Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 300

Gramática básica

de la lengua inglesa

SEGUNDA EDICIÓN

CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS
PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
Toe Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1 RP, United Kingdom
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
The Edinburg Buiding, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA
477 Williamstown Road, Port Melboume, VIC 3207, Australia
Basílica 17, l, 28020 Madrid, España
Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 800 l, South Africa

http://www.cambridge.org

© Raymond Murphy y Femando García Clemente


© Cambridge University Press 2002

First published 2000


6lh printing 2006

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

Quedan rigurosamente prohibidas, sin la autorización escrita de los


titulares del Copyright, bajo las sanciones establecidas en las leyes,
la reproducción total o parcial de esta obra por cualquier medio o
procedimiento, comprendidos la reprografía y el tratamiento
informático, y la distribución de ejemplares de ella mediante
alquiler o préstamo público.

Impreso en Espafla en Gráficas Rogar, S. A., Madrid


Depósito legal: M. 5.213-2005
ISBN 10: 84 8323 042 9
ISBN 13: 978 84 8323 042 9
Indice general

A los estudiantes
A los profesores
Agradecimientos

Unidad
1 am/is/are (afirmación y negación)
2 am/is/are (interrogación)
3 l'm hungry / It's cold etc.
4 1 am doing (present continuous)
5 are you doing? (present continuous, interrogación)
6 1 do/work/like etc. (present simple, afirmación)
7 1 don't (present simple, negación)
8 Do you ? (present simple, interrogación)
9 1 am doing (presenr conrinuous) y Ido (prescnt simple)
10 l have ... / l've got ...
11 was/were
12 worked/got/went etc. (past simple)
13 1 didn't ... Did you ... ? (past simple, negación e interrogación)
14 1 was doing (past continuous)
15 1 was doing {past continuous) y I did (past simple)
16 1 have done {present perfect 1)
17 l've just ... l've already ... I haven't ... yet Have you ... yet? (present perfect 2)
18 Have you ever ... ? (present perfect 3)
19 How long have you ... ? (prescnt perfect 4)
20 for since ago
21 1 have done (present perfect) y I did (past simple)
22 is done was done (voz pasiva 1)
23 is being done has bcen done (voz pasiva 2)
24 be/havc/do (present y past)
25 Verbos regulares e irregulares
26 1 uscd to ...
27 What are you doing tomorrow? (presente con significado futuro)
28 l'm going to ...
29 will/shall ( 1)
30 will/shall (2)
31 might
32 can y could
33 must mustn't necdn't
34 should
35 1 have to ...
36 Would you like ... ? l'd Likc ...
37 there is there are
38 there was/were there has/have been there will be
39 It ...
40 1 am I don't etc.
41 Have you? Are you? Don't you? etc.
42 too/either so am I / neither do I etc.
43 Negaciones: isn't haven't don't etc.
44 is it ... ? havc you ... ? do thcy ... ? etc. (la interrogación 1)
45 Who saw you? Who did you see? (la interrogación 2)
46 Who is she talking to? What is it like? (la interrogación 3)
47 What ... ? Which ... ? How ... ?
48 How long does it take ... ?
49 Do you know where ... ? I don't know what ... etc.
50 She said that . .. He rold me that ...
51 work/working go/going do/doing
52 to ... (1 want to do) e -ing (1 enjoy doing)
53 J want you to .. . I told you to ...
54 I went to the shop to ...
55 go to .. . go on ... go for .. . go -ing
56 get
57 do y make
58 have
59 Ume he/him they/them etc.
60 my/his/their etc.
61 Whosc is this? It's mine/yours/hers etc.
62 Ume/my/minc
63 myself/yoursclf/themsclvesetc. (reflexivos)
64 's (Ann's camera/my brother's car etc.)
65 a/an (1)
66 a/an (2)
67 flower(s) bus(es) (singular y plural)
68 a car I sorne moncy (contable/incontable 1)
69 a car I sorne money (contable/incontable 2)
70 the
71 go to work / go home / go to the cinema
72 1 like music I hate cxams
73 the (con nombres de lugares)
74 this/that/these/thosc
75 one/ones
76 sorne y any
77 nor + any no nonc
78 nor + anybody/anyonc/anything nobody/no-one/nothing
79 somebody/anything/nowhere etc.
80 every y ali
81 all most sorne any no/nonc
82 both either neither
83 a lot much many
84 (a) little (a) few
85 old/nicc/interesting etc. (adjetivos)
86 quickly/badly/suddenly etc. (adverbios)
87 old/older cxpensive/more expensive
88 older than ... more expensivc than ...
89 notas ... as
90 the oldest the most expensive
91 enough
92 too
93 He speaks English very well. (orden de las palabras en la frase l)
94 always/usually/often etc. (orden de las palabras en la frase 2)
95 still yet already
96 Give me that bookl Give it to me!
97 at 8 o'clock on Monday in April
98 from ... to until since for
99 before after during while
100 10 at on (preposiciones de lugar 1)
101 10 at on (preposiciones de lugar 2)
102 to in at (preposiciones de lugar 3)
103 under behind opposite (preposiciones)
104 up over through etc. (preposiciones de movimiento)
105 on at by with/without about (preposiciones)
106 afraid of good at ... etc. (adjetivos + preposición) preposición+ -ing (good at -ing etc.)
107 listen to look at ... etc. (verbos + preposición)
108 go in fall off run away etc. (phrasal verbs 1)
109 put on your shoes put your shoes on (phrasal verbs 2)
110 and but or so because
111 When If ...
112 If I had If we went ... etc.
113 a person who ... a thing that/whích ... (oraciones de relativo 1)
114 the people we met the hotel you stayed at (oraciones de relativo 2)

Apéndices
Apéndice 1 Voz activa y voz pasiva
Apéndice 2 Lista de verbos irregulares
Apéndice 3 Verbos irregulares en grupos
Apéndice 4 Contracciones (he's / l'd I I don't etc.)
Apéndice 5 Spelling (ortografía)
Apéndice 6 Phrasal verbs (look out I take off etc.)
Apéndice 7 Phrasal verbs + objeto (fill in a form I put out a fire etc.)
Apéndice 8 Cuantificadores (very/much/many etc.)

Ejercicios complementarios

Soluciones

Soluciones a los ejercicios complementarios

Indice analítico
A LOS ESTUDIANTES

Essential Grammar in Use, Segunda edición española es un libro de gramática inglesa de nivel
elemental. Consta de 114 unidades que abordan distintos puntos gramaticales. Las unidades
aparecen en una lista al principio del libro (Indice general!.

No estudies todas las unidades en el orden en que aparecen. Es mejor que selecciones las
unidades que necesites. Por ejemplo, si tienes dificultades con el uso del present perfect (have
done/ have been etc.), busca en el Indice analltico al final del libro la unidad o unidades apropiadas
(Unidades 16-21 para el present perfect).

Cada unidad tiene dos páginas. La izquierda contiene información, explicaciones y ejemplos. En
la derecha tienes varios ejercicios.

F
A•-~--
lhav1to ...
&I '-"'•---
- ............
·..::=:.!:""..:..""'!"=:':~
·-~---- ---·-·--
'"'"",-j
-
-·-· ...... -
..."'...-···-
.. •looo•,.-••--

...... _
-
-- .. -
-:---,\~ ~~::.. 1 •..1
if_AJ~=~ -
c.- ... ,-,..- ..,...,.... _ • ., __
-... ..._ ..
Información ---·--,...-
.·----~.
.
. . . . . t_,..,
•n.,._... __
,... ............ -
. ......,..._._,. __---·
-·- .. .. Ejercicios

e t>•-,.. ,...- ..-- ......,, ...7,.,1 ...... ,..... __ ,... _,_..,_


f.: =----l-· · E= ::J-· I 1 : =~~=t.~~-
1•1ot--,-·!lfl.

.:1 :::::--1-··· l l-= 1-,···· 1 ... 1 ............


,f;l,M _

:~:'2~'==i~~.:_--
......... --.,-.-~
-~--------- .. _.. _

I ,_, __ l...__ 1-4,__......._

~ ~!.-=r:=...::::..!"i'"
..:.--:-.z:::-r·
-~ t--·· . . -·-··---···---
1 :.:: ·-·----~

-----
·,a.-~-__
o -:~~:.. .... ,... _
..
,.............
..........-... __·-·· _ ....__
_ 1,-- --....
...... ...~
,--

! s::=;..?.T:=
i..-
-- .... ,--.

:::=::=~""::=::·=-·-·

Puedes usar el libro del modo siguiente:

1 Consulta el Indice general o el Indice analítico para saber qué unidad o unidades te interesan.
2 Estudia la página de la izquierda (información).
3 Haz los ejercicios de la página derecha.
4 Comprueba las respuestas correctas en la sección Soluciones o pídele a tu profesor o
profesora que corrija los ejercicios.
5 Repasa la página de la izquierda si es necesario.

No olvides los ocho Apéndices al final del libro (páginas 231-240). Te darán información sobre la
voz activa y la voz pasiva, los verbos irregulares, las contracciones, la ortografía (spelling),
algunas locuciones verbales (phrasal verbs) y el uso de los cuantificadores.

También hay unos Ejercicios complementarios detrás de los Apéndices (páginas 241-257) que
aparecen relacionados en la página 241 y que tienen también sus Soluciones.

vi
A LOS PROFESORES

Las características generales más importantes de este libro son:


• Essential Grammar in Use, Segunda edición española es un libro de gramática y no un libro de
texto.
• Va dirigido a estudiantes de nivel elemental y no aborda cuestiones que normalmente no se
aprenden o enseñan en este nivel.
• Es a la vez un libro de consulta y de ejercicios.
• Utiliza el español en las explicaciones y como referencia contrastiva entre las dos lenguas.
• Se puede utilizar para el estudio individual o como material complementario de clase.

Organizacióndel libro
El libro consta de 114 unidades sobre distintos aspectos gramaticales. El material se organiza a
partir de categorías gramaticales (tiempos verbales, formas interrogativas, artículos, etc.). Las
unidades no están ordenadas según criterios de dificultad y, por tanto, deben usarse de acuerdo
con las necesidades de los estudiantes: no aconsejamos seguir estrictamente el orden en que
aparecen. Las secciones Indice general e Indice analítico facilitan la consulta.
Cada unidad consta de dos páginas: en la izquierda aparecen las explicaciones con ejemplos
y observaciones contrastivas, en la derecha se encuentran los ejercicios correspondientes. Hay
ocho Apéndices (páginas 231-240) dedicados a voz activa y voz pasiva, verbos irregulares,
contracciones, ortografía, locuciones verbales (phrasal verbs) y cuantificadores. Puede ser
conveniente dirigir la atención de los estudiantes a esta sección.
Esta nueva edición incluye una serie de Ejercicios complementarios (páginas 241-257) que
proporcionan práctica combinada de distintos aspectos gramaticales de varias unidades
(especialmente las relacionadas con las formas verbales). Consta de 33 ejercicios reseñados en
la página 241.
Finalmente, en las páginas 258-288 están las Soluciones para que los estudiantes comprueben
sus respuestas.

Nivel
El libro va dirigido a estudiantes que han superado la fase inicial de un curso para principiantes.
También lo pueden usar estudiantes de nivel lower-intermediate para cubrir lagunas de
conocimientos previos.
Las explicaciones se han redactado de un modo breve y sencillo. El léxico corresponde al
nivel indicado, sin descartar el uso del diccionario para algunos ejercicios de traducción.

Uso del libro


Se puede usar para el estudio individual (véase A los estudiantes), o como material
complementario. En ambos casos puede servir como libro de consulta de gramática elemental.
Si se usa en clase, puede servir para actividades de refuerzo o bien para repaso y
recuperación. Se puede usar con toda la clase o sólo con los estudiantes que necesiten apoyo o
práctica adicionales.
A veces será conveniente usar en clase la página izquierda (presentación y explicación),
aunque ha sido concebida para estudio y consulta individual. En la mayor parte de los casos
será mejor que el profesor o la profesora presente el punto gramatical del modo que considere
oportuno y los estudiantes realicen los ejercicios en casa, con la página izquierda como
referencia.
Habrá profesores y profesoras que prefieran usar el libro para actividades de revisión y
recuperación. En tal caso se orientará el trabajo individual o en grupo hacia la unidad o unidades
apropiadas, pudiendo ser útil para cubrir algunas necesidades de atención a la diversidad.
Al final de cada unidad hay un ejercicio de traducción basado en diferencias formales entre el
inglés y el español. Se facilita la traducción de algunas palabras o expresiones cuando se
supone que los estudiantes pueden desconocerlas (por ejemplo, spiders en el ejercicio 3.4.8) o
para evitar errores que no se relacionen con el punto gramatical que aborda la unidad (por
ejemplo, la traducción 'en barco= by boat' aparece en una unidad que trata del present perfect).
Estas traducciones se refieren únicamente al contexto del ejercicio concreto. Así, por ejemplo, la
traducción de 'las arañas' en el ejercicio 3.4.8 aparece como spiders (y no como the spiders).
Este libro se ha elaborado considerando posibles dificultades gramaticales contrastando el
inglés y el castellano, por lo que puede ser útil para cualquier usuario de esta lengua como
materna. El término 'español' se refiere al castellano como se usa normalmente en España.
vii
arn/ls/are (afirmación y negación)

l'm American. l'm from Chicago.

./- My favourite colour is blue.)

My father is a doctor and My favourite sports are


my mothcr is a journalist. football and swimming.

B afirmación negación
am (l'm) am not (l'm not)
he (he's) he (he's not o he isn't)
she is (she's) she is not (she's not o she isn't)
ir (it's) ir (ir's not o it isn't)

wel
you
(we're)
are (you're)
we
yo u are not
(we're not
(you're not
o
o
we aren't)
you arcn't)
they (they're) they (they're not o they arcn't)

am/is/are son formas del presente del verbo be (= ser/estar).


• l'm rired rhis morning. Estoy cansado/a esta mañana.
• l'm a srudent. My sisrer is a teacher. Soy estudiante. Mi hermana es
profesora.
• John is in bed. He's ill. John está en la cama. Está enfermo.
• My car is very old. Mi coche es muy viejo.
• Ann and l are good friends. Ann y yo somos buenas amigas.
• You're very busy toda y. Estás muy ocupado hoy.
• Your keys are on the ta ble. . .. están .
• l'm a srudent. l'm nota teacher. Soy no soy ...
• Jane isn't ar home at the moment. She's at work.
• My room isn't very big but ir's nice. . .. no es ... es ...
• Those people aren't English. They'rc Australian. . .. no son ingleses. Son ...

E En inglés es necesario usar /os pronombres personales sujeto (l/he/she/it etc.}:


• lt's late. (no 'Is late.') Es tarde.
• Tim is in bed. He's nor well. ... está ... No está bien.
Para decir la hora, se dice It's ... :
• lt's one o'clock. J lt's 8.15. J Ir's half pase ten. Es la una./
Son las ocho y cuarto./ Son las diez y media.

U thar's = that is there's = there is hcre's = here is


• Thank you. That's very kind of you. Gracias. Es muy amable
de tu parte.
• Look! There's Chris. ¡Mira! Ahí está Chris.
• 'Here's your key.' 'Thank you.' 'Aquí tiene su llave.' 'Gracias.'

am/is/are (interrogación)==> mmJ l'm hungry I it's cold etc. Cl!:t'!I] there is/are ==> 1ij :jfrfi4 ir ==> 11 j r j fE•
pronombrespersonales~ l@Hi ffl 1 a/an => 111/iMH!JfJdJ
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 1
1.1 Escribe las contracciones (she's/we aren't etc.).
she is ... ~11.~\ .. 3 it is not . 5 I am not .
2 they are . 4 that is . 6 you are not .

1.2 Completa las frases con am, is o are.


1 The weather J~.. nice today. 5 Look! There Caro!.
2 T not tired. 6 My brother and I good tcnnis players.
3 This bag heavy. 7 Ann at home. Her children at school.
4 These bags heavy. 8 T a taxi driver. My sisrer a nurse.

1.3 Escribe frases completas usando is/isn't/are/aren't.


1 (your shoes very dirty} .Y.~!'. .. ~r.~-- ~~--~-~--~:..
2 (my brorher a policeman} .
3 (this house not very old) .
4 (the shops not open toda y} .

~ l;~:;:s~:º~:;~~~~~)··::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::: ::::: : ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::\:


7 (yo u nor very tall) .

1.4 Observa las frases de Lisa (Unidad lA). Escribe frases acerca de ti.
1 (name?) My . 5 (farher's or mother's job?) .
2 (from?) 1 . My ············································································································
3 (married?) 1 . 6 (favourite colour or colours?)
4 (job?) . My .

1.5 Escribe frases acerca de los dibujos. Usa: angry ~ sad strong tall tired
6

1 --~-~·-~.. r.~: . 3 They . 5 .


2 He . 4 . 6

1.6 Escribe frases verdaderas, afirmativas o negativas. Usa: am I am not I is I isn't /are/ aren't.

1 (1 / a student) . . l.'.~ 0:- ~t:«.~~.J!? . . l.'.~.--~--~---~.t:«.~t.L


2 (I / ti red) J .
3 (it / very late) Tt .
4 (my hands / cold) .
5 (Canada / a very big counrry) .
6 (diamonds / cheap) .
7 (1 / a good dancer) .
8 (Brussels / in France) .

