111111111

~
I
I 11111111111111111111
I
I
I
11111111111111111
I
I
The dog is under the I The bookshelves are
table. I
I
under the clock.
I
'
4,1
I
I

Ctltbm«L i
This is his hair. • These ore his ears.

..
I
I Where ore her ears?
They are under her hair,

Her hair Is over her ears.

This is his head.

~
'nlls is a clock.

It has a face.
This is the face of the
clock. The clock has two
hands, a long hand and
This is his face. a short hand. The long
His eyes, his nose, and hand Is at 5. The short
his mouth are parts of hand is between 7 and 8.
his face.

45
A clock has a face. ltha$noeo.._G

It has no nose.
H
c.:;..
It has no hair
but it has a face
G
It has no eyes. It has a face and two
4l> <IO> hands, the long hand
)lr
It has no mouth.
~
_.....
and the short hand.

i~
I
I
f
The long hand of the I
I
clock is between one I
and two. I
I I have this book in my
One is before two. Two I
hands.
I
is between one and I
It was on the sftelf with
I
three. Three is after two I the other books.•
and two is after one. I
I It was between the
I
I other two books before
I
I I took it from the shelf.
J

46
I have it in my hand. Now it is on the shelf
I am putting it between again. It was in my
the other two books. hand. I had it in my
Then it will be with the hand. It is not in my
other books. hand. Where is it?

Do you see a door ano


two windows?
Is one of the windows
open?
Is the other window
shut?
Do you see two seats
and the bookshelves
This is a room. between them?
What do you see in the Do you see the clock
room? over the bookshelves?
Do you see the floor Yes. I see them.
and three walls of the ·rhese things are in the
room? room. The room is in a
Do you see them? house.
47
These are my hands.
This Is a face. Which is my right hand?
Which is my left hand?
Eyes, nose, and mouth Which are my thumbs?
are parts of a face. Which are my fingers?
Which are the eyes?
Which is the nose?
Which is the mouth?

This is his head.


0

This is a man.
Which are his arms?
Which are his hands?
Which are his legs? What is this?
Which ore his feet?
o~ ~~abody!
v~bbody.
r..~abody.
His head, Ms arms,~
his legs, and his body
are parts of a man.
All men and
women and boys and
girls have bodies.

This baby a,__


has a body. -11.1a:.
I

-------------------------------------
This dog has a body.
This is a dog's head.
This is his tail. I
I

~ ~j

m
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
This is his body.
' Which is his mouth?
He has four legs and o :' Which are his eyes?
head and a tail. He b .AS : Which are his ears?
no arms or hands, but : Which is his nose?
he has feet. His head, his 1
body, his legs, and his 1
tail are parts of a dog.

3 3auo 1633 49
This is a foot. This is o leg

1";,
\ This is a knee.
part of a leg,

Th~s
These ore '
toes. !' ( part of a leg is its
They are parts of a foot. :
knee.
These parts of a foot are ;
Its toes. •
I
Our legs are parts of us.
This is a toe. :.:.'S'
I

------------------------------------·
I
I

.Q.
I
This is a man's head .

~
Thi• i• a neck.

It is a part of a man. It is
between his head and
This is his chin.
his body.
It is under his mouth.
The part which is
It is a part of his face.
between his head and
The part which is under
his body is his neck.
his mouth is his chin.

50
This is a man's body. This is his body.

0 The part
which is
between
his head,
his arms,
and his
legs is
his body. This is a chest of drawers.

- ...

This man has his finger This baby is on his


hands and knees.~
1
on his chin.

~
This baby is on his
hands and feet.

This baby is on~


This man has his his knees.~
hand on his chest.

Jf
'8-'This baby is on
his feet.
51
QUESTIONS Where is the dog?

~------------------------i-----------------------·
I
h

A1~i I

52
QUESTIONS What do you see?

---
a b

@
---------·---------------------------------
c !

d~
-------------------------------------

--- ---- ----- . --------- ------ -·------------ -- --·

--- --A;.;~;,; 1; ~q;,;;.~;-;;,;~n-~-56~- --·


53
QUESTIONS What is he saying?
I

~©--~~!
b

~ I
- I
I

!4'Y!
I

-- --- ----- -------- . --- ---h -- -- -- ---- -----


I

-----A~;;;;;;; t'h;;e q~;sti<His a~; i>~ P"o9e-Si.- --


54
QUESTIONS What do you see?

a b

c d

I
, I

_._H~l-l....•11-•:
I
I

Answers to these questions are on page 57.


55
Answers to questions on pages 52-53.

Page 52

a The dog is in a room. b He is at the door.


c He is at the window. d He is under the seat.
e He is under the table. f He is on the table.
g He is between the h He is on the seat.
table and the seat.

Page53

o I see a clock. b I see a man's face.


The time is four. d I see o baby. He is on
c I see a woman's face. his hands and knees.
e I see two books. One f I see two girls. One
of them is open. The of them is giving a
other is shut. book to the other.
g I see two babies. One h I see a chest of
of them is on his drawers.
hands and knees. The
other is on his feet.

56
Answers to questions on pages 54-55.

Page54

a He is saying, "These b He is saying, "This is


are my ears." my mouth."
c He is saying, "These d He is saying, "This is
are my eyes." my thumb."
e He is saying, "This f He is saying, "This is
finger is between my nose."
these fingers." h He is saying, "This is
g He is saying, ••This is my head."
my hair."

Page55

a I see a boy and a b I see a clock on a


girl. They are at a table. The time is four.
window. d I see a man. He hos
c I see a room. It has his finger on his chin.
two seats in it. It has One of his eyes is
two windows and a open. The other eye
door. One of the is shut. His mouth is
windows is open. The shut. He hos no hair
other window is shut. on his head.
The door of the room
is open. A. picture is
on the wall.

S7
Who is this?
He is John Smith.
His name is John Smith.
Where is John Smith? He has his hand In
He is at the door of his pocket.

----.
his house.

0
'

·------------------------------------
I
He is taking a key from 1
his pocket. :
I
I
I
I
I
I
These are other keys.
I
I
I llJ @
~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

58
r1e will put the key in He is putting the key
the lock of the door. in the lock.

He is giving a push to the


He is giving a turn to door.
the key. The door is open now.

59
John took the key
from the lock.
He is going into the
He is putting it in
house.
his pocket.
He will go into his house.

This is o room in the


He went into the house. house.
He is in the house. Is John in the room?
The door is shut. No, he is not.

_.
A
He will come into the
room.
He is coming into the Mr. Smith came into
room. theroom• .
He will go to the table. He went to the table.

I She is in the house but


I
Is Mrs. Smith in the I she is not in the room.
I
room? I She is in another room
I
I in the house.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
No, she is not. 1
I Who is this?
1 This is Mary Smith. She
: is Mrs. Smith.
: Her name is Mary Smith•
• 61
This is one of the
This is one of the doors windows of the room.
of the room.

And this is another


..,.....window. ..........._
../ One window is open.
This is the other door.
The other windows are
shut.

This is one of my fingers.

This is one of my hands. /


It is my left hand.

~
This is my other hand. This is my left thumb.
It is my right hand. These are the other
fingers of my left hand.

62
Mrs. Smith is not in the Mr. Smith is in the room.
room. He came into the room.
She went out of the
room .

.,.
She went through .(:-
this door. He came through
this door.

I
I
Mr. Smith is putting his I He put his hat on the
I
hat on the table. I table.
I
I
It is on the table now.
I
I
I
I
I
I

!~
I

He went out of the room


He will go out of the
room through this door. through this door.

63
Mary is coming into the She is going ta the table.
room.

·-----------------+------------------
She will see-the hat. She sees it.

I
I
I
I
I
I
64
She saw it.
When did she see it?
She saw it after she went
to the table.

~-----------~-----+---·--------------
-----....
,.--........
I
1
'
What is that? :
\. John's hatl l
~ .... , ,-.--·""'
.
.,.

''-...

I
I
I

'
I
I
I
I
I

I
l
I
I
I
• 65
She will take the hat In She is taking it.
her hand.

She went out of the


room with John's hat.
room.

She has the hat in her


hand.
She is in anothttr room :
now. :
She came into this room 1
through this door. : What are theM?
I ,rpx l
I
They are hooks.

I
I
I .f f

That is another hat.


She It is on a hook.
has the hat with her.

------------------+------------------
• I
I

She will put John's hat :


•• She put it on the hook.
on a hook. :
I
I

~ ~:~ s ~ J
She will put it on a hook : Now it is with the other
with the other hat. : hat.
1 The other hat is one of
J Mary's hats.
••
67
~John is coming into the
room again.
He is there now.

-----------------+---·-------------
He is saying,
The hat is not on the
table.
Where is my hat?
I
I put it on the table.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
l

68
~=n
I

''
I
I
'Where is my hat? It Is I
.not on my head. It isn't : "It isn•t (is not) here.•
here." I
I
I

''
I
I
I
I
t
t
I
I
t

'
I
I
I
I
I

---------···------+----··------------
Here is Mary. She is
coming into the room.
"Where is it? Mary,
She says, "Here I am."
where is my hat? Where
are you, Mary?"

t
I

' t
I
t

' 69
I
t
t
t
t
• "You put it on the table.
-Where is your hatr : It was on the table."

I
I
••
I

•••
•••

I
I
I
I
I

------------------+------------------
A
"I took it. I put it in the •• "It is on a hook there•
You will see it there...
other room." ••

I
I
I
I

I

I

•••
I
••

••
•••
••
70
John says, "I will get my He Is getting it.
hat."

·-----------------+------------------
••
Did he get it? Yes. He : He went out of the room.
has it. 1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

-----·-•
I
I

I .

I
e
71
• He came into the room
!
again with the hat in his
hands.
When he saw the hat he He got it.
took it off the hook.

J'

------------------·------------------
He is giving the hat to
Mary.

n
What is in the hat? What Is she taking from
Ml:Jry will see. the hot?

·-----------------+-----~------------
What is that in her
hand?·
It is money.

Shesees.

••
73
Where was the hat?
What does she see? It was on the table.
One thousand dollars.

~--o What did she see?


The money is in her She sow the hat.
hand. She did not see the
It was in the hat. money.
I

·-----------·····-·-----·--·-···--···
I
I
I Does she see t'he money
She put the hat in the now?
other room. Yes, she sees it.
John went there and
got it.

J Oh John t Where did


you get it?

Who got it? John did.

74
I was In the street. The wind came. It took
I was coming here. my hot off.

·-~---------~~----·-----~------------
I went after my hat.
When rtook it up, there
was this money.

75

f
The. money was under •
the hat. :
I
I

UP
The hot was over the
money.

-----~--~ ...... ··----~-·--


I

..................... ... .

The hot come down 1 It was over the Morut)«.


again. The money was undet
the hat..
,,.·····~
,I '
I \
1' \ •
i
•••
t
I UP DOWN:
i Vi t

76
c£bl I
What is Mary doing? They are knives,
forks and spoons.

She is taking things


from a drawer.
What are those things The drawer has knives,
in the drawer? forks and spoons in it.
I

------------------+------------------
Mary has a knife, She took them from
a fork and a spoon the drawer.
in her right hand. She will put them on
the table.

I
These are drawers.
'
I
I One of them is open.
I

I
The other two drawers
• are shut•
77
Mary is getting the soup. • John ls taking the seats
These are plates of soup. I• to the table.
l

···---·····---·····-·····-·--------··
' John is in his seat.
Mary is in her seat at They ore in their seats
the table. at the table.

78
oup. 0 othe hoo
Now they are taking

1
John is saying to Mary,

~-e
-_::;; ~
. !
f
Mary is saying to John,
: "Where did the money
<:::::> <:::::> come from?"
They have their spoons
in their hands.
I

------------------+------------------
John said, ''I saw it John said, "Nobody
there under the hat." put it there. The money
was there and the
wind came and put the
:- hat down over the
: money."

Nobody-no man or
Mary said, "But who woman or boy or girl
put it there?" or baby•

I
I
.I

.
~

79
What will
we do
with our
money?
This dress is new.

••
This dress is olcl

2-!2 1>
------------------+-·---------------·
I

This pipe is new.

e
I
: This pipe is old•

.•:• ~.
~ I»

80
Mory is getting the new
dress. She is in a store. This is the store.
The other woman has
two dresses in her
hands. CLOTHING STORE

Dresses and hats and


shoes are in the window
of the store.

·-----------------+------------------
I

d:/Ot:!AJ !
These are shoes. :
They ore women's shoes. !

These are gloves.


Dtesses and stoddngs
and shoes and glo¥et
are clothing.

These are stoddags.


4 3na• 1633 81
--c-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
I
I
This is a tree. : She put her

This
branch~
is a ~' hand up.
:: She took the
of the tree. Vl apple. It is in
An apple~ )J 1
her hand.
She took the
is on this
branch.
~ : apple which is
:
•1s over I in her hand.
I -
t 1
I She has it in her
the girl's ,
head. hand.
She is putting it ~
She will take the apple in her basket. '
from the branch. 1
She will put her hand up. :
·--····----·------+---·--------------
' I
I
I
I
She put it Jn her basket. I After she took the apple
She hod it in her hand II she put it in the basket.
before she put it in her II Then she put her basket
basket. I down. The apple was

It was on the branch 1' up on the tree.


before she put her hand : Now it is down in the
up and took it. ' basket.

82
I

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
•I
When was the apple on •
the branch? :
When was it over her : When did she take 1t?
head? : She took it after she put
It was on the branch • herhand up.
before she took it. It was : She took it then.
on the branch then. :
I
I

-----------·------+-----------------·
I
l

When did she put It In When did she have the


the basket? apple in her hand?

She had it in her hand


after she took it from
: the branch and before
: she put it In the basket.
She put It in the basket :
after she took it from 1
the branch. l
4.
• 83
This Is a box. This is a house.

This is the front of the This is the front of the


box. house.
This is the front door.

------------------+------------------
This is the back of the This is a coat.
box.

And these are the sides


of the box.

This is the front of the


coat.
84
These are the arms of
the coat.

These are the sides ot And this is the back of


the coat. the coat.

------------------+-----------------·
I
I
I
I

These are a man's arms. :


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
These are his sides. I
I And this Is his back.
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I

85
What is that? What it
Who is this? in her hands?
This is Mrs. Smith. It Is a tray.
She Is Mary Smith. : She has a tray in her
"Mary Smith" is her 1 hands.
name. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

.•
I
I

I
I
t
I
I
t
··----···--·--·-·-+··················
She will put the tray on 1 She is putting the tray
the table. • on the table.
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
86 t
She put the tray on the
toble. Here is the tray.

What are these things


on the tray?
It was In her hands.
It Is on the table now.

·----~---~--~-----+--
These are glasses.
-----·----------
What are these? PP
El El They are spoons. / /

Whatarethese? ~,JI
They are forks. ' // What Is this?
It Is another spoon.
I
What is this?/ !
' What Is this? <9)
It is a knife. : It Is a plate•

What are these? :' These are three other
Th~y are two othe~? : plates. ~
knives. 1

••• <~~.;:>
• 87
Mrs. Smith is taking o
knife and fork off the She is putting them on
tray. the table.
She has them in her
hands.

·----------·-----·+···---------------
She put the knives and
Now she is putting the
forks and spoons and
plates on the table.
plates and glasses on
the table.
She put these things on
the table.

t
I

t

88
Mary Smith will go from She is going to the door.
the table to the door. The door is shut.

She went out of the Mary Smith is not in the


room. room.
The door is open now. She was In the room.
It was shut. She went out of the

89
What Is this? I
It Is a knife.
I
I
What Is thls?

~
I
•I

-.
I

What Is this? •
I What Is this?


t
'I
What Is this?
I '
I
I
What Is this?
- Clt
••I
What Is this?
c; ;>
I
I
I
I
==>
What Is this?

~
What ore these? I
I
I
I
I

·-----------------t------------------
1
I
What ls this?
I
What ore these? I

OOi fJ
I

c
-
What ore these things?

::> -· -
..,;

'
90
What Is this?

~
Mory Is making soup. :
These are potatoes._

AJ
c:::it c;:;lll :
I
I
I
OOO
This Is a bottle of milk.
It Is cow•s milk. T(.
U
I
I
I
I
I
This Is a cow.

~
I
I
I
She will make the soup •
from milk and potatoes.:
I
I

---··-------------·----------·-------
Cows are animals.
• We get milk from cows.
I
I
These are some other I
I
Mory is putting some
animals. I milk in a cup.

aplgQ' 1~
t

i ~
ahono
4\--..
Q-7fl l The milk Is going Into
lhoa.p.
I

91
Mary has a potato in We get potatoes from
her hand. the roots of a plant.

Here they are in the


earth.
She is taking its skin off
with a knife.
~ We get them up with a

~'\\ ~
·-----------------+--------
This is a plant. 1 ----------

This is its flower. :I


: These are roots of other
1 plants.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

'
I

This is its :
I
-1-11-----These are its:
,,~:;:::~~r~o~ots~. l
I

92
This is the pot.
Mory is making the

o~1
soup.

This is the cover


of the pot.

She will make the soup


in this pot.

·-----------------+---------~--------
She put the potatoes In
the pot.
The water In the pot Is
boiling. This is a flame.

This is steam. The pot is over the


flame.
The flame is under the
pot.

93
Ice is solid.

Ttils is ice.

This water is boiling.


It is giving off steam.
The heat of the flame Is Water is a liquid.
making it give off steam. This is water.
·-----------------+------------------
The room is warm.
This is a tray. The heat of the flame Is
It Is a tray of Ice.. making the room warm.
The things in the room
are warm.
Ice is not warm. It Is
cold.
10 80
40
Ice
Is 0
cold.

94
This It a bird.
It II on a tree.

This is a plane.
It Is In the olr.

It .. going thtouoh the


air.

·---------------·-·------------------
We take In air through
our mouths and through
our ftOlel.
air comingJ;:
The It
out. It It warm.
When It comes
Out It la worm.

The air comes In. Then


It 9C* out. That ii a •• Put JOU' 'hand
breath. • -..vourbreath
••' llwann.
In out one breath •
In out two breotht
.. out
•••
I

95
The air over the flame
is very warm.
It goes up.

The air under the flame


is not very warrn. It goes
LJ up to the flame.
212° Ill
100°
·-----------------+-------

I

I
•••••-•••••

I
I
This is the fridge I
It has ice in it.
I
I I
I
The air in the fridge iS I
cold.
'
I
I
I
I
I
This is the fridge
I Mary keeps the milk in
I
I the fridge
I
I She keeps It In the cold
u.~~Sd~s;?:=l
'-./------+-------.
air. .
The air in the fridge ts
I cold.
This is These are I
I The cold air keeps the
nu1k. eggs. I
I milk cold.
96
This is an instrument for
measuring heat•.
This is a clock.
}very warm
}warm
A dock is an instrument }cold
for measuring time.
1 Verycofd

~-~---------------+-----------------~
This is a measure.
This is J
1 \..
Mary's foot.~
It is a yard measure.

There are three feet in These are her feet.


a yard.

There are twelve inches c~


1 •• , , , , , , , , I

~ This is John's foot.


It is ten inches long.
97
Thewonsond ft oor of •
the fridge are thick.
·m
••Warm
: air
:

Cold
air
Warm
air

The thlclc walls keep the

I'--__1I heat of the room out of


the fridge.
They keep 'the heat from
the milk.
The cold air In the
This la o thin line. : fridge keeps the milk
I
I
good.
This la o thick line. :
I

------------------+------------------
'
John fa having a drink.
He is having a drink of
milk from o glau. This mllk la not good.
It is bad.

The mflk Is good.


John Is happy. John is not happy.

98
This is meat. This Is bread.

Mary does not keep th•


bread in the fridge.
She keeps it in a
Mary keeps the meat In 1 bread-box.
the fridge.
I

-----------------+-----------------~
This is butter.
This is cheese.

We make butter from


milk.
We make cheese from Mary keeps the butter
milk. with the milk ln the
We get milk from cows. fridge.
She keeps the cheese
there.
99
I
I
I
These are apples. I
What ls the time?

oO
I
I
I
••
I
t

These are oranges. I


I

I
@@G> t
I
I The time is flve (5;00).
I
It is five.
Apples and oranges are : Mary wilt make the
fruit. : soup.
Does Mary keep the fruit :
in the fridge~ 1
I

---·-·-------------+-----------------·
I

What is the time? '


I
I
It Is five-forty (5:40).
I
I
I
I
I
'I
Q
'
I
I Mary has a fork In lter
It Is five-thirty (5:30). : hand.
Mary is making the :
soup. •
The potatoes are fn the :
pot. The water in the pat:
is boiling. ~
0
She is puttfng the fork
• into the potatoes.
••
100
The potatoes are hard. It Is five-fifty {5:50).
The fork does not go Mary is putting the fork
into them. In again.
She is doing It again.

l
I
I
t
I
•t
•••
• I
••
--..--------------~+- • . . . ~--------------
' I
I
The potatoes ore soft. :
The fork goes Into thom. 1
••
••

I
I

She Is taking them out
of the pot and putting
lhem on a plate.

101
'
I
I
I
The polotoes are on the • Mary is crushing them
plate. : with a fork.
'
I

'
I
I
I
I
I

t
f
They were in the pot. I
I
They were hord.
They are soft now. ''
I They are not hard now.
I
I They are soft.

I
I

------------....·-·-------------------~-
' I
I

'
I
I
Glass Is hard.
'
l
''
I
'''
I
I
I
I

: Butter is soft.
'
!B~
I
!.
102
John has a bit of He is putting the bit of
cheese in his ting•"· cheese in his mouth.

------------------+------------------
I
I
I
I The cheese is not soft.
Now it is between his I

;-··~
I
teeth. I
I
I
c: rh-,
I
I
I
It is hard. '
'£his is his mouth. c :~ J
This is a tooth. ij I
I
I
I
John's teeth do not go
into the cheese.
I
These are teeth. I

HI If~ I
I

103
I
I
I
Mary put the potatoes : She put the pot over
and the milk and other • a low flame.
I
things into the pot. 1
She put the cover on
This is salt. : the pot.
(See page 242)

f"Y
e:z;zg
The low ftame Is under
the pot.

·--------------···+-· ••~•••••••••••••
I
I
I
I
I This building is high.
I
This ftame Is low.
I
I
I
I
I
....
II

II

I
I I
••
I I
I

I
I I I I
I I
• I
I
This ftame is high.
This building is low.

<i fc cc a aTO
104
t •t Now she is putting the
What is the time?
I
h is six (6.()0~ ( ] ) •• soup in the plates.
•••

t
•I
~
"4
I
I
t It was in the pot.
I
t
I
Mary Is tasting the soup.
~ ~
t
I
It has a good taste. t
The soup is ready. •• Now It is In the plates.
I
I


------------------·----·-------------
' t
I
I
••
She made the soup. :
She put it in the plates. :
She took them to 1 The plates are on
the table. : the table.
•• The soup is ready•

I
It is good soup•
Mary mode it.

~t~l I

I

105
Soup,, T\ i
potatoestt::9 milk,LJ l Anapple\j'

meatb brea<f-=3 l An orange Q


butter,c&:!> cheese~ l 600
ts5
apples,
o~:
oranges : OOO
I
I
ore food. I
Apples and oranges
I
I
are different sorts of
They are different 1 fruit.
sorts of food. :
I

------------------+-------·------·---
a

ffgf,
I
These are different

I
••

I
: Glasses and boxes and
: fingers and dresses
These are different : and flames are things.
sorts of boxes. : They are different
sorts of things.

~~
1
I
I
I
I
I
I

6__..........61 I
I
I

I

106
I

Cows ~ ! These are different


sorts of plants.
andsheep~ i
andpigs ~ :

andho-~!
I This Is the leaf of r'X""
andgoats~ l
I
one sort of plant.~

This is the leaf of


are animals. I
I
I
~er sort of plant.
They are different 1
sorts of animals. :
·-----------------+------------------
•• I
I
These are the same. 1
These plates are the
000000: I
same.
I
I
These are different. I

ACJ*O I
I
I
These plates are
'
I
I
different.
These are the same.
0 0
I
I GCi5> c::=>
'
I
I These glasses are the
I
same.
These are different.
I
I Ot7
oQ I

:These are different.\J 0


I 107
••
I
I
Here are a woman •
I

a~att
t
I
t
t
I
t

I
I
f
••
The boy is the I
•• The girl is the
woman's son.
She is his mother.

I
woman's daughter.
The woman is her
f
I
He is her son. I mother.
I
I

------------~~----+---------------~--
••I
Here are a man and

I
Here are a man
I
his son. I and his daughter.
••

tt
I
•I
I
f
I
I
I
I
I
f
The man is the father 1
I
He is the father
of.the boy. • of the girl.
He is the boy's father. : He is the girl's father.
: She is his daughter.
t

f

108
The boy is the brother
of the girl.

The girl is the sister


of the boy.
She is the boy's sister.
She is his sister.
He is the girl's brother.
He is her brot~er.

' -----------------
·-----------------+-
ti
-t :
I
This man and woman I


:••
•••

m
have
two sons
Thls boy has one
brother and three
sisters.

m
/This girl has two
1 brothers and two
: sisters.
: They are a family of-
and : seven (7).
three daughters.

109
Here are Mrs. Smith,
her daughter Jane,
and her son Tom. ... ~
Potato soup is a thick
soup. It is not clear.
Thick soup and clear
They are at the table. soup are two different
They are having their sorts of soup.
potato soup.

------~---------·+------~-----------

. Ih i s w
T
escear. _ a t . :I
1
When a ;;;;;;;; 1

liquid is ;;;; :
clear we :
tee I
through it. ! The air is clear. I see

o· :
I
I the mountains.
•• When the air is not
t
I clear I do not see them.
Milk is not
a clear -· · :
liquid. We _ 1

do not see :
through it. :
110

Who is this?

This soup is clear. We


see the spoon through it.

Potato soup is a thick


soup. We do not see This is Mory Smith.
the spoon through it. She mode the soup.
This is Mory who mode
the soup.

------------------i-----------------~

This is the
This is the soup. Mory milk. Mory
mode it. put it in the
This is the soup which soup.
Mory mode. This is the milk which
Mory put in the soup.

111
This is a spoon. It is in •
my hand. That is a
This is a spoon which glass of
is in my hand. water. It is
on the table.
That is a glass of water
which is on the table.

------------------·------------------

This is a dog. He had


the bone.

This is a bone. It was in


the dog's mouth.
This is a bone which
was in the dog's mouth.

This is the dog who


had it.

112
QUESTIONS

a What is the time?


··-----------------~--------------------

c What is this? d What are these?


-----------------+------------------
1

~!
e What are these? : f What is this?
···-··---------···--T·------------------
1
I

Pi 0
83
g What is this? ! h What is this?
___________________ i ____________ --··----

Answers are on page 116.


3altll3 1633 113
QUESTIONS

a What is the time?


···-----·----------~~------------------·-

c What is this? ~
d What are these?
·-----------------+------------------
I

~I
e What are these? : f What is this?
-·••••·-------·-····T·-··--·---·--------
1
I

Pl 0
83
g What is this? : h What is this?
--------------------~---------------------
Answers are on page 116.
5 3au• 1633 113
QUESTIONS

a What is this? b What is this?

G
······-··-------·---.L. .................................. .
I

~~:
d What is this?

cWhmad-?~:
·-----------------+------------------

~!
g What is this?
I
: h What is this?
I
••••••••••••••·------·L-·---------·••••---·•
Answers are on page 116.
114
QUESTIONS
I
a This is a family. I b This is a plant.
I

~
I

tt1t
I
I
I
I
I
: Which parts of the
What do you see? ' plant do you see?
••• ·-·-- --- --- -------L-- -- --· - -- --- --•• ••
c This is a fridge. d This is a dog.

[10~. ~
What do you see in it? : Which parts of the
1 dog do you see?
-------------~----~------------------
e What do you see?
1
f What do you see?

. ]§; A t?.::_;

--=~---~----~---~--
9 What do you see?
hW~

!l
---·----------~--·~--i----p-----··-~---~--
Answers are on page l 16.
ltS
Answers to questions on pages 113-115.

Page 113
a ·rhe time is b They are apples.
four-forty-two (4:42). d They are leaves.
c It is a pot. f It is a bottle of milk.
e They are roots. h It is bread.
g It is butter.

Page 114
a It is cheese. b ft is a cup.
c They are flames. d It is a horse. •
e It is a high building. f They are a box and
g It is a pig. its cover.
h It is a sheep.

Page 115
a I see a father and b I see its roots and its
mother and their son stem and its leaves
and daughter. and its flower.
c I see a bottle of tnilk d I see its head
and four eggs and and ears and nose,
two roots. its body, its legs, and
e I see a bone. It is on. its tail.
the floor. And I see f I see two glasses.
the leg of a table. One of them has
g I see a woman. She liquid in it.
has a spoon in her h I see a man. He has a
hand. She is tasting glass in his hand. He
the soup. is having a drink
from the glass.
116
QUESTIONS
a Where are the : b What are these?

t~I
What has one woman
in her hands?
I
I
I
I

c d Where will she put


the gpple?
What is the girl Where was it before
doing? she took it?
{See pCJges 82-83)

Where is the apple?


f
I
I
e WhCJt CJre some 1 f What are some
different sorts of ! different sorts of
food? : animals?

I
I

g What are some h What are some


different sorts of different sorts of
fruits? persons?
Answers are on page 120
117
QUESTIONS

a This is
a glass
of milk. O!
Is it dear? Do you see :
through it?
b Is the glass in this
window dear?
What do you see
through the window?
c Is glass hard? d Is meat soft?
e Is ice warm? f Are flames cold?
------------------·------·-----------

Lt
f)f
g What is he doing? h What is she doino?
---------------------·--------------------
Answers ore on page 121.

118
QUESTIONS
I
a What do you see? : b What is he doing?
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

~-------------------~------------------·
I
·1
1
d What are these?
c What ore they doing? :
I

l l
I
I
I
I
I
~I I
- - - - - - - - - - :_ _ - - - - - - -1- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
e What do we keep
in the f What are some
fridgel different sorts of
things? Give the
I names of ten different
things which you see
t in a house.
I
I
I
------ --- ----Answers
- -- _____ .. ___ - -- -- - ------------
I

are on page 121.


119
Answers to questions on page 117.

a They are in'a store. It b These are shoes


is a clothing.store. She (women's shoes) and
has two dresses in her stockings and gloves.
hands.

c The girl is putting her d She will put it in her


hand up to the apple. basket. Before she
It is on a branch of an took the apple it was
apple tree. on the tree.

e Bread, butter, milk, f Cows, pigs, sheep,


cheese, meat, eggs, goats, and horses are
and fruit are different different sorts of
sorts·of food. animals.

g Apples and oranges h Men, women, boys,


are different sorts of girls, and babies are
fruit. different sorts of
persons.

120
Answers to questions on pages 118-119.

Page 118
a No, it is not clear. b Yes. The glass in the
No, I do not see window is clear. I see
through it. some mountains and
a house.
c Yes. Glass is hard. d Yes. Some meat is
soft. But some meat
is har:d.
e No. Ice is cold. f No. Flames are not
cold:
g He is taking potatoes h She is putting some
out of the earth salt in the potato
with a fork. soup.

Page 119
a I see a man. He is in b'-'He is putting his hat
a street. His hat is in on his head.
the air. The wind is
d One of them is a
taking it up. The wind
clock. The other is
took it off his head.
an instrument for .
c They ore in their seats
measuring heat.
at the table. They
have their spoons in f Rooms and doors·
their hands. They are and windows and
taking their soup. tables and lleats and
e We keep the milk, boxes and knives
butter, cheese, eggs, and spoons and forb
meat, and fruit in the and shelves ••• are
fridge. different sorts of
things.
12t
This is a bedroom.
There are two beds in it. This se~t is by the bed.

·-----------------+------------------
What is on the seat? A woman is by the bed.
A bog is on the seat. Who is she?
She is Mrs. Smith.

122
What is she doing? What is she putting into
She is putting things the bag? She is putting
into the bag. Mr. Smith's things into it.