1.7 Traduce al inglés:


1 Mi madre es inglesa. 8 Mi padre no es profesor, es mecánico.
2 Son las 6. 9 Este vaso no está limpio. Está muy sucio.
3 La sopa está fría. 10 ¡Mira! Aquí está tu hermana.
4 Catherine no está en Londres. Está en 11 Es tarde.
Birmingham. 12 Hclen no está aquí. Está trabajando.
5 Mis padres no son españoles. 13 Aquí tiene su bolsa.
6 Ricardo es alto y delgado. 14 Mi hermana no está muy alegre hoy.
7 Mi casa es vieja pero es grande y está en el centro. Está tri stc.

3
arn/is/are (interrogación)

-')
afirmación interrogación What's your name?
I am am I?
~
he he? '/Areyoumarried?) ~

~~;
she IS IS she?
it 1 it? <Whe,ea,eyoufrom?) ~
we
[ we?
yo u 1 are are you?
rhey they? Yes, J am.

• 'Are you English ?' 'No. T'm Scortish.' '¿Eres ... ?' 'No. Soy .. .'
• 'Is your rnother ar home?' 'No, she's out.' '¿Está tu madre en casa?' 'No, está fuera.'
• 'Are your parents at home?' 'No, thcy're out.' '¿Están tus padres en casa?' 'No, están fuera.'
• 'Is it late?' 'No. It's only nine o'clock.' '¿Es tarde?' 'No. Son ... '
• Your shoes are nice. Are they new? Tus zapatos son bonitos. ¿Son nuevos?

Observa el orden de las palabras:


• Is she at home?/ Is your mother ar home? (no 'Is at home your mother?')
• Are they new? / Are your shoes new? {no 'Are new your shoes?')

Recuerda que en inglés es necesario usar los pronombres personales sujeto:


• Is it important? (no 'Ts imporrant?')

B Wherc ... ? / What ... ? / Who ... ? ! How ... ? ! Why ... ?
• Where is your mocher? Is she ar home? ¿Dónde está tu madre? ¿Está en casa?
• 'Where are yo u from ?' 'Canada.' '¿De dónde eres/es Vd.?' 'Del Canadá.'
• 'What colour is your car?' 'It's red.' '¿De qué color es tu coche?"Es rojo.'
• How are your parents? Are rhey well? ¿Cómo están tus padres? ¿Están bien?
• How much are these postcards? ¿Cuánto cuestan estas postales?
• Why are you angry? ¿Por qué estás enfadado?

what's = what is who's = who is how's = how is where's = where is


• What's the time? ¿Qué hora es?
• Who's that man? ¿Quién es ese hombre?
• Wherc's Jill? ¿Dónde está Ji//?
• How's your facher? ¿Cómo está tu padre?

e respuestas breves

Yes, 1 am. No, l'm not.


~

Yes, [ t~•1 is No,


[
he's
she's nor. o No, [ :r~, 1 isn'r,

I
it's

Yes, we
yo u I are. No,
we're
you're not. o No,
we
yo u aren't.
they they're they

Estas respuestas se usan con mucha frecuencia en inglés (además de las respuestas simples Yes o No.):
• 'Are you tired?' 'Yes, l am.'
• 'Are you English?' 'No, l'm not. l'm Scorrish.'
• 'Is your friend English ?' 'Yes, he is.'
• 'Are these your keys?' 'Yes, they are.'
• 'That's my sea t.' 'No, it isn't.'

am/is/are => mDJ I'rn hungry I ir's cold etc. ::::> IE:IJ La interrogación=> NMJM• whac/which/how ::::> NIIH(fl
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
2
2.1 Elige la respuesta apropiada para cada pregunta.

1 Where's the camera? A London 1 ..~ ........


2 Is your car blue? B No, l'm not. 2
3 Is Linda from London? c Yes, you are. 3
4 Am I a good student? D My sister. 4
5 Where's Ann from? E Black. 5
6 What colour is your bag? F No, it's black. 6
7 Are you tired? G In your bag. 7
8 How is George? H No, she's American. 8
9 Who's rhar woman? [ Yery well. 9

2.2 Escribe preguntas con is o are usando estas palabras. Pon las palabras en el orden correcto.

1 (ar home I your mother?) .. !~.. .!l~L.~<>~.~--~--!'.1.q,~~.L


2 (your parents I well?) ...Ar.~.. !:l~-~---~~~--·~-~L
3 (inreresring I your job?) .
4 (the shops I open today?) .
5 (from London I you?) .
6 (near here I rhe post office?) .
7 (at school / your children?) .
8 (why I you I sad?) .

2.3 Completa las preguntas usando What ... / Who ... / Where ... / How ....

1
............................ Ji<>.~ ~.e. your parents? They're very well.
2 ............................................................................. the bus stop? At the end of the street .
3 ...................................... rhese oranges? ll.20 a kilo .
4 ........................................................... your favourite sport? Skiing .
5 ........................................... the man in this photograph? Thar's my father .
6 ..................................................................... your new shoes? Black .

n
2.4 Escribe preguntas apropiadas para las respuestas.

l;J(
PAUL
1 (name?) ..W!').~'.~.. .!l~.t ..!'.'.~~L Paul.
2 (married or single?) . l'm married.
3 (American?) . No, l'm Australian.
4 (a teacher?) . No, I'rn a lawyer.
5 (wife a lawyer?) . No, she's a designer.
6 (from?) . She's Italian.
7 (her name?) . Anna.

2.5 Escribe respuestas breves afirmativas o negativas (Yes, I am. / No, he isn't, etc.).

1 Are you married? . .tf.q,, Ú:t:' !'.'<>t:, . 4 Are your hands cold? ..
2 Are you ar home? . 5 Is it dark now? ..
3 Is it Monday today? . 6 Are you a teacher? .

2.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿ Estás contenta? 6 ¿Qué hora es? ¿Es tarde?
2 ¿Dónde está Tom? ¿Está en casa? 7 ¿De qué color son tus guantes?
3 ¿Cómo están tus padres? 8 ¿ De dónde es Su san?
4 ¿Cuánto cuesta este paraguas? 9 '¿Es inglesa Mary?' 'No, es irlandesa.' (irlandesa= Irish)
5 '¿De qué color son tus ojos?' 'Son verdes.' 10 ¿Estás contenta?

5
l'm hungry / lt's cold etc.
'A Algunas expresiones con be (am/is/arc) corresponden a formas del español con 'tener':
l'm hot/cold (tengo calor/frío)
• l'm hot. Can I open the window?
Tengo calor. ¿Puedo abrir la ventana?
• 'Are you cold?' 'No. l'm OK.'
'¿Tienes frío?' 'No. Estoy bien.'

I'm hungry/thirsry (tengo hambre/sed)


• l'm not hungry. No tengo hambre.
• The children are thirsty. los niños tienen sed.

l'm right (tengo razón)


• You'rc always right. Siempre tienes razón.

l'm afraid (tengo miedo)


• Why is John afraid of dogs?
¿Por qué John tiene miedo de los perros?

l'm in a hurry (tengo prisa)


• Are you in a hurry? ¿Tienes prisa?

Para decir la edad se usa am/is/are:


• l'm 25. o l'm 25 years old. Tengo 25 años.
• My grandrnorher is 72. Mi abuela tiene 72 años.
• How old are you? ¿Cuántos años tienes?

8 Observa también las diferencias siguientes entre el inglés y el español:


l'm inrercsted in ... (Me interesa ... )
• l'm interested in politics.
Me interesa la política.
• Jenny isn't very interested in music.
A Jenny no le interesa la música.
• Are you interested in philosophy?
¿Te interesa la filosofía?

l'm late (llego tarde)


• Sorry l'm late. Siento llegar tarde.
• Why are you late? ¿Por qué llegas tarde?

he's/she's/they're asleep (duerme/está durmiendo)


• Joe is in bed. He's asleep .
.. . Duerme./ Está durmiendo.
• Are the children asleep?
¿Duermen/ Están durmiendo los niños?

it's hot/cold/sunny/a nice day (hace calor/frío/sol/buen dla)


• lt's sunny bur it isn't very hot.
Hace sol pero no hace mucho calor.
• Is it cold in your room?
¿Hace frío ... ?

am/isfare => hM\ jQ§J lt's hotlcold/sunny etc.::::> 11. j.¡j,ffil


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 3
3.1 Escribe frases acerca de los dibujos. Usa:
afraid asleep hungry in a hurry thirsty

2 She . 3 They .

4 . 5 ···················································· 6 .

3.2 Completa las frases.


1 ' ...Ar.~.. ~o.<:A... cold?' 'No, I'm OK.'
2 'How old is your grandmother?' ' ... ?!'.!~\ .. 72.'
3 'In Greece, hor in August?' 'Yes, very hot.'
4 George's favourite sport is football. very interested in it.
5 'Sorry late.' 'That's OK.'
6 How old is Amanda? 21 or 22?
7 'Are the children in bed?' 'Yes, asleep.'
8 ' interested in art?' 'Yes, I am. Very much.'
9 cold. Where's my sweater?
1 O lt's 9.30 and Joseph isn't here! Why always late?
11 a nice day today. . warm and sunny.

3.3 Escribe frases sobre ti mismo, afirmativas o negativas.


1 (interested in politics) . ..l.'.!'!! ~~~~~-.(º...l.'.!'!! ~ ..~~~-~L\!'.l P.C>~.: ..
2 (hungry) I .
3 (in a hurry) .
4 (afraid of dogs) .
5 (cold) .
6 (inrerested in films) ..
7 (rhirsty) .
8 ( years old) .

3.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Tenéis frío? 10 ¿Hace mucho frío en Islandia? (Islandia= lceland)
2 Tengo mucho calor. ¿Puedes abrir la 11 ¿Te interesa el fútbol?
puerta? 12 '¿Dónde está Ana?' 'Duerme.'
3 Carmen tiene 16 años. 13 ¿Por qué llegan tarde?
4 No me interesa el tenis. (el tenis = tennis) 14 Nos interesa la ciencia-ficción. (ciencia-ficción =
5 No hace sol hoy pero hace calor. science-fiction)
6 José está cansado y tiene hambre. 15 No corras. No tenemos prisa.
7 Hace mucho calor en mi casa. 16 Tienes razón. Hace mucho calor en esta habitación.
8 No tengo miedo de las arañas. (las 17 Son gemelos y tienen 19 años. (gemelos = twins)
arañas = spiders) 18 Bruce tiene miedo de los insectos. (los insectos =
9 '¿Tienes hambre?' 'No, pero tengo sed.' insects) 7
I am doing (present continuous)

She's eating. Ir's raining. They're running.


She isn't reading. The sun isn't shining. They aren 't walking.

El PRESENT CONTJNUOUS se forma así:


am/is/are + doing, eating, running, wriring, etc.

-ing

¡
am (not) l'm working.
he Chris is wriring a letter.
she is (nor) -ing She isn't earing. (o She's not eating.)
ir The phone is ringing.

¡"'
we We're having dinner.
yo u (nor) -ing You're not listening to me. (o You aren't ... )
they The children are doing their homework.

El PRESENT CONTINuous expresa un hecho o una acción en curso:

l'm working
sbe's wearing a hat
they're playing football
l'm watching television

pasado------ AHORA ------ futuro

l'm working/playing/eating etc. equivalen a 'estoy trabajando/jugando/comiendo' etc., pero


en español también se usa a veces con el mismo valor el presente de indicativo (trabajo/juego/como):
• Picase be quiet. l'm working. ... Estoy trabajando.
• Look at Sue! She's wearing her new hat. . .. lleva puesto ...
• The weather is nice at the moment. lt's not raining. . .. No llueve./ No está lloviendo.
• 'Where are the children?' 'They're playing in che park.' ... juegan/están jugando ...
• (al teléfono) We're having dinner now. Can you phone again la ter? ... estamos cenando ...
• Yo u can turn off the television. l'm not watching it. . .. No la veo/ estoy viendo.
Observa las siguientes diferencias entre inglés y español:
• They are sitting. Están sentados.
• She's standing. Está de pie.
• Brian's lying in the sun. Brian está tumbado al sol.
Nota /as diferencias de ortografía:
come ~ coming write ~ wriring dance ~ dancing
run ~ running sit ~ sitting swim ~ swimming
lie ~ lying
Ver también el Apéndice 5.

am/is/are ~ E:11 are you doing? (PRESENT CONTINUous, interrogación) ~ l!m!!II I am doing (PRESENT CONTINUOus)
y I do (PRESENT SIMPLE) ~ ll!!E What are you doing tomorrow? (presente con significado futuro)~ 1ij¡jj,r-l.fD
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 4
4.1 ¿Qué están haciendo estas personas? Completa las frases usando los verbos siguientes:
havc lie play sit wait

3 @)) 4 5 G) 6

1 Sn~.~---·······
2 He
) eoJin.. 9 an apple.
~~H
for a bus.
4
5
on the floor.
breakfast.
3 They football. 6 on che table.

4.2 Completa las frases usando uno de estos verbos:


build cook go have stand stay swim ~
) ri::º
1 Please be quict. I .!!' ... ~.~.... ~!!,....
2 'Where's John?' 'He's in the kitchcn. He .'
3 'You on my foot.' 'Oh, l'm sorry.'
4 Look! Somebody in the river.
5 We're here on holiday. We at the Central Hotel.
6 'Where's Ann?' 'She a shower.'
7 They a new rheatre in the ciry centre at the moment.
8 1 now. Goodbye.

4.3 Observa el dibujo y escribe frases sobre Jane usando She's -ing o She isn't -ing.
1 {have dinner) --~~~--~~.'.~ ..n.~~~9 .. ~~~.: ...
2 (watch television) .. ~~'..~---~~~9 ..~~~-~~.: .
3 {sir on the floor) She .
4 (read a book) .
5 (play the piano) .
6 {laugh) .
7 (wear a hat) .
8 (write a letter) .

4.4 ¿Qué ocurre en este momento? Escribe frases verdaderas.


(1 / wash / my hair) .1.1.1)'.l•••~~--~~l:1.~9...~.!:Lh..&..: .
1
(it / snow) ..l.f~.. ;;.t:'~~!k.19:.. .9. ..1.t...~r.il.~~-~9.: .
2
3
(1 / sit / on a chair) .
4
(1 / eat) .
5
{it / rain) .
6
(l / learn / English) .
7
(I /listen/ ro music) .
8
(rhe sun / shine) .
9 (1 / wear / shoes) .
10 (1 / read / a newspaper) .

4.5 Traduce al inglés:


1
Marta está tocando la guitarra.
2
Pablo está sentado y Sandra está de pie.
3
Llueve mucho ahora.
Hoy mi hermana lleva una blusa y una falda.
4
5
Javier está jugando al fútbol en el parque.
6
Apaga la televisión. No la estás viendo. (apagar= turn off)
7
Ana está tumbada en la cama. {en la cama = in bed)
8
Laura no está de pie, está sentada allí.
9 Paul está nadando en la piscina. (piscina = swimming pool)
10 Liz está escribiendo una carta.

9
are you doing? (present continuous, interrogación)

afirmación interrogación

I r·
am am
doing doing?
he
sh.e is working working?
IS ~he
going going?

r
rt rt

I
staying sraying?

we
you are etc. are you etc.
thcy rhey

• 'Is it raining?' 'Yes, rake an umbrella.'


'¿Llueve?/¿Está lloviendo?' ...
• Why are you wcaring a coat? lt's nor cold toda y.
¿Por qué llevas abrigo? ...
• 'What's Paul doing?' 'He's cooking the dinner.'
¿Qué hace/está haciendo Paul? ...
• 'What are the children doing?' 'They're watching televisión.'
'¿Qué hacen/están haciendo los niños?' ...
• Look, there's Sally! Where's she going?
... ¿Dónde va?
• 'Are you feeling OK?' 'Yes, l'm (feeling) fine.'
'¿Te sientes bien?' 'Sí, estoy bien.'
• Who are you waiting for? Are you waiting for Sue?
¿A quién esperas/estás esperando? ...

8 Observa el orden de las palabras:


is/are + sujeto + -ing
Is he working today?
Is Paul working today? (no 'Is working Paul today?')
Where are they going?
Where are those people going? (no 'Where are going those people?')

e respuestas breves

Yes, I am. No, l'm not.

Yes,
¡ I is. No,¡ he's
she's not. o No,¡ he
shc isn't.

I not. o No,¡ I
~~e
ir's 1 ir 1
Yes, ¡ ;:u I
they
are. No,¡ we're
you're
rhey're
we
you
they
aren'r.

• 'Are you going now?' 'Yes, 1 am.'


• 'Is Paul working roday?' 'Yes, he is.'
• 'Is it raining?' 'No, it isn't.'
• 'Are your friends sraying ata hotel?' 'No, they aren't. They're sraying with me.'

l am doing ::) mJ What are you doing tomorrow? (presente con significado futuro) ::) 1,j¡jj.¡j,fp
la interrogación~ 1ij:jjfr!fitl#Wt
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 5
5.1 Observa los dibujos y escribe las preguntas:

t. (you/watch/it?)
' · Ar.~.. ~<?.~.. ~aj;qi.4:igJ*.~
'

.l. .::
,.,..;l,;" /

5.2 Observa los dibujos y completa las preguntas usando uno de estos verbos:

cry cat go laugh look at

5.3 Escribe preguntas a partir de estas palabras. Usa is o are y ordena las palabras.
l (workíng / Paul / today?) ..!~.. .f.~L~~r.!'!r.1.9..~.L
2 (what / doing / the children?) ..Wh.~--~~..~~.~Y:4!.~ .. M.!:l:l9.L
3 (you / listening /tome?) .
4 (where / going / your friends?) .
5 (your parents / televísíon / watching?) ..
6 (what / cooking J Ann ?) ..
7 (why / you / looking / at me?) .
8 (coming / the bus?) .

5.4 Escribe respuestas breves (Yes, 1 am. / No, he isn't. etc.).


1 Are you warching TV? .. t!<?.,..Ú)'...1 r.~ .. 4 Is it raining? .
2 Are you wearing a watch? .. 5 Are you sitting on rhe floor? .
3 Are you eating something? .. 6 Are you feeling well? ..

5.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Estáis viendo la televisión?
2 '¿Qué hace Marta?' 'Está jugando al tenis.'
3 '¿Qué escribes?' 'Una carta.'
4 ¿Trabaja hoy tu hermana?
5 ¿Por qué estás de pie?
6 '¿Qué haces?' 'Estoy leyendo el periódico.'
7 ¿Dónde va Luis? ¿Por qué corre?
8 Llevas una camisa muy bonita. (bonita = níce)

11
I do/work/likeetc. (present simple, afirmación)

They're looking at their books. He's eating an ice-crearn.


They read a lot. Leen mucho. He likes ice-crearn. Le gusta el helado.
They read I he likes I I work etc. son formas del PRESENT SIMPLE:

I/we/you/they read like work live watch do have


he/she/it reads likes works lives watches does has

Recuerda:
he works I she lives I it rains etc.
• 1 work in a shop. My brother works in a bank. (no 'My brother work')
• Linda lives in London. Her parents live in Scotland.
• lt rains a lot in winter.
I have ~ he/she/it has:
• John has a shower every day.
Nota las diferencias de ortografía:
-es detrás de -s/-ch/-sh: pass ~ passes finish ~ finishes watch ~ watches
-y~ -ies: study ~ srudies carry ~ carries
también: do~ does go ~ goes
Ver también el Apéndice 5.

8 El PRE5E1', SIMPLE se usa para expresar cosas que son verdaderas en general, o bien que ocurren con cierta frecuencia o
habitualmente. El equivalente en español suele ser el presente de indicativo:
• The shops open ar 9 o'clock and close at 5.30. ... abren ... cierran ...
• Tim works very hard. He starts at 7.30 and finishes at 8 in the evening. Trabaja ... empieza ... acaba ...
• The Earth goes round the Sun. La Tierra gira alrededor del sol.
• We do a lor of different things in our free time. Hacemos ...
• lt costs a lor of money to stay at luxury horels. Cuesta ...
Observa que I like/he likes equivalen a 'me gusta/le gusta' etc.
• 1 like football. Me gusta el fútbol.
• 1 don't like big ciries. No me gustan las grandes ciudades.
• John likes the house. A John le gusta la casa.

e El PRESE rr SIMPLE se usa con always/never/often/sometimes/usually.


• Sue always arrives at work early. (no 'Sue arrives always')
Observa la posición de estas palabras:
Sue llega siempre temprano al trabajo.
• I usually go to work by car but I sometimes walk. (no 'I go usually')
Generalmente voy al trabajo en coche pero a veces voy a pie.
• Julia never eats breakfast. Julia no desayuna nunca.
• Tom lives near us. We often see him. ... Lo vemos a menudo.

I don't ... (PRESEtsT SIMPLE, negación)~ m:11 Do you ... ? (PRESE."ITSIMPLE, interrogación)~ l!E:llJ I am doing
(PRESEtsT COtsTINUOus)y Ido (PRESENT SIMPLE)~ l!l:IIBJ Orden de las palabras en la frase (always/usually etc.)~ 111¡,¡1111¡¡¡~.¡¡111,.¡r.,,~"11
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 6
6.1 Escribe la forma de estos verbos que acompaña a he/ she I ir (-so -es).

1 (read) she..t~ .. 3 (fly) it . 5 (have) she .


2 (think) he . 4 (dance) he . 6 (finish) it .

6.2 Completa las frases sobre las personas de los dibujos usando los verbos siguientes:

1 ..I:'~--~-~--- the piano. 4 ten nis.


2 They in a very big housc. 5 .. to the cinema a lot.
3 a lot of fruir. 6 eight hours a nighr.

6.3 Completa las frases usando los verbos siguientes:

boil el ose cost cost like like meet open tea ch wash
1 Margaret ..~~-~--- four languages.
2 In Brirain the banks usually at 9.30 in the moming.
3 The Ciry Museum ar 5 o'clock in che evening.
4 Tina is a reacher. She mathematics to young children.
5 My job is very interesting. I a lor of people.
6 Perer his hair twice a week.
7 Food is expensive. It a lot of moncy,
8 Shoes are expensive. They a lot of money,
9 Water ar 100 degrees Celsius.
10 Julia and I are good friends. I her and she me.

6.4 Escribe frases ordenando estas palabras y usando la forma correcta de los verbos (arrive o arrives etc.).

1 (always / early / Sue / arrive) --~~--~~-~-..~0.'~~---~-'-··


2 (basketball/ I /play/ ofcen) I .
3 (work / Margaret / hard / usually) .
4 (Jenny / always / nice clothes / wear) .
5 (dinner / we / have / always I at 7.30) .
6 (television / Tim / warch / never) .
7 (like /chocolate/ children / usually) .
8 (Julia/ parries / enjoy / always) .

6.5 Escribe frases sobre lo que tú haces usando always/never/often/sometimes/usually.


1 (watch relevision) ..!..l'.'~X~ ..~ll:t.0. .. ~Xi§.~r.i.,.. /..I.Y:~~~--~-~--~~-~ip_r1 .. ~ .. #.1.~.~~~~.9 t.. (~,)._
2 (read in bed) 1 .
3 (get up before 7 o'clock) .
4 (go to work/school by bus) .
5 (drink coffee) .

6.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Susana trabaja en un hospital.
2 Estudio inglés todos los días.
3 A veces voy al cine con mis amigos.
4 Mis padres viven en Valencia.
5 A Liz le gusta la música clásica.
6 Siempre desayunamos en la cocina.
7 Nunca bebo vino, pero a veces bebo una cerveza.
8 Me gusta esquiar. (esquiar = skiing)
13
I don't ... (present simple, negación)

La negación del PRESENT SIMPLE es don't/doesn't + verbo:

She doesn't drink coffee. He doesn't like his job.


No bebe café. No le gusta su trabajo.
afirmación negación
I work 1
we like we do not
yo u do you (don'r) work
they have they like
do
works he
he does not have
likes she
she (doesn't)
does it
it
has

• 1 drink coffec but I don't drink tea. Bebo ... no bebo .


• Sue drinks tea but she doesn't drink coffee. . .. bebe no bebe ...
• You don't work very hard. No trabajas mucho.
• We don't watch televisión very often. No vemos ...
• Thc weather is usually very nice. lt doesn't rain very often. . .. No llueve ...
• Gerry and Linda don't know many peoplc. . .. no conocen ...

8 Recuerda:
don't . I don't like football.
l/we/you/they
he/she/it doesn't . He doesn't like foorball,
• 1 don't like Frcd and Fred doesn'r like me. (no 'Fred don'r like me')
• My car doesn't use much petrol. (no 'my car don't use')
• Sometirnes he is late bur it doesn't happen vcry often.

e don't/doesn't lleva detrás el infinitivo (don't live / docsn't spcak / doesn't do) etc.:
• 1 don't likc washing rhe car and I don't do it very ofren. . .. no me gusta ... no lo hago .
• Sandra speaks Spanish but she doesn't speak ltalian. (no 'doesn'r speaks') ... habla no habla ...
• Bill doesn't do his job very well. (no 'Bill doesn't his job') Bill no hace su trabajo muy bien.
• Paula doesn't usually have breakfast. (no 'doesn't ... has') Paula no desayuna generalmente.
Observa estas frases de los ejemplos anteriores:
• I don't do it very often.
• Bill doesn't do his job very weU.
En estas frases don't y docsn't son la negación y do es el verbo 'hacer':
• He's very lazy. He doesn't do anything. . .. No hace nada.

I do/work/like etc. (PRESENT SIMPLE, afirmación)~ mm] Do you ... ? (PRESENT SIMPLE, interrogación) ~ mm]
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 7
7 .1 Escribe la forma negativa.

1 1 play the piano very well. ..L.~!:'\.~.~.~.~--:-:~ ..~.~, .


2 Jane plays the piano very well. Jane .
3 They know my phone number.
4 We work very hard. .. .
5 He has a barh every day.
6 You do the same thing every day.

7 .2 Observa la información del cuadro y escribe frases con like.


1 .. Si.l.l _o..n<i Rose. _Like. _do.5si..ca.L _m<Asi.c. .
Caro) .
I classical music.
2 Bill and Rose ..
Ca rol .
I .
3 .
classical music? yes no
boxing? no yes
horror films? yes no

7.3 frases relacionadas contigo usando I never ... , 1 often , o I don't ... very often.
Escribe
1 (watch TV) ..1..4'?.~'.t~-~ ..lY. ..Y.~ ..~, .. (c;U ~~'!'.~.rs.: C?...l...~ J.
2 (go to the theatre) .
3 (ride a bicycle) .
4 (eat in restaurants) ..
5 (travel by train) .

7 .4 Completa /as frases. Todas son negativas. Usa don't/doesn't + uno de los siguientes verbos:
cost go know -read see use wear
·
1 I b uy a newspaper every d ay b ut sornenmes I d.on't reaii ·it,
2 Paul has a car but he it very often.
3 They like films but they to rhe cinema very often.
4 Amanda is married bue she a ring.
5 I much about politics. I'm not interested in ic.
6 It's notan expensive hotel. lt much to stay chere.
7 Brian lives near us but we him very often.

7 .5 Completa las frases con la forma correcta de los verbos entre paréntesis (afirmativa o negativa).
1 Margarec ...~.~~ .. four languages - English, French, German and Spanish. (speak)
d.on't Like. my JO
2 1 ....................... · b • I t ' s very b onng.
· (lik
1 e)
3 'Where's Martin?' 'I'm sorry. 1 .' (know)
4 Sue is a very quiet person, She very much. (ralk)
5 Jim aloe of rea. It's his favourite drink. (drink)
6 It's not true! 1 it! (believe)
7 That's a very beautiful picture. 1 it very much. (like)
8 Mark is a vegetarían. He meat. (eat)

7 .6 Traduce al inglés:
1 No vamos al cine muy a menudo.
2 No conozco a tus hermanas.
3 Luis no trabaja en España.
4 Mi padre conduce un camión, pero no le gusta su trabajo. (conducir = drive)
5 No llueve mucho en Madrid en verano. (en verano = in summer)
6 No fumo y no como carne.
7 Teresa habla francés, pero no habla inglés.
8 Viven en un piso grande, pero no les gusta. {piso = flat)
9 Normalmente no salimos por la noche. {por la noche= in the evening) 15
Do you ... ? (present simple, interrogación)

Se usa do/does para hacer preguntas con el PRLSENT SIMPI F:

afirmación interrogación
1 work 1
we like we
you do do yo u work?
rhey have they like?
works he do?
he have?
likes does she
she
does it
it
has

• Where do they work? ¿Dónde trabajan?


• Do you play chcss? ¿Juegas al ajedrez?
• What sort of films docs she likc? ¿Qué tipo de películas le gustan?

Observa el orden de las palabras en estas frases interrogativas:

do/docs + sujeto + infinitivo

Do yo u work in rhe evening?


Do your friends live near herc?
Does Chris play ten nis?
Where do your parents live?
How often do yo u wash your hair?
What <loes this word mean?
How much does it cost to fly to Rome?

Observa la posición de always/usually/often:

Do yo u always bavc breakfast?


Docs Chris often play tennis?
What do yo u usually do at weekends?

Ten cuidado cuando el verbo principal es do (= hacer}:


• What do you do ar weckends? ¿Qué haces los fines de semana?
En este ejemplo, el primer do es para la interrogación y el otro do es el verbo 'hacer'.
What do you do? = ¿Qué haces? (¿En qué trabajas?}:
• 'What do you do?' 'I work in a bank.'
• 'What does Sarah do?' 'She's a student.'

Recuerda:
do I/we/you/they ... • Do they like music?
does he/she/it ... • Does he like music?

respuestas breves

1/wc/you/they do. 1/we/you/they don't.


Yes, No,
he/she/it <loes. he/she/it doesn't.

• 'Do you play tcnnis?' 'No, 1 don'r.'


• 'Do your parcnts speak English?' 'Yes, they do.'
• 'Does he work hard?' 'Yes, he does.'
• 'Does your sistcr live in london?' 'No, she doesn't.'

I do/work/like etc. (PRESENT SIMPLE, afirmación) ::) IClmJ I don't ... (PRESENT SIMPLE, negación) => cmll
la interrogación => 11. .¡j,jf#l:11
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 8
8.1 Escribe preguntas usando Do ... ? y Does ... ?
1 I like chocolate. And you? . P.~.!!W.1*-!::.~~-~L
2 I play rennis. And XQJJ.? ................... you .
3 Tom plays tennis. And .A.nn? ................... Ann .
4 You live near here. And your friends?
5 You speak English. And your brocher?
6 1 do excrcises cvcry morning. And ~?
7 Sue often goes away. And Paul?
8 1 want co be famous. And yQY?
9 You work hard. And Linda?

8.2 Escribe preguntas usando las palabras entre paréntesis + do/does. Pon las palabras en el orden correcto.
l (where / livc / your parencs?) --~~~.. M.~~!'..P.~~~--~-~.Z..
2 (you / early / always / gct up?) .P~.. !i~ ..~~~--9~-~.P. ..~.?..
3 (how often / TV / you / watch ?)
4 (you / want / what / for dinner?)
5 (like / you / foocball?) ....................................................................................................................................
6 (your brocher / like / foocball?)
7 (what / you /do/ in rhe evenings?)
8 (your sister / work / where?)
9 (ro che cinema/ often / you / go?)
10 (what /mean/ this word?)
11 (often/snow/ic/here?)
12 (go / usually / to bed / what time/ you?)
13 (how much / to phone New York/ it / cost?)
14 (you / for breakfast / have / usually / what?)

8.3 Completa las preguntas usando los verbos siguientes:


do enjoy go like start tea ch work

What ... t:u.'.. !i~ ..4º ... ? l work in a bookshop.


. )
......................................................................... rt: It's OK .
What time in the morning? At 9 o'clock.
4 ........................................................................ on Saturdays? Sometimes.
5 How ro work? Usually by bus.
6 And your husband. What ? He's a ccacher.
7 What ? Science.
8 ........................................................................ his job? Yes, he loves ir .

8.4 Escribe respuestas breves (Yes, he does. I No I don't. etc.).

1 Do you warch TV a loe? .. N~i..l...4ºr.'.L9 Y.~~.,. ..l..t:u.'., .


2 Do you live in a big city? .
3 Do you often ride a bicycle? .
4 Does it rain a loe where you live? .
5 Do you play rhe piano? : ..

8.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Dónde viven tus padres?
2 ¿Habla Vd. inglés?
3 ¿Le gusta su trabajo a Pilar? (trabajo= job)
4 ¿A qué hora os despertáis? (despertarse= wakc up)
5 ¿Te gusta el café o prefieres té?
6 '¿Qué hacen tus padres?' 'Mi madre es médico y mi padre es profesor.'
7 ¿Con qué frecuencia vas al cine?
8 ¿Qué quiere decir 'ride'?
9 ¿Cuánto cuesta esta cámara?
17
I am doing (present continuous)y I do (present simple)

Jim is warching television.


He is not playing rhc guitar.

But Jim has a guitar.


He often plays ir and he plays very well.

Jim plays the guitar


but he is nor playing che guitar now.

Is he playing rhc guitar? No, he isn't. (PRESENT CONTINUOUS)


Ooes he play the guitar? Y es, he does. (PRESENT SIMPLE)

El PRESENT CONTINUOUS expresa algo que está ocurriendo ahora, en el momento de hablar:
I am working (acción en curso) = estoy trabajando/trabajo (ahora)

I am workin&

pasado --------- AHORA futuro


• Please be quier. l'm working. (no 'I work'} ... Estoy trabajando.
• Tom is having a shower at the moment. (no "Torn has') Tom se está duchando ...
• Take an umbrella with you. Ir's raining. ... Está 1/oviendo./Llueve.
• You can turn off rhe televisión. l'm not watching ir. . .. No la veo./No la estoy viendo.
• Why are you under che table? What are you doing? ... ¿Qué haces/ estás haciendo?

Se usa el PRESENT SIMPLE con valor general para expresar algo que ocurre habitualmente o con cierta frecuencia:
I work (en general, cosas habituales) = trabajo
lwork

pasado --------- AHORA futuro


• l work every day from 9 o'clock until 5.30. Trabajo todos los días ...
• Tom has a shower every morning. Tom se ducha todas las mañanas.
• Ir rains a lor in winter. Llueve ...
• 1 don't watch television very oftcn. No veo la televisión ...
• What do you usually do at che weekend? ¿Qué haces normalmente ... ?