·-----------------+-·----------------
Mr. Smith is going to
California. Mr. and Mrs. I
I
Smith are in New York I
I
State.
: ...... l • '\.'•'"

17illB-~
I
I
I
I He will go by train. This
I
I is a train. From New
I
I York State to California
New York State I
I
is a long journey,
California I
I
I
I
I
I
I

123
I
t
I
• He will take some socks.
t

~~~
I
I
I

What will he take with


him to California?
He will take some shitts.
L
He will not"take old
socks. Old socks have
1 holes in them.
·-----------------+--
He will take new socks.
---------------~
These trousers have a
New socks hove no hole in them.
holes in them. They ore old trousers.

124
I
I
I

He will take some shoes.


I
1
The shoe bag will keep
the other things clean.
~l I
I
I
He will put them In a :
shoe bag.
The bag is between the
shoes and the shirt. The
shoes will not make the
shirt dirty.

·-----------------+------------------
My hands are dirty. This cloth is dirty.

1M!~
.
-
.

This doth is clean.

D
12S
I
I His face is dirty.
••

I
I

•••
I
I
Th@)is
•••
plate is dirty. His face is clean•
.

,
...
••
••
••
I
@
I

·-----------------+--·····-----------
••I
The plate is dirty· but : Now the cfoth is dirty
the doth is dean. 1 but the plate is clean.
I
••
'
•• ••
••

•••

•••
•••
I
0
This is a basin.
This is soap.

this is warm water in it.

·---------~-------+-----·------------
What is she doing?

~~•6 • • • •• ~ a

Her hands are wet now


but they are clean. They
She is washing her were dirty.
hands with soap
and warm water.

127
Her hands were wet.
I

£\ ~
I
I
I
I

~~
I
I
I
I
I
I
'1'
I
I
I

~~
I
I
What is she doing? :
She is drying her hands : Now they are dry.
on a cloth. 1
I They were dirty.
I
I Now they are clean.
I

.
·-----------------+---·-·-----------·
I
I
I
I
I

es:. I
I
I
What is this?
It is a brush. : She is putting some
It is a toothbrush. : toothpaste on the brush.
I
I
I
I
I

--1--D8
What is this?
I

'
I
I
I
It is toothpaste. I
I
•'
I
I

126
Now she is brushing her What is this?
teeth. It is a comb.
[HIWWWllWIM.,

And this?
)!IWlf/HUt ~
It is a brush.
Her teeth will be dean. It is a hairbrush.
They will be dean and
white.

-----------~-----+-- ----------~-----
I '
t
I
I

• hair.
:
t
I
I
I
----
She is brushing her hair. : Now she is combing her

.......

I
I
I
I

'
I
t
I
a

'
I
I
I
'
129
What are these?
This pin ------

~
is like this pin.
They are pins.

But they are two pins.


They are not the same
pin. They are different
One pin is very like pins.
another pin.~

------------------~-------------·----
She has a hairpin in
her hand.
She is putting it in her
hair.
:::::::: )

=:::: :::>
=x-::>
These are three hairpins~
They are different
hairpins.

130
j
I
I
I

'
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
!
I
I

Now it is in her hair. II ' He is bru$hlng his hair.


It was in her hand. I
I He does not put pins in
It is in her hair now. I his hair
I
But it is the same
hairpin. : '
·-----------------~----~-------------

l She put all these things
: in his bag.
'
I
Mrs. Smith put some
shirts and some socks ®Wll "'Ue11111m1111111m1
U
and shoes (in o shoe
bag) and a comb and
l .,.,___),. . -
brushes and toothpaste I
I
and soap and a wash I
I
cloth in Mr. Smith's bag. I
I
I

f31
I
I
I

Mr. Smith will go to the :


station in a taxi. :
I
I
I
I
I
·-------.-.,.1
I
I

:----
1
I
I This is the station.
This is a taxi. : The taxi is in front of
Mr. Smith is getting • the station.

into •1t. I
1 The time is 8:00.
He has his bag with him.: The train will go at 8:30.
I
I

-----------------~------------------
Mr. Smith is getting out Now he is going into
of the taxi. the station.

JDDDDC
V&J

132
I

This is the waiting room : Here is a train.


In the station. jt-QUB-:--QUB-
~
~'"~ 1
ra:.i Thi~is the engine of a
tram.

Those men and women


on the seats in the
waiting room are
!~
I
I
I
waiting. They are I
I
waiting for their trains. I
I
I
I

·-----------------+------------------
These are rails. The train
goes on these rails.
It is a railroad train.

zl 1i nr\\\
u u u u a
Here is the ticket office
in the station.
Mr. Smith got his ticket
here.

133
Here is his ticket.
He gave $132.35 for his
ticket. How much was his ticket
for the journey to Los
Angeles?
It was one hundred
I and thirty-two dollars
I
I and thirty-five cents
I
I ($132.35).
I
I
These are tickets. I

I•
••
I

I
I

·-----·-·--·------+------------------
• I
I

How long is the lourney? :


Four days. : How much money did
Which days will he be : he take with him for his
on the train? • journey?
He will be on the train : He took five hundred
Sunday, Monday, and nineteen dollars
Tuesday, Wednesday. ($519.00).
The other days of the Much money: $5000
week are Thursday, Little money:$5
Friday, Saturday.

134
I
I
Mr. Smith has friends in •
' His friends were WQiting
Calif ornia. : for him at the station.
I .

Mr. Smith His friends


[~11
I
Here are his friends.
He and his friends are
shaking hands.
(See page 254.}

---------------··+-------~-------····--
They soy, "Did you have :
1
a good journey?" His friend says, "Let me
He says, "Yes, but it have your bag, please.•
was a long journey." He will go with hit
, friends to their houtei
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

135
This is a letter: a.
These are letters: a, b, c.
This is a word: man.
Three letters make
the word man.
The man is writing a
letter.

0writi~g on paper
~~is
' '--::'
...,
This is the letter:
It is in Mr. Roe's writing.
Mr. Roe will send the
letter to Mr. Doe.

------------------+------------------
Here is the letter ready This is the back of the
for the post. letter.
Mr. Roe's name, and the
Here is the stamp. town where he is living

,,... lf,e/t""" "· ?>w


,,,,......\$.,.~
a
11t...~"'-·

Mr. Doe's name and are on the back of the


street and town are on letter.
the letter. Me. is short for Maine.
Mass. is short for Bar Harbor is in Maine.
Massachusetts. Massachusetts and
Middlefield is in Maine are two states
Massachusetts. of the United States
of America.
136
Mr. Smith is writing a :
Here is the other side of
card to Mrs. Smith. He is : the card.
in San Francisco. On one • Mr. Smith is putting
side of the card is a l Mrs. Smith's name on it.
picture of the harbor. :
1
Here is the picture.
This is a picture post
D
card.

He will put her street


under the name.
He will put her town
under the street.
Then he will put the
state where her town is.
------------------+-
Now the card is ready ----·------------
Mr. Smith is taking the
for the post. card to the Post Office.
He iJ going up the steps.
0 i P0$T I
...... >'-~ OFFICE
''·)...it. 'i.f,
'f-1 '"-·"'
-i.... 'f-rl''>'°4

There is a stamp on the


card.
Mrs. Smith's name and
street and town are on .,
the right hand side of He will put the cord in
the card. the Jetter box on the wall
Mrs. Smith's town Is in of the Post Office.
New York State. He is sending the cord
to Mrs. Smith.
137
This morning Mrs. Smith Reading and writing al'e
got the cord which Mr. parts of our education.
Smith sent to her from We get a great part of
Son Francisco. our education at school.
She is reading it now. These boys and girls ore
She is readingi ..., had a at school. The teacher is
good journey••• : teaching them.

------------------+------------------
Atschool, Tom and
Jane are learning. They
were reading and now
they are writing.

Mrs. Smith is sending


Jane and Tom to school.
They will \,e at school
(q
Tam is writing the word
before nine. learning on the board.
They get good The teacher is teaching
teaching at school. him the word learning.

138
Now Tom and Jane are
back from school. Jane Tom and Jone are
is reading a story. getting o good

It is eight-thirty. Q education. They get


some of it at school, and
they get some of it from
TOm
is writing at the table. their mother and father.
Mrs. Smith is taking a
Tom's dog is at his feet. look at Tom's work.

~ lI
1
It is good work.

Mrs. Smith is reading


the newspaper.
"9-fty>.. Jil~
---------.. ··-----..
Now Mrs. Smith is +1 .. ···-------.. ------
writing a letter to Mr. : She will send the letter
Smith. She sends love : to Mr. Smith.
from Tom and Jone to 1•

~ en
their father.
11.....~.
-u~ ....... ..1'.
-.ti..T-.a..,t. She has the letter in her
111,.,"t l&A(. A ( - hand.
~::i~. Nowshels
sending the (
~
X L.lJ
letter.

She sent the ~


letter. I]\
139
QUESTIONS
I
I
: b What are these?
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
What is this boy '

doing~? :
:
What j~
the man

... :
:
I
doing? .

·--------------· -'-----·-----·-·----
; I

ov
c What are these? I
I
I
I
d What is this?

~
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
I What is the woman
I
I
doing?
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I

----------A~s-.;;;~~-;r;t~-;;9; 148.
I ·---------· -

140
QUESTIONS
a On page 133, where
did Mr. Smith get his
b How much was the
tickel? ~ ticket?

-------------------~-------------------
•I
t
c How long was the : d Did he go in an
tourney to Los : airplane?
Angeles? I

I
I
I
I

·-----------------+------------------
' I
I
e What did his friends f What did he soy on
1
soy to him when they l the card which he
saw him? : sent to Mrs. Smith?
I
•I
t
.. --------------·--- ... ,-' ·-- -·- .... ·-·---------
I
I
I
g What are Tom and t h What did Mrs. Smith
t
Jane learning at I send to Mr. Smith
school? I from Tom and Jane?
I
I
I
: Answen are on page 148.
··---------------~-~---------------------
141
This is a plate.
The plate is round.
This is the earth.
c~
\
'II
This is an orange. I
The orange is round.
~
\V
The face of , The earth is round.
the clock is .,," t~··,
t L-1' .1
round. • i4
The hands of ' '
the clock go round.
------------------+------------------
I

: This is the sun.

'*
I
This is the moon. I This is
I
I the sky.
I .

~- ..t.

;~; ~;:: ~'~


: This is a cloud in the sky.

The moon is round. _____.,..___


This is the earth.

142
I
I
The sun comes up in the : It comes up every
East. I : morning.

~
%
t-~ -- .$----t____
:
I

I
I
I

The sun goes down in It goes down every


1 \ II
the West. \ I / night.

....---
y:yi
- •
I
~'Cy'
-
·-----------------+---····-----------
' I
I
I
What is the time?
What is the time? I It is five-twenty
I
It is five-eight A.M. I (5:20) P.M.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

;t!:<t -i __l~
The sun is coming up now : Thesun is going down,
ot five-eight (5:08) A.M. : now at five-twenty
I (5:20) P.M.
I
I

143
Yesterday the sun come
up at five-seven (5:07> This is night.
A.M. and went down
at eight-nineteen * :
(8: 19) P.M.
Today the sun came up This 11 the earth.
at five-six (5:06) A.».. That is a star.
and will go down at
eight-twenty (8:20> P.M.
This is morning.
Tomorrow it will come
up at five-five (5:05>
A.M. and will go down at :
eight twenty-one (8:21 ). I1
t -
__.. Y-1:\/ --
The sun is coming up.

------------------+--------~---------
North
I
I

: There are twenty-four

Wesr+East 1 hours in one day.


I
1 Twenty-four hours make
: one day.
: Two and two make four.
South 1 Three and flve make
• h
I etg f.
I
North
: What do flve and six

w... 9Ea•• : make?


: Do they make ten, or
1 eleven, or twelve?

: That is a question.
South : The answer is "Eleven."
North, South, East, West •I
are four directions. 1
I
144
I I
I
I

I
Say these numbers: 1, 2, 1
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,: What numbers come
12. : after 15?
\Yhatnumbercomes Sixteen 16
after 12? Seventeen 17
Thirteen. Eighteen 18
\Yhat comes after 13? Nineteen 19
fourteen. Twenty 20
\Yhat comes otter 14?
fifteen.

-----------------+------------------
• I
I
I

Twenty 20 Twenty-one 21: Eighty 80 Ninety 90
Thirty 30 Thirty-one 31 : A hundred 100 .
Forty 40 Forty-one 41 : A hundred and one 101
Fifty 50 Fifty-one 51 ' A thousand 1000
Sixty 60 Seventy 70 : A miUion 1,000,000
1

6 3uaa 1633 145


WHAT A~R~E==------
o THESE THINGS?

P~<=1:::C•::::~=--
::iP. ~x
q

'.I I "I .

.d y

Answers ore on page 149.


146
QUESTIONS I

a What do seven and b Where does the iun


eleven make? come up and where
What do twenty and does It go down?
forty make? Does day come after
What do thirteen and night ? Does night
thirty make? come after day?
What do two hundred
and three an~ three
hundred and four
make?

-----------------+--------------·---
• I
I

'
I
I
I
lllr. ,;,.. 9. ~ I
20 """'"
!;,,~
$,.,...... 1 d Tom's work atschool
Olt!O : is learning. He is a
: learner. What is the
c This is a letter. Where 1 teacher's work?
do we put Mr. Green's :
street and town and :
state on the letter? l
I
I

...
I
I r

Answers are on page 149.


6'" 147
Answers to questions on pages 140-141.

Page 140
a They are shoes. b They are shirts.
He is putting his He is putting his
shoes on his feet. things in his bag.
c They are toothpaste d It is soap.
and a toothbrush. She is washing her
She is brushing her hands.
teeth.

·-----------------+--~----------------
Page 141
a He got his ticket at b The ticket was
the ticket office in the $132.35.
station. d No. He did not go in
c The journey was four an airplane. He went
days long. in a train.
e They said, "Did you 1
f He said, "I had a
have a good good journey and
journey?" will send you a long
g They are learning letter tomorrow.
reading and writing Love. John."
at school. h She sent love from
Tom and Jane.
148

Answers to questions on pages 146-141.

Page 146
a abed b a bag c a sock
d a stocking e a shoe f a hairbrush
g a toothbrush h a comb 1 0 key
j a lock k a hairpin I a fork
man engine n a plate o twopins
pa pen q rails r a cord
s a stamp t a flame u a frame
v a hook w a book x a bell
y a bottle z a glove
Page 147
a Eighteen. Sixty. b The sun comes up in
Forty-three. Five the East ond goes
hundred and seven. down ill the West.
Yes, day·GOmeS after
c We put his street night. Yes, night
under his name and comes after doy.
we put the name of
the town under the d The teacher's work
name of the street. is teaching.
And under that we
put the name of the
state.

149
This boy's name is Tom. This girl's name is Jane.

·------------~~---+---·-···----------
1
I

: Jone is saying, "What


Tom is making
: are you making, Tom?"
I
something. I
••
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

••'
••

150 ••
I
I

: This Is a box.
Tom Is saying, "I am
making a house. n
!~

·-----------------+---~--------------

This Is one side of the This is the opposite side


box. of the box.

••I
I
1
I

151
I
I
This is the front of the 1
I
And. this is the bock of
bOX. I
I
the box.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

·---....·--------···+-------··········-
' I
I
I
I
I
I
This is the floor of the 1 -
I
And this Is the cover of
box. 1 the box.
l
'II
I••
••
I
I
I
••
I•
••

152
I
t
I
I
Now this side will be : This will be the opposite
one wall of the house. •I wall of the house.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I will put another


I will put a window fo window in this opposite
here. wall.

------------------+---------------~--
I
I
t
I
I This is a step.
The front of the box will :
be the front of the house. I
I
I
I
I
I


I
I
I
I
I These are steps.
I will put a step under I
the door. I
I
I
I
'I
'I
I
I
• 153
•I
t
t
Jone said, ..A I
house hos o roof.
Will .you put a
roof on the house?
How will you
make the roof?"
OJ
I
I will make the roof from
the cover of the box.

-- p:;'/
( r-1
,/·:;.:-···-
~.. ..,.. . .....·..

------------------+------------------
.. I
I
The cover is not long
No. There is not enough : ' enough.
wood in the cover. : It is not wide enough.
I
I
I

How long is the cover? l The roof is ..,


I

lik• fh•IS. •••••/ ','·

i'
t
"ii'
How wide is the cover? :I

The roof.
t
t
I am measuring it. t
••
154
I
Here is a wider bit of •I
wood. I
'
I
I
I
I
I will make the roof front
this other bit of wood.

§}11 I

':
longer
I'
I

It is wider and it is longer. :


I
I
I

------------------+------------------
I will make a cut in this This is an angle.
wood. /\

I will make a cut at this


angle. )..
,-
This is an angle.
....\

,.. ...·· This is a This is another


right ~....J-~right
A cut. angle. 1
I
\angle.
t

I lbd
155
'
I
'What are you doing, I
Tom?" : We get wood from trees.
"I am measuring the
wood.'"
These are trees.

It is good wood.

This is a measure.

I .. ,~,,I
I I
--~---------------+------------------
Some wood is hard.
Some wood is soft.

:' We get hard wood


This is a tree. 1 from some trees.
I
I
I

: They give hard wood
1
tous.

Other trees give soft


wood to us.

·~
These are its

156
I
Now I am making a cut 1
1
at this angle in this bit of This is my knife.
wood.

~iw-----"
The blade is going
This Is the blade of my
kn1fe.
through the wood.

-~---------------+-----------------~
I am making a line on the
, wood.
I am making a line with
a pencil. This is the pencil.
-C::I IJ

I
•••
••
••
157
: Ohl You are- going off
"Keep on the line when : . the line!
you are cutting. Don't go : The cut is not on the line.
off it...

·-----------------·------------------
!

That is bad! The cut is You did that! You gave a


off the line. push to the table.

158
I
I
I

,.---~~~~~~~~:,---~----~~--....

---
No, I did not! Your knife ' Yes. It went off the line.
went off the line.

-----------------+----··------------
. ,
It's not very bad. Tom is making another,
attempt.

Her,e·s.
the And here
line• .: ...--is the cut.

That is better. The cut is


a straight line straight. The blade of the
knife went straight.
a bent line Goodl

159
Now I hove these two
bits of wood.

There is the roof of the


I will put them together house.
Jike this.

·-----------------·------------------
1
I
I
I
t

Iwill make a hole through


Now I will put the two this port of the roof into
ports· of the roof together the other part of the roof.
with nails.

These are nails.,

160
Tl i I
Now he is putting the
nails in with his hammer.

Tom is making the holes


for the nails.

I
1
I
Now the two parts of the 1
roof are toqether. !
I
I
I
I
Oh yes,
it is very
strong.

The roof is ready.

161
Don't do thdtl But you said,
Oh, now it "It is very strong("
it brokenl It wasn't strong.

____ ,
I'm giving:
Is this line long?
it to you. 1
-·--""': I This line is longer.
I
I
I
I
I Is this bit of wood strong?
I

~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

162
.
I
I
I Where?
Here are the supports for :
the roof. 1
I

~i
Will you put another In the middle.
support for it in the
middle?
Yes, that is better.

----·------------+------------------

This is a straight line.

Thi}is one
end of it•
1 This iJ the
other end.
This That will be better.
is the middle That will make the roof
of it. stronger.

This is a bent line. I

••
163
Jane is making What are you doing,
something. Jane?

·-----------------~------------------
I•
1 Here are the
: trousers.
I
I am making a coat and 1
trousers. l
I
I
I
1
I
Here is the coat.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

0 0

164
I
I
I
I This is the front of the
"Has your coat a collar?" : coat.

V! Here is the collar of the

~
coat. e""

"Yes, it has. Here is the


collar."

·-----------------+------------------
I
I
I
I
I
I
This is the back of the '
I
This is one side of it.
coat. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

This is one pocket of it.

165
Here is the other side.

Thi! a D ~This
is the is the
right left
side. side.

·-----------------·-----------------~

These are the arms of the These are the buttons of


coat. the coat.

The
right CJ a
arm. arm.

166
This is a button.

~ -
This is a needle.

This is a button•hole.
This 1s thread.

I ~~
-----------------+-----------------·
I

What are you doing with


your needle now? And I am making the
button-holes.

I am putting this button


on the coat.

167
I
I
I
I

The girl will put the end :


of the thread through l This is the end of the
the needle.. : threa~~
I

;f~ j
I
This is the hole in the
needle.~
She has the needle in the •
fingers of one hand and :
the thread in the fingers : It is the eye of the
of the other hand. needle.

··----------------+~-----------------
I'

•'
I
I
The end of the thread is 1

not going straight. It is


not going through the
hole in the nffdle.

The thread did not go


through the nffdle. It is
not through the hole in
the needle now.

168
It is on one side of the
needle.

~
It is on this side of the
needle.
Now the girl is doing it
again.
Is the end of the thread
through the hole?
No, it is not. If is on the
other side of the needle.

·-----------------·------------------
I
I
The girl is making I It went through. The
I
another attempt. I girl is taking the end of
This time the thread will : the thread in her fingers.
90 through the hole. The •1 The thread is through
end of the thread is the needle.

!~~
straight.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

169
Where are your Narrow?
scissors? This is a narrow street.
Here they are.

This blade This blade


is narrow. is wide.

I
I
'rhis is a wide street. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

..
I

: These trousers
I
1 arew1'de. ~

l'
.. These trousers are
I
narrow.
I

170
QUESTIONS
b These are two cuts.
n /J

~
Which of them is Which of them is
thicker? Is wall A or wider? Is cut A or
wall B thicker? cut B wider?
••--4--------------·-L---------------·-••,
I
c These are two nails. 1
I
d Which of
Which of them : thesetwo ~

lI
men is
is longer? :
stronger?
a /J :
I
I
I
I

·-----------------+-----------------~
I
e Which of these two 1 f Which of these two
I
pencils is shorter? 1 cards is longer?

a
I
I
....,..tE!C:==:::.:=:JPD» : r::J•. __,___
6...-_ _ __.g..,1 I
I
I
I
Which is wider?
I
- - - - - - --- -- - -- -··-- --r- -- ------- - - - ----- - ---
g Which of these three • h Which of these things
angles is o right : are broken?
angle? i
4
~ '-z- ~ l e..QcQ,~ I
I
------------A'ns"WiriareLon-pa9e174:---------
171
QUEST ONS
a What is he doing? b What is she doing?

d What is he doing
now?

e What is he doing? f What is she doing?

I
····~····
£'
I
I~

---------------------T--------------------
g What is she doing : h And what is she

~!do~
I

--------------------L---------------------
AnSW8rS are on page 174.
172
QUESTIONS

A What are these B Which of them go


things? through the air?
C Which of them go on D Which of them go on
their feet? the water?
Answers are on page 174.
173
Answers to questlonl on pages 171-173.
Page 171
a Wall B is thlcbr. b Cut B is wider.
c Nall A Is longer. d The man who is on his feet
is stronger.
• Pencil 8 is shorter. f Card 8 is longer.
Card A is wider.
g Angle C is a right angle. h The cup, the hammer, and
the plate are broken.
Page 172
a He is going up the steps. b She Is going dawn
the steps.
e He is putting a nail In with d He ls taking a nail out
a hammer. with a hammer.
• He is measuring a boJC. f She Is putting a thread
through the hole In a
needle.
I She Is taking the end of h She ls putting a button on
the thnlad between her wlth a needle and thread.
finger and thumb.

Page 173
A a atraln b its engine c a plane d a seat
•a ship
I a star
f a flower
I a cloud
g mountains
le the sun
h trees
I the moon
mopig n a sheep o a horse pa cow
q a dog r a goat s a coat t a bird
v trousers ,, acup w a knife x a spoon
J sdsson
B Alrplanes and birds go through the air.
C Pigs, sheep, horses, cows, dogs, birds, and goats go on
their feet.
D Ships and some birds go on the water,
174
The earth goes round In The earth goes round
twenty.four hours. the sun Jn a year.

"'/ ········ ...


->?, /
{ -0'
··~
:

There are twenty-four


' ·"'--...............· .
There are three hundred
hours In every doy. and sixty-five days in a
The sun comes up and year.
goes down. every doy Three hundred and
because the earth is sfxty·flve days make a
turnin; round. year.
I

·-------~---------·---------···------
There are seven days in a week. Seven days make a week.
Here are the names of the days of the week: Monday, Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Monday
Is before Tuesday. Tuesday is after Monday.
There are thirty-one June (30)
or thirty or July (31)
twenty-ei;ht days in a August (31)
month. September (30)
Here are the names of October (31}
the months1 November (30)
January (31) December (31 ).
February (28) January is before
March (31) February ...
April (30) February is after
May(31) ~ January •.•

175
1
I
In the North, the earth
1 is cold in the winter.
These are the winter : The wind is cold.
months: December, : Snow comes down from
January, February. the sky.
These are the summer There are no leaves on
months: June, July, the trees.
August. There is ice over the
These are the spring
months: March, April,
May.
These are the fall
months: September, I

October, November. '


I
I

'
I
I

------------------+------------------
' I
I
I
In the North, the earth I
I
and the air are warm in I
the summer. There are I
I
leaves on the trees. I
The days are long. •
I
There is no ice or snow. I
I
I
I
I
I In the spring the leaves
I
I c0111e out on the trees.
I
I Plants come up out of
I the earth, and flowers
I
I
I
come out on the plants.
I

I

176
I
I
•: In the spring the days.
: get longer.
: Every day is longer than
1 the day before it.
; In the ·spring today is
: longer than yesterday.
In the fall, the leaves 1
come down from the : In the fall the days get
branches of the trees. ! shorter.
Fall is the time of the 1 Every day is shorter

fall of the leaves. : than the day before it.


They are coming down. 1 In the fall tomorrow will
They are falling. : be shorter than today.
I
I

·-----------------+------------------
Fifteen minutes make a
This line quarter of an hour.

~
is longer than
this line.
Thirty minutes make
The time between three half an hour.
and four is shorter than
the time between three
and five.

One hour is a shorter


I
••
I
$
Forty-five minutes make

$
I
time than two hours. • three-quarters of an
h~r.
I
I
I

'
7 3au3 1633 177
I

'
I
I
Which is shorter-a I A This is an inch.
quarter of on hour or I 8
I
half on hour? •: The distance from A to B
' is one in'ch.
Which is shorter-the :
minute hand or the hour 1
hand of a clock? · : Half on inch is a shorter
: distance than on inch.
..
••
I
• A quarter Three-quarters
: of on inch of on inch
I

...,_....................--- . -------.. -----------


I
I
,

Three feet make a yard.


Twelve inches make a
foot. This is a yard measure.
I ' t I
I ..... If llf't,f I U I lit I'll f" 'flt:'
t I I

there are thirty-six


inches in a yard.

}t ~afoot. These ore feet.

v~
c. t t I I I I I 'I t I

How long is it?


It is ten inches long.
They are not twelve
inches long.

178
I

t:
I
I
I
I
Seventeen hundred and !
sixty yards (1760) make :
a mile. 1
In half a mile there are :
eight hundred and :
eighty yards. :
Miles, yards, feet, and 1
inches are measures of : What are this man,and
distance. : this girl doing?
: They are taking a walk.
I

'I
I

·------------·--·--·-------------·-----
1
I
I
I

: This is a Ira~

In one hour he will go i3 ~\


two miles, and she will
: Trains are quidcer than
90 four miles. : horses or men.
He is slow. She is quick. ':
She is quicker than he is. 1

He is slower than she is. ~


'
I
I
I
I
I
Planes are quicker
1 than trains or hor$eS or
: men.
I
I

7. t79
I
This baby is one year •
old. ~ i
. • .
Thrs boy 1s ten
years old.
~ : The baby is very young.
: How old is he? He is
: one year old.

f
, : The old man is very old.
This man is thirty years • How old is he? He is
old. : ninety years old.
I
I
This

old man i~ I1
ninety years 1
old. :
That is a stick :
in his hand. •
·-----------------+------------------
This room is twenty feet
I
long and sixteen feet
This box is four inches 1 wide and twelve feet
long and three inches : high.
I
wide and two inches I
I
high. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
How high is the
How long is it? I
I
room? It is twelve feet
It is four inches long. I high.
I
I
I
I
I

180
Thisisa ~ This is a thin ~
short coat. U1.l.J\) beok. "JJ
This is a /fill\.. This is a thicker ~
longer coat. '1_Lj\} • book. ~

This is the
longest coat
of the three.
ill This is the thickest
book of the three..
~
\(j
---·--·-----------+---------------~--~
I
I
I This is a dirt)' face.
This is a narrow street. 1
I
I
I
t

0
This is a cleaner face.
/.':\.
\::;/
This is the cleanest face
This is the widest street
of the three.
of the three•

-4t1.~~- .@
Which is the dirtiest
street of the three? face?
181
This man is

Glass \J
.is harder than
83 : '
older than
this boy.

wood~. .: ·Jl :
I
I
The boy
older than
is~
Wood is harder than I this baby.
~read. of:E?l I
I
I
I
Which of Ot:T\
Bread is harder than them is the /'~
butter. c~;;, oldest?
The baby is the
Which is the softest of youngest. He is very
these?· young.
Which is the hardest?
"'.•••··-·---------·-+-----------·--···-..
This man This line
ls stronger

h
than thil is as long as this
boy. line.
Theboy The two lines are
is not as
equal(==).
strong as I
I
the man. I
I
He is not as old as the I
I
This line - - - -
man. I
I is not as long as
The baby is not as old :
this line.
as the boy or' as strong 1I
as the boy. : They are not equal.
'
I

f82
I
I

I
' What are some other
A train may .go eighty 1 sorts of traflsport?
I
(80} miles in an hour. I
,I
An airplane may go ••
•I
three hundred (300) I
miles in an hour•. I
I
Shii:;s are anotl\er sort
, . ofH~wtransport.
I . .
far may d qvfck
I
Trains ond oirplann I
I ship go in an hour?
are different sorts (5'"' I
I
A quick ship may
go
page 106} of transport. I thi~ miles in an hovt•.
I
I
I

-------------------+------•-,......,. ........
I

I
I
.

I
;
I
. ' j

~~l
I ..

AitplaneS', troins..sftlps, ·
~uto"'1obiles
Automobiles 'I
are an other 1 !eke us from 0ne place
sort of transport.
I
1
I
fp ~:mother. .
I
)
~I
'I
'I
I
I
I
I
I

••
We may go on our feet
from one pJace to
another..
Or we may go in a train
or in a ship or in an
automobi le or iii a
plan-.

When we -go on our


Met, we are walking.
I

·~-~~~------------+------------------
Some places are near Places in Washington
to one another. are near to one
0 0 another.

The distance from one


place to another is not
Some places are far far.
from one another.
0 0
But some places in the
United States are far
from one another.

184
This is a map of North America.

Miulul~
Mexico City~

------------------~------------------
•I
These are mountains. I

'
~ l Men go up mountains.
'§.
: Mountains are high.
~ t I
I
I
I

These are 111111111111 :


'•

-----
railroads.
•nn•n
II II II II II
'
I
1

:
I
~!!!!!!'"!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!'
These are roads. """" :I
~:-:-~._;.,.;;;;_..-:-
~ 1 A river An island 1
These are.rivers.- -o;;;: 1

18S
I
I

Ottawa, Washington, : The government of


Mexico City, New York, : Canada ii in Ottawa.
~nd Los Angeles are :
towns. ~
I
I The government of the
I
I United States is in
I
I
Washington.
I
I
I
I
This is a town. : The government of
: Mexico is in Mexico City.
I
I
I

·-··--,·-----------·-+------------------
I

is
How fa, Oitawt.
from Mexico City?
The distance from
Ottawa to MeXico City
is abdut twenty-three
hundred miles.
How for is New Y0rl:
from Los Angeli$?
The distance between
How fO< Is the.J
of the Mackenzie River
from the mouth of the
Mis.sissippi"?
New York and Los The distance is about
Angeles is about 3300miles.
twenty-five hundted The mouth of a river is
miles. the place where it goes
into the sea.

186
This is the earth. We
are seeing it from the
south...~

.v:
:.f
\ l

I
\<~' -·-:-""j
...............~
I ·--~--·
I
There is more land than : There Is more water
water on this side of the 1 than land on this side.
I
earth. I
I
I
I
I
I

----·------------·--
This is the moon. -··-··---------- 1
I
I Do we ever see the

0 . I
I other side of the moon?
I
" I
I
No.
I
I

I
The moon goes round :
the earth in a month. •
,
, ....... , Ill:' I
I ,
I
k \ I

• 0
I
I

\ ,I
~I : We see the same side
1 of the moon at all times.
: Why?
"', .... ___ _, ,11 I·
I
I

187
We see the same side at The moon• ... ~
all times because the
moon is turning round. ' \

The earth Q I

It is going round the


earth and it is turning
round itself.
It keeps the same side
to the earth.

------------------t------------------
We see the same side of
the moon at all times. Sometimes we see the
Sometimes we see it moon like this.
like this.

This part
One half of it
of the()The other is is
moon half is dark. bright.
is bright.
dark.
This is a half moon. This is a quarter moon.

'88
I
Sometimes we see it like 1 And sometimes we see
this. : it like this.
This is a new moon. : This is a full moon.

9! 0 I
I

This is a new h a g This gl... is full. Y!IJ


fhis Is an old h~ This glass is
not full.
et9
·-----·------~--·-·-·----------------
These are the cha"ges
of the moon. Chonge? Whot is that?

Full, 0 Here is a change in the


three-quarters,Q direction of this line.

half,()
a quarter, I>
new• • And here is another
change.
But at all times we see
the same side of the
moon.

189
I

~ : .

. ~ ~ : The pot~toes were hard.


er\. '·After a time they were
: soft. There was a
Here are two trains./ : chan.ge ii:- t'1e pot:S:-~~
The man was in this :
train. : · .,,,
He is going to the other 1
• I
train. 1
He is making o change. :
He is changing trains. :
··-..··---··-·--···•···········.,······--
I

I
I
I
f
This wafer was cold. I
I
I

I
I
I
I
Now it is bolllng. : In the summer the leaves
is Gieha~ge. are on the tree$. .
1
Thf!i3at I
I
I
I

..
I

'

I
I
I
I
In the fall the leaves
There was a change in I come down off the trees.
I
the water. I That is a change.
190
I

~i
He took the dollar and
he gave
I
I
a half dollarc;=::;.
I
I and a quarter ~
I
I
(dollar) .__.
I
I and twenty CD C!D
I
I cents
I
I
'. I
I took a. newspaper and •
gave a dollar ($1) to : This is the money
the man. which he gave to me

,., , ..
,


-
with the paper.

.......... ___________ ........--------,·-----,·-


I

The price of the paper : That money was my


was five cents. I got the : change.
paper and ninety-five • I had a dollar.
cents from him. : After I got the paper I
: had the paper and
$1.00 - 100 cents : ninety-five cents. I drd
Paper - 5 cents •
I
not have the dollar.
95 cents 1 That was a change.
I
I
I
f

191
QUESTIONS

a Is the boy nearer to b Which of these two


the woman than the is farther from the
girl is? tree?

Is the girl nearer to Is the boy farther


the boy than to the from the tree than
woman? from the girl?

·--------------·--+~-----------------
I
I
I
I
c Which of these two I
glasses is full of I
I
water, the glass to I
I
the right or the glass I d Is there more land
I
to the left? I than water on the
I
I
south side of the
I earth?
l
I

lf:J - I
I
. I
. - .. I
--·
..::._ -
..... ~
I
I
I
I
I
·---------Answers are. .on-page 194.- -------- -
QUESTIONS

•': b I got a book. I gave


A B c 0 three dollars to the
man in the bookstore.
He gave me the book
a Which of these is a and fifty cents. What
half moon, which is a was the price of the
full moon, which is a book? How much was
quarter moon, and • the book? How much
which is a new moon?: change did he give
me?

------------------·------------------
I

'
I
c How far may o quick : d What are some
rrain go in an hour? : different sorts of
How far may you go • transport? Which is
on your feet in an ' the quickest sort
hour, four miles or of transport?
forty?

'I
I
I
I
---'Answers or:on-page l ~4.-- - - -- -. - -
193
Answers to questio~s on pog.es 192· 193.
I
I
I
I
Page 192 I b The girl is farther .
I
t from the tree. Yes,
a No, the girl is nearer I
I
the boy is farther
to the woman. Yes, I from the free than
I
the girl is nearer to I from the girl.
I
the boy than to the I
woman. I
I
d No. 'fhere is more
I water them, lond on
I
c The glass to the left 1 the south side of the
Is full of water. : earth.
I
I

, . ..______________ _...' _________________ '_


._
I
I

I
.t

Page 193 : b The price of the book


: was $2.50. It was
a C is a half moon1 : $2.50. He gave me
B is a full moon; 1 50 cents change.
D1s• a quarter moon; I1
and A is a n•w moon. ' d Ships, trains, horses
and carriages, ond
c A quick train may go airplanes ore
a hundred miles in different sorts of
an hour. I may go transport. The
four miles but not airplane is the
forty. quickest of these.

194
I
I
The distance through : How far is the moon
the earth from North to • from th-. earth?
l
miles. CDi
South is seven thousand
nine hundred (7900)
l
:
1
I
It is tw4> hundred and
forty ftiouso?d
(240,0oo) miles from the

! o--------~
earth,

I
• How far is the sun from
The distance ~nd the : the +orth?
earth is twenty-four : The distance of the sun
thousand nine hundred : frorj'I the earth is
(24, 900) miles. • nin~ty-three million
: (93,000,000) miles.
I

-------------~----+---
· What is that ·- I
I
~--------------
t
inyour ~ I
hand? : WJ,at is the size of the
It is abal. · : sur?
The ball rt 1 It Js 864,000 miles
small. : throUgh from one side
~ to the other.

What is tho~~
in the sky?
It is the sun.
The sun is great.
The sun is a great ball
of fire.

195
What is the size of The mQOn is near the
the moon? earth. The earth is far
It is two thousand one from the sun.
hundred and sixty New York ~s near
(2160) miles through WashingtOn. San
from one side to the Francisco is far from
other. Washington.
ls the moon smo116r
than the earth?
1
1
Is the earth smaller than :
,_ ___ _
New York~
Washington
the sun? :
Is the sun greater than :
the moon? 1
I

: San Francisco
-----~--------~---+------------------
** ~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Are the stars smaller I
I
than the sun? I
No. Some of the stars : How far from the earth
are much greater than : is the nearest star?
the sun. • It is over four light-yeon
Are they nearer than : from the earth.
the sun? : What is a light-year?
No, they are much : h is the distance which
farther than the sun. • light goes in a year.
I
I
I
I
I
I

196
This is a ftame.
~~·/ Light goes 186,300 miles
It sends out light. in a second.
How far does it go in a
year?
The sun sends out light.
The light goes out from r, goes about
the sun in every 6,000,000,000,000
direction. miles in a year.

I "'- l .
·-----------------+------------------
I
A light-year is I The nearest star Is
I
6,000,000,000,000 I 25,000,000,000,000
I
miles. miles from the earth.
I
I
I The nearest stars are
I very far from us.
I
The nearest star Is over: Some of the stars are
four light-years from : very much farther.
the earth. 1 The farthest stars are
I thousands of light-years
I
I from us.
I
I
I
I
I
I

t97
The sun sends its light Up and down are two
out in every direction. other directions.
North Up
I North East
I
I
West East:

South
Down
These are four
directions.
•••illt·---------.. -----+·-----9'--·--------·-~
This boy has six apples I
I
He sent one apple
~

in his hands. ' north, another apple


I
He is on a branch of a 1 south, another east,
I
tree. I
I and another west.
I
I
I
I
I
.....
I
I
I ....
"· ...
I

........... ·····....
I
I
I

He will send the six He sent another apple


app1es in different down.
directions. He sent five apples
in five directions.
198
~' .-. .... ---------~---------
The first apple went
,... north and then it came
: t . down. The other apples
went south and east and
. west and then they all

!l
He sent the last apple
up. But then it came
down. •
came down to the earth.

,
...
.....
...............

They all came down


to the earth?
,. .... ·· .........
...

.,................. >-:. ................. '.


t
~

Why did it come down? : Why did they come


................ ________
,
I down?
..,.~------------------

The first apple •••


The lost apple .•• I
I
What is "the first" ••. ? I
I
What is "the last" •..? Here are three dogs.
I
I
Which is the first dog?
I

These men are in a line. : Which is the last dog?


\his is the flnt man. The other dog is the
dog in th.e middle.

~t~~~'
He is between the flrst
dog and the last dog.
Two of the dogs are
white.
This is the last man. : The other dog is black.
I
The dog in the middle
is black.

199
It is coming down
because •here is an
attraction between the
two bodies.

°""
H•e are two bodies.
is a great body.
h it the earth.
The ottt.Gction between
them makes the apple
comedown.
The other Is a small
body. It is an apple.
The apple is coming
down to the earth.
Why?
,,.,..-.---------......-....___
------------------+-----------~------
All bodies which have Here are two men.
weight have an
attraction for one
another.
t
This man
Is thin.
(ff
This man
is fat.
His body tr11 body
is thin. is fat.

Which body has the Which man's weight if


greater weight? greater?

200
.
I Which man's weight
I
is greater?

1
I
I
I They are on the scale.
I
I
I
I
I The weight of
I
1 the thin man is .·
I
I
100 pounds.
This is a scale. I
I
I
I

A scale is an instrument : The weight of


the fat man is
~
for measuring weight. :
I
I 200 pounds.

l
I
I
I

-----~------------+-------------·----
This is an
I instrument for
Clocks are instrumenb I measuring
I
for measuring time. I heat.
'
I
I
A yard
measure is an
This is a watch.
•'
I
instrument for
measuring
'I
~ '
I
distance.
ihllliiildjiiliiiiii41i1 I

'
I
I
I
Watches and clocks I
I I I ' I I I I
are instruments for I
I
' I ' I I

measuring time. I
Inches, feet, yards,
I
I
I
metres, and miles are
I measures of distance.
101
If the bodies go farther
AH bodies have an from one another the
attraction for one attraction gets smaller.
another. ()++0
-o
Qr+ ~o
If the bodies are great Distance Attraction
the attraction between 1 1
them is great. 2 114
0-+ +-0 3 119
If the bodies are smalt 4 1116
the attraction is small. 5 1125

---------------~--·--~-----------~--~
..,__ Here is a square.

I put the squQre at different distances from the


light. At distance 1, it gets oil the light which Is
going out between the lines. At distance 2, it
gets one-fourth of the light. At distance 5,
it gets one twenty-fifth. It is the same with the
attraction between bodies.
I
I
I
I
I The moon is a great

t) l I
body. Its weight Is
great.
The earth is a great
~: I
body. Its weight is
eighty-one times the
I
weight of the moon. '
What keeps the moon Two times three is six.
up in the sky? 2X3=6
Why does not the
moon come down?

--- ----·-·-------··---·------.-- -------·


....... I
I
I
The moon and the :
earth ore not very for : Because they are great
from one another. • bodies and near one
I
The distance between 1 another, the attraction
them is about two : betweeo the moon and
hundred and thirty-nine : the earth is very great.
thousand {239,000) : Why does the moon not
miles. 1 come down to the
I
I earth?
I
I That is a question.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

203
I
t
The answer is: ..Because :
it is going round the •
80rth•
• I
I This is a cord in my
I
I hand. The cord has a
_f/I'_.••. ..._.............
Themoon I
I weight at its end.

I
/" '',,
\

{ Theearth \ 1'l!e weight


. 0 .
'\\ ::
:
is hanging
down on the
\ ..
,,........... _____ ,#,,,,/
I cord which
is in my
hand.

----·--·-··-----·-+-----------------~
I
I
I
I
Now I let the end of
I make the weight go 1 the cord in my hand
round on the cord. · : go.
I
I
I
I
I

'
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I keep the end of-the The weight goes oft
cord in my hand. in a straight line. It
takes the cord with it.
..

The pun of lhe cord In The attraction between


my hand kept the the earth and the moon
weight from going off fc.tep$ the moon from
in o straight line. • Qbing off in a straight
line.

'... .....-
,•
'
..
""

-----------------+-·········--------
1
I
I

• I
I

I

I
It does not get farther
from the earth
I

0 • 0--------·--------&+Q
I
I
I
I
1 or rieorer to the earth.
I
: 0------··-----·04>
I
I
The moon goes round I
and round the earth •• : It keeps about the same
month after month • distance from the earth.
I
I
I

20S
Here is Sir Isaac :
Newton, the great : He Is under on apple
man of science. Newton • tree.
I
had a great mind. 1
I
I
I It is the year 1666.
I
I •
I
I
I Those are apples which
I
I
ore over his head.
I
'•
I
I The seat has three legs.
'I
I
I
I
I
fi1
I

------------------+-------~-
' --·------
I
Here is an apple which I
The apple came off the
I
was over his head. I branch.
The apple was on a I
I It came down.
branch of the tree.
I'

'.
I
I
'I
,.
.
I
t I
! \'
•'',
,,,
I

'• 111

4I
:.. :

•• '<,
I
.
~
I

~ I
' I
I
I

•••
It cam~ down on
Newton's head•
I

206
That is the story.
True?
The story may be true
2 + 2 = 4. That is true.
or it may not be true.
2 + 2 = S. That is not

~
· true.
It is a false statement.
NApples are fruit."
That statement is true.
"Apples are animals."
That statement is false.
But that is the story. =
False not true
It co111es from the great Short = not long
writer, Voltaire. Shut = not open

............. ~----•·,~-~,•+----~~-,~----~~~~-.-

The blow which the


apple gave to Newton's
head gave on idea to
f}-···-f)···-··t>·
___,,.
Newton. It made a
question come into
Newton's mind.

In this story the fall of


the apple on Newton's
i f)
This was the question:
head was the cause of "Have the fall of the
the idea. apple and the motion
of the moon the some
cause?"

207
er
Here Is a ball. ff is
hanging on a

I gave the blow.


Now the boll is in
I will give a blow to motion.
the 6all with this stick. What was the cause

~l
of the motion?
The blow of the stick
was the cause of the
motion.

----------------·i·-----------------
The ball was not in
:
1

motion before the blow. :


It was at rest. It was 1
hanging on the end of :
the cord. :

The blow was the


l!
cause of the motion.
I
•I After the blow the ball
1 was in motion.
'II The motion came from
I the blow.
I
The motion was the

•• effect of the blow•
Which of the statements on this page ore true and
which are false? Put a T before the true statements
and an F before the false.

a 1. The earth is In b 1. The moon Is


motion. greater than the
2. The earth is sun.
turning round. 2. The sun is colder
3. The earth goes than the moon.
round the moon.. 3. The moon goes
round the earth.

c 1. The attraction d 1. When a blow


between two puts a boll in
bodies gets motion, the blow
greater as they is the cause of
go farther from the motion.
one another. 2. When a blow
2. The attraction puts a boll in
between two motion, the
bodies is greater motion is the
when they are effect of the
nearer. blow.
3. When two great 3. When a body
bodies ore near is in motion it Is
one another the at rest.
attraction
between them is
small.

Answers are on page 212.

8 3naa 1633 209


QUESTIONS

Milk comes from a cow. Heat comes from the sun, or


a fire. Where do these things come from?

a potatoes b cheese c light


d letters e flowers f snow
9 oranges h meat i eggs

Which of these things have a face?

a man a dog a bone a fridge


a clock a tree a goat a bird
an airplane a river a table
Which of them have a mouth?
Which of them have hands?
Which of them have a door?

Answers are on page 212.

210
QUESTIONS

a We put a bottle on b We put potatoes in


a shelf. a pot.
Which of these Which of these things
things may we put may we put in a pot:
on a shelf: water, windows,
a book, a mountain, food, streets, tables,
a cup, a box, a star, milk, soup, trains.
a clock, a horse, salt, colors, eggs.
a distance, a plate, wood, ideas?
a carriage,· a river,
a house, a spoon,
a garden?

c We put money in d We put our hats on.


our pockets. Which of these things
Which of these things may we ·put on: feet,
may we put in our boots, seats, gloves,
pockets: pipes, shirts, wcrlls, directions,
education, letters, coats, buildings, soap,
pencils, offices, scissors, collars, locks,
islands, maps, hands, socks, trousers,
governments, buttons, branches, trays, shoes,
watches, distance, apples?
balls, roofs, knives?

Answers are on page 212.

211
Answers to questions on pages 209-211.

Page 209
a 1. T b 1. F c 1. F
2. T 2. f 2. T
3. f 3. T 3. f
d 1. T
2. T
3. F
Page210
a from the roots b from milk c from the sun or
of a plant flames
d from persons e from plants or f from the sky or
from seeds clouds
g from orange h from animals from birds
trees

A man, a dog, a clock, a goof, a bird may have a face.


A man, a dog, a goat, a bird, a river may have a
mouth.
A man and a clock .may have hands.
A fridge and a plane may have a door.

Page 211
a· a book,.a cup, a box, a clock, a plate, a spoon.
b water, food, milk, soup, salt, eggs.
c pipes, letters, pencils, mops, hands, buttons,
watches, bi>Hs, knives.
d boots, gloves, shirts, coats. collars, socks, trousers,
shoes.
212
.
I
I
I
I

/ ,''
I
I
I
I
I JI.~,.
I
I
I
I
I
1 Because it ls raining.
What Is this? : Water is coming down
The man has an : from the sky.
umbrella in his hand. •I The water is roln.
It is open. • Rain is coming down.
He has it over his head. : Rain is falling.
Why? : It is raining.
I
I

·---------------~~-----------------·-
The rain made the Today there are dalt
man put up his . clouds in the sky.
umbrella. That was the They come between w
effect of the rain.w and the sun.
Today is Monda~ The dark clouds keep
Yesterday (Sunday) the light of the sun from
the sun was bright.
There were no clouds
In the sky.

J_rJJ 213
The rain comes down
from the clouds on me.
It comes down on my

aw
head.

Today the weather is


bad. The rain is coming
down. Th• wind is
blowing. It is cold and
the rain makes us wet.

214
Tomorrow the weather may be worse.
It may be very <:old. All the water may be Ice.
Snow may be coming down making everything
white.
Will tomorrow be like
this?
Is this winter or summer?

Or tomorrow the weather may be better.


The sun may be bright again. The air may be
warm again and the streets may be dry again./
Will tomorrow be like ' ' I/ .
"::.:Q<
'"
this?

·,

215
What are the causes This bird~
of these changes in the was wet• .,. '•
weather? Change? ltwos in
What is thot?(See page the rain.

+
190.)

"
Herels
o line.

~ t
w
JI

Her.e is a change In the :


2:

:
:
Thatisa
change.
It was
;r
Now .it Is dry.

wet. It is
direction of the line. dry.
---..---------------·-------~~---~~--~~

What a the cause of There is not one cause


these changes fn the only. There are numbers
weather? of COUMS. Changes in
the heat which comes to
us from the sun are one
Good Bad

-· *
cause of changes of
Dry Wet
Warm Cold
Weather

Why are there these


changes of weather?

216
If you take a look at
the sun through a bit
The amount of heat of dark glass you may
which the earth gets
see smoH marks on
from the sun is different
the face of the sun.
from time to time.
There are changes in
fa
rp
the sun.

·-----------------+-----------------~
I
Amount? One dollar is 1
I
a small amount of 1
money. A million dollars :
is a great amount of :
money. •
A drop of rain •••
Is a very small 6 ••
amount of ••
water, •: There Is a great amount
r of water in the sea.
There is a smaH : This is the sea.
amount of
water in this
nID : Those are ships which.
1 are on the sea.
glass. •
••
I
217
I
I
I
I
Changes fn the heat : He made it by measuring
which comes to the 1 the heat which comes
earth from the sun are : to the earth every day
one cause of changes ! from the sun.
in the weather. This The amount of heat is
discovery Is new. A different from day to
man of science made day.
the discovery in 1944.

• -----·-----------
·-----------------+- I
: Men are making new
On some days the sun 1 discoveries every day.
sends more heat to the : Columbus made the
earth. On other days it : discovery of America
sends Lt. heat to the : in 1492. Columbus came
earth. • to America in his ship
: in 1492,,
I
I

-~-
There is more water In :
this gl~ than in that. : •t;,. ........ - .
'
I
- .... - w

••
•'
I
I
'
218
What were some other Another great discovery
great discoveries? was the wheel.
One of them woa ftre.
Wheels are
round.@

f @ Theygo
round.

Fire is of very great


Li Ji-: A corf

use to men. It gives ua


heat.
They are of very
use to man.
'reot
··------------------·---~------------
Another greot discovery
was clothing. The making of cloth
woa a great discovery.
This la how we make
doth.

What are these? 1


These are some other :
sorts of clothing. :
I
These are threads. (See

9 lirl
A skirt A shirt
page 167.)
They go across from one
aide to fhe other of o
: frame.
I

219
.:
These are other threads. :

I
~- This is cloth.
l I

- :
- :
- :
They go across the first :

threads.
This is a roll of doth.
----l+l-'- We make clothing of
---1111- cloth. We make cloth of
-----=-.H-!l- threads.
They oo under and over
them.

--------~---------------------------~
I
We make threads from •
I Wool is the thick warm
wool and cotton and I hair of sheep.
I
silk. Men take the wool off
'
I
the sheep's back with
'
I
I scissors.

•••
••
••
•I

..,
t
We get wool from sheep. •

~ :'

220
We make threads from
the wool by twisting the
hairs round and rOtlnd. We get cotton from the
cotton plant. "
That wheel is going
round.
It is giving a twist
to the thread •.
It is twisting the
thread.
Cotton is the soft white
hair round the seeds of
the plant.

-----------~------~-----------------~
I

These are different sorts : We get silk from the


1
of seeds. silkworm.

Plants come up from


seeds which come from '
other plants of the some ! This worm makes a soft
sort. : strong thread of silk and
: puts it round itself like a
: coat.
I
I
I

---:1F--~-H=- : At!t1J.{(.~(il(\f~tt/J•

22t

Wool, cotton, and sillc :
are different sorts of :
doth. We make clothing.: When the weather Is
of all these sorts of doth. • cold we put on thick
(See poee 81.) :
J warm wool clothing.

~nijJ] \
When the weather is
warm we put on thin
cotton clothing. Cotton
dothing is not as WClrm
I
I as wool dothing.
I
I
t
t
t
I
I
I

···------------···+··-·-·------------
Thick dothlng keeps UI
warm. It keeps us warmer
than thin clothing.
Thick doth keeps air In
ft, between the threads.
The air does not let heat A thick roof keeps the
go through it. heat of the house in.
A thin roof lets the heat
go through it.

!~
I
I
: A thick roof keeps the
1 heat of the sun out.
222
I
I
Here is a pendl. I
I
I put the pencil In the
ft is straight. It Is not I water.
I
bent. I
I
p I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Here Is a glass of water. '


The pencil seems bent
where it goes into the
water.

·--·--·----·------+----·-------------
' I
The pencil is straight : It seems like this.
but it seems bent. •I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I It is straight, not bent.
I
I It seems bent, not
I
I
straight.
I
I

223
: After I put it in the water
DeTOre I put th
e_J: •1 : it seemed b / l n t .
. e penctd ,, It wasn 't bent •
i n the water 1t seeme 1
straight. It was straight. :
I
I
: When It is in the water it
l seems bent.

When it is out of the


water we see that it is

--
straight.

-----------·------+··--------------··
I
I
ii •

Why did it seem bent l


when itwas in the water?:
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
This is a light. l Here is a bit of glass.
A light sends out light. • A ray of light is going
The light which it sends : through the glass.
out goes in straight lines. 1
.., l
I
I
I
I
I

224

'
I
Where the light goes :
into the glass; it is bent. :
Here Is your eye. "ttl/
I
I
I
I
I

'
I
I
I
••
I
It is bent agofn wftere it •f
comes out of the glass I You are looking at t~e
Into the air. l
I pencil in the 91011 of
I
I water.
I
I

··············-··-+- ···-···········--
I
1
I
I
The light from the pencil : The pencil is not bent.
is bent where it comes : But the light from it is
out of the water into the 1 bent.
I
. ~
oir. •
•••
••

•••

•'•

••
It is bent here.
i
225
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

. /
,/
,/
The light comes :
from here.>
:
t

1 The part of the pencil

lhere.
if.-- _.,, : which is under the water
: seems to be where it is
But it seems to come from: not.
1 ,

'
I
I

·----------------··----···-----------
The light from the
pencil is bent
here.

The light is' bent


where it comes out
of the water. ·

226
I
I
I
I
This is a looking glass. I
I
: She is looking at herself
: in the glass.
: What does she see ln the
: l"ooking glass?
• She sees herself In
: the glass. •
I

What do you see In the


looking glass?
I see a girl's face in
the glass.

She seems to be here.


:
------------------+--·-·-·-----------
1
I
1
Why? Because the glass

r,,-----,
r;1
I ~
• sends the light back.
She 'is here.'I
:,
1
)
\
J.
J I

--<f.
I
She is on this side of
the glass. There seem to be two
She seems to be on the girls in this- picture. There
other side of the glass. is only one.

227
What is this woman
doing?

She is working with her


needle. That is her work.
What is this man doing?
He is working with a
spade. That is his work.

------------------+------------------
c S==,
These.are shoes.

These are boots.


What is this mgn doing?
He is making lhoes. He is
a shoemaker. That is his He makes boots and
work. shoes. That is his work.

228
This is his paint.

'
I
I

This is his brush.
What is this man doing? ~'
He is putting paint on the :
door. He is pointing the 11
~
door. He is a painter. : 1fe puts the paint on with
That is his work. 1 his paint brush.
I
I
I

2 3 ....
2. , 26
....... ii"' 1o
This Is addition,

This Is a check.
The boy is doing
addition. That is his
work.

229
I
I
I
I This Is an account.
I
I
We keep money in : ......
banks. 1
I() ...

s s'
Banking is an Important :
sort of business. :
Men and women in :
banks and business ~
houses keep accounts. 1
Jf 55
I
I
I
I
I Keeping accounts Is an
I
I important part of
I
I
business. ·
I

------------------+------------------
'• Farming is another sort
: of work.
Keeping accounts Is one l
JOrt of work. :

These areQccount books. :



I
I
This. as a farm.
I

230

I
I

This is a cart. •• This is a ~eld •


I
I

....:;;;=:; ~-ib ':


"'..............,,,> = :
I
I

••
I
t
I
1 The farmer is plowing
l the field.
l That is part of his work
'I as a farmer.
The plow is turning up I
the earth. I
I

·-----------------+-----------------·

I

I
I
I
I
The farmer has an I
I
The account says how
account with his bank. I
I
much money he has in
He puts his money in the I the bank.
I
bank. I Farming and keepinQ
I
He keeps money in the I accounts are two
bank. I
I
different sorts of work.
He gets money from I
I
the bank. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

231
What sort of work is this :
man doing? :
He is cutting wood. :
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i What sort of work Is this.
: woman doing?
: She Is washing stockings
: and dresses.

·--·-------·------+-----------------·
What SOrt of work does
I
What sort of work does
this man do? this woman do?
He keeps a store. She keeps a house.
JAUIT STOA•

It is a fruit store. It is her house.


He is a storekeeper. She Is a housekeeper.

232
Put yl:>ur fingers across Across? ><.'
one another like this. I
These two lines go acrost
I one another.
I
I
I
t ·~
I
1 My second finger is owr
: and across my first
: finger.
I

I'
I have my first and
second fingers across
one another.

~-----------------+-- ----------------
Did you put your fingers : Now take a pencil and
across one another? : give a touch to one
That is right. : finger, and then a touch
You have your flngers 1 to the other and then put
across one another. I the pencil between them.
: Do this with your eyes
: shut.
I

'•
I
I
I
••
•••

•••

233
I
I
I
I
You will have a strange 1
feeling. : Do you have the strange
Are two pencils touching : feeling that two pencils
your fingers, or is only : are there? When you are
one pencil touching 1 touching one finger only,
them? : you seem to be touching

.i
: theother?

~.............,

a:·.~:-,,f( !
·-----------------+~-·----·---------·

Why is that? Here is the :
••
answer. •

!
Afl \VV\\.\ :: !{ Butwhentheyareacroa
one another they do not
: do their work together.
When the flngers are like • Then a touch to one
this, or like this, they do : sometimes seems to beo
their work together. : touch to the other.
t

•••
234
•••'
What fs their work? : Those fingers are
What do the ends of our 1 touching the cover of a
fingers do? : book.
Their chief work Is • Touching gives us
touching. : knowledge. ·
: When our eyes are shut_

•••
••
: lhrrf( ~
•'
I

··----------------·---------------~--
•'
dr when we are looking : or when we are not able
fn another direction, 1 to see, we get knowledge
(She is touching the : through touching and
book) l feeling with our fingers.

!

@

235
I
I
I

The chief work of the : That Is a Braille book


ends of our fingers is : which he has before him.
touching. : He is reading the book
Here is a man who is not : with the ends of his
able to see. l fingers.
I
t
•I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I

------------------+------------------ I
I
1 This oth•r man is reading
•1 w1.th h.1seyes.
: He is not reading with
o • • o o et . l his fingers.
0 0 e I

:~Ille le~
are like this.
and-ds
1

He is touching them with :


! ri gJ.
the ends of his fingers. : What are those things on
1 his nose?

.
: They are his glasses.
I
I

236
What is the work of the
eyes?
<C> <C>
Seeing. Their work is
seeing.
lh
What Is the work of the

Walking. Walking ls
What is the work of the their chief wodc.

ewse~ What is the work of the

Hearing. Their work is


hearing. ~
·---------------...
Is talking or taking in -+------------······
I
I
food the chief work of ••
the mouth?
What is the work of the
L This" hands?
~'?talk. Talclng things up, putting
them down, gelling
things, giving things_
making things.
We do things with our
hands.


•••
I
237
QUESTIONS

a Is there more water In b Give the ncimes of


the sea than In a river? three gre('ft
discoveries.
c What Is wool? What Is d Why is thick clothing
cotton? Where do we warn:aer than thin
get .Uk from?' dothing?

e What Is the chief work f What sorts of


of the eyes, the ears, transport go 0n
the mouth, and the wh.els?
fingers?

g Where does smoke h Where do we get


come from? Where wood from?
does steam come
from?

Answers ore on page 240.

238·
WHAT ARE THESE THINGS?
I
a I b

__\~@/ j _ ......,.r; . . c~;: :.%-~-: :R:.~


I
I
..
--------------------r-------------------·
I

c~ !d ~
·------------------T·-••·----------•••••

·nm!' @
·---------·---------~------------------~
g h

·-------------·-----~-------------~--·--·

··------------------•--------------------
Answers are on page 240.
239
Answers to qUestions on pages 238-239.

Page238
a There is more water b Fire, the wheel, and
in the sea than in a clothing were three
river. great discoveries.
c Wool is the hair of d Because thick
sheep. Cotton is the ,lothing keeps
hair round the see<ls heot from going
of the cotton plant. throu~h it.
We get silk from the
silkworm.
e The chief work of the f Carts, automobiles,
eyes is seeing, of and trains go on
the ears is hearing, wheels.
of the mouth Is tok.
ing in food, and of
the fingers is
touching.
g Smoke comes from h We get wood from
fire. trees.
Steam comes from
boiling water.

Page239
a a cart b aplow
c a boot d a looldng-gloss
e a skirt and a shirt f a wheel
g a fire h a spade
i a roll of cloth I an umbrella

240
Another sense is
taste.
Seeing and hearing
and touch are three of
our senses.
"we get knowledge
. ,
---,-·
These are his lips• .-::.
.,,I
lo'
"'1ough our eyes
(see- This is his chin.
irig), through our ears
(hearing), and through
our fingers (touching).
These are three of our The chief work of the
chief senses. tongue l~ tasting.

-----------------+-··-····-----------
1

Here is some white


~D~~~
powder.
She has some of it on
powder on a plate. her finger.
It "JOY be salt or it ma1 She is putting some
be sugar. Which is it- 1
of the powder on
salt or sugar? her tongue. She is tast-
ing it.

9 3na• 1633 241


t
••
I
I

I
I
I
t
I
I

'•
I

I
I
I
We get salt from the I We get salt from salt
I
sea. I mines.
I
The water in the sea I Some mines are deep.
has salt in it. t
t
They go far down into
t the earth.
I
I

-----------------...-+------------------
:' We get sugar from the
We get sugar from • roots of some plants.
I
plants. We get it from •
the stems of some
plants. •••
•••I

The salt or sugar whiCh

tl
we put in our food b a
white powder.

I'
••
I•
242
This Is an orange.
The taste of sugar Is
sweet.
((1})J ~

~~
This is its skin.
It has white sugar on
the· top. Some oranges are
Cokes with sugar on sweet. But the taste of
them are very sweet. their skin is bitter.

··----------------+------------------
I
But to the tongue they
1
I
, are very different.
I
•I
I
Salt has a salt taste. I
I
Sugar has a sweet I
taste. I

To the eye salt and • Their taste is


I
I very different.
sugar seem the same. I

•••
••
J
••
I •• Sugar
9• 243
I
I
What is the work of : Some flowers have
the nose? 1
I
a sweet smell.
What do we do with 1 Some flowers have no
our noses? l smell.
I
She has a flower in I
her hand. •I
I
She is smelling I

the ftower.

This is grass.
These flowers ar& ln
a garden.
They have a sweet
smell.

·--------~--------+------------------

aflr'
This is smoke.
Thisis ...~

These are pigs. Some smoke has a good


Some pigs are dirty. smell. The smell may
Some pigs are dean. not be sweet, but it '·
. ($ee page 125.) may be a good smell.
The smell of dirty pigs He is smoking a pipe.
is not sweet. Is the smell of the smoke
~
It is a bad smelL
gocd?

244
I'
We see things with our :
eyes and we.see their
•• _Q
•., f.,,, ........ .
What is the color of · '•'• '
colors.
Here are some names grass and leaves in
of colorsi spring?
green red Grass and leaves in
spring are green.
blue yel~ow
white groy What Is the color tJf this
girl's lips? ~
Her lips are red. . •
f
I
I
I

----------·------+------------------
•' I
The sky is blue.
•I The sun Ss yellow•
~*
•t
: Sometimes when it is
a!...
•' going®:,:

':• or coming up

It is blue when it is
l
t
I
it ls red.
......
·/"' t
~---.......i

•••
clear.
The color of some This flame
clouds is white. •• is yellow•
Other clouds are •
gray.
•••
245
• this man Is tall.~
We see things with our
eyes. We see the sizes
and colors of things.
Sometimes things seem •
f "A"
This man is short.

to our eyes greater or : ~


smaller than they are. 1
They are not what they : This is a tall woman.
seem. : -

!t
: This is a short woman.
------------------+------~-----------
Here are two men.
Do they seem th•,same
size? Which of them seems
taller?
Does the· man who is
farther.seem taller
than the man who is
nearer?
The pictures of them
ore the some size.
The lines in the picture
make the man who is
nearer seem shorter.
i
i
I
I

246

Our sense of how warm
or how cold things are
Seeing, hearing, touch, is another.
taste, and smell are Here is some cold water
"the five senses." But with ice in it,
we hove more than five It is very cold.
senses. Which are some
of the other senses?
\ /
\@)-_tJJ_~,
.. - - ..:::-

-----·•...·a.a~---~------------------
1
I
••
I
I
'\i5SJ·~'
~ \i2J'
Very Very
cold warm

Here are three basins.


The basin to the right
·hos very warm water
Here is some water in a : in it. The basin to the
kettle. The water is ! left has cold water in
boiling. l it. The basin in the
Steam is coming out of 1 middle has water which
the kettle. : is not cold and not warm
: in it.
247
~q
Now I am putting them
together into the middle
basin where the water
I
is not cold and not
warm.
I put my hands in the
basins at the sides.
'II
One of my hands is in I•
the cold water; the I
I

!=t\~lf1 F
other is in the warm
water.
I keep them there for a
time.
----,--..---~-----+---
'
I
I
. -------------'-
I
I

What is this? I•
This water seems warm : Why is this?
to one hand and it : It is because one hand
seems cold to the I was in warm water
I
other! I and the other in cold
I
It is the same water. I water before I put them
I
But it seems cold and in this middle basin.
warm at the same
tlmel

248
Another sense is our A man is rn the seat.
sense of motion. H'e is going round and
Here is a seat which round •••
goes round and round•


.~ "
••
I
I

------·-----------+-
•' ----···----------

t
I
At first he has a feeling • After a time the man
that he is in motion. has a feeling that he Is
He has the· feeling thclt not in motion. But there
he is going round. is no change in the rate
The seat,with the man at which the seat is
in it, keeps on turning turn~ng. It is going round
round at the some rate. the some number of
It does not go quicker. times a minute.
It does not go slower.

249
He is like all the men
and women on the
earth. We are all turning
round all the time with
the earth, but we seem
to ourselves to be at rest•

••
After a time, if the
rate of turning is the
•:•
59me, the man seems to :
himself to be at rest •
(not in motion). :

····----·······----·------------------


I


t
11

~~~
We hove no feeling
thot we are in motion.