No uses los verbos siguientes en PRESENT corrnnuous (1 am -ing):

like love want know understand remember depend


pre fer hate need mean bclieve forget

Úsalos solamente en PRESENT SIMPLE ( 1 want Ido you like? etc.):


• l'm tired. l w:mt to go home. (no 'l'm wanring') ... Quiero ...
• 'Do you know rhar girl? 'Yes, but I don'r rernember her narne.' '¿Conoces ... ! '...no recuerdo .. .'
• 1 don't undersrand. What do you mean? No entiendo. ¿Qué quieres decir?

PRESENT CONTL'IUOUS => 11: j,r\4111 PRESENT SIMPLE => jij:jj.¡j,j!Jl#H presente con significado futuro => 1ij:jj.¡.j,fi4
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 9
9.1 Contesta las preguntas sobre los dibujos.
4

1 Does he cake photographs? ..Y.~~A.r~.~~ ..... Is he taking a phocograph? ..tl.9.,..!'.1.~..~-~\ r.:


What is he doing? ..!:!~'.~.. !:1.?.-:'!'.~.9...~ ..~~ .
2 Is she driving a bus? Does she drive a bus? .
What is she doing? .
3 Does he clean windows? Is he cleaning a window? ..
What is he doing? .
4 Are they teaching? Do they teach? .
What do they do? .

9.2 Completa las frases con am/is/are o do/don't/does/doesn't.


1 Excuse me, ..M. .. you speak English?
2 'Where's Ann?' 'l know.'
3 What's funny? Why you laughing?
4 'What your sister do?' 'She's a dentist.'
5 It raining. 1 want to go out in the rain.
6 'Where you come from?' 'Canada.'
7 How much ir cose to phone Canada?
8 George is a good tennis player but he play very often.

9.3 Pon el verbo en PRESENT CONTINUOUS (1 arn doing) o en PRESENT SLMPLE (1 do).
1 Excuse me... ~.!:!~ ...~.~-- (you/speak) English?
2 'Where's Tom?' ' ..H~'.~. !'.!?.-:Y.~.9.. (he/have) a shower.'
3 .. ! ..~r.i\~.~-· (1/noúwatch) television very often.
4 Listen! Somebody (sing).
5 Sandra is ti red (she/want) to go home now.
6 How often (you/read) a newspaper?
7 'Excuse me but (you/sit) in my place.' 'Oh, l'm sorry.'
8 I'm sorry, (l/noúunderstand). Can you speak more slowly?
9 It's late (ligo) home now ..
(you/come) with me?
10 What time (your father / finish) work in the evenings?
11 You can turn off the radio (l/not/listen) to it.
12 'Where's Paul?' 'In the kirchen (he/cook) something.'
13 Martín (not/usually/drive) to work. He ..
(usually/walk).
14 Sue (not/like) coffee (she/prefer) tea.

9.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 Eva está tocando el piano.
2 Normalmente bebo té, pero ahora estoy bebiendo café.
3 '¿Qué haces?' 'Estoy estudiando.'
4 ¿Entiendes lo que quiero decir? (lo que= what)
5 Puedes apagar la radio. No la escucho.
6 '¿Qué hacen Juan y Luisa?' 'Están viendo la televisión.'
7 '¿Qué hacen Agustín y Laura?' 'Son médicos.'
8 Me gusta esa canción. ¿Quién canta?
19
I have ... / l've got ...

I have ... / I've got ... = tengo ...


Se puede decir I have o l'vc got, he has o hc's got y no cambia el significado.

I T (J've got)
we o we (wc've got)
have have got
yo u yo u (you've got)
che y thcy (they've got)
he he (he's got)
o
she has shc has got (she's got)
it it (ir's got)

• l'vc got blue eyes. (o I have bluc eyes.) Tengo /os ojos azules.
• Tim has gor two sistcrs. (o Tirn has two sisters.) ... tiene ...
• Our car has got four doors. .. . tiene ...
• Diane isn't fccling well. Shc's gota headache. (she's got = shc has got) ... Tiene dolor de cabeza.
• They likc anima Is. They've gota horse, three dogs and six caes. ... Tienen ...

I haven't got ... / havc you gor ... ? = no tengo ... / ¿tienes ... ?
negación interrogación respuestas breves
l 1 1
WC have nor we Yes, we have.
havc
yo u (haven't) you No, yo u haven't.
they gor rhey got? rhey
he he he
has not Yes, has.
she has she shc
(hasn't) No, hasn't.
ir it ir

• l'vc gota motorbike but I haven't gota car. Tengo ... pero no tengo ...
• Mr and Mrs Harris haven't got any children. ... no tienen ...
• lt's a nicc house bur it hasn't gota garden. . .. no tiene .
• 'Have you gota camera?' 'No, l havcn't.' '¿Tienes ?' 'No.'
• 'What havc you gor in your bag?' 'Nothing, lt's crnpty.' ¿Qué tienes ... ?
• 'Has Ann gota car?' 'Yes, she has.' '¿Tiene ... ?' 'Si.'
• What kind of car has she got? ¿Qué tipo de coche tiene?

I don't have / do you have? etc.


La negación se puede hacer también con don't/docsn't ... y las preguntas con do/does ... :
• Thcy don't have any children. (= They havcn't got any childrcn.)
• It's a nice house but it docsn't have a garden. (= it hasn't gota garden.)
• Does Ann have a car?(= Has Ann gota car?)
• How rnuch money do you havc? (= How much money havc you got?)

Tanto has como is se contraen en -'s (=> Apéndice 4). Observa:


• It's (Ir is) a srnall fiar but it's gor (ir has gor) a nice view. Es un piso pequeño pero tiene una buena vista.

had I didn't have (pasado)=> 1ij:jjfrjfiflfi have breakfast I have a showcr etc.=> 1,j:jj.¡j,i.J:i
a/an detrás de have => 1,j¡jj,r ¡.¡u some/any => 1ij:jj,frfi1
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
10
10.1 Escribe la contracción lwe've got / he hasn't got etc.).
1 we have got ..it:>.~\~.9.0.L 3 they have got .. 5 it has got .
2 he has got 4 she has not got .. 6 I have not got .

10.2 Escribe preguntas usando /as palabras entre paréntesis.


1 (you / an umbrella?)
2 (you / a passporc?)
3 (your father / a car?)
4 (Carol z many friends?)
5 (you / any brothers or sisters?)
6 (how much money / we?)
7 (what / kind of car/ Julia?)

10.3 ¿Qué tiene Tina? TINA YOU?


¿Qué tienes tú?
Observa la información A?
~wit ~ g ~i,;
y escribe frases sobre
Tina y sobre ti.

1 (a camera) ..Ti.r.t~.'1.~.. 9.1?.t!?:-..~~!A'., .l.'r~.9.0t(l?..L~i?:-':l'.~'.t.9.()p.!?:-..~.~!A'.,..


2 (a bicycle) Tina .
3 (long hair) .
4 (brothers/sisters) .

10.4 Completa las frases con have got ('ve got), has got ('s got), haven't got o hasn't got.
1 Sarah --~-~-~19.'?.t:.. a car. She
.'!:~
1
goes everywhere by bicycle.
2 They like animals. They .. ..9<>~.. three dogs and two cats.
3 Charles isn't happy. He a lot of problems.
4 They don't read much. They many books.
5 'What's wrong?' 'I something in my eye.'
6 'Where's my pen?' 'I don't know. I it.'
7 Julia wants to go to the concert but she a ticket.

10.5 Completa /as frases usando have/has got o haven't/hasn't got y una de /as siguientes expresiones:

a lot of friends four wheels six legs a headache a toothache a key much time a gankn

1 I'm not feeling very well. I ..'.~.~.9.1?.t..!?:-..h~.~.·....


2 lt's a nice house but it ..~~.~\9.1?.t:.~. .9~~., ..
3 Most cars ..
4 Everybody likes Tom. He ..
5 I'm going to the dentist this morning. I .
6 He can't open the door. He .. .
7 An insect .
8 We must hurry. We ..

10.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Tengo una hermana y dos hermanos.
2 ¿Tiene Ana un coche?
3 Luis tiene un nuevo trabajo. (trabajo= job)
4 ¿Tienes un minuto?
5 Me duele la cabeza y no tengo una aspirina. (aspirina = aspirin)
6 ¿Qué tienes en esa bolsa?
7 Tienen muchos amigos en Inglaterra.
8 No tenemos coche porque no tenemos bastante dinero. (bastante = enough)

21
was/were

Now Robert is at work.

At midnight last night he wasn'r at work.

He was in bed.
He was asleep.

am/is (presente) ~ was (pasado):


• I am ti red. (ahora) Estoy cansado/a. I was tired last night. Estaba cansado/aanoche.
• Where is Ann? (ahora) ¿Dónde está Ann? Where was Ann yesterday? ¿Dónde estuvo Ann ayer?
• The weather is good toda y. Thc weather was good last week.
Hace buen tiempo hoy. La semana pasada hizo buen tiempo.
are (presente) ~ were (pasado):
• You are late. (ahora) Llegas tarde. Yo u were late ycstcrday. Ayer llegaste tarde.
• They aren't herc. (ahora) They weren't here last Sunday.
No están aquí. No estuvieron aquí el domingo pasado.

afirmación negación interrogación

1 1 l?
he he was not he?
was was
she she (wasn't) she?
it it it?
we we we?
were not
yo u were yo u were you?
(weren't)
they they they?

was/were corresponden normalmente al pretérito perfecto simple o al pretérito imperfecto de 'ser' o 'estar' en español:
• My sister was in Paris last weekend. . .. estuvo ...
• When l was a child, my teachers were very nice. Cuando era pequeño fueron ...
• The hotel was comfortable and it wasn't expensive. ... era ... no fue .
• Was Sandra happy when she was in California? ¿Fue feliz Sandra cuando estaba en California?
• Those shoes are nice. Were thcy cxpensivc? ¿Fueron ... ?
• We wercn't tired afrer the long journey. No estábamos ...
• Why wcrc you angry? ¿ ... estabas ... ?
Pero observa que en algunas expresiones was/were pueden corresponder a 'tenía/teníamos'o 'hizo':
• When I was a child, I was afraid of dogs. ... tenía miedo de los perros.
• We wercn't hungry aftcr che journcy. ... no teníamos hambre ...
• Was thc wcathcr good? ¿Hizo buen tiempo?
• Last year she was 22, so she is 23 now. ... tenla 22 años ... tiene ...

respuestas breves
1/he/shc/it was. l/he/she/it wasn't.
Yes, 1--~~~~~~---1 No, 1--~~~~~~~~-1
we/you/they were. we/you/thcy weren't.

• 'Werc you late?' 'No, I wasn't.'


• 'Was Tcd at work yesterday?' 'Yes, he was.'
• 'Were they at rhe parry ?' 'No, thcy weren't.'

am/ís/are :::) 11 j ,j jfjO;J l'm hungry / lt's cold etc. :::) mJ I was doíng ==> jij:jj.¡..5C1
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 11
11.1 Observa /os dibujos y responde a la pregunta: ¿Dónde estaban estas personas ayer a /as 3 de la tarde?

l --~-~r9.~--~-~ ..~--~~: . 4 .
2 Carol and Jack . 5 ..
3 Sue . 6 And you? I .

11.2 Completa las frases con am/is/are (presente) o was/wcrc (pasado).


l Last year she ..~~ .. 22, so she ..!-!?... 23 now.
2 Today the weather nice, but yesterday it very cold.
3 I hungry. Can I have something to eat?
4 I feel fine this morning but I very ti red last night.
5 Where you at 11 o'clock last Friday morning?
6 Don't buy those shoes. They very expensive.
7 I like your new jacket it expensive?
8 This time last year 1 in Paris.
9 'Where the children?' 'I don't know. They in the garden ten minutes ago.'

11.3 Completa las frases con was/were o con wasn't/weren't.


1 We weren't happy with the hotel. Our room ..~.~ very small and it ...~.~-~\ .. very clean.
2 George at work last week because he ill. He's better now.
3 Yesterday a public holiday so the shops closed. They're open roday.
4 ' Sue and Bill ar the party?' 'Sue there but Bill .'
5 'Where are my keys?' 'l don't know. They on the table but they're not rhere now.'
6 You at home last nighr. Where you?

11.4 Escribe las preguntas usando las palabras entre paréntesis en el orden correcto + was/were.

1 (late/ you / this morning / why?)


...~!i ..~.'K~.!i~...~.!i!'.1.~.. ~!?!!\~9-~... ----Thetraffic was bad.
2 (difficult / your exam?)
............................................................................................................................... - -+---1.-No,ir was easy.
3 (last week / where / Ann and Chris?)
............................................................................................................................... - -+---1.-Theywere on holiday.
4 (your new camera/ how much?)
............................................................................................................................... -+-- .... Sixry pounds.
5 (angry / you / yesterday / why?)
............................................................................................................................... -,__--Becauseyou were late.
6 (nice / the weather / last week?)
............................................................................................................................... -+-- .... Yes, it was beautiful.

11.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Estuve en la oficina hasta las 7. (hasta = until)
2 ¿Dónde estabas esta mañana a las 10?
3 ¿A qué hora era el concierto?
4 Tus padres fueron muy amables. (amables = kind)
5 Mi hermana tenía miedo de los ratones cuando era pequeña. (los ratones = mice)
6 Era tarde, teníamos hambre y hacía frío.
7 '¿Hizo buen tiempo?' 'Estuvo nublado.' (nublado= cloudy)
8 ¿Por qué llegas siempre tarde?

23
worked/got/went etc. (past simple)

They television every evening.


Ven la televisión ...

--·--- television yesterday evening.


Vieron la televisión

watched es el PAST SIMPLE:

1/we/you/they
watched
he/she/it

El PAST SIMPLE de los verbos regulares termina en -cd.


work --t worked clcan --t cleaned start --t srarted
stay --t sraycd arrive --t arrivcd dance --t danccd
• Terry workcd in a bank from 1991 to 1998. . .. trabajó ...
• Yesterday ir raincd ali morning. lt stoppcd ar lunchtime. . .. llovió ... Paró ...
• 1 usually srarr work at 9 bur ycstcrday T started at 9.30. . .. pero ayer empecé a las 9.30.
• We cnjoycd rhe party last night. We danced a lot and talkcd to a loe of people. The party finished ac
rnidnight. Nos divertimos en la fiesta ... Bailamos ... hablamos ... terminó ...
Nota las diferencias de ortografía:
try --t tricd study --t studicd copy --t copicd
stop --t sroppcd plan --t planncd
Ver también el Apéndice 5.

Algunos verbos son irregulares (no forman el PAST SIMPLL:: con -ed). Aquí tienes algunos de los más frecuentes (encontrarás
más en los Apéndices 2-3):

begi n (empezar)--t began ger (~ Unidad 56) ger ring (telefonear/sonar)--t rang
break (romper) broke give (dar) gave say (decir) said
bring (traer) brought go (ir) went see (ver) saw
build (construir) built have (tener) had sell (vender) sold
buy (comprar) bought hear (oir) heard si t (sentarse) sat
catch (coger) caught know (saber) knew sleep (dormir) slept
come (venir) carne leave (dejar/irse) left speak (hablar) spoke
do (hacer) <lid lose (perder) lost stand (estar de pie) stood
drink (beber) drank rnake (hacer) made cake (tomar/llevar) took
eat (comer) ate rneet (encontrar) met tell (decir) told
fall (caer) fell pay (pagar) paid think (pensar) thought
find (encontrar) found put (poner) put win (ganar) won
fly (volar) flew read (leer) read /teo/: wrire (escribir) wrote
forget (olvidar) forgot ( * pronunciation)

• I usually get up early but lasr Saturday I got up ar 10. . .. me levanté ...
• We did a lor of work yesterday. Hicimos ...
• Caroline went to the cinema three times Jast week. . .. fue ...
• Jim carne into the room, took off his coat and sat clown. . .. entró ... se quitó ... se sentó.

El PAST SIMPLE (1 drank I I sat etc.) equivale normalmente al pretérito perfecto simple del español (bebí/me senté, erc.),
pero algunas veces equivale al pretérito imperfecto:
• She wanted to speak to you. Quería hablar contigo.
• Nobody knew the way. Nadie sabía/conocía el camino.

was/were ~ 11 iMWH I didn't ... Did you ... ? (PAST SIMPLE, negación e interrogación) ~ iiiihfr•U ago ==> 11j:jj,,i.fN
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 12
12.1 Completa las frases con el PAST SIMPLE de uno de los verbos siguientes:
~ die cnjoy finish happcn open rain start stay want

1 [ .. ~~-- my reerh rhree times yesterday.


2 lt was hor in che room, so 1 the window.
3 Thc concert ar 7.30 and at 10 o'clock.
4 Whcn I was a child, 1 to be a doctor.
5 The accidenr last Sunday afternoon.
6 lt's a nice day today but yesterday it ali day.
7 We our holiday last year. We ata very nice place.
8 Ann's grandfather when he was 90 years old.

12.2 Escribe el PAST SIMPLE de /os verbos siguientes:


1 get .. 9.C>t... 4 pay . 7 go . 10 know .
2 see . 5 visir .. 8 rhink . 11 put .
3 play . 6 buy .. 9 copy . 12 speak ..

12.3 Lee el texto sobre el viaje de Lisa a Madrid y pon los verbos en la forma correcta.

Last Tuesday Lisa (1) . .f~ from London to Madrid. She (2) up fly, get
at six o'clock in the morning and (3) a cup of coffee. At 6.30 have
she (4) home and (5) to the airport. When she leave, drive
(6) , she (7) rhe car and then (8) toche airport arrive, park, go
café where she (9) breakfast. Then she (10) chrough have,go
passport control and (11) for her flight. The plane (12) . wait, depart
on time and (13) in Madrid two hours later. Finally she arrive
('14) a taxi from thc airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid. take

12.4 Escribe frases sobre el pasado (ycsterday / last week etc.).


1 r.~..
Jim always goes to work by car. Yesterday .. !':-!~t-~.. !':-19.~--~~-~ .
2 Rachel often loses her keys. She Iast week.
3 Kate rneets her friends every evening. She yesterday evening.
4 l usually buy rwo newspapers every day. Yesterday 1 ..
5 We usually go to che cinema on Sundays. Last Sunday we .
6 J eat an orange every day. Yesterday l .
7 Torn always has a shower in the morning. This morning he .
8 Our friends come to see us every Friday. They last Friday.

12.5 Escribe frases diciendo qué hiciste ayer.


1 1 ..~~-Y9.~~~-.H~~t.e.r.MiL. 4 .
2 . 5
3 . 6

12.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Ayer fui al cine. La película terminó a las 11.30.
2 Ayer vinieron Sam y Sue. Querían verte.
3 Viví en Argentina cuando era pequeño.
4 Laura sabía nuestro número de teléfono.
5 Andrés se sentó, abrió el libro y leyó unas páginas. (unas= a few)
6 Pagué la cuenta, me puse mi abrigo y me fui a casa. (ponerse= put on)
7 Encontré a tu hermano en el teatro.
25
I didn't . . . Did you ... ?
(past simple, negación e interrogación)
Se usa did en la negación y en la interrogación del PAST SIMPLE:
infinitivo afirmación negación interrogación

play played I play I play?


srart we started we start we start?
watch yo u watched yo u watch yo u watch?
did not
have they had they have did they have?
(didn't)
see he saw he see he see?
do she did she do she do?
go it went it go it go?

do y does del PRESEITT SIMPLE se convierten en did en el PAST SIMPLE:


• I don't watch relevision very often. ~ 1 didn't watch television yesterday.
No veo la televisión a menudo. Ayer no vi la televisión.
• Does she oftcn go away? ~ Did she go away last week?
¿Se va de viaje a menudo? ¿Se fue de viaje la semana pasada?

En la interrogación y en la negación del PAST SIMPLE se usa did/didn't + infinitivo (watch/play/go etc.):
I watched pero I didn't warch (no 'I didn't warched')
they went did rhey go? (no 'did rhey went?')
he had he didn't have \
you did did you do?
• T played rennis yesrerday but I didn't win. Jugué ... no gané.
• 'Did you do che shopping?' 'No, I didn't have time.' '¿Hiciste las compras?' 'No, no tuve tiempo.'
• We went to che cinema bue we didn't enjoy rhe film. Fuimos ... pero no nos gustó ...
Observa que en los ejemplos siguientes did es la interrogación, didn't la negación y do es el verbo 'hacer':
• Did you do che shopping? ¿Hiciste las compras?
• Sam didn't do his homework. Sam no hizo ...

Observa el orden de las palabras en las preguntas con did:


did + sujeto + infinitivo
Oíd your sister phone you?
What did you do yesterday evening?
How did che accident happen?
Where did your parents go for rheir holiday?

respuestas breves

1/we/you/they l/we/you/they
Yes, did. No, didn't.
he/she/it he/she/it

• 'Did you see Joe yesterday?' 'No, 1 didn't.'


• 'Did it rain on Sunday?' 'Yes, it did.'
• 'Did Helen come to the party?' 'No, she didn'r.'
• 'Did your parents have a good holiday?' 'Yes, they did.'

worked/got/went etc. (PAST SIMPLE)~ 1ij:jj,1\.ifJ


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 13
13.1 Completa estas frases con el verbo en forma negativa.
1 1 saw Barbara but 1 d..uln't S.~ Jane.
2 They worked on Monda y but they on Tuesday.
3 We went to the post office but we toche bank.
4 She had a pen but she any paper.
5 Jack did French at school but he German.

13.2 Escribe preguntas usando Did ... ?


1 1 watched TV last night. And you? ... ~ .. !:l~ ...\':1~ .. .TY. .. ~~...t:!!gh~!
2 I enjoyed the party, And you?
3 I hada good holiday. And you?
4 J finished work early. And you?
5 1 slept well last night. And you?

13.3 ¿Qué hiciste ayer? Tus frases pueden ser afirmativas o negativas.
1 (watch TV) ... ! \':1~.~ ..IY. t.: ~ 1 ~J ~.~ .. IY.·
2 (get up before 7 o'clock) 1 .
3 (have a shower) ..
4 (buy a magazine) .
5 (ear mear) ..
6 (go to bed before 10.30) ..

13.4 Escribe las preguntas de B usando las siguientes expresiones:


arrive cost go go to bed late happen have a nice time WIO

1 A: We went to New York last month. 5 A: We carne home by taxi.


B: Where ...#4..!i<?!:':.. ~~.L. B: How much ?
A: With some friends. A: Ten pounds.

2 A: I was late rhis morning. 6 A: I'm tired this morning.


B: What time ? B: ?
A: Half past nine. A: No, but I didn't sleep very well.

3 A: 1 played tennis this afternoon. 7 A: We went to the beach yesterday.


B: ? B: ?
A: No, I lose. A: Yes, it was great.

4 A: I hada nice holiday. 8 A: The window is broken.


B: Good. Where ? B: How ?
A: To the mountains. A: 1 don't know.

13.5 Pon el verbo en la forma correcta del PAST SIMPLE (afirmación, negación o interrogación).
1 We went to the cinema but the film wasn't very good. We .A!4n.\ ..~~ ... it. (enjoy)
2 Tim some new clothes yesterday - two shirts, a jacket anda pullover. (buy)
3 ' yesterday?' 'No, it was a nice day.' (rain)
4 The party wasn't very good, so we long. (stay)
5 It was very warm in the room, so I a window. {open)
6 'Did you go to the bank this morning?' 'No, I time.' (have)
7 'I cut my hand this morning.' 'How that?' (do)

13.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Limpiaste la cocina ayer?
2 Ayer no jugamos al tenis.
3 '¿ Viste la televisión anoche?' 'No, salí con mis amigos.'
4 ¿A qué hora empezó la reunión? (reunión = meeting)
5 ¿Por qué viniste tan tarde? (tan= so)
6 No me compré la camisa porque no me gustaba.
7 Joaquín y Lucía no se fueron de viaje a Sevilla. (ir de viaje= go on a trip)
8 Ayer hice las compras y luego vi una película. (luego = then)
9 Marta tuvo un accidente y llegó tarde.
27
I was doing (past continuous)

Ir is 6 o'clock now.
Sarah is ar home.
She is watching television.
Está viendo ...
At 4 o'clock she wasn't at home.
She was at the sports club.
She was playing tennis.
Estaba jugando ...
She wasn't watching television.
No estaba viendo ...

130]
she began she stopped
playing playing

was/were + -ing es el PAST CONTJNuous y se usa para expresar lo que ocurría o estaba ocurriendo en el pasado.
afirmación negación interrogación
I I I
he doing he was not he
was doing was doing?
she warching she (wasn't) she
watching watching?
it playing ir playing it playing?
we running we running running?
we
yo u living were not living living?
were yo u were yo u
they (weren't)
etc. rhey etc. they etc.

• What were you doing at 11.30 yesterday? Were you working?


¿Qué hacías/estabas haciendo ... ? ¿Estabas trabajando?
• 'What did he say?' 'I don't know. l wasn't listcning.' ... no estaba escuchando.
• Ir was raining, so we didn't go out. Llovía./ Estaba lloviendo ...
• In 1985 we were living in Canada. Vivíamos ...
• Toda y she's wearing a skirt, but yesterday she was wearing trousers. . .. llevaba ...
• I woke up early yesterday. lt was a beautiful morning. The sun was shining and the birds were singing .
. . . El sol brillaba y los pájaros cantaban.
Para diferencias de ortografía (live -e living z run ~ running / lie ~ lying etc.), ver el Apéndice 5.

Observa las diferencias entre el PRESENT CONTINUous (am/is/are + -ing) y el J>AST CONTINUOUS (was/were + -ing) así
como su equivalencia en español:

I was doing = hacía/estaba haciendo


• l'm working. • I was working ar 10.30 last night.
Trabajo./ Estoy trabajando. Trabajaba./ Estaba trabajando ...
• It isn't raining. • It wasn't raining when we went out.
No llueve./ No está lloviendo. No llovía. / No estaba lloviendo ...
• What are you doing? • Whar wcrc you doing at 3 o'clock?
¿Qué haces/estás haciendo? ¿Qué hacías/estabas haciendo ... ?

was/were =} ..¡¡¡¡.¡¡.¡u I was doing (PAST CONTINUOUS) y l did (PAST SIMPLE) =} ¡, iMIU1
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 14
14.1 Observa /os dibujos. ¿Dónde estaban ayer a /as 3? ¿Qué estaban haciendo? Escribe dos frases acerca de cada dibujo.

his car/ drive the ark / walk

1 ....~.".!!").. ~.~--~-~~~.1::t., ~.l::..":!.~ ":!.~~_g. .TY.: .


2 Ca rol and Jack They .
3 Tom .
4 ................................................................................. , .
5 .................................................................................................................... , .
6 And you? 1 ..

14.2 Sarah hizo muchas cosas ayer por la mañana. Observa los dibujos y completa las frases.

8.10-8.25 8.30 - 9 .10 9 .30 - 10.00 10.20 - 11.00 11.30 - 12.00 12.30 - 1.00

1 At 9.45 ..~~~..~~--~~~-~S.h~ ..~.: . 4 At 12.50 ..


2 At 11.45 she .. 5At8.15 ..
3 At 9 o'clock . 6 At 10.30 .

14.3 Completa /as preguntas usando was/were -ing. Usa what/where/why si es necesario.

1 (you/live) ~.~.l::..W..~~-.!:l!'v.- ~~9 in 1990? In London.


2 (you/do) at 2 o'clock? l was asleep.
3 (it/rain) when you got up? No, it was sunny.
4 (Ann/drive) so fast? Beca use she was in a hurry.
5 (Tim/wear) a suit yesterday? No, a T-shirt and jeans.

14.4 Observa el dibujo. Ayer por la tarde encontraste a Joe en la calle. ¿Qué estaba haciendo? Escribe frases afirmativas o
negativas.
1 (wear / a jacket) .. H~ ":!.~.!:1..w..~~9 ~.J~~ .
2 (carry/ a bag) .
3 (go / to the dentist) .
4 (eat I an ice-cream) .
5 (carry I an umbrclla) .
6 (go I home) .
7 (wear / a hat) .
\.'-::.::...-1....__.::::..::~:..... 8 (ridc / a bicyclc) .

14.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Tom estaba en el garaje. Estaba reparando su coche.
2 No estábamos estudiando. Estábamos viendo la televisión.
3 '¿Qué hacías ayer a las 12?' 'Estaba haciendo la compra.' (la compra= the shopping)
4 ¿Qué hacían tus padres en el hospital?
5 Sandra llevaba una falda azul y una camisa blanca.
6 En 1996 vivíamos en Canadá.
7 Esta mañana a las 8 llovía.
8 Lucy llevaba puesto un sombrero muy grande.

29
I was doing (past continuous)y I did (past simple)

Jack was reading a book. Thc phonc rang. He stoppcd rcading. He answered rhe phone.
. . . leía/estaba leyendo . . . . .. sonó. Dejó de leer. Contestó al teléfono .

What happened? The phonc rang. (PAST SIMPLE)


What was Jack_doing when rhe phone rang? } (PAST CONTINUOUS)
He was rcading a book.
What did he do whcn thc phone rang? }
. (PAST SIMPLE)
He stopped readmg and answered rhe phonc.

Jack empezóa leer antes de sonar el teléfono. Asf:


Wheo the phone rang, he was rcading.

the phone he answered


rang the phone

El PAST SIMPLE expresa una acción concluida: El PAST CONT1Nuous expresa una acción que

. . p~~f. .
duraba en el pasado:

~~ ~ inicio
(10.00) (11.30) (10.00)
1 1
....
·¡-~e ~ere
1

we played I
(acción completa! (acción incompleta}

• A: What did you do yesterday morning? • A: What werc you doing ar 10.30?
¿Qué hicisteis ... ? Qué estabais haciendo ... ?
B: We played tennis. (desde las 10.00 hasta las B: We were playing tennis.
11.30} Jugamos al tenis. Estábamos jugando al tenis.
• Jack read a book yescerday. . .. leyó ... • Jack was reading a book when the phonc rang.
.. . estaba leyendo ...
• Did you watch che film on television last night? • Werc you watching television when 1 phoned you?
¿Viste ... ? ¿Estabas viendo ... ?
• lt didn't rain whilc we wcrc on holiday. • lt wasn't raining whcn [ got up.
No llovió ... No llovla/estaba lloviendo ...

• 1 started work at 9.00 and finishcd at 4.30. At 2.30 1 was working. Empecé ... terminé ... estaba trabajando.
• I saw Lucy and Sreve chis morning. They wcre wairing at the bus-stop. Vi ... estaban esperando ...

Como en español, se usa el PAST coxrrsuous para expresar una acción que duraba y el PAST s1~1PLE para expresar otra
que ocurrió en un momento concreto.
• It was raining when we went out. Llovía/ Estaba lloviendo cuando salimos.
• Jenny fcll asleep while she was reading. . .. se durmió mientras leía/estaba leyendo.

I did (PAST SIMPLE)~ ., 11,}jf§H I was doing (PAST CONTINUOUS) => .,¡¡¡¡.¡¡,.u while => I' : 11 •Fi
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 15
15.1 Observa los dibujos y completa las frases con el verbo en la forma correcta, PAST CONTINUOUS o PAST SIMPLE.

Carol ..~r.*.~ .. (break) her arrn last week. Ir


..................................................... (happen) when she
..................................................... (paint) her room. She
..................................................... ( fall) off the ladder.

The rrain (arrive) ar the


station and Paula (ger) off.
Two friends of hers, John and Jenny,
..................................................... (wait) to meet her.

Yesterday Sue (walk) along


rhe road when she (rneet) Jim.
He (go) ro rhe starion ro catch
a train and he (carry) a bag.
They (stop) to talk for a few
minutes.

15.2 Pon el verbo en PAST CONTI uous o en PAST SIMPLE.


1 A: What ..~~~-!i~ ..~.9 ... (you/do) when the phone ..r.~.9... (ring)?
B: l ...~.~ .. r.?.~.~9... (warch) telcvision.
2 A: Wasjane busy when you went to see her?
B:
Yes, she (srudy).
3 A:
What time (rhe post/ arrive) this morning?
B:
It (come) while I (have) breakfast.
4 A:
Was Margaret at work today?
B:
No, she (not/go) to work. She was ill.
5 A: How fast (you/drive) when the police
....................................................................... (stop) you?
B: I don't know exactly but 1 (nor/drive) very fast.
6 A: ....................................................................... (your team / win) rhe football match yesrerday?
B: No, the weather was very bad, so we (not/play).
7 A: How (you/break) the window?
B: We (play) football. I (kick) the ball
and it (hit) the window .
8 A: ....................................................................... (you/see) Jenny last night?
B: Yes, she (wear) a very nice jacket.
9 A: What (you/do) ar 2 o'clock rhis morning?
B: I was asleep.
10 A: I (lose) my key last night.
B: How (you/get) inro your room?
A: I (clirnb) in through a window.

15.3 Traduce al inglés:


1 Cuando Jack llegó estábamos viendo la televisión.
2 ¿Llovía cuando saliste?
3 Nevaba cuando me acosté.
4 El teléfono sonó a las 7, pero yo me estaba duchando. (ducharse= have a shower)
5 Cuando abrimos la ventana vimos que estaba lloviendo.
6 Susana se durmió mientras Rafa tocaba el piano. (dormirse= fall aslccp)
7 (Yo) Estaba leyendo un libro cuando Miguel se fue. (irse= go out)

31
I have done (present perfect 1)

...
His shoes are dirry. He is cleaning his shoes. He has cleancd his shoes.
Se ha limpiado los zapatos .

... ...
They are at home. They are going out. They have gone out.
Han salido.

has cleaned / have gone etc. son formas del PRESENT PERFECT (have + participio pasado):
participio
have/has + pasado
1 cleaned I cleaned?
we have ('ve) we
finished finished? ) verbos regulares
yo u ) have not (haven't) srartcd
havc
yo u started?

¡
they lost che y lost?
he done done?
has ('s) he ) verbos ;,regulares
she
ir
) has not (hasn't)
beco
gone
has she
rt
been?
gone?