~
This is because the rote
of turning is the same.
The man Is In motion. Here ore three boys
He seems to himself to and a dog.
beat rest. Two of the boys ore
taking a rest.
They are resting on
1 their beds.
: The other boy and the
• dog are in tnotion•

250
Now, put a stop to the
motion of the seat. But he has a feeling
When you do that the that he is turning
seat is at rest. The man round and round.
is not in motion. This is a picture of
his feelings.

·-----------------+---------------···
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
It is because change in
He is not turning round. I our motion is the cause
But he seems to himself
to be turning round.
'•
I
I
of our feelings of
motion.
And everything round I
I
Through our sense of
him seems to be turning I
I
motion we get
round. I knowledge of changes
Why is this? •
I in the rote and
I
I direction of our motion.
I
I
I
I
I
I

'
I
251
~What is he doing?
He is hammering.

._ ,
(}:This is his hammer.
He is putting the cover
on a box.

~·-----------------+------------------
He is nailing down the
cover of the box.
9,These are nails of The cover is on the
U different sizes. top of the box.

Mary has her hands


over her ears.
"'What a noise!"
The blows of the She is saying, "'What a
hammer make a noise. noise you are making."
He is making a very
loud noise.
252

~~ What Is this?

~~ i ~~#::::::~!··
'~""- : whittle. It I•
Some noises are loud. : making a loud
These are guns. 1 . noise.
Guns make loud noises. 1 ·rhls boy has a
Those guns make mor• : pocket whistle.
noise tfian this gun. : He is making
: some noise
• ™ i t h it but not
: l t much noise.
I
I
I
I

--~--------~------+-----·
------~---·-·
&
l
This is music. :
i
This is a very high
mountain.

This is

I

a song. '
:t These are high
·' These are I mountains.
notes. :


i
.d.f"A This Is a high building.
flttl 1 It is a church,
Th is IS a I 1
:high note. . -- t of : Th• •
ISISO
This is a -==== : lo~ building.
low note. d"' · •
• · ·'
1
·
••
253
Noises and songi
are sounds.
What are sounds?
l~
I
I
I
They are the effects of I

waves in the air.


I
I
These are waves in a
I
t
cord. One end. of the
• cord is fixed to a tree
and the boy has the
other end. He is shaking
it up and down •.

!l.- ..................... ._.,


These"""...,:...,, .,.,.,,, ._ ....
are waves in the sea.
·-----------------+---------
! ---~----

With every shake he goe~ down. And


sends a wave down the .
this part, . ,'
cord to the tree!/ which was down,
9oesup.
•••
I•
I '
•••'

•• ffere is a brain.
t
These are waves in the
air. They come to our : The part of the brain
ec1rs. : which does the most
They have effects in our : work in hearing hos the
ears and brains. Those • word HEARING on it.
effecfl ore sounds. :
'
I
I

·---~-------~---·-+-------------·-··-
"The most"? 1
I
Some things I

animal~
I
have water
'
in them.
This cup has
some water
O! I
I
Some
n
have brainst l
a horse has
In it. I some brains;
I
This bucket I a monkey has
I
has more I more broins1
I
water in it. I and a man
has the mos~t
I
I
The sea has I brains of
I
the most ~:r'1'' I the three.

~
wat~ in it. " - I

_... -
..
..,W'
-...
.....
"""' .....-
._. ..,;
I
I'
••
.. .

255
,
I
I
I
t I have less money than
I
I have two dollars. I he has.
I I have less than you
You have twenty I
dollars. I
I
have.
He has a thousand I
I
I have the least money.
dollars. I
I
He has more money I
1 The most $1 OOO
than we have. I
I
You have more
than I have. : More $20 Less
I
He hos the most money. II
I
$2 The least
I
I
I
I

·-----------------+------------------
i
I
'
I

~:.
I
This ts the :
highest note. 9. l
----·
This is a
lower note, =q= Farming is an important
sort of work.

but it is ' · Is it more important than


Wgherthan
this.note. 9 banking? ·

Which Is the lowest note


of the three?
This plate has some salt
on It.

This~ne
This plate has more salt
on it.
[ [
isdeep. I
This plate has the most
This mine Is deeper.
,.. salt on it.

This mine is the deepest 1 ~


of the three. : It has more salt on ff
1 than the other plates.
'
·-------·---------+----------·-------·
I

~LAID '
I
This is a bad fire.
I
This is a
good book.

These 9re
two other
good books. .
I

'
I: &P
El~
:'
I
•I
: This is the worst fire of
One of them is better : the three.
than the others. :
It is the best book of the :
three. ~

257
I
I
I
I
I
: Whenever she sees a
: looking glass she goes to
1 it and takes a look at

: herself.
I
I
I
I
I

She is looking at herself :


in a !ooking glass. :
Again and again, every :
day, she takes a look at 1
herself in a glass. ! I

------------------~,------------------
looking at himself in the
Because looking at : glass gives him no
herself in the glass gives ; pleasure.
her pleasure. ;
It gives him pain. Why?
She is beautiful. She sees : He sees himself. Is he
that she is beautiful. 1
I beautiful?
I

~~! 'II
I
I
t
.i

258
"Pleasure''? What is
that? "Pain"? What is I
I
that? I
He~e is a


:
• nail. You put
: your finger
: nail over this
Put your finger ~ nail, and I
in the flame. 6 will give it a
No, I will not. : blow with ~
Why not?
Because of the
i this hammer; T
·

pain. I
I
.
I
I
I

------·-··-------·-----···----------
1
I

I
I

r
I
t
I
: That is pain. Pleasure is
: the opposite of pain.
•I "Opposite"?

Good is the
• opposite of bad.
No, you will not. I see I ,

what pain is now. I see •


I
I
what the sense of the I
.. . .. .
word pain ts now.
•,
This is another use of the :
word "sense". :
I
I
I

259
,./
·C-
..·.'
I

Good weather. The day Bad weather. The wind is


is bright. The air is warm. blowing. The rain is
The sky is blue •. They are falling. It is cold. It is wet
happy. They are unhappy.

·-----------------+-----------------·
Bright is the opposite
White is the opposite
of black.
~ of
~dark.
oCJ
·
What is the opposite of
dry? (See page 128.)
What is the opposite of
happy?

260
•l
: What Is the opposite of
1 narrow?
: Is this street narrow?
I
I
I
Which of these I
t
is a high
building? What •
I
I
is the other? •
t
t
I

t
fn··· n· ·.a.) It
I
I
I

1
I

·----------------·+··----------------
~~he ! FRO~TOFROM
opposite of
down.
!

TO 4-TO

ln:1•e1MM. FROM TO FROM . '

To is the opposite of from.


. ~oUT

Pleasure is the opposite


OUT of pain.
OuT@oUT

261
.
I

Beautiful things give U1 :


pleasure. :
'
I

'
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I There Is a smUe on her
When she sees herself in ~ facenqw. ~
the gloss, she sees that !
she is beautiful. :
That gives her pleasure. : Why Is the smile there?
-
'11'.f

I
I

·-----------------+···-------------~-

i
I
! She is saying to herself

~,:;:a.,f'·.... that oho is boaulilvl.~


Her pleasure Is the cause : A smile does not make a
of her smile. : sound. A laugh makes a
She Is saying to herself, 1 sound.
~

I!.,~baunilewltho.
i am beautifuL• :

262
This is a great painting
by Leonardo. The picture ls beautiful.
That is certain.

Was the woman


beautiful? Was Lisa
Its name is the herself beautiful?
Mona Lisa. That is not certain.

·-----------------+------------------
I have my idea of that.

She had her idea. We


may have different ideaJ
of how beautiful that
He has his idea. woman was.
There is no measure of
the beautiful.

263
2 + 2- 4
She may or may not be 2 + 2 =4. Two and two
beautiful. are equal to four. That is
But it is certain that she certain.
has a,smile on her lips.
That is certain.
2+ 2 \ . s
+
2 2 = S. Two and two
are not equal toftve.
That is certain.
It is not certain that she is
beautiful. It is certain that
2+2=4.

·-----------------+------------------
~-~I

EJ-l!J-EJ-EJ ! Things
I
which are like
one anQther may be
I
I
I
equal ar they may not.
I
a is equal to b, and b is :
equal to c, and c is equal :
toa. I
So a is equal to d. : .
Things which are equal I These two are lake one
to the same things are 1 another but they are not
equal to one another. lI equal.
I

••II >
)
)
I
I
264
I

••

"... 'e' ••

t
A smile is like a laugh. I
I
But a laugh makes a
sound. '
I
I

. •
~i
• : She has a fall. She gives
!h•s girl is laughing. She l a cry. Now she is crying.
is happy. 1 She is not laughing now.
: She is crying. Why?
I

·-----------------+- -----------------
Because she gave her : The fall was the cause of
knee a blow in her fall. : the blow to her knee.
I

Thisis ~
her~~ ! I
~
1 The blow was the cause
: of the pain in her knee.
I

She was on
her feet.
1ft
.i i :
And the pain
in her knee
~
Then she was : was ~he cause
on her face. 1 of her crying.
I
Shehada ~ I
fall. ~ I
I

265
Pleasure and pain are
""'- - --=_ _
.............- . -. __
....... - _
............
_..........,......._,... ..............
~......,.._,..,_

feelings.
We have feelings of
pleasure and pain.
Here are some
pleasures. He is on the sand at the
seaside, looking at and
hearing the sound of the
waves and warming
himself in the sun.
These are pleasures.

------------------+-
' -----------------
Nov/he is taking a swim : Now he is resting in the
in the sea. sun again after his swim.

He Is swimming through
the waves. He is a good
..........
~ - *
---.--
...................................
.......
"""

swimmer. After the water


To a good swimmer,
•1 the sun on his skin is
I
swimming is a pleasure. : a pleasure to him.
I

266
The man is feeling the bit
Pleasure and pain are of wood with his fingers.
feelings. Is it rough or is it smooth?

~
~
When we put our fingers ~his is rough.
·on things we have
feeUngs-feelings of 1
t0uch or of.heat and :
cold. • ~his is1smooth.
But this is another use of: 1
the word "feeling." :
·-----------------+------------------
I
I
Things which give us : Our feeling of this
pleasure have an 1 attraction is named
attractiort for us. : "desire."
But it is not the same sort: When we have pleasure
of attraction as the : we have a desire for the
attraction between the • pleasure to go on and
earth and the moon. : goon •••
(See pages 202-203.) : Time goes on. The hands
I of the clock go·on. Our
I

l>~·-··--···-·· ... t>


I
I
I

i
goon. ®
feelings may or may not

I
I
I

' 267
I
Some desires are : His ball has an attraction
stronger than others. 1 for him.
This baby sees the cat : He has a desire for the
and he sees his ball. : ball.
I
I

'
I
I 0
I
I
I

: Which will he go to? .


The cat has an attraction : If his desire for the cat is
for him. : stronger than his desire
He has a desire for the : for the ball, he will go
cat. 1 to the cat.
I
I
I

------------------+------------------
' I
I
I
I
I
I
I
o: I
All our desires are for
things which seem good
I
·I to us. They may not be
I good. Our ideas of them
t
He went to the cat. : may be wrong.
His desire for the cat was l
stronger. :
I
t
t
t

t
••
268
We get knowledge by When the answers are
putting questions. right, they give us
That is one way of knowledge.
getting knowledge. ! When they are wrong
The answers may give us 1 they do not give us
knowledge or they may : knowledge. .
not. : 2 + 2 = 4 Right
I
I 2 +2=5 Wrong
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I

·, !Which
·----------------+-- ----------------
is~his
I
right ~andt
-
How far is the sun from : ·
the earth?
Which is the right
:
: Which is his left hand?
t-=.
answer: • He is fadng you.
t
"It is two miles away.• • h h h ck

i you~
1
or "It is much more than Now e £ isbaa tos
~hi;hil:t~:::~g .
answer to the question? :
. I
' ~
I Which is his left hand
I
I now, and which is his
I
I
right?

269
This is a doorway.

Our senses-seeing,
hearing, touching,
tasting, and smelling- •
are ways through which
we get knowledge.
Our ideas come to us
through our senses.
'----
The way into the room is
through the door.
1 The way out of the room
: is through the door.
I
I
I
I

·-----------~-----·------------------
-Which is the way to the
'<C-
"-
station?" ·
"Take the first street to
the right."

This man had no


knowledge of the way to
the station.
Now he has the
knowledge.

270

I
We get knowledge in ; through the work we do
different ways-through 1 with our hands and our
our senses, ~ : heads, and through
: books.

4d_ 'PJ I

through talk
with other men,
- mq
li.U
l j~ ..dt,~
rJ. 1
These are. all ways of
getting knowledge.

·-----------~-~---+---·~-----··--·--·
I
I
I
I
I
Knowledge is very : Is the word '!'use•'part of
important. It is important : your knowledge of
in itself. And it is • English?
important as a way to : (See page 219.)
other things. A man who : Knowledge gives us
has no knowledge is of ! light. It makes things
no use to other men. : clearer to us.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

271
I
I
This is a boy.

t *
I
I Every night he has a long
I
I
sleep in his bed.
••
~--1
I
Hewlllbea
man. I
I
I
I
I
I

Hewas·a~ I
I He goes to bed at eight
baby. I
every night.
I
I 0

I'

Heseem1tobe
abOut twelve year
~ I
I
I
I
old now. I
I

·-----------------+~----------------·
I
I
Q) I
I
He puts his clothing on.
He gets up I
I
every morning ~ I
I
at.aven. · ~ I

'
I
I
I
I
I
I
••
He gets out of I
I
bed and gives
•I
himself a g~ood!! I
wash. er.: : He says "Good morning..
==-t!
~
• to his mother and father
: and takes his place at
: the table.
272
I
I
I
I

: He keeps his thoughts on


At school he sees his : his work.
friends and does his : He does not let his
work. : thoughts go off to other
: things.

·-----------------+·-----------------
At play after school he ' Then he comes back
I
I
sends the ball a long I from school.
I

~
way. I
I
I

,•
,,,,.---- · • • ••• I
'
I
,' I
I
I
: Here he is with the family
1· again.
I
I
I
I
I
I
He makes it go a long
way.

10 3nu 1633 273


Men are persons. They : They•see and --~..,.
have their work.~\ : .,.....""{'
They put r"' : say things, /\.
and takethings~ ~-.. :
V""'"r' : keep things. ~
~_J::l and give :1 ~
,.2 ~- ~c andletthem(go),
r-!~and get themj 0

makeand ~
They come I\ : ~
andgo. : • , ~
send them~\j2
-+ c.::::> :
------------------·-----------------

Some seem happier than others.


All these sorts of things are done by men and women.
·rhings are put and taken by them.
Things are given and got by them.
Things are seen and said by them.
Things are kept and let go by them.
Things are made and sent by them.

274
'
Eve saw the appl~:

tlfl 1'©: The apple was seen


by her.
It was taken by her.

She~
It was given by her to
Adam.
These things were done
by Eve.
She gave it to Adam.
~ve did these things.

··----------------+------------------
' I
I
I
I

I
Wemaysaythisintwo : This may be said in two
ways. ~ ways.
She sow the apple and 1 The apple was seen by
1
took it and gave it to Eve, and taken and
Adam. -given by her to Adam.

10 * 275
I
I
I
I
I
I will do It. : It will be done by me.
I am doing it. • It is being done by me.
I
I did it. 1 It was done by me.
They will see it. : It will be seen by them.
They are taking it. ! It is being taken by them.
They gave it. ' It was given by them.
DO TAKE : DONE TAKEN
SEE GIVE : SEEN GIVEN

·-----------------+---------------~-·
I will say it. It will be said by me.
I said it. It was said by me.
I made it. It was made by me.
I kept it. It was kept by' me.
I let it go. It was let go by me.
I put it there. It was put there by me.
I got it. It was got by me.
I sent it. It was sent by me.
SAY lt\AKE KEEP SAID lt\ADE KEPT
LET PUT LET PUT
GET SEND GOT SENT

276
Every statement or question In this book hat OM or
more of these sixteen words in its

be come give make


have go get send
do put keep see
seem take let say

277
Here are the other fifteen words. They go like thisa

Past Present Future

had have will have


did do will do
seemed seem will seem
came come will come
went go will go
put put will put
We took take will take
gave give will give
got get will get
You kept keep will keep
let let will let
made make will make
sent send will send
They saw see will see
said say will say

278
Pad Present Fulure

had has will have


did does will do
seemed seems will seem
came comes will come
He went goes will go
put puts will put
took takes will take
She gave gives will give
got gets will get
kept keeps will keep
It let lets will let
made makes will make
sent sends will send
saw sees will see
said says will say

279
In English we do not make statements like thisi
She gave you money to I. That ls wrong.
We make statements like thisi
She gave your money to me. That Is right.
I my me we our
Cu tour you you your you

she ~ ~~~} they their them


It Its It
In English we make COMPARISONS like thlsi
g09d better best
bad worse worst
much more most
little less least
beautltul more beautiful most beautiful
small smaller smalleSt
bright brighter brighte.st
short shorter shortest
thin thinner thinnest
In English we make changes In names llu this1
cat (dog, boot, day, 2 or more cots (dogs, boots.
nose, face •••) clays, noses, faces •••)
glass (watch, brush •••) 2 glasses (watches,
brushes .•.)
1 body (cry, baby .••) 2 bodies (cries; babies ••.)
1 knife (leaf, shelf •••) 2 knives (leaves, shelves •••)
1 tooth, foot 2 teeth, feet
1 man.woman 2 men, women
1 or more sheep, tcissor'6 trouaert

280
KHHrA 2
BOOK 2
PREFACE

This is a second book in a series English Through


Pictures. It keeps in mind that its readers will have
many different needs. Some will want more English to
help them to find work, some as a step on the way to
higher education, some for business, travel or better
living - and some because English opens for them
a window with a wider outlook on the world.
We have tried in designing English Through
Pictures, Book 2 to serve all this needs. However, our
first care has been the ordering of the teaching itself.
It is the purpose of this book to supply starting
points from which people can go out in different
directions as their different interests take them. We
hope it will be a book of beginnings.
"I am here."

Where is "here"?
Where are you? Where do you live?
Who are you? What is your name?

UYe1 the place where you are llvlng or hcrte your house 11 where
yOu live.

FUTURE PRESENT PAST


wlURYe UYe(a) llYecl

285
"I am here"
is the first statement in English Through
Q Pictures, Book 1 (EP 1).

That book uses about five hundred


words of English in a great number of
different ways.

Using those same words, together with


about the same number of new words
and more pictures, this book ( EP 2)
goes farther into the language.

---
.................-
-·----
::!":t\ ·:~::-:::

This new book uses about a thousand words of English.

uM: when yov malr.e use of so-thing yau use it.


lang-gei all the WOl'da used by persan1 talking or writing to one
another•
. .llUM

286
Are you a man or a woman or a girl c:JI' a boy? Whal is
your country? ls the country where you live now tho
country of your birth?

8 p•m
PHILIPPI
...HP J•
{L
a•

Do you see on this page a map of the country where you


live? ls it Germany, the Philippines, Brazil. Australia,,
Kenya, or some other country?

There are millions of readers of EP 1 . The boo.le is used


in al.most every country.

country: land under one gaMmment.


lllrth1 coming Into b•ln9

almoah lhe shorter llH here is almost as long aa


the other.
"'alalNt •very -W'i lllOlf -n1r1...

287
1
"What is your name?" the man
on the right ask,. The otb~r
man answers: "My name 1s
Jean Schmidt."
~
;;.
'
"Where do you come from? ~
What is the country of your "';{'~~
birth? Where were you born?..
(These are different ways of
asking the same question.)

"Geneva, SWit7.erland... answers Jean Schmidt.

•Have you any relations in this country?..

"Yes. I have one. My uncle, my father•s brother. lives


ia Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A."

alka: puts 0 question.


- - gives on ons-r.
borN given birth or given being.
ClllJ't one or more, some. In onswerlng the question "HCIYe you ClllJ
-ney?" - soy "Yes, I hove toMe" (not "Yes, I have My"). If -
have no money, we soy "No, I hoven't ony.u

... __
.....
,..kdlon: person of some foinily.
- " " fother'1 or •other's brotllw•

uk{•)
-••{•)
"When were you born? Give me
the date of your birth. What is
your age?"
"I was born on January 10,·1920.
I am thirty~ven (years old)."

..When were you at school? How


long were you there? How many
years were you at school?"
"I was at school eight years."

..What work do you do? What is


your occupation?"
"I am a cook."

date: day of the mal'lth Gl'ld year, If you give the daf, mOt1lh al'ld year
of your birth, that 11 a Wflff af giving your age, IQ'(il'lg how old
you are.
age1 your age I• the numlMr af r-- yov bave liYeCI.
how -ftY1 what number of.
~ a gr.at nu•IMr of.
occupatl-1 work.
cook; penon wha mobl food hlOdJ by lleatlng

289
Here are some people of
different countries.

This is a
Japanese girl.
She lives in
, Japan. Japan
~ is her country.
She is
Japanese.

This is an
Indian boy. . . .
He lives in
India. India
is his country.

people11 "'"" and - • n and boys and glrla or. p-oplL

290
Here are some people who live in the United States of
America, the U.S.A. The fathers and mothers of these
people went to the U.S.A. from England, France, Italy,
Switzerland, Poland, Russia and other countries. Some
of them sailed there in sailing ships before the days of
steamships.

Now the sons and daughters live in the U.S.A. and most
of them are Americans. Some of them were born in the
U.S.A. They got their start in America, but they have
many relations in the old country.

1all: sailing ships have sails and sail by


using the push of the wind.
•tart: if a person goes for a walk., the start
of his walk. is the vwy first step. Being
born is the start or starting point of a
pwson, and his age at. a given date is the time he has been living
from the start (from his birth).
wlll •all IGll (•) 1alled

291
Japan and India and China are parts of Asia. Germany,
Italy and France are in Europe. In all these countries
there are many people. In some countries there is very
little land for the size of the population. Europe has less
land than Canada and not much more than the U.S.A.,
but it has a population more than thirty times as great as
Canada's. And the numbers keep going up. Between
1850 and 1950, more than thirty million people went
from Europe to live in the U.S.A.,
but the population of Europe in
1954 was greater than the popu-
lations of North and South Amer-
ica together.


••••••••••
••••••••••
••••••••••
••••••••••
tlMfl as ..-.i In this picture I
Is four times the size of A. It b
four times as great os A.

popullltl-1 the popvlatlon of a place Is the 11vmber of people Rvlng


in It.

292
There are 50,000,000 more people in Europe today than
there were twenty-five years ago. The increase in pop-
ulation in twenty-five years is 50,000,000. Europe has
increased her population by 50,000,000 in the last
twenty-five years.

This map gives a picture of the number of people in


each country of Europe today.

htu tt.on 1 •llllOll

1·6 •llllon1

11-36 •llllon•

36-70 •lllion•

ago: before now, before the present.


lncr-w: amount by which something gels greater.
to Iner-: to get greater in size.
-du every1 all, one by one.
'wllllncr-

293
This is a picture of the increasing
population of the United States in
1850
the last hundred years. One man
in the picture represents ten
1860 million (I 0,000,000) people.
This picture is a graph.
1870 'Ibis graph lets us see
relations between
1880
times and numbers
of people.

1890 JJJJJ.J\.
1900 jJJJJJJJ
AA!\!\!\MM
•••••••
1910

.........
....***'****
MJ\AJ\· * ..
N
J\J\J\MJ\J\J\
~
19-«!~

.......-nt11 takes the place of; puts before the mind.


gr11ph1 picture which represents changes in amounts in relation to other
choftges.
relation: there is the some relation between 2 ond 4 os there is between
3 ond 6.

294
This map gives a picture of the population in the dif-
ferent states of the United States of America today. The
scale of the map is the same as that used for Europe on
page 9.

H you Jook at the two you wi11 see that the U.S.A. is not
much smaller than all of Europe•

• ...000.000.10.000,000

scale: one inch on this line repre1ent1 a 111lle. The 1cole used is one inch
to a mile.
0
I - - - - - - - - 11
.. nes •
2,
- - - - - _ . _ . . __ _ _ _ __._
ll
look1 take a loot. n. -1e Is otte Inch to a •••
wrlllook look(•) looked

295
Which a.re the countries with the most people in them'!
China. India. the U.S.S;R. and the U.S.A. all have pop-
ulations of over a hundred million. Some countries have
less room in them than these four, but these have the
greatest populations.

Chlfto ltaa - than 600,000,000 - -

lndlo hos '"ore thGfl 300,000,000

U.S.S.R. hos Mont lhGfl 200,000,000 ~

U.S.A. •111 - thcm l.S0,000,000 -

It is not good for a country if it does not have enough


room for all its people. A person who does not have
enough room to live in may not be able to keep well.

over: mor• thon.


room: wh•n th.,.• i1 no mor• room In o roo•, in o building, in o country,
it 11 full.
well: o penon b -n If thete b nothing wrong with hi1 body or hi1 mind.

296
The population of the earth bas increased more than the
amount of food. There is a great need for more food.
More than a billion people on the earth today need more
food than they can get. They cannot get enough food to
keep them well and strong. The relation between amount
of food and size of population has been changing.

1650

1750

1m~

\.\.\\\\\.~\.\.~~
1950

ea b11Uon1 In A111erican nvmben, a lhovsond million, 1/Jl)fJ/Jl)fJ#YJ,.


..-di 10111ethlng important which la not pruent.
c11111 are able to.
ccannoh are not able to.
wlft....cl
(wlU beab.. to)
-
..-cl(•)

7.97
There were more than twice as
many people in the world in the
year 1850 as in 1650. There were
more than twice as many in 1950
as in 1850.

Will the population of


the world go on in-
creasing'! Look at the
curve in this picture.

1650 1750 11.5()

twtce: twice o lhing It two times It.


world: the earth and all that (which) it Oii It-people, other rwlng things
and the thing• that 111011 has mode.
curvet line that goes on changing Its direction.

298
There wete over two billion si:&: hundred million
(2,600,000,000) people in the world in 1954. Less than
half of them could get as much food as they needed.
Many of them because of this are not healthy.

There are some people everywhere who take more food


than is good for them, but many more get less than
they need.

People are asking one another what the world popula-


tion will be in 2050 if it goes on increasing like this. It
will be very great. It will be much greater in some parts
of the world than in others.

Some people say it will be between five and ten billion


and some that it may be as much as thirty billion.

healthy; well, right in body and •Ind.


_....,,...._in eYety plac-.

299
More than a hundred million people on earth today live
in cities. Some cities have more people in them than some
countries have.

There are nineteen or more cities in the world which


have over two million people in them.

Cities have been increasing in size in our time. Before


the twentieth century it was hard for the people in a
great city to get enough food.

On the next page you will see a map of the world on


which are marked ten cities with more than three million
people in ~eh.

cltyi lo- of great sl:n.


rw.ntleth -tur)n the hundred years nunilMred from 1900 lhivugh
1999.

300
1 • Berlin

2. Calcutto

3. Leningrad

"'- lOlldon

5 • Mexico Oty

6.~

7 • NewYorlc

a. Part•

9. Shanghai

10. Ta~

301
This city has great bw1dings, some of which have ma-
chines in them for doing many sorts of work by steam
or electric power. These are factories. One of them is
a factory where furniture is made. In it men make tables
and chairs in great numbers.

I II
111
II

.JJ.J.J

machlnea lnmv-nt which doe1 work for -11.


powers a thing's power 11 the work It Is oble to do.
electrk po-. power whlc.h glve1 us electric light, heat, telephones.
foctory1 building whent men and mochinu malt• thing~
fwnltwe: beds, lablu, chests of drawVI, 1
bookshelves, etc. h

chain Not for one , , . - .


"-

302
We are living at a time when machines do work which
men used to do. Now materiaJs and things of all sorts
can be transported long distances quickly. Its transport
lines are very important to any great city.
lllOH MIHI

TIAHSl'OUIHO MAtWA&I

MateriaJs such as iron. which Is mined from the earth in


some places, and steel, which is made from iron, are
used to make machines. Iron and steel are metaJs.

_._lah that from which lhlng1 can be mod•. Wood i1 a mat•rlal from
which much of our furnltur• i1 mad•. Glass Is lh• mat•rial u1•d in
windows. Much of our clothing Is mod• of wool or cotton or allk
mat•riols. Mochin.s or• mode of metaL
any: in this Hnse, every,
plant: in this s•ns•, factory.
metal: any mol•rial of a c•ttaln sort, aucb oa lroa and 11MI. Mtitola Qr•
hard ond ar• got from th• <tOrth.

303
It is only in the last century that great numbers of people
have been able to live far from their food supply, with
thousands of men in one placo doing the same sort of
work.