Verbos regulares: el participio pasado termina en -ed (igual que el PAST SIMPLE afirmativo):
clean 4 I have cleaned finish 4 we have finished starr 4 she has starred
Verbos irregulares: el participio pasado es a veces igual que el PAST SIMPLE y otras veces diferente
(Apéndices 2-3). Por ejemplo:
igual: buy 4 1 bought / I have bought have 4 he had / he has had
diferente: break ~ 1 broke / I have broken see 4 you saw / you have seen
fall ~ it fell / ir has fallen go 4 they went / they have gone

El PRESENT PERFECT expresa una acción del pasado cuyos resultados tienen efecto en el presente. Muchas veces
corresponde al pretérito perfecto compuesto del español:
• l've lost my pass port. He perdido ... (y no lo encuentro)
• 'Where's Linda?' 'She's gone to bed.' Se ha acostado ... (y ahora está en la cama)
• We've bought a new car. Nos hemos comprado ... (y lo tenemos ahora)
• lt's Kay's birthday rornorrow and I haven't bought her a presenr. . .. no le he comprado ...
• 'Bob is on holiday.' 'Oh, where has he gone?' ... '¿Dónde se ha ido?'
• Can I take this newspaper? Havc you finished with it? ... ¿Has terminado (de leerlo)?

PRESENT PERFECT =} 41::tMHtifOH PRESENT PERFECTy PAST SIMPLE=} 1ij¡¡j.¡.j,f.u verbos irregulares=} UNIDAD 25, APENDICES 2-3
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
16
16.1 Observa los dibujos ¿Qué ha ocurrido? Usa una de estas expresiones en la forma correcta:
go to bed cleaB HÍS SHOt!S stop raining close the door faU down have a bath
antes ahora

She ..

They .

lt ,,,.,, .. , ,.,,,, ,,,,,.,,,,.,,.,, .. , .. ,.,,.,.. ,,,,,,,,,,,,

He .

The ..

16.2 Completa las frases con uno de los verbos de la lista.


break buy decide forget go go invite see not/see take tell
1 'C an I h ave t hiis newspaper.'' 'Y es, I 've. fi.ni611ed- wit. h ir.
· '
2 I sorne new shoes. Do you want to see them?
3 'Where is Liz?' 'She out.'
4 l'm looking for Paula you her?
5 Lookl Sornebody rhat window.
6 'Does Lisa know that you're going away?' 'Yes, 1 her.'
7 I can't find my umbrella. Somebody it.
8 I'rn looking for Sarah. Where she ?
9 l know that wornan bue I her name.
10 Sue is having a party tonight. She a lot of people.
11 What are you going to do? you ?
12 'Where are my glasses?' 'I don't know. 1 them.'

16.3 Traduce al inglés:


1 He terminado mi trabajo.
2 '¿Dónde está Gerry?' 'Ha salido.' (salir= go out)
3 Hemos invitado a mucha gente a nuestra fiesta.
4 Sandra ha perdido sus llaves. ¿ Las has visto?
5 '¿Ha llegado Mary?' 'No la he visto.'
6 ¿Dónde han ido tus padres de vacaciones? (de vacaciones= on holiday)
7 ¿Has comprado un nuevo ordenador? (ordenador= computer)
8 Brian ha hecho su cama.
33
l've just . l've already . . . 1 haven't ... yet
Have you . yet? (presentperfect 2)
l've just ... Acabo de ...
PRESENT PERFECT + just = pasado inmediato, 'acabar de ... '.
Observa la posición de just:
• A: Are Diane and Paul here?
B: Yes, they've just arrived.
Acaban de llegar.
• A: Are you hungry?
B: No, l'vc just had dinner.
Acabo de cenar.
• A: Is Tom here?
B: No, hc's just gonc.
They have just arrivcd.
Se acaba de ir.
Acaban de llegar.

l've airead y ... Ya he ...


En frases afirmativas, alrcady = 'ya' (antes de lo esperado).
Observa la posición de already:
• A: What time are Diane and Paul coming?
B: They've already arrivcd. Ya han llegado.
• It's only nine o'clock and Ann has already gone
to bed. . .. ya se ha acostado.
• A: John, chis is Mary.
B: Yes, T know. We've already rnet .
. .. Ya nos conocemos.

I haven't ... yet


En frases negativas, not .•. yet = 'aún/todavía no'.
Observa la posición de yet, normalmente al final de la frase:
• A: Are Diane and Paul here?
B: No, they haven't arrived yet.
Aún no han llegado.
• A: Does John know that you're going away?
B: No, 1 haven't told him yet.
Aún no se lo he dicho.
• Margaret has bought a new dress but she hasn't
The film hasn't started yet.
worn it yet. . .. aún no se lo ha puesto.
La película aún no ha empezado.

Have you ... yet?


En frases interrogativas, ... yet? = ¿ya?'.
Observa la posición de yet, al final de la frase:
• A: Have Diane and Paul arrived yet?
¿Ya han llegado ... ?
B: No, not yet. We're still waiting for them.
• A: Has Linda started her new job yet?
¿Ha empezado ya Linda su nuevo trabajo?
B: No, she starts next week.
• A: This is my new dress.
B: Oh, it's nice. Have you worn it yet?
¿Te lo has puesto ya?

PRESENT PERFECT => jij/jj,frifil#flM orden de las palabras en la frase => NMIM• still, yet y already => ~
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 17
17 .1 Escribe una frase sobre cada dibujo usando just.

1 ..Tu.~.·.v.~_j1:4~-~--~~-~ . 3 They ..
2 He .. 4 The race .

17.2 Completa las frases usando already + PRESENT PERFECT •

1 What time is Paul arriving? ...!:!.~'.~... ~.~--~~~.: .


2 Do Sue and Bill want to see the film? No, they ir.
3 Don't forgcr to phone Tom. 1 .
4 When is Martín going away? He .
5 Do you want toread the newspaper? l .
6 When does Linda start her new job? She .

17.3 Para cada dibujo escribe una frase con just (They've just ... / She's just ... etc.Jo una frase negativa con yet
(They haven't ... yet / She hasn't ... yet etc.).

tilt,oo
1~ l'm 9oi.n9

afew afew
minutes ago minutes ago
-·-··················-------- ----------------------------- -----------············· ···············------------------- -----------------------
(she / go I out) (rhe bus/ go) The bus........................ (the bus/ go) .

"A.
·--~~--~~".''J.jºl'l~..~~--!:l~: ...

iQ'~IHrl!;,~ ~'!~.no~ •-now


afew ~ afew ~ ~ afew
minutes ago . minutes ago. ..'!~~':.':':!.~~-~?.?. .
················----------- ---------------··-·············
(he I open I it) .. (they / finish I their dinner) (it / stop I raining) .

17 .4 Escribe preguntas usando yet.


1 Una amiga tiene un trabajo nuevo. Quizá ya ha empezado a trabajar. Le preguntas:
.. .!:l.~Y.~. .!:l~... ~~ . .!:l~.t:.j~ . .!:l~I ..
2 Un amigo tiene nuevos vecinos. Quizá ya los ha conocido. Le preguntas:
.................................................................................................. you .
3 Una amiga tiene que escribir una carta. Quizá ya la ha escrito. Le preguntas:

4 Tom quería vender su coche. Quizá ya lo ha vendido. Le preguntas:

17.5 Traduce al inglés:


6 '¿Has escrito ya a tus amigos de Inglaterra?'
1 Acabo de encontrarme a Julia. (encontrar= meet)
(de= in)
2 Aún no hemos visto esa película.
7 Aún no hemos usado la lavadora nueva.
3 ¿ Ya has limpiado tus zapatos?
(lavadora = washing machine)
4 ¿Has empezado ya tu nuevo trabajo?
8 ¿Has cerrado ya la puerta?
5 Joe no me ha telefoneado aún.
9 Acabo de comprar el periódico pero aún no lo
he leído.
35
Have you ever ... ? (presentperfect 3)

Have you been


to Rome? Yes, 1 have
Many times.

Have you ever


been to Japan? No, l've never
been to Japan?

El PRESENT PERFECT (havc bcen / havc had / have playcd etc.) se usa para hablar de un período de tiempo que se
extiende desde el pasado hasta ahora - por ejemplo, la vida de alguien:

HAVE YOU EVER BEENTO JAPAN?

------ ¿Has estado alguna vez en Japón? --------l

pasado ahora

• 'Havc yo u bcen to Fra nce?' 'No, l havcn't.' '¿Has ido a/ estado en Francia? (en tu vida)' 'No.'
• l've bccn to Canada but I haven't been to che United Srares. He estado ... pero no he ido ...
• Mary is an intcresting person. She has done many differcnt jobs and has lived in many places.
• I'vc seen that wornan beforc but I can't remcmbcr whcrc.
• How rnany times has Brazil won thc World Cup? ¿Cuántas veces ha ganado Brasil ... ?
• 'Havc you read this book?' 'Yes, l've read it twice.' ¿Has leido ... ?

Se puede usar el PRE~ENT PERFECT con ever (= alguna vez) en preguntas y con ncver (= nunca) en negaciones absolutas:
• 'Has Ann cvcr bcen to Australia?' 'Yes, once.' ¿Ha ido alguna vez ... ?
• 'Havc you cvcr playcd golf?' 'Yes, 1 often play golf.'
• My grandmochcr has nevcr rravellcd by air. ... no ha viajado nunca ...
• l've never ridden a horse.
• 'Who is thar man?' 'I don'r know. l've never seen him before.'

gone y been

j,Where's Bill?)

He's away. Hello. l've been


Hc's gone on holiday. l've
to Spain. bcen to Spain.
Bill has gone to Spain. Bill has been to Spain. BILL
Se ha ido a España. (y está allí) Ha ido a España. (y ha regresado)
Compara:
• I can't find Susan. Where has she gonc? ... ¿Dónde ha ido?(= ¿Dónde está ahora?)
• Oh, helio, Susan! I was looking for you. Where havc you been? ... ¿Dónde has estado?
Observa que en estas frases se usa been to:
• I'vc never bcen to Paris.
No he estado nunca en París.
• Have you ever been to London?

PRESENT l'ERFECT => UNIDADES 16-17 y 19-20 PRESENT PERFECT Y PAST $1.\1PLE => •@'·i"fJI
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 18
18.1 Escribe las preguntas que le haces a Helen empezando por Have you ever ... ?

º1 2
3
4
5
(London ?) ..~~~-~~ .. ~Y.~ .. ~~ ...~---~~~~-~.L
(play I golf?) ..~~r~.~~---~Y.~ .. ~~
(Australia?) Have
(lose I your passport?)
(fly I in a helicopter?)
.. 9<?lf.L
.
.
.
No, never.
Yes, many times.
No, never.
Yes, once.
o, nevcr.
(eat I Chinese food?) .. Yes, a few rimes.
6
(New York?) .. Yes, rwice.
7
(drive / a bus?) . o, never.
8
(break I your leg?) . Yes, once.
9

18.2 A partir de sus respuestas en el ejercicio 18.1, escribe frases sobre Helen.
1 (New York) .. H~--~~- ..~.~ ~ .. !:'!~ X<?~.J:~~.,... .
2 (Australia) Helen .
3 (Chinese food) .
4 (drive / a bus) ..

Ahora escribe sobre ti. ¿Cuántas veces has hecho estas cosas?
5 (New York) l .
6 (play I ten nis) .
7 (fly I in a helicopter) .
8 (be/ late for work or school) .

18.3 Mary tiene 65 años y su vida ha sido interesante. Escribe frases sobre sus experiencias usando el PRESENT PERFECT.

be all over the world a lor of interesting things


write maRy Elifferent jol:,s a lot of interesting people
MA~ ~
travel meet ____, ten books married three times
.___

1 ... s.r..~..r..~ ..r..!l4..~~~--~~~.J~~., .


2 She .
3 .
4 .
5 .
6 .

18.4 Completa las frases con gone o been.


1 Bill is on holiday at che mornent. He's .. 9!?.~~.. to Spain.
2 'Wherc's Jill?' 'She's not here. l think she's to the bank.'
3 Helio, Sue. Where have you ? Have you toche bank?
4 'Have you ever to Mexico?' 'No, never.'
5 My parenrs arcn't ar home rhis evening. They've out.
6 There's a new restaurant in town. Have you ro it?
7 Ann knows París well. She's rhere many times.
8 Helen was here earlier but I think she's now.

18.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Habéis visitado alguna vez el museo?
2 ¿Has viajado alguna vez en barco? (en barco= by boat)
3 He trabajado para tres empresas en España. (empresa = firm)
4 Mi hermano nunca ha estado en Londres.
5 He estudiado italiano pero nunca he estudiado alemán.
6 ¿Has estado en los Estados Unidos?
7 Ana y Paco se han ido a Francia.
8 ¿Dónde ha ido Luis? Nadie lo ha visto. (nadie= nobody)
9 'Es tarde. ¿Dónde habéis estado?' 'Hemos ido a un concierto.'
37
How long have you ... ? (present perfect 4)

Jill is on holiday in Ircland. Shc is rhcre now.


Shc arrived in lrcland on Monday.

,.~-~'-~~~~~§!~¡¡;,==~
To<lay is Thursday.

¡
l low long has she been in lreland? ¿Cuánto bempo lleva/está en Irlanda?
She has been in lreland since Monday. . .. desde el lunes.
Está en Irlanda for three days. .. . desde hace tres días.

Compara cómo se usan is y has bcen:


She is in Ireland
now. is= PRESENl

. { since Monday.
She has been m Ireland e h d has beco =
ror t ree ays. PRESl'.NT PI RI LCT

Monday AHORA
Thursday

Para expresar cuánto tiempo hace que ocurre una cosa, en inglés se usa el PRESE rr PERFECT y no el presente como en
español. Observa los ejemplos de /os cuadros:
PRESE1'.'T SL\1PLE ..... en español se usa el ...., PRESENT PF.RFECT Sl~IPLE
presente en ambos casos (have been I have livcd I have known etc.)

Mark and Liz ar marricd. están They have been married for five years,
... están casados. (no 'Thcy are marricd for five ycars')
Están casados (desde hace) cinco años.
Are you married? How long have you been married?
¿Estás casado? (no 'How long are you marricd?')
¿Cuánto tiempo (hace que) estás casado?
Do you know Sarah? ¿conoces? How long have you kriown her?
¿Conoces a Sarah? (no 'How long do you know her?')
¿Cuánto tiempo (hace que) la conoces?
l laiow Sarah. conozco I've known her for a long rime.
Conozco a Sarah. (no 'I know her for a long time')
La conozco (desde hace) mucho tiempo.
Linda lives in London. vive How long has she lived in London?
Lrnda vive en Londres. ¿Cuánto tiempo (hace que) vive en Londres?
She has lived rhere ali her life.
Vive allf toda la vida/desde siempre.
I have a car. l've had1 it since April.
Tengo coche. Lo tengo desde abril.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT C01'.NUOUS (have been + -ing)


Are ·ou learning; German? How long have ou tieeii leaming German?
(no 'How long are you learning German?')
¿Cuánto tiempo hace que aprendes/estás
aprendiendo alemán?
David is watchin TV. está viendo He 's beco l= He has been) watching TV since
5 o'clock.
Está viendo la televisión desde las 5.
Ir 's raining. lt 's been (= it has beco) raining_ since rhis
morning.
Llueve/Está lloviendo desde esta mañana.

for y sinceee 11 !f{if(l)


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 19
19.1 Completa estas frases.
Jill is in hospital. She ...l'.!~.J~ .. in hospital sincc Monday.
2 1 know Sarah. I .. !:1.~'!'.~.. ~.i:!!?~.~.. her for a long time.
3 Linda and Frank are married. They married since 1989.
4 Brian is ill. He ill for the last few days.
5 We live in Scott Road. We there for ten years.
6 Cacherine works in a bank. She in a bank for five years.
7 Alan has a headache. He a headache since he goc up this morning.
8 l'm learning English. I English for six months.

19.2 Haz preguntas con How long ... ?

l Jill is on holiday. .. !:!!?~ . . w.r.is ..!:1.~ ~n~ ~.~ !?r.i !'!.~.~~.~-!:I ?


2 Mike and Judy are in Brazil. How long ?
3 1 know Margaret. l-low long you ?
4 Diana is learning lcalian. . ?
5 My brother lives in Canada. . ?
6 I'm a teacher. ................................................................................................................................................ ?
7 le is raining. . ?

19.3 Escribe una frase acerca de cada dibujo usando las siguientes expresiones:

for ten minutes all day all her life for ten years since he was 20 since Sunday

1 .. To~ .. !:1.~'!'.~.. ~.~--·~~ .. :fu.i:- ~ .. .!:l~S. .


2 She ..
3 They .
4 The sun ..
5 She ..
6 He ..

19.4 Descarta la forma verbal incorrecta.


l Mark ts / has been in Canada since April. has been es la forma correcta
2 Jane is a good friend of mine. I know I have known her very well.
3 Jane is a good friend of mine. l know I have known her for a long time.
4 'Sorry I'rn lace. How long are you I have you been waicing?' 'Not long. Only five minutes.'
5 Martín works / has worked in a hotel now. He likes his job very much.
6 Linda is reading che newspaper. She is/ has been reading ir for two hours.
7 'How long do you live / have you lived in this house?' 'Abouc ten years.'
8 'Is that a new coat? 'No, I have / l've had this coat for a long time.'
9 Tom is/ has been in Spain ar che moment. He is/ has been chere for che last chree days.

19.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Patricia vive en Madrid desde 1996.
2 ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que Liz es profesora?
3 Toco el piano desde hace 20 años. (cocar= play)
4 '¿Cuánto tiempo hace que cienes este coche?' 'Lo tengo cuatro años.'
5 Sue está en España. Está allí desde abril.
6 '¿Trabaja Sara mucho tiempo en Miami?' 'Sí, trabaja allí desde 1990.'
7 El coche está en el garaje. Está allí desde hace una semana.
8 '¿Cuánto tiempo hace que llueve?' 'Está lloviendo desde hace tres días.'
39
for
.
smce ago
for y since
Usamos for y sincc para decir cuánto tiempo:
for three days.
• .Jill is in lreland. She has becn thcre {
sincc Monday.

for señala cuánto tiempo dura una acción. sincc introduce el comienzo de la acción (Monday /
Introduce un período de tiempo (thrcc days / 9 o'clock etc.). Equivale al español 'desde':
rwo ycars etc.). Cuando acompaña al PRESEN"I
PF.Rl'ECT equivale al español 'desde hace': comienzo de
la acción
Monday--+ Tucsday >+ Wedncsday !
IMondayl-
pasado ahora pasado ahora

for sincc
chrcc days ten minutes Monda y Wednesday
an hour two hours 9 o'clock 12.30
a week four wceks 24 July Christmas
a monch six months January I was 1 O years old
five years a long time 1985 we arrivcd

• Richard has been in Canada for six months. • Richard has been in Canada sinccJanuary .
. . . está ... desde hace seis meses. . .. está ... desde enero.
• We've bcen wairing for rwo hours. • We've bccn waiting since 9 o'clock.
Estamos esperando desde hace dos horas. Estamos esperando desde las 9.
• l've livcd in London for a long time. • l've livcd in London sincc I was 10 ycars old.
Vivo en Londres desde hace mucho tiempo. Vivo en Londres desde que tenía 1 O años.

ago
ago corresponde a 'hace' en español. Por ejemplo:
chrcc weeks ago = hace tres semanas, an hour ago = hace una hora, a long time ago = hace mucho tiempo
• Susan startcd her ncw job thrcc wccks ago. . .. empezó hace tres semanas.
• 'When did Tom go out?' 'Ten minutes ago.' '... salió hace diez minutos.'
• 1 had dinncr an hour ago, Comí ... hace una hora.
• Life was vcry differcnr a hundrcd ycars ago. . .. era ... hace cien años.
ago acompaña al PAST SIMPLE (did/had/srarted etc.):

Observa la diferencia entre ago, for y since:


• Today is Wcdnesday.
Whcn did Jill arrivc in lreland?
Shc arrived in Ireland three days ago.
• How long has she beco in lrcland?
She has beco in Ireland for threc days,
Shc has beco in Ireland since Monday.

PRESENT PERFECT + for/since=) jij:jf,r j,U1 from ... to/untiVsince/for =) c,¡¡¡¡.¡t,¡¡1:1 for y during =) 11):j:,jj,4ik1
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 20
20.1 Completa las frases con foro since.
1 Jill has becn in lreland ...~~~ .... Monday.
2 Jill has been in Ireland .. :fuf... three days.
3 My aunt has lived in Australia 15 years.
4 Margaret is in her office. She has been rhere 7 o'clock.
5 India has been an independent country 194 7.
6 The bus is late. We've been waiting 20 minutes.
7 Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty ...... .. ... many years.
8 Mike has been ill a long time. He has been in hospital October.

20.2 Responde a las preguntas usando ago.


1 When was your last mea!?
2 When was the last time you were ill?
3 When did you last go to the cinema?
4 When was thc last time you werc in a car?
5 When was the last time you went on holiday?

20.3 Completa las frases usando las palabras entre paréntesis + for o ago.
1 Jill arrived in Ireland ..t:J.1r.~ ..~;; ...<?:9~.,... (three days)
2 Jill has been in Ireland ... :fur. ..~r.~ ..~;;., . (three days)
3 Linda and Frank have been married .. (20 years)
4 Linda and Frank got married . (20 years)
5 Dan arrived . (ten minutes)
6 We had lunch .. (an hour)
7 Silvia has been learning English . (six months)
8 Have you known Lisa ? (a long rime)
9 I bought these shoes . (a few days)

20.4 Observa cada pareja de frases y escribe una más usando for o since.
1 Jill is in Ireland now. She arrived rhere rhrce days ago ?.\'.1.e:-..n..~ . ~~ ~~!;:..Í?.r. .. ~t~ .. ~~-' .
2 Jack is here. He arrived here on Tuesday. He has ..
3 lt's raining. It started an hour ago. lt's been ..
4 1 know Sue. J first met Sue two years ago. l've .
5 I have a camera. J bought it in 1989. I've ..
6 They are married. They got married six months ago.
They've .
7 Liz is studying medicine at university. She started three years ago.
She has .
8 Dave plays the piano. He started when he was sevcn years old.
Dave has .

20.5 Escribe frases sobre ti. Empieza por las palabras entre paréntesis.
1 (!'ve lived) .
2 (I've been) .
3 (l've been learning) ..
4 (l've known) ..
5 (l've had) .

20.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Estudio inglés desde hace tres años.
2 Tom salió hace dos horas.
3 Tengo dolor de cabeza desde que me levanté esta mañana. (dolor de cabeza= a headache)
4 La película empezó hace diez minutos.
5 Mi hermana está casada desde enero.
6 '¿Cuándo comprasteis este coche?' 'Hace dos meses.'
7 Sonia trabaja en esta oficina desde hace seis años.

41
I have done (present perfect) y
I did (past simple)
En general el PRESENT PERHCT corresponde al preténto perfecto compuesto del español:
• l havc lost my key. He perdido Bill has gone home. 81/1 se ha ido ...
• Havc you sccn Ann? • Have you ever bcen to Spain?

Con un período de tiempo ya terminado (yestcrday / last week etc.) se usa el pasado (arrivcd / saw I was etc.), que
muchas veces corresponde al pretérito perfecto simple del español.
past simple + tiempo ya terminado
~ ----,----------,
tiempo ya terminado
yesrcrday.
yesrerday
last wcck.
last wcek
Wc arrivcd at 3 o'clock.
six months ago
in 1991.
six months ago.
pasado ahora

No se usa el PRESENT PERFECT con un período de tiempo ya terminado.


• l saw Paula ycsterday. (no '1 have secn Paula .. .')
• Whcre wcrc you on Sunday aftcrnoon? (no 'Where have you been ... ?')
• We didn't havc a holiday last ycar. (no 'We havcri't had .. .')
• 'What did you do last night?' 'I staycd at home.'
• William Shakcspearc lived from 1564 to 1616. He was a writer. He wrotc many plays and poems.
Se usa el PAST SIMPLE, y no el PRESENT PERFECT, en las preguntas que comienzan por Whcn ... ? o What time ... ?:
• Whcn did thcy arrivc? (no 'When havc they arrived?')
• What time did you gct up? (no 'What time have you gor up?')

C Observa y compara:
l'RESDff PERFECT PAST Sl~IPLE

• l have lost my key. pero • l losr my key yesterday.


(no la encuentro ahora)
• Bill has gone home. pero • Bill went home ten minutes ago.
(no está aquí ahora)
• Have you seen Ann? pero • Did you scc Ann last Saturday?
(¿Dónde está ahora?)

tiempo hasta ahora tiempo ya terminado

pasado ahora pasado ahora

• Have you ever been ro Spain? pero Did you go to Spain last ycar?
(alguna vez en el pasado)
• My fricncl is a writer. He has written pero • Shakespeare wrotc many plays and pocms.
many books.
• The lcttcr hasn't arrived yer. Thc lcrrcr didn't arrive ycstcrday.
Observa también la siguiente diferencia de uso entre inglés y español:
• I've livcd in Singaporc for six years. pero I livcd in Glasgow for six ycars but now I
Vivo en Singapur desde hace seis años. live in Singapore.
(Y todavía vivo allí) Viví en Glasgow durante seis años pero ahora vivo
en Singapur.

PAST s1.\1PLE =) 11: nMtiflfl PRESENT PERFECT ~ ,,, 11111·a1u,E1


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
21
21.1 Escribe /as respuestas a /as preguntas usando /as palabras entre paréntesis .

1 Have you seen Ann? (5 minutes ago) ..Y.~~a., , ~~ l:!~ ~ m..~~ M.~: .
2 Have you srarred your new job? (lasr week) Y es, 1 last week.
3 Have your friends arrived? (at 5 o'clock) Yes, they ..
4 Has Sarah gone away? (on Friday) Yes, .
5 Have you worn your new shoes? (yesterday) Yes, .

21.2 Corrige /os verbos subrayados que sean incorrectos.


1 I~ my key. I can't find it. ..f9~fq9 ...
2 ~ you seen Ann yesterday? ...l.!~~9.~f.q9..: ~ ..!:!~ .. ~.~ .
3 l've finished my work at 2 o'clock, .. .
4 l'm ready now. I've finished my work. .. ..
5 What time have you finished your work? ..
6 Sue isn't here. She.'..s...g.Qne out. . .
7 Jim's grandrnother has died in 1989. .. ..
8 Where hazs you ~ lasr night? ..

21.3 Pon /os verbos entre paréntesis en PRESENT PERFECT o en PAST SIMPLE.
1 My friend is a writer. He .. r..~. .
~t:'~ .. (write] many books.
2 We ~) ..!').~-~.. (not/have) a holiday last year.
3 I (play) tennis yesterday afternoon.
4 What time (you/go) to bed last night?
5 (you/ever/meet) a famous person?
6 The weather (not/be) very good yesterday.
7 My hair is wet. I (just/wash) it.
8 I (wash) my hair before breakfast this morning.
9 Kathy travels a lot. She (visit) many countries.
10 'Is Sonia here?' 'No, she (not/come) yet.'

21.4 Pon /os verbos en PRESENT PERFECT o en PAST SIMPLE.

1 A: ...tf.~.~..!:!.~ ...~~ .. ~-~ ... (you/ever/be) to 3 Rose works in a factory. She


Florida? .................................................... (work) there for six
B: Yes, we .. ~~~ .. (go) there on holiday two months. Before rhar she .
years ago. (be) a waitress in a restaurant. She
A: (you/have) .. (work) there for rwo
a good time? years bur she ..
B: Yes, it (be) great. (not/enjoy) it very much.

2 A: Where's Alan? . 4 A: Do you know Martin's sister?


(you/see) him? B: I (see) her a few
B: Yes, he (go) out a times bur I ..
few minutes ago. (never/speak) to her. . .
A: And Julia? ............................. (you/ever/speak) to her?
B: 1 don't know. 1 . A: Yes. I (rneet) her ac a
(not/see) her. party last week. She's very nice.

21.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 He perdido mis gafas. ¿Las has visto?
2 '¿Cuándo han llegado estos libros?' 'La semana pasada.'
3 Estudié alemán dos años, pero ahora estudio inglés.
4 Javier se fue a Japón hace cuatro años y vive allí desde entonces. (entonces = then)
5 ¿A qué hora te has levantado?
6 '¿Has estado alguna vez en Inglaterra?' 'Sí, fui a Cambridge el verano pasado.'
7 '¿Cuándo habéis visitado a Laura y Bruce?' 'La semana pasada.'
8 '¿Montse ha vuelto de los Estados Unidos?' 'Sí, la vi ayer.' (volver= come back)
9 Compré esta televisión hace un mes y se ha estropeado. (estropear= break down)
10 He leído todos esos libros. Ayer terminé esta novela. (novela= novel)
43
is done was done (voz pasiva 1 J

The officc is cleancd every day.


La oficina se limpia todos los días.

The room was cleaned yesterday.


La oficina se limpió ayer.

Compara las formas en voz activa y pasiva:


Somebody cleans rhe office every day. (voz activa)

The officc is clcancd evcry day. (voz pasiva)

Sorncbody clcancd the officc ycstcrday. (voz ac tivaJ

The officc was clcaned yesterday. (voz pasiva)

Como en español, la voz pasiva se forma en inglés con be (= 'ser') y el participio pasado:
be participio pasado

cleancd done
PRf~F.NT Sl~11'1 L am/is/arc
( nor) + in ven red built
PAST SIMl'l.r. was/wcrc injurcd takcn etc.

El participio pasado de los verbos regulares termina en -cd (clcancd/damagcd etc.).


En los Apéndices 2-3 tienes una lista de participios pasados irregulares (donc/built/takcn etc.).
La voz pasiva se suele usar cuando desconocemos o no nos interesa mencionar quién o qué realiza la acción. En español se
prefiere usar formas con 'se' ('se hace ... '/se venden .. .' etc.) o verbos en plural ('venden ... '/limpian .. .' etc.). Observa los
siguientes ejemplos:
• Burter is made from milk. . .. se hace ...
• Oranges are imponed inro Brirain. . .. se importan/son importadas ...
• l Iow oftcn are thcsc rooms clcaned? ... se limpian/limpian/son limpiadas ...
• 1 am never invited to parties. Nunca me invitan a fiestas.
• This house was built l 00 ycars ago. . .. fue construida/se construyó ...
• Thesc houses wcrc built 100 years ago. . .. fueron construidas .
• When was the telephone invcntcd? ¿ ... se inventó/fue inventado ?
• We wercn't invircd to the party last weck. No nos invitaron ...
• The child was left alone in thc room. Dejaron ...

En inglés se dice was/werc born (= 'nacVnaciste' etc.):


• 1 was born in London in 1962. (no 'I borned/1 born')
• Where wcrc yo u born?

Después de la voz pasiva, by = 'por':


• We were woken up by a Ioud noise.
• Arnerica was discovcrcd by Columbus.
• My brothcr was bicren by a dog last week.

is being done I has been done ;:::) 11 j,r j ffl verbos irregulares;:::) lMDll 25, lPENDIClS 2-3
voz activa y voz pasiva;:::) rj;¡¡j,@j•
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 22
22.1 Escribe frases usando las palabras entre paréntesis. Las frases 1-7 llevan el verbo en presente.
1 (che office I clean I every day) ....Th~ O.ff.~..~ ... ~~ ...\?f~ ..40.-!L ..
2 (these roorns I clean I every day?) ~.r.e...~.e.~~ r.o.q.~~ ~.e4.. ~Y.~ ~L
3 (glass I make I from sand) Glass .
4 (sramps I sel!/ in a post office) .
5 (rhis room/ nor I use I very ofcen) .
6 (we I allow / to park here?) ..
7 (how I rhis word I pronounce?) ..

Las frases 8-15 llevan el verbo en pasado.


8 (che office I clean I yesrerday) ... To~ ..<?ff.~ .. 1:-'.~ ~~ .. .!:le.~kr:~ ..
9 (rhe house I paint / last month) The house ..
LO (three people I injure I in the accident) .
11 (my bicycle I stcal I a few days ago) ..
12 (when I this bridge I build?) ..
13 (you / invite I to the parry last week?) .
14 (how I these windows I break?) ..
15 (I / not I wake up I by the noise) .

22.2 Corrige estas frases.


1 (This house buili)l 00 years ago. ..Tu.~ ...~~~~ ..~~ .. ~x':#: .. r. t.: ..
2 Football plays in most countries of the world. .. .
3 Why did the letter send to the wrong address? ..
4 A garage is a place where cars repair. .. ..
5 Where are you born? ..
6 How many languages are speaking in Switzerland? .
7 Somebody broke into our house but nothing stolen. .. .
8 When was invented the bicycle? .

22.3 Completa las frases con los siguientes verbos en voz pasiva (en presente o en pasado}:
eleaR- damage find give invite make make show steal f1tke
1 The room ...~ ...~."4... every day.
2 I saw an accident yesterday. Two people ... ~~~- ..~~- .. to hospital.
3 Paper from wood.
4 There was a fire at the hotel last week. Two of che rooms .
5 'Where did you get this picture?' 'It tome by a friend of mine.'
6 Many American programmes on British television.
7 'Did Jim and Sue go to rhe wedding?' 'No. They but they didn't go.'
8 'How old is rhis film?' 'It in 1965.'
9 My car last week but the next day it by the police.

22.4 ¿Dónde nacieron?


1 (Ian I Edinburgh) ···'-~---~-~---~9.l'.\')\-!'.l..{40.~x':r.9.\'!., .
2 (Sally I Birmingham) Sally .
3 (her parents / Ireland) Her .
4 (you I ???) I .
5 (your rnother I ???) ......................................................................................................................................................................................

22.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Rompieron esta ventana ayer.
2 ¿Cómo se hace la cerveza?
3 No invitaron a Brian a la boda. (boda = wedding)
4 ¿Cuándo se construyó este puente?
5 Mis padres nacieron en Madrid, pero yo nací en Sevilla.
6 Estos sonetos fueron escritos por Shakespeare. (sonetos = sonnets)
7 ¿Dónde nació Bruce?
8 Esa casa se vendió el año pasado.