High buildings like those pictured on the next page are


being put up in more and more great cities today in
greater and greater numbers. They are apartment houses,
which sometimes have hundreds of different families
living under one roof. There may be as many as twenty
or thirty ftoors in one apartment house, with homes for
fifteen or twenty families on a 8.oor.

llUPP'1i a•ovnt of to•Hthlng few fvtv,. vse.


food tupplJl amovnt of food needed.
apal"hlHlftt houMt building fof a number of families ta live In.
i.o- Uring plac4t for o family,

304
Hundreds of families may make their homes in one apart-
ment house.

LLL LLLL
LLL LLLL
L LL LlLL
~~~ llL L

In these stores people who live in the city can buy food.
clothing and supplies of everything they need.

Some stores sell food, some sell clothing and some sell
furniture. In most cities there are great stores which sell
almost everything. They supply these families with what
they need.
buya g•t 10tHthi11g by giving mon•y for it.
aelb avpply for Money. If I buy IOM•thing from you, you Hll It to .,..
supply& gift o supply of.
wlll IMry buy(•)
wm ..11 ..ll(a)
wlllaupply .upply(lu)

11 3&1Ul3 1633 305


People in apartment houses have no
place to keep a supply of food. They
may have enough food in an icebox
to take them through a day or two,

but on most days they buy meat


and milk and fruit and other
things they need from a store
near their home.

Many families have supplies of milk and other foods


sent to their houses every day. People with children in
the family may buy four or five quarts of milk at a time.

Here is a family with five persons in it: a husband. a wife


and their three children.

The man is the woman's husband


and she is his wife. They have been
married ten years.

chllch a boby or a 'fGllllQ boy or ~ girl. 'lovng boy• and gitl1 ore
children.
quam ... next page.
morrledi huabonds aad wlvu are men and -•en who are married.

306
A milkman puts the milk outside their door in the early
morning. Milkmen start their work in a great city before
it is light.

In some parts of the world milk


is measured in gallons. Milk is
put up in pint and quart bottles
or in cartons. In other parts of
the world milk is measured in
liters. A liter is a little more
than a quart.

pint: about two cupfuls.


gallon: four quarts make one galloni two pinh make one quarti there
are two cups in a pint.
Hrly: the lint hours of the morning are the early morning.
carton: bottle or box made of strong paper maleriol.
wlll 1tart 1tart(1I 1tartecl

11 • 307
In some factories food is
put into cans. It is canned.
These are machines in a
canning factory.

Most foods today can be bought in cans.


Food stores sell callJled soups, meats.
fruit and vegetables.

Food is canned to keep it from the air. When air can get
at it, it quickly goes bad-if it is not kept very cold.

Canned food that has gone bad is a poison. Bad food is


very bad for people; it poisons them. If they take much
of it they may die. After a person dies, he is dead.

cant 11uttal box. A can can teep food good for ye«s. 111 llrital11 a ca11 11
a tin. Tin ia a metal which Is used 01 a
coating for can•.

i~
veptableu planta uaed aa food.
pol1101111 anything which Is very bad 111 lb •ffed
if taten by -uth.
dlea come to the end of living.
deadi no longer living.
will pol-
~
wlH die

308
People can have only a
few cans of meat and fruit
and other things "'on
hand," as we say, on their
shelves. 'They may have
a cupboatd with two or
three shelves of canned
food, but most people have - + - - - - - + - - - - + - -
no room for more than
thaL If supplies do not 11
come into the city day by
day their supply of c:anned food is quickly used up.

_.'1 cannot.
fewz a 1moll nvmber of, llOf mc:my.
cupboardt walled-in 1helve1 with doora In front of them.

309
Some people working
in cities have no time or
place to cook: for them-
selves. Many at:
them
go out to restaurants
for all of their meals.
There are many restau-
rants in a great city, all
needing supplies of
food every day and
some of them cooking
for great numbers of
people.

A good restaurant keeps its food clean and does not let
files get at it. If flies get on food they may poison it.

- l a do cooking. A cook coob.


........,,.. hl•self and h-lf.
mealt food taken at one 11.,., Jn the inornlng (breakfast), In the alddle
of the day Punch-, lundi ot dlnnet) ot at night (dinner ot 1upp411").
....._ _,, place whenl you can kiib -11 at dlffet"elll prices.

flyt thl• 11 a housefly.


w111-ac cookeel

310
Here is a supply of. meat. vege-
tables, milk, butter, cheese,
bread, fruit and eggs, enough
for a family of four persons for
one day in the U.S.A. H a per-
.son does not get enough food of
the right so..-ts, he will not keep
well. He will not be able to work
or play well.

Fresh food must be supplied to


a city day by day. It will not keep good very long if it is
open to the air. If uncovered, it may get flies on iL Flies
get on dirty things. Their dirty feet make food dirty.
Canned food will keep good for a long time. It can be
stored.

hah: new, nol kept for a long time.


-m has to. A man mu1t have air, water and food to five.
-~ not covered.

wlllston
wlll work
wlUplaJ
....,.)
-'<(•)
plaJ(•)

311
This is a bag of. grain.
0

9"'hn seeds of some grass plonts used for malting bread ond some
other cooted foods.
hed1 whee - give people food, - feed them.

wldhed hed(•) fed

311
. The milk must •..bpi
clean and cold and put into bottles and taken to tbo atorea
and houses in the city. aty governments aeo that
kept clean and has enough butterfat in it.
milk•

Some city-born children have never seen a caw and ba'VO


to be taught where milk comes from.

-err: off, from thot ploce


fah the port of •lilk fro• which butter la .acM la buttwfat. ni- -
•any IOl'ts of tots.
...,,...not-r.

313
Milk is the best food there is for babies. It is good for
children and for older people too. It has in it fat, which
gives energy, and it has the most important of the ma-
terials needed for building up our bodies. Milk makes
strong bones and strong teeth too. It is good for a child
to drink two or three glasses of it every day.

In addition, milk bas in it most of the vitamins which are


needed to keep us healthy. Vitamins are a discovery of
this century. A hundred years ago no one knew anything
about them.

t.O& In addition. Aftw the addition of - thing to DAOther - have the


one and the other toa.
.......,.,_.
HI'* putting up a bvlldlng Is bvlldlng It. We can bvlld * - with
wood and badles with food.
. . .kt take In by -'h• lob a drink.
llrnowt have knowledge of.

.......
w1n ww
will know
Wlcl(•)
*'-le(•)
bow(•)

314
A

Vitamin B cannot be stored. It must be


supplied all the time by some of the food
we eat. The skins of grain of all sorts have
Vitamin B in them.

alphabet: all the letters used in writing~ pog.a t.lt.


eat: take food by the mouth.
wllleat eat(•)

315
Vitamin C is very impor-
tant to the body. Without
it men's teeth become
loose and their arms and
legs weak. Lemons, or-
anges and tomatoes have
Vitamin C in them.

Vitamin D Is the sun vita-


min. We get it in milk and
eggs and from sunli&ht on
our skin. There are other
vitamins, but these, A, B,
C and D, are the most
important.

wlttaeuh not having.


-....co••lob!t.
...._ not strongly root•cb not aupporfttd or 119Pt In plac..

--
....., opposlh of 1lf0119.
i...o.. yellow fruit Ilk• on orang• but not - i.
..._.., o ...ci or y.llow frvlt und as o ftll•tobi..

'--1•)

316
Every person must have air and water and food to keep
him alive and he mbst have these vitamins to keep him
well.

How do we know this? How do we know what food keeps


a man well and healthy? We know from the effects on men.
and animals of going without one sort of food or another.
That is how we see which foods give us energy, which
make us fat and which make us able to keep healthy.

Men of science are putting together more and more


knowledge about the sorts and amounts of food that our
bodies need. Too little food or too much of the wrong
food is bad for a person. The right amount of the right
food (the food best for him) will keep him feeling well
and strong.

Some people need a little more or a little less of one or


another sort of food than others.

all- r1Vin9.
gol1119 wlthoutz not getting.
too llttlet lets than enough, not el'IOUgh,
too lftUClh O¥ermuch, lllOre than enough.

317
Where do we get our food? We get much of it from the
earth. We use some sorts of animals and birds to give
us food.

Great parts of the earth are covered with grass, a plant


which grows with narrow green leaves and puts down
roots quickly. There are more than three thousand dif-
ferent sorts of grasses growing.

Grass has very small seeds which are used as food by


birds and small animals. Man has discovered how to grow
grasses with larger seeds.

Wheat, rice, corn, and other grains come from grass. The
grain larids of the world have been planted by men. From
grain man gets an important part of the food that gives
him energy.

clllCOYlln moke the diacovery of, gel to bow.


~ g...at In size (lorge, IOl'gel', kilrgflt).
growt co111e up fl"Otll 1Md1 in the .arth, get lorger.
wlll dhcovw
wlll grow

318
11te grasslands of the earth supply
food to many different animals.
~de~~~~ From some of them we get meat
and milk. From milk we make but-
ter and cheese and other foods.

From birds living on grain we get


eggs and meat.

Seeds planted in good earth sup-


ply grains and fruits and vege-
tables of many sort:s.

The seas and rivers supply 1ish


and some sea plants foe food.

319
Man had to go from place to place for food until be dis-
covered how to grow grain. Uncooked meat and parts of
plants were all he had to eat until he made use of fire. And
he had to get new supplies of food every day.

U. -~ any way (Jf k<eplng. it good~.


~.
. lC·
nr.~. ~·
How could he get enough good food for ).."-
himself, his wife and his children without :.~ It ;
having to go looking for it every day? :: · ~ ~ :::

When he started growing grain, he had time to do other


things than get the family food day by day. He could keep
a supply of grain on hand through the winter until the
next spring. He could make a
home for himself and keep ani-
mals for his use.

98111 (tWJ1 up to the time that.

320
Bread, which is mado
from Bour, supplies us
with energy and is the
chief food of many
people.

A small amount ol seed


planted in the earth can
grow great amounts ol
good grain.

In eastern countries more rice is eaten

than wheaL

.,._m ••CHvre of -ight. OH pound (1 lb.) ls a llttt. l•H than half a


kllogro111. One kllogra• (1000 9ra1111) Is a rl-lb--. 2"1L*
Httl• 111or• thon two pounds (2.20-C6 lbs.Jo I:::::::::;::' ~
at•
publk .,... vs• by anyone. Tft• public the peopl•.
-.tern: In or of lh• east (em may be put on the end of north, IOutll
OI' - • la the sa•• wayt.

32t
If there were enough good food ill every c:ountry every
day for every person, would the world be a better place
than it is?

' We say, ..If there WR4f enough food," not, "If there is
enough food," because there is not enough. and we
know it.

We say, "If there were .something in


this hand you would see it," because
we know that there is nothing in the
band.

But with this band, which is shut, we


say, "If there is something in this
band you will see it."

Now the band is open. There is some-


thing in it and you do see it.

322
If we asked the question, "If there were enough good
food for everybody, would the world be a better place?"
some men would answer: "Yes, the world would be a
better place." Others would say, "No, nobody would do
any work! The world would be a worse place."

And some others would say something like this: "That is


a strange question to ask when half the people of the
world today do not get enough food. There will be time
to answer your question when we have grown enough
food for everybody."

What would your answer be?

ev~ oll persons, everyone.


noboclys no person, no one, not anyone,
_ , . If this llH fro• A to. I _ . malgld, thn h -Id be the
shortest distance belwMn A and L
lut the line Is not llralght. That Is A~ -g
why - _, _ . and - ' d la 11111
ua.,.le.

323
Why do men work?

Do they work only


for their private
needs - because of
their need for homes
and food and cloth-
ing for themselves
and their families?

Why do some men work when they have enough of all


these things? Do they work for pleasure, because making
things, for example, gives them pleasure? Do some men
work for the public good? Why are some men happier
when they are working? Isn't work one of their needs?

Why do you work? Do you need to work to be happy?

Do we know one another's needs? Aren't we in the dark


about some of them?

private'"""'• n~ds o f - pwwn or of a.small number.


public goodl good of all,
lm'ts Is not.
aren'b °"' llOI. When fM't Of' aren't atarts a qv.atlall In place of is or
are, - are looklQU for the answer "Yes."
In the darla people - " alM ta - la the datk.

324
If a11 the people alive on the
earth today were hand in
hand like this, the line they
would make would go more
than fifty times round the
earth.
The line of people would
go out to the moon and
back three times. It would
be long enough to do that.

But there isn't a line of people which goes out


to the moon and back.

t'-t~~flf
And the people of the earth aren't hand in hand; far
from it!

That is why we said "were" (not "are") and ''They would


go" (not "they go").

We say: If the angles in this triangle


are equal, then the sides will be equal.
A
Ll
But we say: If the angles in this triangl~
were equal, the sides would be equal. ~

trlallglet thl1 l1 ollOther triangle.

325
Men are not hand in band. but their minds today are being
put increasingly into touch with one another through
reading and writing and in many other ways.
We are in touch wilh other people everywhere through
pictures of them. Newspapers give us photographs of
almost everything. The faces of important people can be
seen by the public everywhere.
Before 1800 nobody could take photographs. Nobody
bad bad the idea of using the knowledge of how light is

--
bent by.glass to~

~
Here is a camera which is taking a picture of a man.

----
--
-----------
,,,.,..-

- ...

You will see that the picture inside the camera is upside
down.

lncreaslngl)n 111or• and lfto,..


photopaphr pictu,. rak.n with a camva.
c - - inalrvm•nt for taking photatniPhs.

326
Another way in which people
are getting to know more
about one another is through
the radio. Man's words were
first sent from one place to
another by telephone less
than a hundred years ago. A
word can now go by tele-
phone from the Atlantic to
the Pacific in one-twelfth
(1I12) of a second. A tele-
phone needs wires, but the
radio, which came into use less than fifty years ago, can
send sounds any distance without wires.

Television, which is one of the great new powers-for


good or bad-of this century, lets a public man talk to
millions while they sit
in their private homes Q~.~.1
seeing him as if he were --"===---~~:....i:::S:.-..:1~...
there in front of them.

wlrei thread of ...toL


talk: soy things.
Ith IM Mafed. When you tolt• a seat an aornethlng, you sit 011 It.
telepho_, radio, televlllona - pictures on thl1 page.
wlll talk
wlll llt
talk(t)
lit(•) ...
talked

327
But people can•t know what any man is saying if they
don't know bis language.

Up to a hundred years ago few people needed to learn


foreign languages because not many people went into
foreign countries.

Now, the need to learn other people's languages is bo-


comihg greater every day.

learnt get •-ledo• of1 be learning.


forelp lon11UG9e1 a language different from the language of ywr
fonilly.
tor.Ip countrJI a country which Is not yovn.
wlllleam leam(•)

328
Today millions of people, young and old, go into for-
eign countries every year on business or for pleasme.

That is a quicker way to get about than on


one's mother's back. Here is a woman who
is carrying her baby on her back. She car-
ries the child with her' wherever she goes.
In the last hundred years men have learnt
to go over land and sea through the air as
almost all birds and many insects can. Men
arc carried through the air in airplanes.

'"'u

-1apeno11.
oae'Nape..-'1.
canyfna: taltl119 fro• p1- to place.

wtll cony

329
Somo birds have eyes which
can see great distances, and
they have good hearing.
Sotne of them can hear
sounds which we cannot
hear.

But man has made himself new ears and new eyes.

Today he can talk with a person at the other side of the


earth by telephone. Through the radio he can hear sounds
which come to him through space from thousands of
miles away.

He can see through a telescope the mountains on the


moon, and, through a microscope, thousands of living
things in a drop of water.

lie.a take In IOUnds, - the Mnse of llearlng•


.,_.. distance tietwMA thln911 that In which aU thl119a -
wll .....

330
Hundreds of millions of people today can hear on the
radio important statements by public men. statements
which in earlier times could have been heard by few.
It is a question whether at any time in history a man
has been able to make his voice heard by as many as
a hundred thousand people at the same time. Without
the telephone and the radio a man can be heard only
as far as his voice can carry.

New instruments are making men's


homes less private and public men
more public.

whethen If or not.
hl•tory: Man'• past as - i.n- it 1 the account or stoty of It.
voice: sound Made through the Mauth1 the power to make such sounds.

331
Birds and many insects have wings. It is their wings
which take them up into the air. The wings of birds
have long feathers on them. Their bones and the stems
of their wing feathers are hollow. This keeps them light.

Here is a bee. ~
Here is a beetle.
~
Here is a fty.

And hme Is a buttedly.


-W
Bees, beetles and flies are insects. ~

There are very many different sorts


of insects.

hollo- with space lmlcht cu In a pipe or In o boll which Is not solid.


lghti of llttle -lght.

332
J.(en have been attempting
for thousands of years to
make wings that will let them
Jly like the birds.

Here is the picture of the first


flying machine to take men into
the sky, made in 1903. It did
not fly very fast or very far.

Now planes can fly farther and faster than the fastest
bird and can carry heavy weights through the air. Man
can go faster than sound in the newest planes.

heoYJll of great -1ght1 oppo1lte of llght.


fast(...._., faste11t)1 qvicllly.
fl1i go Ilk• a fly through tbe air.
We can sec why distances between people are not as
important now as they were. They may be bridged in
so many ways.

What is a bridge? Here is a wide river with a bridge over


it. The bridge is more than a mile long and is made of
steel It can carry very heavy weights. It is so strong that
not only automobiles but trains go across it. It is so high
that great ships go under it.

[)_

Language is a bridge between minds, a bridge so strong


that trains of thought can go across. Language can bridgo
dist.ances.

IOI In this sense "er'f·


llO atroft9 lhat1 strong enough to let.
llO ....... them hl9b •-eb to ....

wtl llrttlte llrW. .(•)

334
Language can bridge time as well as space. Ideas can
go fiom. mind to mind across the language bridge, and
they can come from the past to the presenL We can
read what men before us wrote and keep their books for
others to read in the future.

Here are some of the great books of all timo.

Books are the most important records we have of men's


thoughts and feelings, their ideas and desires.

Nada do reading.
writes do writing.
pasts what haa been before now
pre-': here and now•
..._.,what will be.
~ store of knowledge. Fro• records men caa '-a what waa clone
i. earllerttm...
wlllreacl read(•)
wlll write write(•)

335
All men have more in common with all other men on
earth than most of them know. What do the words
"in common" mean? What is their meaning? What do
the people in this family havo in common? They have
their family name in common.
They are the Smiths, or the
Wangs. They have a house in
common; it is their home. Tho
husband and wife have their
children in common. In some
parts of the world a man may
have a number of wives. In
other parts a woman may have
"• a number of husbands. In these
countries the wives have their

q
husband in common or the
husbands have their wife in common.

People of the same country have that


country in common. It is their country. I
Every country has a ftag. What is the ftag
of your country?

... _
- l n g i qnt.. What wordt toy tout it their meaning, what they 111ean.
flafl: He pidu,._ on lhls page. Your flog repr.,enlt your 'ounlry•

336
People who talk the same lan-
guage have that language in
common. It is their language,
the language of each and all of
them. They have the ideas and
feelings aooot things which that
language carries.

People who do not talk a lan-


guage do not know what those
who use it are saying. They do
not know what its words can
mean. They have less in com-
mon with those who talk it than
those people have with one
another.

Sometimes, as in India. in one


country under one Bag people
talk many languages. They
have their country and their Bag in comm.on. bot some
of them have to learn the language of others if they are
to have a language in common.

12 3au• 1633 337


Talking with someone is saying things to him. hearing
what he says and taking in his meaning. People can
talk together on1y when they
have a language in common.
When you were very young
your parents talked to you and
after a time you saw what they
meant and learned to talk to
them. A baby's first words aro
commonly names for its par-
ents. Some children learn to
talk earlier than others.

We go on learning our language


all our lives.

Some people talk more than


they think, and some people
think more than they talk. Most of our thinking is done
through language.

parent: father or mother.


commonly: most times. II is common for bobles to soy nomea for their
porents fint. Babies hoYe this in common.
ttsl11k1 hoye tho!D~ts. v•! t~e 111ind, ho!'l I d -
wlll ttslnlc think(•)

338
There are more than 2600 million people on the earth
and about 2500 languages. Of these languages only
about twelve are used by more than 50 million people.

Here are the names of some languages which have very


wide use: Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese), English,
French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Russian and Spanish.
All these languages have more people talking them today
than ever before. A hundred and fifty years ago there
were only about twenty million people who talked Eng-
lish, for example. Now there are at least two hundred
and fifty million, and there may be many, many more.

250,000,000

200,000,000

U0,000,000

100,000,000

50,000,000

1800 1900 1950

at 1-n that number or - ,"

339
More people will learn more languages as better ways
of teaching them are worked out.

This book, English Through


Pictures 2, is itself part of an
attempt to teach English better.

We need better books to learn ~


from and better records of good cb
voices to teach us how to listen to 0 0
the sentences of a language and
say them.

Recordings of sound. arc made


on 'disks and,on tapes.
P'i
llstenr alt•mpt to h90r.
attemph malt• Oil alt••pl.
record! record•, Wh•n pla~ on a lll«Khlne, 191 us hear again the aounds
r.corded on thea.
.....,._ a tholl\lht pvt In wordl. A written sentence steam with a large
{capital) letter and ends with o full stop (period) or so111.ilmes a
question -rl.
dl.i.1 sound r•cording play•d with a nHdle.
tape long narrow roll of thin cloth, paper or other aateriaL

wlll u.t- Hllten(•)


wlll attempt attellllpt(.)

340
We need good pictures to teach us meanings in die new
language and good motion pictUres to help muiy mom
people to learn languages quickly and well. The learma
will then be able to work in groups with the help of
teachers or by themselves, using boob, records. radio,
sound motion pictures and television.

A teacher can help a learner to learn. Reading and writing


can help us to think.

w• h• a goad way.
ltlllp1 10•ethl11g which does part of our work for us. A dick .ay be o
help to an aid. _ , It miay help hi-. ./').

........ tot•ther with ath-


...... lfloM doing ....thl119 totetheror hcwlaa
1fs
........... fa - -
wlB llelp llelp(•) .......

341
Writing is a very much newer invention than talking.
Nobody knows when men first began to talk. but they
did not begin to write, so far as we know, until seven or
eight thousand years ago.

IN EGYPf IN MESOf'OTAMIA. IN CHINA

~~
t
0 ))
.fl.B O})
In Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China, and later in Pales-
tine and Greece, men began to make marks and pictures
with sticks and sharp stones from which others, or they
themselves, later, could see what they had thought.

out by -n.
lllventlon1 aom• n- thing or a n.w woy of doing som.,hing worlt•d

HIClllll stort•d.
lhw'p1 cutting.
iJfOftel a hard -••rlal, or a bit of It. Much of lh• .arth Is mad• of slon•.
Som• ston•• ar• round and smooth from Ming roll•d obout by wat.,,
Oth•n a,. sharp and early 1n.n mad. tll.m into ltniY.s.
later (iat.1 im.1 la,..t): appoait• of _Ii., (-ty, -ll••t).
wlll ....... b•glft(•) ................

342
1'heso early records were the beglmdng of writing. 'Ibc
first writing was picture writing. Here are some early
C1inese picture words. Can you see what they represent?

-
Later Chinese writing is less like pictures than the earlier
writing was but we can see the pictures in some of its
words. For ox.ample:

Here arc some Egyptian ~ords in picture writing.

- fllh ........

.......... starting point.

343
In pidme writing. each picture represents a word; you
need a different pictoro or mart for each word.
In present..clay Ollnese writing most of the marks are
not pictuJ:es of anything. and a reader has to learn how
the Chinese write about two thousand of these words
before he can read a newspaper.
With some of these marks you may be able to see what
the idea is. For example:

The sun and moon.

Two of its meanings are: "bright~ and "open.....

A man and tWo marks. ~


One. of the meanings is "what men have in common...

Leaming to read Chinese is much harder than learning


to read English; But in word-writing like Chinese the
same marks can be read as having the same meaning in
different languages; for example, in Mandarin, in Can-
tonese and in Japanese.
Irttime some men. discoVCRd how to represent the sounds
ia words by marb. In any language there are only a
small number of different sounds. By writing down marb
to represent sounds, not ideas, men can spell any of
the words in a language with only a small number of
marb. Every written language today has its spelling
system. The hardest languages to spell are those in
which-as with English-many of the letters may repro-
sent more than one sound.

Here is the complete Roman


ABCDEFGHI
alphabet in which English JKLM NQPQR
and many other languages
are written. STUVWXYZ
Something written in English has a meaning only if It
is read as English. because the letters in English represent
English sounds. What is written in Italian must be read
as Italian.

lpelh put len.n togetlMtr to •ate ~


..,.._ way parts a,.. pvt together. H.... letten a,.. pvt logelller to

....,.,
tepreMtlt !he 90Ullld• of a laquage.
n111pla._ MUM1hl119 la complete when all of It la U.-

345
Here is the name of tho book English Through Pict11TU
written in a number of different languages. The names
of the languages are given in Eng1ish.

Arabic J,.n .na...l,y, ~"ft


Bengali llN tw11 f«ll ~~ ~
Bunneso g.oc\{r{ .,,,Acesa.~.e.

~···
Chinese

Greek AITAIKA ME EIK.OND;

Hebrew r'IU'IQli ~ m.DM


Hindi ft(aftQ m.T iefai{ifft
Japanese
Korean
••••
... f

..it-t4'tl- 6 t 161-f-..."IH:- 11'-W


,,, ., *4

~ t$J.J J1 ~I .J~J ~,-1

Russian AHrJIHACKHA Sl3b1K B KAPTHHKAX

Siohalese &dG,l& &a.Id <p.0f3 to*>t> ~­


Tamil •• .......awr cY*'W''cf!IUiJ~/l.IJla,s.1nit1lilnitJ
Telugu ~.§" ~ ~~
Thai
.. c:. ..
l l lltJ1l"lW'ltl -JfltlI Hfl 1U1l"lW

Urdu 1~-u.J~I ~_,.s .['J_,l...i

346
Here are the twenty-six letters used in English with the
English names for them spelled out after them.

a ay j jay a ess
b bee k kay t tee
c see 1 ell u you
d dee m emm v vec
e ec n enn w double-U
f eff ooh x eks
g jee p pee y wy
h aich q kyou z 7.ee or
i eye r are zed (British)

Some of these letters are used not for one sound only,
but for any of two or three or more different sounds. The
letter a may have the sound of a in bag, part, again, 'S41•
was, any, or fall.

The letter e may have the sound of e in bell. week, older,


earth, or hear, or it may have no sound but only an effect
upon other sounds which come before it The a and the
g in bag have different sounds from the a and the g in
age, for example.

Reading English is not as hard as reading Chinese, but it


is harder than reading a language in which each letter
has only one sound. The book, First Steps in Reading
English, can be a great help to a beginner.

347
Are some of the sounds used in ono language very unlike
any of those used in anothet'I

Yes. Yoo may have felt in leaming B:nglish that some


of the sounds it uses are strange. But if you do not have
a well-trained ear, you will not bear English words as
they are heard by an E.nglishman or an American. You
will hear the nearest sounds in your mother languago.

A ,,,00 way of ~ to make the sounds of a new


language is to use recordings which .have spaces after
each sentence giving you time to say what you have
beard before the next sentence comes.

..,.-.... felh - y hoYe had ...........


tralftMb taught lo do IO_,blng w.IL
wlUfeel
wlU......
.... (•)
......,., ........
felt
There are machines which will play back to you again
and again, one after the other, the sounds you have
made and the sounds you were attempting to make. When
yeu. hear what you are doing wrong you can try to do
better next time.

For most children, new sounds are easy to make when


they hear them, and children seem to bear new sounds
better and more easily than grownups do. If a family
goes to China, or France or Fmland (to take three coun-
tries whose languages are very unlike one another) the
children will learn to talk Chinese or French or Finnish
much more quickly than their parents will.

lryt - Q IHI alte•pt.


eaqs llO-lhlng 11 euy for yov when you con quldtt, learn to do It -IL
w.._
It I• hard yov cannot•
. .,.... penon who 11 llO long• a chlld1 who lla1 ,,_. up 111111 a
-•a-n.

349
Why is this? Why is it easy for youna; children to learn
languages?

Part of the answer is that children have so many needs.


They need to be helped by grownups at every tum. 1bey
have to make their needs known and they are always

VJ
watching the effect of what they say and trying new
way. of ptting what they wanL

Children are learning new things all the time.

watchln91 looltl119 at. Ow -•chea - thlnga - watdl (keep looltiAt


at) lo - thetl••·
alway11 at an tl•••· all the time.
W'mdl haft a cleaW. for.
wUlwant w.nt(•)
wlll watch watch(9!11l

350
Another part of the answer is that children are not, as
older people sometimes are, fixed in their ways of living.
When they are taken about from one country to an-
other they change easily from one language to another.
from one bed to another, from one food to another.
Older people are more fixed in their ways. They haw
been hearing and tallcing one language for a long time.
Their ways of hearing and making sounds and of putting
words together are like the rails a train goes on. They
have been up and down their lines of talk and thought too
many times to change them easily.

A child is freer in bis ways. He is more like an airp1ane


or, better, like a bird; he is free to go in any direction ho
wants. He is free to hear sounds as they are·and make
them as be hears them. He is free to put new words to-
gether in new ways in tallcing a new language.

...... opposite of flqd.


dlan. .a make a cha"'41, mak• changH In.

351
The more languages you hear and get to know, the more
you will see how any language is made up of a small num-
ber of. sounds put together in different ways. For example,
in English, light and right are different words with only
one sound in them diflerenL The same is true of. long
and wrong.
wi....,.............. : .···..I~
Q ........,
Tw111 t. ...
.
11•~1. 0
•:
\
:--~!!LJ-.-
::t •{ • • All, ...........

j
at ... tl11M.

----- ----. --- - -:. -.........


-- -'-~ 11110
,..,. way.

If a learner does not hear these different sounds as dif-


ferent, he may not get the meaning of. what is said to him.

---···twa.
.......
aluaoynotawonl.

352
There are many ways of helping a learner into a languagey
but not enough people know them.

Most people learn their mother language without being


able to give any account at all of how it works. They learn
to talk as they learn to walk. without any idea of how
they do it.

People who learn to use a language well do so through


talking with others who use it well, through reading good
writers and through watching the effects on others of what
they say and how they say it. The world needs more
people who can use language well. Language is as neces-
sary to men's minds as the air they breathe is to their
bodies.

••••....., tot nffded by.


to breathe: take air in and gin It avl.
The IOVnd or ea in iw.athe is Uke ea In 111eGI.
Th• 1GVnd or eo in breath 11 like '"' In lteod.
watlc(•) wolked
lweolll•(•) br•OlllM

353
All men need . , we breathe in air from outside our
bodies in every breath.

When you put your


face under water you
cannot keep it there
long.

A swimmer can't swim under water very long. He needs


air.

A good swimmer may swim with bis face in the water;


if so, he keeps turning his bead to take a breath through
his mouth.

He does not take in air through his nose under the water
because water would get in through his nose with the air
and go to his lungs. With water in his lungs a man can't
go on living.

lwl- be IWlaalng.
lungs -kip of nut pas-.
wlU.... ....,.,
354
Here is a picture of a man's
lungs. They are soft like
sponges with thousands of
little pipes going through
them. The pipes keep
branching like the branches
of a tree so that they go
through every part of each
lung.

Our lungs are in the upper part of our chest. We have


two of them. The air we breathe goes right in to every
part of the lungs through these
branching pipes. They take it to
the blood which is moving all
the time through the lungs and
round to every part of our bod-
ies. The blood makes a journey
round the body and back to the
lungs in a very short time.

1pOn9e1 fram-k built up by on• s«t of watef'


onimol os its hom•1 soft in wat.r ond ua.d
by me far washing.
uppers high•• up thon th• middle.
right Ins all the way In.
blood: r.d liquid in bodin of higher onhnala.
movln91 in motion.
wlHmove Moved

355
What is blood?

It is the red liquid which


comes out of your finger
when you cut iL

1bere are about thirteen pints of blood


in a man's body. He can give a pint of
blood at a time to a blood bank for the
use of other men who may need it. A
healthy body makes up the pint of blood
quickly. •

What does our blood do for us? It takes food to all


parts of our bodies and takes waste away from them.
All the parts of our bodies are made up of cells. These
cells, which are very small, all need fOOd all the time.

nb •oke o cvt In.


Wood lianla plac• wfl•• blood Is kept 111 1110n•y 11 k41PI in a bank.

-
w ....1 that which 11 of no . . _ ""' .at•iolt not nHdnd.
clJlll 1•olle11 IM111 thing, or 1•all•lt living part of r....1119 thing.
wlUcut

356
Here are some cells, thousands of times dM, size they aro
in the body.

Each different sort of cell has its own work to do, dif-
ferent from the work other sorts of cells do.

No one had seen cells before the


invention of the microscope and its
development in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries. Before then
no one could make pictures of cells
because no one could see them.

ew1t1 a cell's OWll work la if• _,k, not that of any other sort of cell.
Your o- hat 11 yaws, not any otlMr penon's hat.
deYelepmenta change by which sa....ihlng Plvln9 thing, Idea, In""'·
lion) becomes better, « lllOl'e able to do thln91. All the onl-11 and
plonh - ' " about ut have de¥eloped from earner living thln91
which -re ot flnl .ad• up of only one cetL
deMlep(•)

357
Cells are like little ftames. A ftame needs food. We get
a quick Harne-for a fire or a cigarette-by lighting a
match or using a lighter. The Harne of the match bums
the match and the Hame of the lighter bums the liquid
in the lighter, if there is air for them to bum in.

All fires bum something. What they burn is their fuel


Fuel is food for fire.

ds-tt-1 thin roll of cut tobocco In b


paper fO<' 1moklng.

'""'m be chonged by fire.


lllCllch: smoll 1tick of wood or paper which
gives flome.
fuel: materiol for fire. Fuel moy be aolid, liquid or 900.
wUlbum burn(•) burned, burnt

358
The blood is like a stream. The cells take what they need,
their fuel, out of the blood stream. as plants and fishes
take their food out of water.

~
---
- - - -- -
----~----
- ·1, _-_-
.. --·-- . . '----
- --

~w~ap
The blood stream carries food and the oxygen which it
bas taken up in our lungs to all the cells ln the body.
Old cells die and give place to new cells in the body as
plants and fish and other living things in the world about
us die and give place to others. Three minion of your red
blood cells die every second and other cells take their
place. The red cell population of your body changes
completely in about three months•

......_rlv«. t
oxygen1 on of to 11a- In air. Our lungs tall• It out of tlle air -
iw.athe. fire tall•• oxyvon out of lk air m It llunl1o

359
What makes tho blood go on moving round the body .in a
saeam?

The heart sends it


round.

·.~
The heart ia between
the lungs. A man's
heart is the size of his
shut hand.

·The heart is a pump. If you put your band under water


like this, and keep letting a little water into it

and sending it out again, you are pumping the


water. The heart pumps blood in a way a little like this.

pUlllpl •achlH for pu0l119 liquid or air or gc11 Ill or out of to..thlng.
will..... ........ ......
The heart has four rooms in it with doors (valves) be-
tween them. It pumps blood in and out through these
doors by changing the siz.e of the rooms so that the doors
open and shut. It can do this because it is made of muscle.

~ '-

The heart keeps a stream of blood going all round the


body and back again to itself. The pipes which take blood
from the heart are named arteries; the pipes through
which it comes back to the heart are named veins.

v..
valYel opening which let• liquid or ga1 go :q
----
through one way but not the other way. _

-* cord• of thr-d1 which can ~e ~


longer ar 1horter to - part• of the body.

......
wlll8hvt
~

361
A solid line represents an ar,t.ery and a broken lino a
Vein. .

362
The first man to discover that
the blood goes to all parts of.
the body, out through the
valves of. the heart through
one system of. pipes and back
again through another, was
the seventeenth-century doc-
tor William Harvey.

The journey of. our blood all round the body is the circu-
lation of. the blood. As you see in the picture opposite,
the branches of. the arteries are like the branches of. a tree
which get smaller and smaller the farther they are from
the roots. The small branches go to all parts of the body.
1bey go to the ends of your fingers and toes, to all the
muscles-those parts by which you move your arms and
legs and bead and other parts of the body.

docton -11 wittl training which helps hi• to -ke and keep people
hMlhy,
dmtlallHi motion - - and .-lld.
plctvN ......... plciw. which 11 Oii . . . oppoalt. page, plciw. Oii
... opposlh pCl9'L

363
Everywhere the blood stream does two things; supplies
the cells with food and oxygen and takes away waste. It is
as if the blood kept the little fires in the cells burning and
took away the ashes.

The fuel for the fires in the ceDs is given us by the food
we eat. It cannot burn without oxygen. This gas is as
necessary to all living things as it is necessary to the burn-
ing of fires made. of wood or coal.

Burning is the change which takes place when oxygen


and fuel unite. Coal, wood and other fuels (cooking gas,
for example) burn by taking oxygen from the air.

4l¥erywheNt in all plac•s, In all ports, at all POints.


athz powd« you con M• In lh• plac• wh•r• a woad fir• hos btl<tn
burning.
-Stet bltcom• - n•w thing, In this Mn•• of unit•.
coal: cool is mind from th• .arth. Trffs living millions of years ago

_....
hav• b..n slowly chong.d into th• hard, block coal In UM as fftl
wlUunlte

364
When you see someone
opening a window in a room
full of people, you know that
he is letting in air from out~
side. As good air comes in
through the window, bad,
used air, with more carbon
dioxide and water in it and
less oxygeo, goea out.

We say good air is fresh air. Fresh air is clean and good
to breathe and has enough oxygen in it for OW' needs.

cmt:ion •oxldei one of tu 1-• ,.... •ad•


ent In tu air, It 11 up of
carbon (pruent In coal! and oxygen united,
,......, here an so•e ath• - · fresh -ter Is _,., whkll 11 not
IGlt like sea -ier. fruh bread la new bread. fruh paint la paint
wltlch has beM•-ly put -

365
These boys are outside in the fresh air, breathing deeply
while their teacher is saying:

for every breath which they taJce. If you could watch


them you would see their chests becoming first larger,
then smaller in size, as their lungs breathed air in and out.

Breathing goes on when we are awake and when we are


sleeping. Most of. the time we are not conscious of our
breathing.

The motion of our lungs as we breathe is automatic. It


goes on by itself, the lungs taking fresh air in and letting
used air out about eighteen times a minute. This is the
common rate of breathing.

We become conscious of our breathing if anything shuts


the air off from us, so that we do not get enough oxygen
for our needs.
awoket not slffplng.
-ldon ofi toting noht of1 fHllng1 lloving In 11tlnd.
avtomatla -'ilng by ltHlf, wltr..:iut an10ne hewing to do anything
obout It consdovsly. Cl

366
Keeping your mouth shut.
take your nose between
your thumb and one fin·
lG ¥
ger, so that you shut tho
air out and shut your l
J.
ft:.,..>Q
breath in. How long can
you hold your breath?
You will be wise if you f? L'I
do not try to hold it more
than a minute. H oxygen
is kept·from a person for
long he will become un-
c::onsci.ous.

When a person becomes unconscious through getting


water or smoke in his lungs it is very important to start
him breathing again. This is done by turning him face
down (putting something between his teeth to keep his
mouth open) and then working his lungs to start his
breathing.

hold: k"P fro• changing, kHp in one place, kffp from Moving,
wl. .1 having knowledge and Sffing what lo do for the best.
unconaclouu not coudova, havl•g no sense or feeling or knowledge,
~~ ~w ~

367
The higher up we go the less ii the peasum of
the air, because the weight of
the air above us iJ less. Aa 1:
the pressure becomes less ~A
(air gets thinner) the amount /
ACONCAOUA
" :i:
::t: 28,000

of oxygen we get in one breath be- ts. ~ :t: 24.000


comes less. We must tab in ~ :i:
more air to get tho same A~ :t: :ao,ooo
amount ot oxygen. r.iuMANJMO/ '"' ........,,+
&AMmJ ~ :t: 16.000
./\..IM:Mr ILAHC:a;:
/ '\. (h.....J 12.000
~' a:
3: I.OOO

:i: •.OOO
SEA LIVEL
The instrument we uso to measure the pies-
suro ol the air is the barometer.

the ,.,._. •• __...... the p111h on h. The air i. pu1hln9 Oii thla
ball, putting p r . - on II, frol9 al side. al \ /,
thed-. -.ll:J~
higher..
. . . . . . 0¥ef',
- 1 a 1 1.... --o1.
..... •(•)
~

......
368
Men have been able (1953) to get to the top of.the high-
est mountain in the world, Mount Everest. They had to
use oxygen when they got up
high. They had to keep con-
trol over the amount of oxy-
gen they used. They could
get no more supplies from
those below.

This man, who is going up a high mountain, is using a


supply of oxygen which is stored in those cans he is car-
rying on his back. By opening and shutting a valve. he
controls the amount of oxygen he breathes in. The gas
has been pumped into the small space inside the cans. It
is under pressure in there and oomes out when the valve
is opened.

control: power over.


below: lower down, opposite to oboYe.
wlll control control(•)

13 31lq3 1633
It was more than a century after Harvey bad discovered
the circulation of the blood that two other scientists, one
English and the other French, discovered oxygen. These
men saw that when a Bame bums it takes something out
of the air. That is wby a candle goes out when it has been
burning for: a little time in a small amount of air. It has
taken all the oxygen out of the air. You may see this by
putting a lighted candle under a glass cover, so:

When the candle has used up the oxygen from the air k
cannot go on burning. It cannot bum without oxygen.
Its light goes out.

So with the burning that goes on inside the millions of


cells of our bodies. H the blood stops carrying oxygen to
the cells, they go out. They die.

tclentlstt 111C1n of 1clence.


IOI like thl11 It 11 llke this.
candles cotton cord with tollcl fuel rovncl It. n. heat of the fla- lvm1
the fuel to liqulcl oncl then to QG1 OI It burns. n. fla- 11 the
buml119 gcn.
11top1 clo not oo oa. mob! a stop, put GA encl to.

wlU 1top ltop(•)

370
When a man is running,
. ....
his heart is working
much harder than
when he is sitting
down. His blood is be-
in g pumped moro
quickly through his
body. The blood must
carry a greater gupply
of oxygen to the mm-
cles all over the bOdy.
Out hearts work for us
automatically. A man's
heart can pump as
much as three thousand
gallons of blood a day.
The amount pumped at
any time is eontrolled automatically. After running hard
a man breathes very quickly because while running he
couldn't take in enough air for his oxygea needs. He is
"out of breath," as we say.

rvn•le91 going faster on foot than wollbtg.


aRnllNltkallyt In an outo.otlc way.
wlRnm run(•)

13. 371
Our bodies control themselves in many other ways. For
example, the temperature of our bodies (and those of
all warm-blooded animals) is controlled; our blood tem-
perature is kept at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or near iL

«I
-{ IODY } 37
20

20

c
When a person is very ill (sick) some of the automatic
controls ot his body stop working. His temperature, meas-
ured by a Fahrenheit thermometer, may go as high as
103°F or 104°P but if it goes much higher, or keeps as
high as that for very long. be cannot go on living. He
will die.
temperature• the measure of body heat on o ICClle.
- • having a middle degree of tem~ not very dlff.,.nt from
the temperatvre of our bodl.._
. . , . _ temperolvres ore -•ured In degnoes fohrenheit (FI or de-
gr- Centigrade IQ. We change a temperatu,. from Centigrade
to fohrenhelt by the addition of 32 lo nine fifth• of the number.
For exainple, 100°C 11 the bolllng point of water. Thl1 11 100 t l -
=
9/!S plUI 32 +
180 32 = 212°1'.
llh not well, u_ll, In some parts of the -id the - d act 11 u1ed.
thermometen lnltrument fOf measuring temperatvfll-GftOther of Gali-
leo'• lnventlo111. ,

372
The body has many dillerent ways of keeping itse1f warm
enough and not too warm. It uses up more food, more
fuel for the cells, in cold weather. It shivers-that is, its
muscles go on making quick little motians to keep it
wann. We cannot stop ourselves from shivering. lbe
body's heating system is not under a man's conscious
control; it is automatic. To stop shivering he has to
warm himself somo other way: he may run or wait
quickJy, or take bot drinks, or cover himself up warmly,.
or use a bot water bottle to warm his bed.

--ke--.
..,,,. . . . lhaklng all over m an e"-ct of cold.
holt _., _ . at a high te•peralllN.
._.....,..OD 1t.
.....
"-II -k• hottw. We - - hands at a fire. liat-
wlllllhlYW
w111-

373
Our bodies give off some -Of their heat an tho time by
sending a littlo liquid out through the skin. Sometimes tho
amount gets arcatcr and our skin becomes wet. This cools
the body quickly.

Here the man on the left Is shivering because he has been


waiting in line for a long time in the cold wind. The man
on the right is wet. all over because he got too hot in the
sun. He is drinking water because he feels the need of
it. He is thirsty.

- h 111ake leH war•.


teos -•than e-sih.
~'""•t!Mt-'to*'u.
wtllcMI .... (•)

374
r?:\
r-i~~J
'T'L.:t-
.ullll man

IS

m --
..,,.;..; ...,. H . .
c IS &OID&
~',,.,l__./ ~
to run a distance of one mile in the ,,. __
shortest p<llSl"blc time. The fastest - \: - '
runners before him.have taken a little "'\.
under four minutes and he wants to
make a new record. rr /

When a man runs a mile in four min-


utes he is going at a rate of fifteen
miles an hour, but it is not possiblo
to keep running at this rate very long.

The runner is standing now in front of bis dOctor ~


has an instrument in bis hand. Through this the doctor
can hear the sounds made by the runner's heart.

.......... oba. to be ....


....,, In this ••n•, less than•
..-di lhl1 11 another ...... of " ' - d ! ' WllH a ,...._ don -
thing better lhall It i.aa been ,done Mfoft - lllll'f he llas _ . a
-4

.........
. . . . . . . Oft hll ..... ltOI _ ...,.

ltaH(•)

37S
Now tho doclor fs taJcing the inan'a
pulse. He has bis finger on the man's
wrist and is counting the times his
heart pumps tbe blood in
ODO minute. The doctor
caa feel the motion or
pulsing of the blood every
time- the man's heart
pumps.

Ja fllOlt men the pulse rate is betwec.11 seventy and eighty


times a mhmtc. Ja children it is higher.

"Iba. raaner'• pulso rato is 72. It will be higher when ho


Jnn•W.

........... of the blood lfnugh ''"'~a&


la IM laocly, for _...,..., th• wriat•
It_, be hit at polall
..... ...... · - - ol pul- '"Cl ......
........ of .... _ __.,... .._d. ~
~

........ adag ........ ta di-11ow-y.


...... GMllll(•) ......

374
There is a good story about the 1188
the great Italian scientist Galileo
once made of bis knowledge of the
puJserate.

Gatneo Dved three hundRd


years ago before men had
watches f(){ measuring time.
In the sixteenth century
there were very few clocks in
the world and no watches.

One day when Galileo


was a young man of eight- I
een, he was in the great JJJJ
church of the city of Pisa
where he Jived. Watching ......................_...........a.LI.lo,,,,_.....,_........,.....,........._
the motion of a light banging down on a long chain from
the roof high above bis head, be saw that as the light
moved forward and back on its chain, it seemed to take
the same time between turns, however far it wenL
..... at - 11-111 ... past,
, _ _ . lo ... ,,... a
. . . . . IVppolt - · of •efol flnos golllCf thnlug• - OllOlflw. a
- - ........ It - · only 0 Mort . . . . . aad .... It _ , 0
loagw ......._
- - la wlaaleYer ._.,.
To see if he was right about
tbC motion of the light, Gali~
1eo put his fingers on his
wrist. He timed the motion
of the light as it went fOfWard
and back on its chain, meas-
uring it by his pulse rato.

He was right. He had the proof. He could prove that the


time was the .same, however short or long the journey of
the light through the air was. Galileo had made a great
discovery about the motion of a pendu-
lum. Among other things this discovery
made posiible a better instrument for
measuring dine-the pendulum clock.

.,.._,.that which •alt• dMrr that -.tllt119 la'°'


,....,. •eoswed the II•• tab11 by.
,...,... ghe proof.
pendulumt ha119ln9 -lflht ,,.. to - • fro• 1lch to slcle.
............
........ .......
......
178
Measuring how fast somothing Is moring gives us thD
rate of motion.

This plane has gone 300


miles in half an hour. Its rato
was 600 m.p.h.
This man has walked two miles in

t half an hour. He was walking at a


rate of four miles an hour. Now
bo is standing. Ho is .not moving.

This man is worJcfng slowly.


His pay will be small if he is
paid by the amount of work
he does in a day.

This other man is working


quickly. His pay will be high
if he is paid by the amount
of work done in a day.

1be two commonest ways of paying a worker are by tho


hour and by tho amount of work done. Piecework is work
paid by the amount done. For different sorts of work
rates of pay may be different. Sometimes rates for tbo
same sort of work are different in different places.

P'- bit, a-nt. part of ...thing IOlld.


-.p.11.a .11.. per hour. •Ilea In - hour• •- . of rate of llOllo9
"'11 - " ' o f _ _, ,.,.. for_..

wta~

379
When we move about from one country to another we
sometimes have to Change our
money, we sometimes bavo
to change our watches and sometimes we change both.
When we change our watches we move the hands forward
or back: forward jf we ~ going east and back if we are
going west. ..

Here is a map giving time


lines acroi;s the Pacific
Ocean.

la the days when Galileo used bis pulse as a timek~.


most men did not e'Y'en know that the earth was round.
They knew no more about the journey of the earth
around the sun than they did about the journey of their
blood stream through their bodies.

boths the two. one ond lhe other of . _


even1 ao much u. Enn gl'tes lhe ldeo lhClt soaethlag I& auch-. tflaD
- -W think- •ucllJ!ulr-·--
But for another two thousand years most men went on
thinking that the earth was ftat like a large plate with the
SWl and stars journeying round it.

How was the idea that the earth is not ftat but round like
a ball proved true in the end?

Sailing men went out in their ships to find a way by water


from Europe to India and C):lina. Though some ships
from the north of Europe had sailed west to parts of
America in the
tenth century,
most of Eu-
rope had no
knowledge of
the land across
the Atlantic.

Men like Marco Polo had gone east to India and China,
much of the way by land, long before Columbus, in 1492,
went sailing west with the idea that he could get round to
the Far East by water.

to flllck to look fot and dlKOVw or come vpon.


thoutht .... If.
wlU find find(•)

382
airistopber Col.umbus hu gone down in histary as the
man who discovered Amorica. He was looking for a way
of getting to the East by sailing wesL It was hard for him
to get help for tbJs journey. He was lausbed at by most
people when he said he could go tbia way to India be-
cause the earth was round.

This is the sart of. ship


Columbus sailed in.

He made use of. a haH-hoar sand a1asa


for measuring tiine at sea. Through all
the long months the glasses on Col.um·
bus's three shipa had to be turned ever:y
half-hour as the sand ran out.

. . - downs beM 91Yan a placa. Wlla11 a panon's no•• e- clown In


histwy ••athino ha has dona Is recardacl 111 history books.
coulda In this ...... would b9 able ~ uMd oa tM oppolita paoa.

383
continent. He knew
nothing of the life that had
been going on in North
and South America for thousands of years or of the two
great peoples, the Aztecs and the Incas. who had been
liviq there-the 0ne in Mexico. the other in Peru-for
centuries. It is now thought that in 1SOO the population
of the Americas was about 30 million, and that the first
of these "Indians" had come from Asia themselves. There
may have been a land bridge between Asia and Alaska
across which they could have come.

_..... e-p., Alla, Afrko. North AIHrka.. South M•ica, ~


tralla and Aatan:tlca are the contlnH11 of the -'d.
It 11 _ ......... ldentlm -thlnt.
Thirty years after Columbus discovered America, the
ship of Magellan, a sailor of Portugal. was the first to
make its way south of Sooth America and on round the
world through the Indian Ocean and past the Cape of
Good Hope back to Europe.

Magellan himself died on one of the Philippine Islands


on April 27 (in) 1521.

When a ship sailed out to the west and came back home
from the east three years later men could see that the
earth must be round. This proved that the earth was
round. It was proof enough for most men.

Miion - who WOfk• oa ships at -


..... pi- of land polllllng out llllO ... water.

385
But it was harder to take in the idea that the earth might
be moving round the sun, as Copernicus of Poland, 1473-
1543, said it was. Very few men had made any sense of
the writings of Copernicus by the time he died in l 543,
twenty-one years before Galileo and Sbatespeare were
born. Few people could read or write in those days.

It was Galileo who mado the first telescope, through


which he could watch tbo stars and look into the ideas
that Copemicua ancl othen had been working upon.
1brougb bis tele8copo the stars aeemed DlOle than thirty
times as near, and he could 0
see not only the mountains
0
of the moon but spots on. the
face of the sun, and the mo-
tion. of the moons moving 0
round the planet Jupiter.

............. ..
'Hiity ,._~I of_., mot!Y•

_...., Juplw la tM - of one of IM p~ bodies whlda


are .oviav round tile- u thtl eorth b.
----
Galileo could let men loot through his telescope bot be
could not m.ab most of them see the picture cl. the uai-
verse that was becoming clear in bi&mind.

..
,,,.,.
/ ' I,

~-.. -0-
,. I "

He could not do that any more than Copernk:ushad been


able to do it. Men's ideas we.re changing. bot not as
quickly as his.

Galileo was put in prison for saying that the ideas written
down by Ptolemy fifteen hundred years before did not
mah sense to him.

- - ..,.,,...•• th-1..
,..._ plan ......_ -adoen or ,...._ aald to han doH Wl'Olllll o,.
locbcl up.
Newton, who was bom
the year that Galileo died
( 1642), took the new lino
of. thought much farther.

Like Galileo ho became a


greatwatcher and record-
er, asking tho question
"how," more than "why,"
and answering by meas-
uring and recording and
comparing and proving.

Even more than Galileo, he saw the universe as part of a


great machine, and he was able to put into words great
natural laws:::.accounts of. its workings.

COftlPCll'lntt finding where and how things are the aam• ar different.
lcrwi laws which are made by man aN statements, backed by goy-
m•nt power, contrallin9 what men may or may llClt do. WHn • -
laws are broken, the person wha bnlab them, If It la pf'Offd that he
did so, may be put In prison.
llCdurah not made by -n.
natural lawa atattomenl of causes and effect• at wart eYefYWh-
Wiii Compca'tl
wlll llrMk

388
Ho was able to do this only becauso be was canied for•
ward on the shoulders~ such men as Galileo, Kepler and
Copernicus. With their. work before him be could think
out new ideas about tho weights~ thinp and theit mo-
tions. His Law ~ Gravitation says that all thinp in tho
universe have an attraction for ODO another.

It was only by standing on Newton's and


other men's shoulders that Einstein
(1879~1955) was able to get his picturo
of the universe and work out new ideas
about time and space and energy.·

Their work made it possible


for him to see farther into tho
laws ~ the universe than
they could. Younger men in
their tum are developing new
ideas made possible by
Einstein.

aboult In this senH, ol. .


lhoul6ln part of bodr .,.._.. ar•, nieck and chest.

389
The tldnking of adentists has become clearer and truer u
their instruments have become better. Galileo made one
of the first microscopes as well as the first telescope, and
by the middle of. the seventeenth century this new imtru-
ment had opened up to man another world, a world ot
things too small for our eyes by themselves to see.

The mia:oscopo made possible tbo discovery of. the cell


structure of all living things.

--
....,....
,,_ __ .._..
a..i_,..

Even the body of mm himself could be pictured now as


a great macbino with millions upon millions of working
puts, each part a cell.

alrUCIUl'ea how a thing 11 •od• vp1 the way lb part1 are pvt ,together.
Th••lfvdur• of the plant II•• l• the plehmt aboft, right, ii .odlt
deafw by tlae llkroHope.

390
Together with all this new knowledge of the cell structure
of plants and animals, the microscope opened up a world
of living beings so small that men had had no idea such
things were possible..

It was a surprise to the


scientist to see that in a
drop of water theJ:e might
be thousands of living
things of many dilierent
sorts moving about and
taking in food.

With the invention of such instruments as the microscope


and telescope man found himself walking between two
strange new worlds: one too far off and great, the other
too near and small for anyone but the scieiltist to know
much about or do much about. As science developed,
thinking men came to feel less and less at home in the
universe. They had enough knowledge to become con-
scious of the need for more.

IUCh1 like theH.


IUCh thlnp thing• Ilk• theH.
-..n- a t..ling - have when - ... 10.1nethlng strange.

391
Our bodies can be loob:d upon as machines whidl are·
bpt going by fuel. As food is bUnted up in the body cells
it gives us heat and other sorts d. ener&Y· All through a
man•s life-from birth to death-be must be supplied with
energy.

Even when wo are sleeping we are using up some food


to keep our bodies warm. Our lunp and heart keep on
working. Some animals sleep through the cold winter
weather: snakes, for example.
When they are asleep their rate d.
breathing and pulse rate and tem-
peratum go down, and less food is
needed.

Only animals that can store enough fat in their bodies to


keep them alive through the winter can sleep through the
months when food is hard to get.

llfei tl•• of IMng.


decdlll .nd of llvlng.

...._ a long -bodied anl.al


with no hogs. Some -e. of anat..
hcmt polaon In thw lone. nffdi..
alaotp front teeth. If thk pol- fl9b
Into your blood 1trea• It - -
death In a few •lnutes.

wlllleep sleep(•)

392
While our bodies are at rest the
large muscles are not in use. It Is
these large muscles which pull on
our bones and let us movo as w.e
want to.

Hard work with our large muscles


uses up energy quickly so that wo
come to feel hungiy and want to
eat.

1he more we know about the parts


of our bodies and their work, the
more new questions come to our
minds, questions such as:

How is it possible for all tbe different parts of us to grow


from one cell?

How is it possible for all the millions of cells in our grow·


ing bodies to go on doing what they do without our being
conscious of their workings?

whllei through th• tim• that1 In lh• tlm• whH.


hun9ryi f"ling ne•d and d•alre for food.
wlll puH pull(•)

393
Through about two billion (2,000,000,000) years. sci-
entists say, the developinent of plants and animals on our
earth has been going on. At first both were very small,
much less than a pin point in size. We might say that the
first plants or animals were bodies living in one-roomed
houses, too small for man's eye to seo. All the h<>US«>
keeping went Oil in
one room. Such cells
take food in and let
waste out. 'Ibey do
not give birth to new
cells but divide to

become two daugb--
ter cells.

1bese three pictures show the division of a cell into


two separate cells each of which may in tum divide into
two more.

- - ..... Cl 9'9Cllt-11l .....


lho- -•• ci-, i.t be -n.
tllYblolu beco•lng two lot _.,In place of -
........... together•
..,... _ .. o dhlaioa1"-•two or -
wlR dlYhle
wlllhow

394
~ earth itself is thought to be more than twice as old as
life OD iL Our picture of what it was like two billion
(2,000.000.000) years ago is of a great ball about as hot
OD its surface as boiling water.

In - . al'the earth's surface became lesa hot, the thick


clouds rOunct it, from which water went on raining down.
got thinner. 1bea. man mnHgbt could get tbrouab to the
surface of the earth. Sunlight is necessary for life on
earth, as air and water are.

.,_ ln "''• ...,...., that which only 1M1111 things hoft.


- ' - ovblde part. Thi• page hen two large oppcMlte ...,._, -
IM• side ond the other ..... 114 whkll ,._ wll -
when you hll'1I onr.

395
Life began, men think, in the salt sea. Near the land,
where the waters were not deep, very small one--cellcd
organisms came into being.

The cells in our bodies are of many different sorts but


they all have water in them. Our bodies arc seventy per
cent water.

This water has in it about the same amount of salt, com·


mon table salt, as there was in the water of the sea in
which the earliest organisms swam. That water was a
little less salt than sea water is today. In billions of years
the rivers have washed down more and more salt from
the land into the sea. The sea has become.more salt. The
water in our bodies does not become more salt. Even if
we eat a great amount of salt in our food the body auto-
matically controls how much it will keep in the blood
stream. And the same is true if we let very much salt out
through the skin when we get overheated. (See page 91.)
Then we have to eat something that will give us new
supplies of salt.

Of'8ClllllllllU IMne body.


pW' c..m in a hundred. Seventy per cent (70%), •-nty parts In o
hundred. (Latin, pw cenlv•.J

396
The first living things. though they were too small to be
seen, were eating, growing organisms which divided to
become others like them.

Under a m.icroiCOpC, a
cell looks like a bit of
clear jelly with a thin wall
round it. Very small open-
ings in the walls of the cell
let food in and waste out.
In every cell there is a part like a little ball. This is tho
nucleus, which organizes the work of the cell. Though
cells were discovered two and a half centuries ago. it is
only in the last hundred years that knowledge of the work
of the nucleus has developed. It is this nucleus which
keeps the cell working at what has to be done. It is to
the cell what London is to Britain, New Delhi to India,
Peking to China. It is the seat of government.

lel"1 a soft materlal, not aolld and llOt llquld.

. ,.........
nud- - aboft 0n this page.

.........,.,
.,........_ give ..,..,., part Its wari: IO do and coatrol IL
or1111tnd
All living things are developments from these one-celled
organisms. They have developed step by step through
change upon change from these
first, simple, living things. Our
bodies and the bodies of tho
plants and animals we see about
us are highly complex in their
structure. They have in them
millions of mlllions of cells,
some doing one sort of work.
some another. Every different
cell has its own sort of work
to do.

What do tho words simple and complez mean?

...... not complell,


co•••IND not sl•ple C- nNf pdgtl).

398
1bo p:ater tbo number of parts a thing has, the mare
complex it is.

1bo smaller the number .of parts a thing has, the simpler
it is.

08EB
Which of. these is them-. complex?
"
The more different the parts of a thing are from one an-
other, the.more complex it is.

'Ibo less different the parts of a thing are from one an-
other, the less complex it is.

Which of. these is more complex?

399
The more the parts of a thing need one another, the more
complex it is.

Take one little wheel out of a watch, for example, and


see if the other parts can do their work without it.

Which is more complex-a stone or a plant?

The leaves, the flower, stem and roots of the plant work
together to keep it alive. But each does a different sort
of work and each is dependent upon all the others. The
work of each part is different.

The parts of a stone do not work in this way for one


another. A stone is a much simpler thing than a plant.

Any living thing, however small or simple it may seem,


is far more complex than anything which has no life.
~
The girl in the middle is dependent OD both men to keep
her from falling. The man who has been holding her feet
is letting go as the other man takes hold of. her hands. She
has been dependent on the first man. She will be de-
pendent on the second. Their act depends OD timing.

their am what they do. A


depeacl11 I• def"tndent on.
-n'• adll ant wllal ... ..._

lettln9 901 lettlno them go.


wlllclepend clepend(a) ...........
14 3aK83 1633 401
There me about the million red cells in one cubic miDi-
m.eter of our blood. One millimeter is a thousandth part
of a meter and a tenth of a centimeter.

One cubic cendmcter-how much space does that tab


up?

Here is a picture of a cube which is one centimeter long.


one centimeter wide and one centimcter high. It takes up
one cubic centimeter of space. A centimeter is a little less
than half an inch.

111 i 1l11iI
11111111I"11111111111•1
1111111111 ~~
r
_ ICM 2 3 .,. 5 • 7

MllllMetwl 111111. = .001 of Q meter.


c.,.tlm...,.1 c111. = .01 of o Meter, or .3937 of an Inch.
cultes a .olid the six sides of which Ql'll equal aqUQl'lll.
~ a aqwre has fOUS' aides which QN equal and '-'angles which
QN right a119t.&

402
You can put a paper cube this size together for your-
self, or cut one out of soap or cheese.

To make a paper cube, take a pencil and make six one-


centimeter squares like this:

Now take your scissors and cut


round the outer lines. Do not _ __,
cut the broken lines but make
folds there. Put the edges to-
gether to make a hollow paper
cube, as in the picture. Your
cube will be a cubic c:entimeter
in size.

A cube has six sides; its sides are equal squares. The

In one cubic centimeter of our blood there


.,. about ftve billioo n:d c:ells.
A
surface of a one-centimeter cube is six square centimeters.

lJ,}
folcb this is a page falded do-.
ed9M thl1 11 the edge of the pag<J.

14 * 403
But trees can grow to be many
thousands of times the size they
were as seeds. The tallest tree
known is 364 feet high. One great
tree in California is as much as
ll S feet round its trunk at the
thickest point.

How doe8 such growth take place if cells do not grow to


be more than twice as large as they were at first?

It all takes place through division. The cells which make


up the organism are able to divide into two and this divi-
sion goes on and on. When you were born you had as
many as 200 billion cells in your body all coming, in nine
months, from the division of one cell l/l 75th of an inch
across.

tnMln 1te111 of a tree•


.,.wttu growing, becoalng greoter hi nu•ber or size, the outco111e of
growing.
All organisms which you sec in the world about you·have
grown by cell division.

You and I have become what we are through biDions:of


divisions in the cells whose outcome is our cell suueture
at this minute.

In cell division the two halves of the cen (as you see.in
picture four) become ready to separate. In picture five
you see that they have separated. The cell in picture one.
by division, has become two separate cells. The daupter
cells do in every way the same as their mother .cell did.
One of the greatest questions scientists are wOlkingon is:
What keeps the daughter cells doing what they have
to do?

...........
..,....._ become or make separate.
Hpwate(•) .........
Even the simplest living organism is far more complex
than any machines that men have made. Organisms are
built up of parts which are themselves more complex than
any machine. And these parts in turn are the most com-
plex things the science of chemistry knows. It is because
they are so complex that they can work together in an
organism in so many different ways.

Chemistry is about the different ways in which different


materials are built up. For example:

Water is made up of oxygen and hydro-


gen united in a way which may be repre-
sented like this.

c
Carbon dioxide is made up of carbon
and oxygen in a way which may be rep- 0 0
resented like this.

Chemists make use of the formula H.O for water in their


writing. They use formulas to represent the structure of
all mate~al things.

fornllUlm che111l1t1' woy of resw-ti119 1trvctunK.


The most important of the materials in our bodies are
the proteins (from Greet proreios, meaning "having first
place"). Among them are materials with the most com-
plex structures known to the chemist. We can get some
idea of how complex proteins are by comparing the
formula for one of them with the fmmula for water (ILO)
or for carbon dioxide (CO.).

Compare this formula for a protein from mnt:

with the simple formulas for water:

or carbon dioxide:

CO~
The letter N in this formula represents nitrogen and the
letter S represents sulphur.

amontp in, in the sense of being patl of a group.


nltrogens a gas which makes up about four fifths of air. Nitrogen Is
breoth•d in and out unchanged. Our badl•1 have to gel the nitro-
gen they need in other ways.
•lphun a light·yellow materlol found In 10••
parts of the earth In
gntot amounts.
'Ibere may be as many as 100,000 different sorts of pro-
teins in a man's body. at work in as many different ways.

It is a protein in our blood which tabs


up oxygen from the air we breathe into
our tunp and carries it to the cells which
DDed it. It is another protein which
maies our bones strong, and another
which makes our muscles able to pull on
and move our bones. It is other pro-
teins in our hair and skin and nails
which make them what they arc.

Othen spin do very important


work in tho digestion of food. in
coatroDing other changes in the
body, in beping it healthy and in
making children become so sur-
prisingly like their parents.

di...._
nolll flngv llCl.ll, toe llCllL Our nalh Gf9 Dvlng parta of us.
Put cha119lng of food In thti -'II Clllcl -..ach to lhat
.at.riala ha lhe food 9G1 be uMCI by Ille body.
How do these very complex materials come into being?
The answer is, through the work of plants.

Plants need sunlight. This is common knowledge within


the experience of most of us, but you can show how true
it is if you make this little experimenL

Grow two bean seeds over glasses of water, starting them


in a dark cupboard. After a few days take one glass out
into the daylight and keep the other in the dark. Compare
the two from time to time. You will find that it is the plant
in the light which grows a strong stem and green leaves.

within: in; inside. Not on opposite of without os commonly used (see


page 32).
experience: knowledge we gel as we ga an living, seeing what gaes an,
and thinking abaul ii.
experiment: gelling knowledge by daing 1amething 10 that yau are
able ta watch what takes place and find what in the oulcame is
dependent upan what.
bffn: cammon plant whase seeds, and sometimes seed coverings, are
used far foad.

409
In 1772 the Englishman Joseph Priestley, the discoverer
of oxygen. made a most important experiment. He knew
from experience that air is necessary to plants and am.
mals. He knew that if you put a Jive mouse, for example,
under a glass so that no fresh air can come to it, the mouse
in a short time will die. It will have taken all the oxygen
out of the air and.without oxygen it cannot go on living.

Priestley put a gmm plant under a large glass cover


standing in water so that no fresh air could get in. He
thought that in a little while be would find the plant dead
like the mouse.

II•• oliq, 11•1119.


- - •mall dorlt·brCIWtl cir gray anl-1 with a long lalL
whllet In thia """· a apoce of tl•e.

410
But no. lime is what he said:

"When it bad gone oo growing there for some months,


I found that the air would neither put out a candle nor
was it bad for a mouse wbidl I put into it."

In other words, the green plant had not used up an tho


oxygen in the air.

'The next step was taken when a Dutch aci.entist found


that Priestley's experiment would not work without light.
In the light a plant gives out oxygen and builds up sugars
and other complex materials in itself. In the dart (with-
out light) it gives out carbon dioxide and water.

had . - . oa .,owfntp hod bun gn>wlng1 had grown. W• ga oo


gn>wlng until - hen.. grown vp and ar• grownvpa.
....._,,on o-. or tn OIHr of a-.
•either, •an not on• and not th<I othw of , _

4tl
The material which makes plants green (chlorophyll) is
necessary if they are to use energy from light for healthy
growth. Unlike animals, plants can take what they need
straight from the air and earth and water in which they
live. Through their green leaves and stems they separate
H from ILO and unite it with CO. to make carbohydrates.
"
H-f-Oll "
H-f-Oll0 Structure of part
1/l-'-..1 T/l- '-T of a carbohy·
"° j "i-i/U
'OH " c c,OH " c

H OH
"1-~/L
II cW
drate. a sugar.

This power of plants is named photosynthesis (from the


Greek words for Ught and putting together). Men and
animals depend upon photosynthesis in plants to supply
their food and energy. We and the animals either eat
plants or eat plant-eating animals or both.

c........,,drat•r ony af a number of -terial1 made by green plants


from carbon, hyilk'ag.it and Oll}'IH oncl used for growth or s.tcncl
for tutu~ u.._

412
When we think it
out we can see that ~ - _:::::a-o
IDOlt of the energy
man uses comes ~
ll~..
-... ...
-~~
~ ::r-
from the sun byway ~·
~ .. ~ ,_ ,.,. / / ,,,.
of the materials \ t ' '-' \.(fl,.I
which plants build . ..
up in photosyn-
thesis.

Scientists know only a Dttle, so far, about photosynthesis.


It is only a little more than a hundred ,an 8inc:e the
first account of it was given by the Ocrman Idealist
YOn Mayer. But with more experimenting being dono
rsver:y year, much moro will certainly bo tnowa befoce
veryloog.

The rate at which scientific


knowledge is increasing is going
up all the time.

In time (but we may have to wait a long time before this)


it may even bo possible to use the energy of light itself in
Industry to do in our factories something like what plants
do in their green cells.

llnc• from tlMt tl•• when.


lftclu•trJi •altlng things on a large acole1 the autoaoblle ladvdry, ship.
bvlldlng Industry, clothl119 indvllry, fOI' -pie.
acleatlfla of, to do with. vMd I• science.
walh be -itl•g.
wll wait wait(•)

4t3
Before long, we may learn from working on photosyn-
thesis how to make or grow more food. AB we have seen
(page 13 above) more than half the population of the
planet is short of food. AB more and more people are
born, the need for new food supplies will increase. It may
be that we can find what we want in the sea. It is thought
that as much as 90 per cent of the photosynthesis which
takes place in the world goes on in microscopic water
plants in the sea. Maybe much of the food people are
going to need in the future will come out of the ooeans.

Or making food straight from complexes of carbon,


hydrogen and oxygen may become a great new industry.

At present we have to get most of the energy used in


industry by burning coal and oil and other fuels.

mlcroKopk; so 1mall that we have to uM o microscope lo M• them.


maybe: ii may be that ••• pouibly.
olb the oils are a large group af liquids of many sort1. Some we get fro ..
plants (the oliwe lr••· f« example), some from oni111ol1 {fish oils),
some from deep down in the earth. Oil1 ore lighter than water, burn
eo1ily and have many use1. On• of their chief uses i1 as fuel fOt'
gasoline engines. Ga.Oline (or petrolevm) i1 "ga1" 111 lhe U.s.A.
but "peh'ol'' 111 Britain.

414
This energy is the sun's energy stored
up long ago by plants. Coal comes
from the dead bodies of plants stored,
away from the air and under pres-
sure, through millions of yean in
great beds in the earth. The amount
of coal and oil in the earth is, it is true,
very great, but the amount we are
using today is great too. A time may
come before long when men will have
used up all the coal and oil that is
easy to get aL

Men have been taking oil out of tho


earth only since about 1860. With-
out oil there would be no cars and no
airplanes. It is strange to think that
planes depend on what plants were
doing millions of yean ago.

415
Plants and animals all need air. Only about
one fifth ( l / S) of the air is oxygen. The other
four fifths is another gas, without taste, smell N
or color, named nitrogen. Both plants and ani- N
mals need nitrogen as well as oxygen but they
cannot take it from the air themselves.. How N
do they get their supply of nitrogen? N
There are very small organisms in soil and water which
can take nitrogen out ot the air and fix it in complex
materials which plants and animals can use. These ma-
terials arc taken up by plants through their roots in water
from the soil. Anima1s get their nitrogen by eating plants.
Some ot this nitrogen comes away in animal waste and
men have for many thousands ot years known enough to
put animal waste back into the soil to help plants grow.

llOlb ecmh la which plants can grow.


fbu -"• fia.cl1 11..p ao-thing fro• choaglng.
wUlfta fix(•)
Nitrogen, like carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, is used
over and over again in support of life. Plants build nitro-
gen up into complex structures. Animals eat the plants.
Then animal waste and dead plants and fallen leaves aro
broken down into simpler forms again.

So the great round goes on without end, an made posst"blo


only by energy coming from the sun.

Scientists say that an the oxygen and an the carbon


diozido now in the air have been put thcl'e after use by
pJant:s through photosynthesis.

fair- ...... lecmts - lecmts which fell from.,._


Tile foll of ... . _ takes placa hi ... foll of ... , _ ...... ...,
follfn:l•ffle-....
.... fall r.I(•)

417
All organisms, it is clear, have a number of need& in com-
mon, of which air, waterf food and the sun's light and
heat are the chief.

But men have many other. needs, though we may not


think of them as needs. One of them. our need for other
people, is very important. First of all, we need other
people to do thinp for us when we are very young or
very oJd, or when we are ill.

We need Others to take care of us. We need their help.


We need them to do things for us which we cannot do f-Or
ourselves. We need their love.

- when people look after u1, do thlnfla for ua whldl - need to ha-..
done, t!My tau care of ua, they help ua. '
...... - feeling for. DellN la tall• - of 0 - - la Oii• . . . ol
lowe. n-. - ~ IOl1t of '"-

418
Every hour d. our lives
we do things that are
possible only because of
work which is done for us
by other people.

Who grew the cotton? Who made the sheets? Who


wat.ched the sheep? Who washed the wool? Who made
the blankets for the bed you sleep in?

Whose work are you using


when you tum on the
light?

Who mined the coal


which gives the power to
heat and light your room?

But equally men need to do things for other people. Most


men are not happy if they are not in some way helping
others-doing things for others. They need someone to
love.

lheet: cotton COY• used on bed for sleeping on or under.


blanll:ett - wool bed cover.
wllwmh wath(M)
w1n..._ 1111-(1)
wlB llght llflht(•)
wllllo¥tt love(•)

419
All our lives we need other people..

Jn many parts of the world families do everything for


themselves.

Until the nineteenth century this was true almost every-


where outside the cities. Families were self-supporting.

They grew the food they needed,

built their own houses, and

made their own clothing and furniture,

the candles for lighting the rooms


at night,

.pnd the plows and carts for work


on the farm by day •••

In every way they took care of them-


selves. Uving like this, a family is
very like a simple organism.
But a man living in a city today is more like a cell in a
complex organism. Other people whom he does not know
do almost everything for him. Workers in factories make
the things he needs and send them to the stores, which
sell them to him.

Other people teach his children


in schools and take care of them
in hospitals when they are ill.
Police and fire stations keep
watch over his city. Lighting
and water supplies, the clearing
away of waste. the upkeep of
streets and roads are all public
services.

In exchange for all this, each of us does his own sort


of work, bis daily round, whatever it is. This is true for
most of us, if not all.

pollccn .,.,. whoH WOl'k it ia to ... that Iowa care kept•


....... keeping 10 that ltt.y lllay be uMCI.
publlc; done for tu good of olL
...,,... - k doM for others.
clallyt day after day1 •-..Y day,

42t
People need play• well as work, though, if your interest
is deep enough. wc>rk and play can be the same thing. To
some people all their best work is a sort of play. They get
so much pleasure from it and are so interested in it
that they work when they don't need to. They are doing
what they want most to do.

It was the philosopher Plato who said. ..All learning is


best done 11 play. Nothing learned under pressure takes
root rigbdy in the mind. So let children's work be a sort
of play."

lnttll'eSh attraction of the •Ind to -.thing, p i - In bowMdge


of IO-"'hlg or In dol119 10...thlno.
pllllo1op•en tldnbr, lo¥w of kMw11dg1 (IN9 two ON.II wwdl.1 pltlloa.
lovl. ., . . . . . w1seJ. One w11o la I...,..... lo all 1111-...

422
People need work and play for the body and for the
mind.

They need music •••

and dancing. • • •

••• rest and change.

They need books and talk with other men: *~~


with old friends as well as with new people. ~
They need new knowledge to keep their old lA .l'j
knowledge clear and living.

A friend is someone you know and love and with whom


you have much in common. People you know only a little
are not your friends in this sense though they may become
your friends if you get to know them better.

d-clng: moving In time to music.


will dance danc•(•) danced

423
Men need to see beautiful things and to have beautiful
~about them.

Drawing goes back very far in man's past. The drawings


of animals copied on this page may have been made as
early as 25,000 B.C.

cfrawingt making pictures with lines.


c0pled: a lapy of aomethlng ls another thing made as much like ii
as possible.
wlllcfraw draw(•) drew,cfra_
wlllcopy copy(la) copied

424
Drawing can help to make ideas easier-the pictures
drawn in this book. for example.

But the greatest drawing and painting and sculpture can


make our highest powers come into play. The drawings
below are of two pieces of sculpture, one from India and
the other from Africa.

aculpture: making beautiful thing• fram Jlane, wood, metal or other


motedols; lhe works $0 mode.
for great drawing•, Jee The Pocket 8oolc af Great Drowin91 by
Paul J, Sachs.

425
Men need to hear beautiful things.

Music may go back still farther in time than the other arts,
but unhappily we have no records of music before the
discovery of writing. As with language the writing of
music may bavo started with pictures.

.......
-·, •..
,..,.,..,.,.,..,
I I I I
I If \

111

Today not only do we have ways of writing down music,


;
'•
'

but we can make copies of the sound of music as it is


played.

am work done lo feed lhe mind ond heort throu9h the senses ond feel-
in911 pointine. sculplure, music, elc.

426
Men need to make beautiful things.

Today the great cities of the world have public art gal-
leries and museums where anyone may see the paintings
and drawings and sculpture
of artists through the cen-
turies.

- ------
-"m worker at one of the orts.
art gallery: building where -rks of art are kept for people to look at.
museum: building where Important -rb of art, science, history, etc.,
are housed.

427
Great cities have theaters
where plays of the past
and the present are acted. -t~iil"!
They have music build-
ings where great works of...,......
music are played. They
have libraries where the
best that has been thought ..,~-illllliilzirn::;::
and written can be found.

theaten building where plays are given.


acted; when a play is given, it is aded by actors (players).
llbrary1 building ar roam far keeping baakH the baab kept there.
poetry: wards put together In the best way so that others con see and
feel what they mean.
wlll act act(•J acted

428
We need to be alone sometimes to get to know ourselves
better, though we need to be with other people too, to get
to know them better and ourselves through them.

The more men know one another, the better able they
will be to liv~ together in the world. The nations on the
earth-the Chinese, the Indians, the British, the Russians,
the Germans, the Americans, the French and the others
-know very little about one another. They look in dif-
ferent directions and have different ideas of themselves
and of the world. They live in different worlds.

This is good only if they have bridges between their


separate worlds and get to know enough about each other.

al-1 by one's self (oneself)I not with olhen •


....._ _, covnlrle1 and peoples under independent 90.,.,nment.
lndlp HdHh not dependent.

429
But we can't tum the clock back to yesterday when
nations could keep to themselves and live without any
knowledge of or help from·other countries.

The thing to do now is to get more knowledge about


other peoples. And knowledge of other languages is nec-
essary for this. Wo need many more people with a deep
knowledge of other languages than their own.

Wo have to know a language well if we are to know what


people who use it mean and think.

haY• to& must.


_.. hN are to becom• obl• to.

430
In English-as in any other language-we do not always
say what we mean or mean what we say. Th.is is true of
some of the things we say every day. For
example: "How do you do?" "How are
you?" Th.is is what people say on meet-
ing. Sometimes they stop and shake
M 0 0

hands. "How are you?" looks like a question. It is writ-


ten with a question mark after it. And sometimes "How
are you?" is a question. One person may want to know
if another is well or ill-how his health is-and so on.

"'"""•coming tog.iher.
9hake hancll11 when two people shake hands - h takes the right holld
of the other In his for a -nd.
llealtln o •Gii who hos good health ls healthy. A man In bod health Is
ill or sick •Rh of the time. Taking care of the health of lhe public
Is on Important part of the work of good government. Care of lho
hoatth of-ryoa• In the world Is beco•lng lncr-lngly nec:HsCJl'Y
to al nations. The World Health Orgonl&Gtlon (WHO) was lfart<td

..........
In 1947•

431
When these are questions they
are almost always said as if the
peIBOn who says them means them
as questions and wants an answer.

But most of the time they are said


in a way which does not ask for
any answer. When these words are
said so. we do not answer: "I am
tired,.. <ll' "I have a bad cold," or
"I am not well." We say the same
thing back to the other person: "How are you?" or
"Hullo!" Such words are like a smile or a wave of the
band.

....
,..... in ltffd of a rest.

.........
meet: come together with.
,.)

432
Again, when people are parting, they may aay: "Good
morning!" or "Good aftt:moonl'' or "Good evening!" QI'
"Good night!" to one another in place ot. "Good-by!"
They are not talking about the weather but saying "May
all be well with you at this time!"

You wt11 find few people today who know that "Good-
byl" is a short way of saying ·~God be with ,-oul" But
in times past. when religion had more place than it now
has in education. a child could" be taught this very young
as part of his knowledge of English.

pm'tla9J 1eponating, going away from one another.


aft•noom part of the day whkh come1 ofter noon (12dl01 ond before
night.
- - " ' • late afternoon ond early night.
n-= {12"301 paint of time between morning and afternoon.
Gach In Christian teaching, that Being on Wham all other beinfi!s ~nd.
rell9lom thought, feeling, de1lre for, interest In mon'1 deepest Heds.

15 3ua• 1633 433


There was a teacher who tried to teach all this. Her stu-
dents seemed to take in what she taught them. They said
back to her all together: "When you say 'Good morning!'
to us, we say 'Good morning!' to you."

Next morning on her way to school, she saw one of them


coming. She said to herself, "Now I will see if he has
teamed that point about 'Good morning!' "

So she said to the young man:

,@~.__Good_ . . ._. . _,
~~~==-y-..,=ltl•=I=
She had said "Good morning" to him with a question in
her mind: "Will he say 'Good morningl'?" She had asked
a question and he had answered it.

The teacher said to herself: "I must have seemed to be


asking a question, so he gave me an answer. Next time I
will do better."

At that minute she saw another student coming. She said


to herself, "Let me try again."

stud•nh learner.
So she gave the young man a friendly smilo and said,

f P~-Good_._-,. -=.- - '

_I _1_h""_"-_.._,.,_•••_h1 _f.--~
"What .was wrong then?" the teacher asked herself. '•I
must have said it as if I were giving him something. That
was why he thanked me. Next time I must keep that out
of my voice." '

She saw a third student coming. This time she wanted


the answer ..Good morning!" so much that her voice be-
came hard and sharp.

Q..--i-Good-_,. ,_I
~--I.....__'_. . ._,___,
You see how littJe one person may know what is in an-
other's mind even when the other is trying to show him.

thank: "'Y it was good of a p.,san to hOY• done what he did1 give him
lhanltl1 say "Thank you:•
pl-seb may it be your pleasvre 1 may it please you.
wlll thank thank(•) thanked
wHlpl-•• plaaH(I) plHHd

15. 435
When people are from very different countries with very
different ways, it can be hard for them to understand one
another. Not very long ago the number of people who
knew anything about people in other countries was very
small. Few people went far from home or took much
interest in other countries.

Today all this is changed. Every day, men hear more and
more about other countries and about how bad their gov-
ernments are. They hear about the strange and wrong
ideas other countries have of them.

If we knew them better, we wouJd see that people every-


where are very much like ourselves: not very good or very
bad, but in between and able to become better or worse
than they are. Men's minds are as like one another as
their bodies are.

to vnd.,.stond a p•raon: to see what his idea1 and feelings may be.
will understand und•rstand ( •) Ul'lderatood

436
We say: "The earth is getting smaller.'' It is the samo
size as it was, but we can go about it more and more
easily. Many more people travel outside their owe
countries every year.

~°;/
[&~~~
We can get news today from any part of the world in a
few seconds. though we may not always under:stand it.

Many more ideas, right or wrong, about~ counm..


are in people's minds.

Most of this interest in other nations and places is good


if it goes deep enough. We need to know more. If we can
keep our heads on our shoulders, the wider knowledge
and experience which are coming will help the world to
better days.

underataM aomethlng: have a clear; true Idea of it.


traweh make a journey, go.
wlll trawel tnwel(•)

437
The earth seems to be getting smaller because mea's ex-
perience is getting wider. All sorts of new ways of living
and new ways of doing things have come to us in tho last
fifty years.
+
Stranger thinp aro coming.
+

Men can today travel through


space to the moon.

What is Space? That is hard to say. It is equally hard


to say what Time is. We and the sun and the moon and
the stars are all in Space and Time. But no one under-
stands what Space and Time are. Not even the best phi-
losophers are clear about them.
! These two men know that they have a space
between them without being able to say
what Space is.
,---...
1\
~ pi.;_
Thero is not enough spa<:e in this car for all these travel-
ers. They know that this is so. though they cannot say
what Space is.

'lbere is more space free on this page than on some other


pages of the book which take longer to read.

439
h is equally· hard to
say what Timeis.

'Ibis other man has not enough time for his reading.

The same amount of time may seem very short to ono


person and w::ry long to another. A man's sense of time
changes as bis feelings change. Some days go by much
m~ quietly than others. Some hours seem as if they
would never end.. Some arc past before they seem to havo
~

Most people find that time goes by more quickly tho


older they get.
___,not..,.,,
_ . co- to cm eact, opposite of b•8'a.
wlll_. _.(•) ended
Oar ideas about Space
and Tnno aro changing.
... Today we can fty round
the world in twenty-four
hours.

The earth tums round on itself in twenty..four hours.

A man in a plane ftying west at 1OOO miles an hour


(m.p.h.) would see the earth turning. 1be sun would
seem to be in the same place in the sky for him. The earth
would tum under him.

A hundred years ago men of learning thought that the


world was only about 6000 years old. Now scientists say
that it is nearer six billion years old and that Man himself
is at least five hundred thousand.
Air travel would have seemed very strange two or three
thousand years ago, to men keeping their sheep on the
mountainsides. All these changes are the out:Come of the
great step taken in the invention of numbers.

Before men could count,


how did anyone know
which were his sheep and
which were another
man's?

He put his mark on bis sheep. He was their owner. They


were his own sheep. He owned them.

Sometimes he gave bis sheep names, and then he would


go through all the names-with his sheep-to see if they
were all there.

wlUowe owe(•)

442
Before the invention of writing how did men keep rec~
ords? They made pictures on soft earth or sand. But rain
and wind and waves quickly washed away such records.
Smooth stone or wood was better, and best of all, the
smooth stone walls of caves whose roofs kept the rain
and wind away.

It may be that the drawings copied on page


142, or others like them, were
records made by early men.
(Some man recording
animals on his
cave wall may
have taken
pleasure in
the drawing
for itself and
become the
first artist.)

cave: deep hole or hollow in side of mountain. Men lived in coves long
before they knew how to build themselves houses.
- • a'WCll)'l toke tsWfl'f by the motion of woter over .amething.

443
How did a man bow how many sheep
ho .owned? Sometimes ho used smaB
atones or sticks, putting one of. them
- - into a bag or pocket for
~ each lbeep . . had.

Whieallil came to the end of his sheep, the number of.


stones· in the bag was the same as the number of bis
sheei). The stones and tho sheep were equal in number.
Tho stones saw him a record of how many sheep ho
owned. When a sheep died be could take a stone out of.
the bag. And when lambs were bom ho could put in
another stOae for e&f".h lamb.
Then the stick was cut in half down
the middle so that each half ha4 half
of every cut on it. The two half sticks
were tallies. If they were put side by
,.
1
I

side, the halves of the cuts came to- i1


gether. They tallied. One man took
one tally and another the other, and
both then had the record.
-.,
,
~

tally: one sort of record.


•111 equol equal(•)
•Ill ta1'1 tolly(lu)

44S
Tallies are some d the earliest and simplest records d
the numbers of tbiDgs. They tell how many things have
been counted.

Even today In a bank a


man who takes money
in and gives it out is
sometimes named a
teller.

The shelf or table at which he works is a counter. On it


he <.toe,, his counting of the money coming in and going
out. .He keeps a record d all this in his account book.

A man who makes a statement tells something. Most


banb mate a statement every month to each person
banking with them tO tell him what his aCCOUBt is. The
statement tells him how much money be has in the bank
at that date. Then both be and the bank havo the record
straight.

To get this statement ready, the banker has to take the


amount of money given out (for any one person) from
the amount d money put in.

..llr 91.,. an account of, give o llOry to -


stralefih In this-· rl911L
wm..a ... ,.>
A bank teller must keep a complete record of the money
be takes in and gives out. This is his way of making cer-
tain that bis accounts are in order. Banking is a very
important sort of business. A bank must keep all its
accounts in good order and the statements which tho
bank makes must be true statements.

,,,. STATEMENT Of ACCOUHT-TOWH Wilt


1
Mt. Jolift S•ltll, 11 flnt ~

OUT IH DATE HO. IALAHCI

5/ 3/54 860.83
10.00 5/ 5/54 1 850.U
62.55 5/ 7/54 913.31
40.00 5/14/54 963.39
80.00 5/15/54 2 893.31
'2.94 5/15/54 3 MO."
15.00 5/18/54 4 825."
30..00 5/21/54 1155...U
20.00 5/24/54 5 1135M
'1.95 5/26/54 6 793.49

la orden with nothing wrong. Things are In order when In their right
places. When a man Is In good health, his body Is ''In order... When
he ls IU, It Is "avt of Cll'del'.H Th• wort: of th• poUot la a coultby 11
to help to keep law and order•
. . . . . .......... provlag to bl•Mlf Gild toothen.
m@filQ Hawclo _ _ _
a man is telling the troth?
C If a man teDs another that

~
he will give him three bags
of. grain for one sheep, tho
other will know whether
/"""\\. he told the troth when be
I \' gets the grain or doesn't.

'lbo man may, ot may not, ba~ meant to give the grain
when he said he would. He may not have meant to say
anything but the truth. But if he did not give the grain
later, he was not true to his word.

We sometimes know whether a man is telling the truth


(and will bo true to his word) by the loot in his eye, or
the sound of. his voice.

....... things nlcll ON trv-. A - tells .... lrut!J wfMe wiKll ...
......... ICl)'I
In early times, before men
invented money, they did all
their business by exchange of
goods. Men traded with
other men by exchanging
goods they were willing to
give up for goods they want-
ed more. Exchange of thfugs
still goes on in some parts of
the world today.

After the invention of money, trade increased. It is man's


experience that money can be a great help in making
trade easier and in keeping business in better order. If
you want something and have the money for it, you can
buy it. You do not have to keep asking yourself whether
you have something which the other man will be willing
to take in exchange for what you want.

-..chanlltN giving one thing for onother.


wllllng: if you ore willing to do something you will do it if you have to.
ti-.
lltlllt up to the present
tracles exchange of things for other things or money.
wlll trade trade(•)
will Invent Invent(•)

449
Early man did things with his hands which we do with
instruments or by machine.

F'mgers were mado before forb.

Among their early uses, fingers made good counters. We


still use the number ten as the key to our number system
because we have ten fingers.

~{~u~~
\~) ~
450
The most important number in the number system used
commonly today is zero (0). Zero is ao easy to use that it
is hard to understand why it was not invented long ago.
It is thought to be not much more than a thousand years
old and no one bows who invented it.

We use zeroes to change numbers to others. 7.ero to the


right of a number makes it ten times its size. Two zeroes
make it a hundred times its size. Six zeroes after one make
It mean one million.

Schools today teach a child to add, subtract, multiply and


divide numbers. Hero are examples.

addition:
subtraction: ·
=
s + s 10; 6 + 3
S-S= O; 6-3=
= 93
multiplication: S X S = 2S; 6 X 3 = 18
division: s + s = 1: 6 + 3 = 2

wlll aclcl aclcl(•)


will IUbtract Mtldract(•)
wlll -ltfply multlply(I. .)

451
Men made their way about on
the earth, over mountains,
down rivers and across seas
long before they had a number
system or could make or use a '
compass. Nobody knows who
invented the compass. The Chi-
nese, Arabs, Greeks and Ital-
ians, among others, say they
did.

When men became able to work out the relations of lines


and spaces to one another, and could measure distances
and angl~ the science of geometry, earth measuring,
began.

Men went on then from measuring fields and bits of land,


to measure the size of the earth itself.

compaaa: in1trument showing the direction of something In relation to


the north.
a-metry: 1cience which logTu into the relations of lines and 1paces lo
one another, from lwo Greek worda, se-eo.rth, and metron-
111-ura.

452
The Gmet sclen&t Eratcsthenes (276-194 B.C.) WU
the fint man to work out the si7.o of the earth.

He beard that there wu a deep well Into which on one


day of the year the llll1'8 light went an the way down to
the bottom. He toot the angle of. the am at the same hour
from another placo 500 miles from the well and worked
out by geometry that the earth was ~ 29.000 miles
round. ®

~' ·~
---r-r-~

J.20

Tho size of the earth, scientists llOW tell US, fs about


25,000 miles round.

453
Geometry starts with ideas about lines and spaces.

Here are two circles and two squares.

The circle on the left is inside a square. 'Ihat is tho reJa,.


tion ol. that circlo to that square.

The square on the right is inside a circle. 'Ihat is its


relaticm to the circle.

These are facts about the circles and squares on this page.

Statements which tally with facts are true. Statements


which don't tally with facts are not true. It is untrue that
the square on the right is outside the circle. To say it .ia
would be to make a false statement.

facts It 11 o foci lhol th• 'word fad hcui ,_, r.tten la II.
....... "'lrv.. foi-

454
What is a circle?

It is easy to see what it is, but not


equally easy to say what it
is. Here is a straight line
half an inch long. If you
could tum the line right round like the
band of. a watch. it would have cov-
ered a circle. Ono end of. the lino
would have to keep in the same place / .
while the rest of. the line wu turning. / ~

Here is another line the same length;


it is half an inch long. If you could
pull it down like a map on a roller
a distance equal to its
own length ( \.2 inch)
then it would make a
square with sides half
an inch long. l
'Ibis is not a square though its
sides are equal. Why not? Because
its angles are not right angles.

'Ibis is not a square though


its angles are right angles.
Why not? Because its sides
are not all equal.
Natt In this aena, the othw part1.
........ dlatane11 long.

455
Six thousand years ago In Egypt there were men who
eaw how to measme their Jand through their knowledge
about squares and triangles.

How large Is thb


square? What is ita
lizD?

Becauso the square Is Oil squared paper, ft is easy to


aee what its a is. We count the number of. small squares
In tho large square. 'Ibis mmiber is the area of the squam

If the small squares were an inch square, the area of tho


largo square would be sixteen square inches. If they wero
ono foot square, the area of the large square would bo
·s1m:en 4lqD8ID feet. If they were one yard square, the
area of tb.o large sqwu;e would be sixteen square yards.
Wbabmr tho unit of mcasuro used the relation of sido
to area is tboaamo.

-.cu - above oa this pao-.


unlb dMlloa of o _.,.. uHd aa on•

456
Men took tho first units of long measure
from their bodies. 'lbo end of a man'a
thumb is about ono inch long. A tall man's
foot is about twelve inches or ono foot long.

!il)"
~~
f0
~{j'

A long step Is about three feet


or one yard long. The simplest
way of measuring a short di&-
tance is to step it.

~
~
These units of long measure havo been a great help to
man. They have made it possible for him to measure
and compare lengths and areas and volumes. Measur-
ing lets us build a rObm the si7.e and shape we want it, for
example, twenty feet loog, &ixteeo. feet wido and twelvo
feet high.

volumes cubic space. The Wllume of the cube on page 121 bone cubic
centhneler,
lhapea outline. All aqu- arw the same shape but Ibey con be dlf.
f.,.nl llua. All clrdu en the same lbape but llCllf all lrlanglu.
wWatep etep(a) 9teppec1

457
Sometimes a man's fields were not aqua.re. Somo ot
them were like this:

or like this.

Men walked across their fi.elds;"they planted them and


took in the grain. They knew how much land they bad
from working them befm:e they could measure them.

They saw that a field like this

I
was the same si7.e, though
not the same shape, as a
field like this

before they knew that they could measure how long


and how wide a field was, and then get the area by tak·
ing one measure times the other.

wUlplaat plat(•)

458
They saw that they could get , - - - - - - - - . . . .
half a field in this way •••
t------~------·

or in this way, I

II
before they knew how to measure l"f'dangles or trfana1es.

Can you see whether these two fields ba11e the same aiea?

Put in lines to prove that they are or are not equal Jn


area. The answer is at the bottom of page 178.

459
Here is a right angled triangle. 'Ibo two
shorter sides are three and four units
long. How many units long is the
longest side?

Can you tell without measuring7 How?

About 2500 years ago (500 B.C.) a great Greet, Py-


thagoras, proved that the square on the longest side of
any right angled triangle is equal to the squares on the
other two sides added together. We can use his discovery
to get our answer. We multiply the length of each of the
two shorter sides by itself. We add the answers together.
Then we find a number which, multiplied by itself, giws
us this number.
5X 5 = 2S

3X3=9

4 x 4 = 16
9 + 16 = 2S = sx s

When we multiply a number by itself we "square» it.


Any number is the square root of it.s square.
S is the square root of 25.

to . . . . . to mvlrlply a au•bw by Itself.


win.- ..,....,.,

46f
It was not until many centuries later that men put this
knowledge of geometry to wide use. The development of
science had to wait until the days of. Galileo and Newton.
In the last three centuries men's ways of living have been
and are being deeply changed by science. These changes
can be compared only with three or four great earlier
steps in the history of man's development. These are the
birth of language, the use of fire and farming. and the
invention of. writing.

He is pulling on a strong stick of wood which


is kept turning by bis motion. This moves a
chain with buckets on it. The motion of the
chain carries buckets full of water up and
takes empty buckets down.

The horse bas a cloth over bis eyes to keep


him from seeing that he is walking all the time
in a circle. Would he stop if he knew he was
going round in circles?

empty! with nothing Inside.


Today machines are the work horses. They are doing
what men gave all their days to doing in the past. Men's
muscles get less tired in the machine ~ but they often
get more tired in other ways. We are finding that we
need more and more time to work out the direction that
our lives may best tab. We need a new design for living.

Men carried water from springs and


rivers, and pulled it up by hand from
wellS, long before they learned even
how to tum a chain round a wheeL
They put a cord round a wheel and
turned the wheel round because that
was less hard work than pulling full
buckets up the well by hand. The
steps have come slowly because each
has to be taken before the next. A
next step was to put another bucket
on the other end of the cord so that
an empty bucket went down as the
full one came up.

ott.n& time after time.


....._., picture of what COii be doff. hfore o houae or a complex
mochlne is bulb, tile bullden mu.d Mml o design lo "blueprlnl'1
before them.

463
In one of the well-known Undo
Remus stories, Br'er Rabbit, a
little animal who always gets
the better of the other animaJs
living near him, gets into a well-
bucket ...

and down he goes to the


bottom of the well. As
his bucket goes down, the
other bucket comes up
empty.
"How am I ever going to get back up?" he says to himself.

After a while, Br'er Fox comes along. look-


ing for Br'er Rabbit. "What are you
doing down there, Br'er Rabbit?" he
says, looking down
I
1 into the well-hole.

464
"rm doing a little fishing. There are hundreds of fish
down here.''

"How can I get down there?" says Br'er Fox.

"Just get in the bucket, Br'er FoL It'll bring you down
in no time," says Br'er Rabbit. ~-...

And as the
fox goes
down ...

up comes Br'er Rabbit to the top


in his bucket, as be wanted to do.

The two buckets go by one another


on the way. "Good day, Br'er Fox,
some go up and some go down. A
happy landing to you," says Br'er
Rabbit with a smile and a wave of
the hand.

Such stories about animals are as


old as any of man's inventions.

just: in this sense, only.


bring: make ••• come1 come with.
landing: c:oming lo land, lo earth, to herbal'.
wlll bring bring(•) brought

16 3aKa3 1633 465


Here is a water wbeel
being turned by water
power.

The weight of the water


falling into the buckets
turns the wheel. and
the wheel, in turn,
turns great round
stones (mMstones) for
crushing (millinglgrain
and making It into
ftour.

Men toot their grain to the miller to be made into .Oour.


Then they toot thD ftour away and their wives made it
into bread.

Men did all this everywhere in the old days before tho
invention of steam engines and electric power.

mUb factory for making flow•


...., _ wbo_.b la a aUL
Here is a windmill which does tho
same sort of work.

The wind pushes the sails


of the windmill round.
The work of the windmill
is dependent upon wind.
When there is no wind tho
miller cannot make his
flour because there is no
power to tum tho lllill·
stones round.

There is an old song about a miller who lived by himself


and could be heard singing a song all day long.

"I care for nobody, no not I


And nobody cares for mo.•
sang the miller.

What he meant was that he did not love anyone and that
nobody loved him. He had no hopes or fears. He did not
hope for anything or fear anyone.

pulh1 gift a push to.


hop9I ow fHllng when - loot fOfWGl'd lo and desire som•thing.
1-. opposite of hope1 fHRng about things which we thinlt lllCIY late
place, the thought of which aalt•• us tum wlllte aad shalte all over.
wfllpulh
wfllhope
wlll,._

467
~I
'\..II,~)
I
I
In many parts of the earth the
- I I
I
1
I
I , ,
I
climate is either too hot or too
,/, ,· ""' . I cold for man most of the year.
I ,,
Q But it is now possible to put
automatic controls over tem-

g. .,
.
I"'"
it
perature into ·houses, offices,
and work plants.

Here is a thermostat which keeps the eo


temperature of the air as high or low 10
as we want. We put the pointer at
70°F; then the thermostat will keep ••
the temperature of the room near so
70° F, the point on the scale to
which the pointer points.

cnmatei weather through the year, temperoture, a-uni of rainfall,


- n t of water In the air and 10 on.
..._.lata Instrument fOf' keepiag GUfomotic control OYer temperature.
polntwn penon Of' thing pointing.
wlU point point (a) pointed
A thermostat is designed for this purpose. Its design
makes use of our knowledge of what metals do when
heated.
LOW HIGff
TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE

This is the way it works.

Different metals get larger by different amounts as they


are heated.

Two long
such thin pieces
different of
metals
are bent together like
this inside the thermo-
81 ~ 1 70
stat.

When the temperature in a room goes above 70°F the


metal on the outside gets longer than the metal on the
inside. This moves the arm to the right and shuts off the
fuel in the heating system of the house .

.... thl• tlurpoMI to do thl• -11.


purpoMI a thing's purpose I• what It Is designed to do,
When the room gets too cold, the piece of metal on the
outside gets shorter and moves the arm to the left. This
turns on the heating system and more fuel is burned to
warm the house. The purpose of putting a thermostat
into a heating system is to control temperature.

In hot climates what is important is to cool houses by


sending fresh cold air through them. We can control the
temperature of the rooms and in addition dry the air and
have a climate of our own making indoors. Every ice
chest has a climate of its own inside it. It is strange and
surprising, but true, that ice chests are kept cold by using
heat. The heat is supplied by electric power or by burn-
ing gas. Scientists tell us that before long men will be
using the sun's heat to cool buildings. This will make
life in hot climates much easier.

wlll.,.

470
1bere are many other sorts J-..
of automatic controls. / "-

In this hotel a door is automatically opening to let a man


go through. His body has shut oft the light from an
"electric eye" as he walked past it.

In this bank a bell is ringing loudly because someone has


touched a window. The man was hoping to break into
the safe.

Many offices, banks, stores and work plants are kept


safe at all times by such automatic watchers.

ringlng1 sound made by a bell. We say that a bell ring&.


aaf111 stHI box where money and important papers are kept. They are
safe when locked in it, if no one breaks It open.
hoMb building where people can get roams for money.
wlll ring ring(•) rang,""''
wlll touch touch( . . ) touched
wlll br-k br-k(•) broke, broken

471
Here is a night watchman in a motion picture studio
(plant) keeping it safe from danger of fire at nigbL

~....... l-
5
6
1
He bas his time clock with him. He walks all night long
through the plant from one station to another. At each
station he pushes his time clock against a key which is
fixed in the wall.
This key prints a number on a long narrow roll of paper
which is moving all ~time through the lock of the

n~ ~
In this way the time clock makes a full record of whether
and when the watchman went to each station in the studio
in tum. The time at which he was at each one of them is
recorded. If a number is not
recorded, that is proof that
!DANGER OF outHI the watchman did not go to
~~~~~~th_M_s_ta_tlo_n_·~~~~-
.._.., IKEEP OUT!

472
I: I I
3 I: I Z This record is necessary before
1: 13 the insurance company will pay
for damage done to the plant
I: 14 by fire. The insurance. company
1: 15 needs to know where the watch-
man was all through the night.
1: 16
1: 17

The motion picture company pays insurance money


every year to the insurance company. In exchange the
insurance company will pay for any damage to the
building done by fire. But the motion picture company
is responsible for keeping the studio as safe as possible
from fire. The night watchman with his time clock is part
of the system of keeping the studio safe from tire•

. . . . . .Ible': if You are responsible' fat aolng something, you hav.. to do


it. If you gin yovr wwd t!tat you·wiU da something, you become
responsible for doing it.
Insurance: making safe from danger, 111aklng good when something
goes wrong.
company: business group.
damage: If a thing is burned, broken, or pvt Olli of -king order It
is damaged. Damage is done to II.
wlll4-p cl-ae(•)

473
Here is a more fully auto--
matic part of a system of
controls against fire. Some
metals melt at low tem-
peratures for metals. Thin
lengths of such metal are
placed at many points in
the plant. A fire starting
near one of these points
will quickly melt the
metal.

This starts an electric system working. It opens outlets


through which water comes down from the ceiling to put
out the fire.

11~ I~~\
__...~~:,
-"'--• ...... "
I 1~
v\"- I \

The price of such a system may be high~ but if is mudl


lower than the price of a new building. Such insurance is
cheap at the price.

melt: become liquid, 01 lee beco-• water.


cellla111 ln1lde of the roof of a room.
cheop1 low In price for what you get.
nwft(•)

474
Much of the work in present'"(Jay factories has to be auto-
matically controlled. The much-talked-of Assembly Line
was a first step in this direction. It let men make auto-
mobiles and many other things much more cheaply than
they could be made before.

An Assembly Line is a moving line of parts of whatever


is being made. Each worker (man or machine) does
one thing (adds or changes some part) to each automo-
bile (or whatever is being put together) as it goes by. The
work of each is dependent on what has been done before.
1bey are parts in an over-all design with an over-all
purpose.

If you make men into machines for short working hours


you can free the rest of their time. What for? To what
purpose? What is man designed to do? This new free time
has been given man by. the workers and thinkers of the
past. He has to think about what he will do with it, and
about the best possible use of it.

wlllfne ......,.,
475
It seems sometimes as if men
want very much to put an
~I . ._ ,. . ,"iJ. .1 1 1!~1" .
end to waiting on one an-
other. There are many ways,
for example, of making the --'"...-;U/1
serving of food in restaurants
more or less automatic. Ono
of the causes of the high
price of food in restaurants
is the use of waiters and wait-
resses. One waitress can
serve only a small number of
people, if she has to go to and
from the tables with trays. And fewer people than before
are interested in doing this sort of work even when the
hours are short, the pay is good and the work not too
hard.

In present-day living more people than ever before eat at


restaurants. Many housewives who used to have servants
now do all their own housework.

....,,e; give out, put before, do thlnga for.

-•tr-
watt.rt man who 1erve1 at table or In a restaurant,
woman who doea the same.
-.a.m one who serves others, for example, o penon who I• paid to
doh-t.
weu..,,.. ....,,.,.,
476
There are ways of making restaurants self-serving. that
is, of getting the public to do more of the work so that
fewer waitresses are needed and less time is wasted in
waiting to be served.

The nearest thing to complete self--serving is the AUTO-


MAT. Food. and drink are put into boxes with glass
doors in front.

You look at the food.

If you want what you see.


you put in the right amount
of money and the door is
unlocked so that you can
open it.

You take the food out and


shut the door again.

Fresh supplies of food are put in the boxes as they are


emptied.

477
More and more use is being
made, in public places, of
automatic machines which
sell food, cigarettes, drinks,
stamps, or even books.

To make buying and selling simpler and more auto-


matic is important. Too many housewives have to give
up too much of their time to shopping for their families.
Some of them use up a large part of their lives going from
shop to shop to get what they want and waiting in line
for people to serve them. Serving themselves frees them
from this.

lhopa " - · 111 the U11lt4HI ta1111do• 1ltop 11 vied ond In the United Stam
,,_, b.t you go lltopplng In botfi couetrlu-that 11, you go to
11oN1 lo - what you can bvy.
wlBlhop lhop(I)

471
There are great food stores today where every sort of.
food: meat, bread, butter, milk, vegetables. ftour, sugar,
salt, fruit-whatever it may be-is put out, each in its
place, on shelves for everyone to help himself. You take
what you want, put it in a little cart if there is much of. it,
and take it to a control counter where you pay for it.
An automatic adding machine is used to give the amount
you will have to pay and to make a record of the things
you have bought.

The adding machine prints the price of each thing on a


roll of paper. You see how much you are paying for each
thing you are buying IP1d how much what you have
bought adds up to. Then you get a list of the amounts
recorded and the store keeps a copy. These records of
everything sold help to keep the business of the store
in Older.

479
In many businesses accounts are kept by machines and
the records are photographed. When there are millions
of different facts to be taken into account, and records of
them to be made, machines can work far more quickly
than men.

The newest and greatest accounting machines can do


far more work in a minute than the quickest man could
do in a year. But the machines and the questions put to
them come out of men's minds and are controlled by
men.

pholotlapla(I}
It was James Watt who in 1788 invented the Flyball
Governor for steam engines as a way of making the
engine able to keep control over its own rate of motion.
This was the invention which made the steam engine a
safe machine.

The two balls are kept flying round and round by the
motion of the engine. As it goes more quickly they fly
farther out and this shuts down the supply of steam
coming to the engine from the boiler. When the engine
goes more slowly the balls fiy lower and this opens up
the shut-off (valve) and lets more steam through the
pipe to the engine.

17 3aKa3 1633 481


The governor of a steam
engine took its name from
the fact that it governs the
engine as a government
governs a country. A gov-
ernment in a free country
is a group of men to whom
the people give the power
to govern them. In free ~
~tries there is government of the people, by the peo-
ple, for the .good of the people. 1he government is the
instrument by which the country controls itse1f. In a free
country the people can change the government: they can
take the power away from one group of men and give it
to another. And there is a limit to the powers that any
government is given or can take.

..,,...an be In control of. •


llllllh ti.. point, line or eda• wh- IO-thlng co•a to an end. ro llmlt
Is to pvt o llmlt to.

482
.
In a free country the men in the government are depend-
ent upon the people and responsible to them for the use
made of the power which has been given them. In any
good system of government, there must be ways of con-
trolling and limiting the amount of power anyone has, as
the flyball governor controls and limits the output of the
steam engine.

One of the chief controls over the power of a govern-


ment is the law of a country. The law is a body of state-
ments about what may be done to or by any person. In
free countries all men are equal under the law which they
are responsible for keeping. To help them to keep it there
are police and judges.

....... ••n traln4MI In the law whe - ruponslble for tc171111 wtlot
the law la and what I• to be done lo - • who l:nc:alt It.
Our bodies govern themselves in many ways (pp. 87-91,
115) but we have to control them consciously too. We
have to be their judges and police, when necessary. But
in a well governed country there is little work for police
and judges. A good education develops the power of a
person to govern himself in more and more complex
ways.

As population increases and as men become more re-


sponsible for meeting people's needs on a larger and
larger scale, machines become more important. As the
facts become more complex, machines are being used
more and more to do all sorts of measuring, counting
and controlling.

ELECTRIC BRAIN

Can machines think? In a sense, yes. In another sense, no.


They can answer a question if we have built into them
the power to answer that sort of question.

educatlOfll In Cl wider aenae, ways 111 which -


learn lo become more oble ond responsible.

484
Wo can make machines work for: us. but machines can·
not tell us what that work should be. It is men who me
responst"ble for: the direction of tho work.

Men have to know not only how to do things but whether


to do them and when. A machine has only to do what it
is made to do.

Free men have to make up their own minds about all


important questions.

How does a man learn. to do this? By being with. talking


to and watching others who are able to think for them-
selves he may see how to think for himself. He gets bet-
ter at it by trying. Education in this cannot start too early.

ahoulch would IMst HJ the wark altould H what would IM belt for - .
dlnctl-t -Ing what shovld IN don•. gMno
lh• onten (dlMCtlona) and being NSponall:ft far th9 out--.

485
How do men come by their
ideas about what is better
and what is worse, about
what things are important in
life, what unimportant? How
do they judge between
things?

Man bas grown to what be is


out of the past. He bas come
a very long way through
change and growth from the
first living cells.

All living things, however simple,


control themselves to some degree.
Many cannot be said to have ideas
but they have direction. Within
limits they have self-control.

1-...
- bys get, In the sense of develop.
co•e to a de« Idea of what Is beat.
wllll..... lud. . (•)

486
Thinking is the most complex sort of self-control; and
our brains, with which we think, ar.e the most complex
systems of feed-back. The thermostat and the ftyball gov-
ernor are about the simplest of them. In feed-back sys-
tems, effects control their causes.

In the thermostat feed-


back circle the effect of in-
creased input of fuel is
increased output of heat.
This effect feeds back,
through the thermostat,
and cuts down the input
of fuel when the increase
becomes too great.

In 'the ftyball governor


circle the effect of more
steam is more output of
work from the engine.
This effect feeds back,
through the governor, and
cuts down the steam when
the engine goes too fast.

In the brain millions of feed-back circles are always con-


trolling one another.

487
Man's past is a very small part of all time, but it is a very
important part.

How old are the stars? How old are the Sun and the
Earth and the Moon? Nobody knows for certain. It is not
possible at pl'e.'lent to be certain about such great ques-
tions as the.~, but two things seem probable.

'The universe is about five billion (5,000.000,000) years


old.

It has been becoming more and more complex from the


start.

c......._ two dlff....nt •-lngs of "certain"•


I •. Y- Cffe certain about tomethlnt whu IMnl ls no question in yovr
'°"
mind.that Jt is
2. Som.tJUng 11 certoln (11 a foct) If It Is -H-aupported by oil th• rnt of
~ W• - 909Mltl- certain (In-.. 11 about thlllfl
which • • not certain fin ..n.. 21.
............ more them posslb.., .... than certoln.
If ,...,.. a... - b!ack balls and thrff white
Wa In a liag Gii.cl ~ lak• - of th•m ovt
wltloeut 1aottlng. Jt 11 pt'Obabl• that ~ wiU
o• • black Olle.

488
However we try to think of time, it seems certain that the
earth is older than O\U' minds can take in.

Things have been going on for a longer time than we can


think of and they will go on and on through a longer
time in the future dlan we can think of.

Seventy years seems a long life-time if compared with


the present minute. But if compared with the age of a
stone it seems no time at all.

There is a Chinese poem which says:


Quickly the years fiy past forever,
Here forever is this spring morning.

poem: something MJid for the complete -n (his thov9ht1, feelings,


de1ire1, .hopes, feors •.• J in the best pouible way.
We have to think of Time and
Space together: here and now,
there and then. We cannot see
with our eyes how far off in
Time and Space the stars are,
but astronomers can measure
their distances. Their unit of
measure is the light-year-the
distance light travels through
Space in a year.

The greatest telescopes of


today let us look two bil-
lion light-years out into
Space. The stars we see
there are two billion light-
years away. We see them
as they were two billion
years ago. We are looking
into the past.

aatro-m•1 Kientist working in ostronomy.


astronomya Kienc;e of lh• atan.

490
Let this curving line represent growth from simple to
complex in the world.

~-
i-r
-"""'
v
'

'
PA.ST SIMPLE

In this picture the past is to the left and we men of today


are at the top of the curve.

Long. long ago, the only sorts of changes that took place
were-so men of science say-very simple in comparison
with the changes which are taking place in you now as
you read this.

The curve represents the change from simple to com-


plex. The higher it goes the more complex are the sorts
of changes which are taking place.
491
In the beginning-as long ago, as far back in the past, as
we can talk about-the only sorts of changes which took
place, scientists say, were physical changes. They were
the sorts of changes which the science of physics is abouL

Here is a wheel turning


round. Its motion is a
physical change. _ ___,,

?-
Here is water boiling.

These are physical changes.

phytlcab In the narrow 1en1e used here, within the field of the science
of phyllu. In a wide MllH, material having to do with bodies nor
mlncll.

492
Much later, other sorts ol
changes, more complex than
these, began to take place.

Here is a lighted candle. As it bums the


heat melts the candle and the liquid goes
up into the flame where it is turned into
gas.

So far all is physical

But in the flame chemical changes take place.

Carbon from the candle and oxygen from


the air come together to make carbon di-
oxide. At the same time water is given off.
as you may see if you hold a glass cover
over the flame. The cover quickly becomes
clouded with little drops ol water. This
water was not in the wax and the candle
flame gives it off however dry the air is. The water and
carbon dioxide come into being through the chemical
exchanges, between the lighted candle and the air, which
make the flame.

At the same time there are physical changes taking place.


The top ol the candJe is melting and the liquid fuel is
moving up into the flame and being turned into gas, air
is coming into the flame, carbon dioxide and water are
moving up from it and heat and light are being given out.

chemical changeei chonges that toke ploce 111 the ltrvct.. of cllffenmt
IOl'll of iaot.rlal, tumlng the• l11to other moterlob.

493
When you step on a scale, tho
scale goes down and the springs
inside it are pulled out, and the
pointer moves to a mark. These
changes are physical

1~P-:I
When you look at the pointer
to see what your weight is, rays
~
/
of light come from it to your eye I
I
I
and go through the lens in your
.,,
I
I
eye to a point on the retina. I I

leua len- In cameras are made of glml. Th• lens la an eye I• bulh
of clear 11¥1ng cellL
retfnm caal of calla at tbe back of tbe 4lpbaJI.

494
In a camera, rays of light from whatever you are photo-
graphing make an upside down picture on the film.

So it is inside your eye. The pictures made on the retina


are upside down.

Everything going on so far has been physical. But in


your retina more complex sorts of changes now take
place. Some of these are chemical. Complex materials in
the retina go through chemical changes not very unlike
those that make photographs on films and these changes
cause other much more complex sorts of changes in the
living cells of the retina.

fllmi h•,.. Is a roll of fll• r.ady ta IM put


lnloaw•-

- - M th• l:OVM of.


w1n- --c•>
495
These nerves, which make us able to see, are an out-
growth from the brain to the retina. From the eye im-
pulses travel to the brain through the living •cells of the
nerves. There are as many as a million separate telephone
lines in these nerve$ alone.

A .train of changes goes up


these nerves to the back part
of the brain. The cells there
let us see the things that our
eyes are looking at. No one,
at present, has any idea of
bow they do this.

The distance from the eye to the back of the brain is not
great, but some distances from some parts of the body
to the brain are long. The rate at which impulses travel
through the nerves is about the same for all of them•

......lae1, _,,. of change which goes throvgh a nerte •


.-.er chain of cells through which i111pul..s traYel fro111 one port of
the body to another1 th• impulses thenis•lv.,,, CS.. poe<t 181, llne 3.
It Is - · s _..... thol get tlntcl toclay,)

496
The distance from a man's toe to his brain and
back may be as much as twelve feet. When
you are feeling with your toe for a step to put
your weight on, the impulses have to go
up your nerves from your toe to your brain
and back down again to the muscles which
move your foot.

When you are


walking, almost
all the muscles in
your body are at
work keeping
you from falling
down. Your mus-
cles and nerves
work together to
keep you on your
feet.

These changes in the nerve and muscle cells are depend-


ent on what is going on in other cells in the body in many
different ways.

497
Life on earth began. it is thought, about two billion years
ago. No one knows for certain whether there are living
things on other planets-on the red planet, Mars, for
example, or on any of the ten million, million planets
like the earth which are now thought to be traveling round
other stars which are like our sun. It seems possible-
even probable-that there are living beings (not unlike
men maybe) on many of them.

Changes of color on Mars are seen


at different times of the Martian
year. These changes may be
caused by the growth of plants.

The newest and highest development of living things on


earth is Man. About a million years ago, early men were
beginning something new in the long story of the earth.

498
Let us change our time scale and make this line:

represent one million years, the time since Man began.

PAST PllESENT

Then this curve may represent the next great steps for-
wardinto more complex ways of living.

No one knows when speech began. Probably speech de-


veloped slowly and in different ways and at different
times with different sorts of men. But certainly it was
through being able to speak to one another that men be-
came human. With the growth of language a great de'lr-el-
opment of the parts of the brain which are used in talking
took place. Speech gave Man greater and greater control
over the world, over other men and over himself. With-
out language, Man would not have become what we
mean by the word human.

11peeclu talking, word langvage of the YOlce.


hu-= Ilk• a 111an. dlff-nt fro111 anl111Gla. as -n should !Mt.
w1u.-1c

499
Let us change our time scale again and make our line
represent 10,000 years.

100~ .....
,.~
I\~ ~
8,000 6,000 <4,000
--
2,000
tflll"":

0 2,000
The next great upward turn of our curve came some
twenty-five hundred years ago. In many different parts
of the earth, Man was discovering then his first full and
clear ideas of himse]f and of his world. '
In Greece, the great~ the Iliad, and
Socrates and Plato.
In Palestine. Amos, Hosea and Isaiah.
V \ "You may not make for
YOU MAY NOT yourselves an image of
MAKE for your..i- / anything in the sky or on
- IMAGE or any •
THING in the SK.Y earth or m th~, waters un-
or ON EARTH der the earth.
or In the WATERS \ (Deuteronomy, 5:8.)
under the EARTH 11

•-991 pldwe or sculptvre ,.,,_nllng 10111ethlng.


In India, Gautama Buddha
and the Bhagavad-Oita.

In China, Confucius and


Mencius.

At first through the spoken word and then in writing,


men began to make for themselves pictures of Man and
of what Man should become. More than some know, men
have been living by these pictures ever since.
If you have read this book up to this point, you can easily
read for yourself The Wrath ot Achilles (Homer's Iliad)
in simple English, The Republic ot Plato in simple Eng-
lish (both W.W. Norton, New York) and the Books of
Amos, Hosea and Isaiah in The Bible in Basic English
(E. P. Dutton, New York).

501
Here are some of the greatest sayinp of all time which,
in one language or another, go on living in men's minds.
For many centuries school children in China began to
learn to read with this sentence:

From the Chung Yung (a later work of the school of


Confucius) :

"What makes us is named our nature. What


directs our nature is named the Way. What
makes the Way possible is education."

_..._what- 111o.t dMply and truly ARE.


~ "'"' dlrectlOftl to.
..tn direct dlnct(•I

502
At first. writing seems to have been chiefly a way of keep-
ing JeCOrds. The first great poems. the Iliad, for example,
\Vere in the minds and mouths of poet after poet before
they were written down.

The teachings of. Buddha and


of Menclus, Confucius and tho
earlier Hebrews were given first
by tho spoken word and writ-
ten down later by some who
heard them. Socrates, though
he used books, thought that
teaching should be by word of
mouth and by example. And
Jesus taught only by what ho
said and did and was.

Later, the written word was to become the chief instru-


ment through which Man could try to understand him-
self and bis world.

503
It is chiefty through reac:Un& and through thought about
what we read, that we come to see how our ideas depend
upon ono another-very much as men are dependent upon
other men, or as organs in our bodies are interdependent.

DIRECTION WORK SUl'PlY TIAHSPORT

Through reading and reflection we can learn to know


ourselves. Reflect for a while on these words of Shake-
speare. Thinkini, he says.
" ..• turns not to itself
Till it has traveled and is mirror'd there
Where it may see itself."
Troiliu and Cre.ssida, Act III. Scene ill, lines 109-111.
Some very good students of Shakespeare think that he
wrote married, not mm-ord in line 110.
Cll'8Cll'• heart, lvng1, aolllGCh, brain, etc.
lnterdependenh dependent Oii one another.
reflectlom If JOU look In a •lrror JOU wlll
- a reflection af yourMlf. The •lrror A1flec:b Ugllt fro• JOU bac:t
to your eye. Tilt. eye ii lb MllM argan most ci-IJ At'fant IO tll•

........,.,
brain. When - wdentand - "'Y- -
wlU reflect

504
Every idea with which we reflect is what it is and can
do what it can do only because our other organs of
thought are what they are and do their own work.

The parts of this bridge do what they do only because


the other parts of it are there and are doing their work.

And this is equally true of the words in a language. Every


word is able to work as it does only because other words
work with it

In every step we take, what any of


our muscles can do depends on
what our other muscles are doing.
and all this is possible only be-
cause our nerve cells are in con-
trol. And nerve cells can work
together well only if the blood is
serving them well

SOS
And the blood can serve them well only if tho heart is in
good order and if tho lungs are taking in enough oxygen;
and the heart and lungs in tum are dependent on the
food the stomach can give the blood stream and on the
control the nervous system can keep up over all tho
organs of the body.

S06
But in fact, the organization of our bodies is far more
complex than this short and simple account can say. In
everything we do, every breath we talce, every metion wo
make, from the directing of our eyes as we look to the
wording of a sentence as we write, billions Of cells of
every sort in our bodies are working together serving ODO
another.
It is the same with Man and his world. Any great ques-
tion coming up in any part of the world today bas its
effect on almost everyone anywhere. As with the body.
damage in any part is damaging to all the rest. 1be more
men reflect upon this the more they will understand why
world organization is important. We are far more do-
pendent upon one another than we know.

"What to do? What to do?" said Confucius. "In truth,


I do not know what to do with a man who does not ask
himself this!"
A wise man goes on asking himself what to do all his life.
It is two questions:
1. What should Man want to be or to become? What
is Man's end or purpose? We have seen (page 204)
how far he bas come. Where is he going/
2. How can he best work to this end?

507
Bverything said Arlstot1o. has its own true
work-or purpose-the work: it can do best,
the WOl't which is risht for it.

A good wheel turns well, a good knife cuts


well, a good clock keeps time well. A good ;.
apple tree gives good fruit, a good cow •
gives good milk.

-
In the body, eye, hand, foot, each bas its own work to do.

What can Man do best? What is bis own work as Man?

Is it to learn? To learn what?

Is it to learn what to do?

How does he learn?

Is it by the feed-back from the effects of what he does?


Is it by seeing from the outcome whether he is doing the
right thing?

SOS
If you are trying to draw a circle, the curved line you
have made (together with your knowledge of what a circle
is) keeps telling you
how to go on. You
can learn to draw
better by trying.

If you are mating a speech, what you will go oo. to say


depends upon what you have said up to that point a.ncl
upon the people listening to you. A bad speaker is one cl
whom this is not true. A good speaker bas learned by
experience how to design a speech and how to chango
the design if necessary.

In speaking. as in everything we do, the way we begin


depends upon what our purpose is, upon what we are
trying to do. But we are not always, nor need we be,
fully conscious of what that purpose is. Sometimes, in
reftection, we see more purpose than we tncw in what
we did.

....... -wlialshould be . . . .d flowlocka It.


wm-.... .....(•) ........
S09
How you atan your drdo depends on how large it is to be.

So there is feed-forward as well as feed-back. Feed-


forward is as widely supported a fact as feed-back. Any
number of examples can be found. There can be no feed-
back without feed-forward. Knowledge of what you have
done and are doing will not help you unless there is direc-
tion in what you are trying to do.

You may not fully know what this direction is; you may
be trying to find out what it is.

As the development of the microscope has in-


creased man's power to see, so the development of his
instruments of thought is increasing his power to design
and direct and see wfult he is doing.

............... it thent 11-.

510
In every sentence you write, the feed-back from the let-
ters of any word you are writing, together with your
knowledge of the spelling of the word, tells you which
letter to write next. But feed-back can do this only be-
cause you fed forward that word and no other as the
word you would write. And in writing any sentence, feed-
back from the words you have written can tell you what
to write next only because you fed forward that sentence.
And you fed forward that sentence only because of a
more general feed-forward, the purpose of the paragraph
in which the sentence is to take part. And the paragraph
too depends upon the chapter and the chapter on the
book.

"General"? What does


this word mean? Each of
these circles as they go out
from YOU represents a
more general idea than
all that jg within.

paragraphs a part of a longer piece of writing which develops an


Idea In II.
dlap..-1 a part of a boolr. made •P of a number of parographs under
a separate heading (or number).

511
John Amos Comenius ( 1592·1670) was, so far as we
know, the first man to use pictures in books written for
beginning readers and for beginners in a second Ian·
guage. (It was Latin.) He was to have been the first
head of Harvard College, where this book is being writ·
ten, but could not come.

Comenius began his reader, Orbis Pictus (Nilrnberg.


1657), with this picture.

The teacher is saying: "Come, Boy, learn to be wise ...


And the boy asks: "What does this mean, to be wise?"
The teacher answers: "To understand rightly, to do
rightly and to speak out rightly all that is necessary."
512
The teacher gives the boy an answer thoup he knows
that no one can become wise all in a minute. All our lives
through, we go on learning how to understand rightly, to
do what is right, and to speak out at the right time. See
the size of the question the boy is asking.

In this book we have not tried to give any answers, but


only to bring together some of the more important ideas
and facts needed if we are to ask ourselves what we
should know and think and feel and desire and do. To
have been wise is to have known. thought, felt, desired
and done as was best. But there are many difterent ways
of knowing, thinking, feeling, desiring and doing. Which
are the best? That is the question. Our lives are our at-
tempts to find an answer, and language is the most impor-
tant of all our instruments for this purpose.

18 3au3 1633 513