45
is being done has been done (voz pasiva 2)

Somebody is painting the door (voz activa)


~~~~~~~-Jr---
....L
Thé door is bcing paintcd. (voz pasiva)

Alguien está pintando la puerta.


Están pintando la puerta.

El PRESENT COl\'TINUOUS en voz pasiva es:

is/are being + painred/repaired/built/madc etc.

• My car is at the garage. lt is being repaired. . .. Lo están reparando.


• Some new houses are being built opposite the park. Están construyendo casas nuevas ...

En español no usamos el equivalente al PRESENT CONTINuous en voz pasiva ('la puerta está siendo pintada') y
preferimos usar formas con 'se' o con 'Están ... '. Observa los ejemplos:
• A new cinema is bcing built. Se está construyendo/ Están construyendo un cine nuevo.
• lmportant decisions are being made. Se están tomando/ Están tomando decisiones importantes.

Compara el uso del PRESENT CONTINUOUS y del PRESENT SIMPLE:


• The office is beíng cleaned at the moment. (PRESENT CONTJNuous, ahora, en este momento}
• The office is cleaned every day. (PRESENT SIMPLE, hecho habitual)
Los usos del PRF.SEl\'T CONTINUOUS y del PRESENT SIMPLE aparecen en las Unidades 9 y 27.

Somebody has painted the door (voz activa)

T e aoor has been painted. (voz pasiva)

Alguien ha pintado la puerta.


Han pintado la puerta.

antes ahora

El PRESENT PERFECT en voz pasiva es:

has/have been 1 + painted/repaired/built/made etc.

• My key has been stolen. Me han robado la llave.


• My keys have becn stolen. Me han robado las llaves.
• I'm nor going to the parry. 1 haven't been invited. No me han invitado.
• Has this shirt been washed? ¿Se ha lavado esta camisa?/¿Estálavada esta camisa?
Compara el uso del PRF.SENT PERFECT y del PAST SIMPLE:
• The room is clean now. Ir has bccn cleaned. (PRESENT PERFECT, tiempo indeterminado)
The room was clcaned ycsrcrday. (PAST STMPLE, período de tiempo concluido)
• 1 can't find my keys. 1 think rhey'vc bccn stolen. (PRESENT PERFECT)
My keys were stolen last week. (PAST SIMPLE)
Los usos del PRESENT PERFF.CT y del PAST SIMPLE aparecen en la Unidad 22.

is done/was done ee 11) 1,jl,f.,j voz activa y voz pasiva==} rnj 1,@H
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
23
23.1 ¿Qué está ocurriendo? Responde usando la voz pasiva.

1 ... To~..~ ~ ~.~_g,,r,ey,ajt:~.,. 3 The windows .


2 A bridge . 4 The grass .

23.2 Observa los dibujos. ¿Qué está ocurriendo? o ¿Qué ha ocurrido? Responde en voz pasiva usando el PRESENT cosrrrauous
(is/are being ... ) o el PRESENT PERFECT (has/havc beco ... ).

(rhe office I clean) To~ o.ff.~ ..~...~~9 .. ~~: .


2 (the shirrs I iron) Tu.~ ~.~~ ... r.~x.~..~~ ..
kO..t:l~., ..
3 (the window I break) The window .
4 (the roof I repair) The roof .
5 (the car I damage) .
6 (rhe houses I knock/ clown) .
7 (the trees /cut/ clown) .
8 (they /invite/ to a party) ..

23.3 Revisa las Unidades 22 y 23 y completa las frases usando las palabras entre paréntesis.
1 I can't use my office at che rnornent. It .... ~ .. }~9 .. P~.M ... (paint).
We didn't go to the party. We ... ~~~-·-~..0Y.~ .... (not/invíte).
2
3
The washing machine was broken but it's OK now. It (repair).
4
The washing machine (repair) yesterday afternoon.
5
A factory is a place where things (make).
6
How old are these houses? When (they/build)?
7
A: (the computer/use) at the moment?
B: Yes, Jim is using it.
8 l've never seen these flowers before. What (they/call)?
9 Sorne crees (blow) down in the storm last night,
10 The bridge is closed ar the moment. lt (damage) last week and it ·
............................................................................. (not/repair) yet.

23.4 Traduce al inglés usando la voz pasiva:


1 Están lavando mi coche.
2 Están construyendo cuatro escuelas en esta ciudad.
3 Este año se han vendido muchos juguetes. (muchos juguetes= a lot of toys)
4 ¿Se han enviado todas las cartas?
5 No se han limpiado las cortinas. (cortinas= curtains)
6 Se ha construido un puente nuevo para el ferrocarril. (ferrocarril= railway)
7 Están pintando mi casa.
8 ¿Han reparado tu televisión?
47
be/have/do (present y past)

be(= am/is/are/was/were) + -ing (cleaning/working etc.)

am/is/are -ing • Please be quier. l'm working.


(PRESENT CONTINUOUS) • lt isn't raining ar the moment.
=> Unidades 4-5 y 27 • What are you doing this evening?

was/were -ing • 1 was working when she arrived.


(PAST CONTINUOUS) • 1t wasn't raining, so we wcnt out.
=> Unidad 14 • What wcre you doing ar 3 o'clock?

be(= am/is/are/was/werc) + participio pasado (clcancd/madc/caten = limpiado/hecho/comido etc.)

am/is/are + participio pasado • The room is cleaned every day.


(PASSIVE PRESENT SIMPLE) ... se limpia(= es limpiada) ...
=> Unidad 22 • I'm never invitcd to parties.
... nunca me invitan(= soy invitado) ...
• Oranges are imported into Britain .
. .. se importan (= son importadas) ...

was/were + participio pasado • The room was cleancd yestcrday.


(PASSIVE PAST SIMPLE) ... se limpió (= fue limpiada) ...
=> Unidad22 • These houses were builr 100 yca rs ago.
• How was che window broken?
• Whcrc wcrc you born?

havc/has + participio pasado (cleaned/lost/catcn/bccn etc.)

have/has + participio pasado • l've cleaned my room. He limpiado ...


(PRESENT PERFECT} • T om has lost his passport.
=> Unidades 16-19 • Barbara hasn't bcen to Canada.
• Where have Paul and Linda gone?

do/does/did + infinitivo (clean/like/eat/go etc.)

do/does + infinitivo • T likc coffcc bur I don't like rea.


(PRESENT SIMPLE negativo e • Chris docsn't go out vcry oftcn.
interrogativo) • Whar do you usually do ar weekends?
=> Unidades 7-8 • Does Barbara live alone?

did + infinitivo • l didn't watch TV ycsterday.


(PAST SIMPLE negativo e • lt didn't rain last wcek.
interrogativo) • What time did Paul and Linda go out?
=> Unidad 13

verbos irregulares=> UNIDAD 25, APÉNDICES 2-3


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
24
24.1 Completa las frases con is/are/do/does.
1 ..!?.9. .. you work in rhe cvcnings? 6 thc sun shining?
2 Where .. ~.~.. they going? 7 Whac time thc shops close?
3 Why you looking at me? 8 Ann working today?
4 Bill live near you? 9 Whac this word mean?
5 you like cooking? 10 you feeling all right?

24.2 Completa las frases con am not / isn't / aren't / don't / doesn't para que sean negativas.
l Torn ... 0..:0.~~-1'1't;. .. work in rhe evenings.
2 I'rn very tired. 1 want ro go out this evening.
3 I'rn very tired. 1 going out this evening.
4 George working rhis week. Hc's on holiday.
5 My parenrs are usually at home. They go out very often.
6 Barbara has travelled a lor bur shc speak any forcign languages.
7 You can rurn off the relevision. 1 watching it.
8 There's a party nexr week bur we going.

24.3 Completa las frases con was/wcre/did/have/has.


1 Where W..~.~-· your shoes made? 6 What time she go?
2 .. you go out last night? 7 When rhese houses built?
3 What you doing ar 10.30? 8 Jim arrived yet?
4 Where your mother born? 9 Why you go home early?
5 Barbara gone home? 10 How long they been married?

24.4 Completa las frases con is/are/was/were/havc/has.


1 Joe .. ho.-§. .. lose his passporr. 6 1 jusr made sorne coffee. Would you like sorne?
2 This bridge builr ten years ago. 7 Glass made from sand.
3 you finished your work yet? 8 This is a very old phorograph. Ir raken a long
4 This town is always clean. The srreers time ago .
....................... cleaned every day. 9 Joe bought a new car.
5 Where you born?

24.5 Completa las frases usando verbos de la lista en su forma correcta.


damage eat en¡oy -g6- go away listen open pronounce flHa understand use
I'm going to cake an umbrella with me. It's .. r.~!:1'19.
1
Why are you so ti red? Did you .. 9!>... to bed late last night?
2
3
Where are che chocolates? Have you thern ali?
4
How is your new job? Are you it?
5
My car was badly in che accident but I was OK.
6
Chris has gota car but she doesn't ic very often.
7
Mary isn't at home. She has for a few days.
8
1 don't rhe problem. Can you explain it again?
9
Martín is in his room. He's ro music.
1 O I don't know how to say chis word. How is it ?
11 How do you this window? Can you show me?

24.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 '¿Qué estabas haciendo a las 9?' 'Estaba viendo la televisión en casa.'
2 Vimos a tu hermana ayer. Estaba esperando el autobús.
3 El papel fue inventado por los chinos.
4 Se estudia inglés en todo el mundo. (en todo el mundo = aJI over rhe world)
5 Luis ha perdido su reloj.
6 ¿Dónde viven Lola y Jaime?
7 ¿Has terminado con el periódico?
8 El mes pasado no fui al cine.
9 No me gusta el fútbol.
10 ¿Vienes al supermercado?

49
Verbos regulares e irregulares

Verbos regulares
El PAST SIMPLE y el PAST PARTICIPLE (PARTICIPIO PASADO) de /os verbos regulares terminan en -ed:
clean -t cleaned live -t lived paint -t painted study -t studied
PAST SIMPLE(~ Unidad 12):
• I cleaned my shoes yesterday, Ayer me limpié ...
• Charlie studied engineering at university. Charlie estudió ingeniería ...
PAST PARTICJPLE
En el PRESENT PERFECr: have/has + PAST PART!CIPLE (~ Unidades 16-19):
• 1 have cleaned my shoes. Me he limpiado ...
• Jane has lived in London for ten years. Jane vive en Londres desde hace diez años.
En la voz pasiva: be (am/is/are/were/has bcen etc.) + PAST PARTICIPLE (~ Unidades 22-23):
• These rooms are clcaned every day. ... se limpian todos /os días.
• My car has been repaired. Me han reparado el coche.

Verbos irregulares
El PAST SIMPLE y el PAST PARTICIPLE de /os verbos irregulares no terminan en -ed:

make break cut


PAST SIMPLE madc brokc cut
PAST PARTICIPLE made broken cut

A veces el PAST SIMl)LE y el PAST PARTICIPLE son iguales. Por ejemplo:

makc find buy cut


PAST SIMPLE )
PAST PARTICIPLE made found bought cut

• I madc a cake yesterday. (PAST SIMPLE) Ayer hice ...


• [ have made some coffee. (PAST PARTICIPLE- PRESENT PERFECT) He hecho ...
• Butter is made from milk. (PAST PARTICIPLE- PASSSIVE PRESEJ\.1T) la mantequilla se hace ...

Otras veces el PAST SIMPLE y el PAST PARTIC!PLE son diferentes. Por ejemplo:

break know begin go


PAST SIMPLE broke knew began went
PAST PARTICIPLE broken known begun gone

• Somebody broke this window last night. (PAST SIMPLE) Alguien rompió ...
• Somebody has broken rhis window. (PAST PARTIC(PLE- PRESENT PERFECT) Alguien ha roto ...
• This window was broken last night. (PAST PARTICIPLE - PASSIVE PAST) ... fue roto ...

lista de verbos irregulares =} füj:j,!Hff§I SPELLING (ortografía) de los verbos regulares=} i\4h@il
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
25
25.1 Escribe el PAST SIMPLfÍPAST PARTICIPLE de estos verbos. (Las dos formas son las mismas en este ejercicio.)
1 make ..'!l.~ ... 6 enjoy . 11 hear .
2 cut ..C.U...t. .. 7 buy .. 12 put ..
3 get . 8 sit .. 13 catch .
4 bring . 9 lea ve .. 14 watch .
5 pay . 10 happen .. 15 understand .

25.2 Escribe el PAST SIMPLE y el PAST PARTICIPLE de estos verbos.


1 break broke... . ..broke.n... 6 run .. 11 take
2 begin 7 speak . 12 go
3 eat 8 write . 13 give
4 drink 9 come .. 14 throw
5 drive 10 know .. 15 forget

25.3 Completa las frases con la forma correcta del verbo entre paréntesis.
1 I ..~~!'.!.~ ... my hands beca use rhey were dirty, (wash)
2 Somebody has .. ~r.*.~ rhis window. (break)
3 l feel good. 1 very well last night. (sleep)
4 We a very good film yesterday. (see)
5 Ir a lot whilc wc werc on holiday. (rain)
6 I've my bag. (lose) Have you it? (see)
7 Rosa's bicycle was last week. (stcal)
8 1 co bcd carly bccause I was tired. (go)
9 Have you your work yet? (finish)
10 The shopping centre was about 20 years ago. (build)
11 Ann to drive when shc was 18. (learn)
12 l've never a horse. (ride)
13 Julia is a good friend of mine. I've her for a long time. (know)
14 Ycstcrday J and my leg. (fall / hure)

25.4 Completa cada frase con un verbo de la lista poniéndolo en la forma correcta: PAST SIMPLF. o PAST PARTICIPLE.
cost drive fly -make- mcet sell speak swim tell think wake up wm
1 I have ..... ~~ sorne coffce. Would you likc sorne?
2 I-lavc you John about your new job?
3 Wc played basketball on Sunday. We didn't play very well bue wc .
4 I know Gary but I've ncver his wifc.
5 Wc wcre by loud music in che middle of che nighc.
6 Srephanie jumped into che river and to che other sidc.
7 'Did you like the film?' 'Yes, I ir was very good.'
8 Many different languagcs are in che Philippines,
9 Our holiday a lor of moncy beca use we stayed in an expensive hotel.
1 O Have you ever a vcry fast car?
11 Ali rhe rickets for che concert were very quickly.
12 A bird in rhrough the open window while we were having our dinncr.

25.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Inés abrió la carta y la leyó.
2 La película empezó a las 7.30.
3 Ayer rompí tres vasos.
4 La piscina se limpia los lunes. (piscina = swimming pool)
5 Teresa perdió sus llaves el sábado. ¿Las ha encontrado?
6 Joaquín olvidó su pasaporte.
7 No he terminado mi trabajo.
8 Compramos un nuevo ordenador ayer. (ordenador= computer)
9 ¿Has visto alguna vez una ópera? (ópera= opera)
10 Él dejó su maleta en el tren. (dejar= leavc; maleta= suitcase)
11 Conozco a Isabel desde hace siete años.
12 Han cortado dos árboles en mi jardín. (cortar= cut down)

51
I used to ...

Dave hace unos años Dave en la actualidad

I wori:: i.n o..


StA.pem,o.ri:e.t. (
used, to work i.n
o.. fo..ctcl'!l ·

Dave used to work in a factory. Now he works in a supcrmarket.


Dave trabajaba/salia trabaiar en una fábrica. Ahora trabaja en un supermercado.
Dave used to work in a facrory = Dave trabajaba en una fábrica en el pasado pero no trabaja allí ahora .

.,. he used to work ---- .. ¡-.------------ he works ------------._


pasado ahora

Se puede decir I u sed to work ... / she u sed to have ... / they u sed ro be ... etc. :

be
1/you/wc/rhey } work
used to
he/she/it havc
play etc.

Used to expresa alguna acción o situación habitual en el pasado que ahora ya no se produce. El equivalente en español es el
imperfecto ('trabajaba ... / tenia ... / eran ... ') o 'solía/solían' etc. + rnfinitivo ('solia trabajar ... / solía tener ... / solían ser ... '):
• Iused toread a lor of books but l don'r read much rhese days.
Solía leer/ Leía muchos libros, pero actualmente ...
• Liz has gor shorr hair now bue it used to be very long .
. . . pero antes era muy largo.
• They used to live in rhe sarne srrcer as us, so we often used to see
them. Bur we don'r see rhcm vcry often these days.
Vivían ... les solíamos ver a menudo.
• Ann uscd to have a piano but shc sold ita fcw ycars ago.
Ann tenía ...
• Whcn I was a child, l used ro like chocolate .
. . . me gustaba el chocolate.
• There used to be a loe of flowers in this park.
Había muchas flores ...
La negación es I didn't use to ... :
• When I was a child I didn't use to like tomaroes.
Cuando era pequeño no me gustaban los tomates.
La interrogación es did you use to ... ? :
• Where did you u e to live before you carne here?
¿Dónde vivías antes de venir aquí?

Se usa used to ... sólo al hablar del pasado. Al hablar del presente no se puede decir•¡ use to .. .':
• 1 uscd to play ten nis. These days I play golf. (no 'I use to play golf.') Jugaba al tenis ... juego al golf.
• We usually get up carly. (no 'We use to gcr up early.') Normalmente nos levantamos temprano.
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 26
26.1 Observa los dibujos y completa las frases con u sed to ....

..Q).~.. l,',~~ ..W. .. h~Y.~ IP.l'.\9...bajr._,.. He .


foorball. a taxi driver.

This building .
in the counrry.

26.2 Karen trabaja mucho y tiene muy poco tiempo libre. Hace unos años las cosas eran diferentes.

KAREN HACE UNOS AfOOS (!/;t KAREN AHORA

Do you do any sport? Yes, 1 go swimming every


day and l play volleyball.
Do you go out in rhe evenings? Yes, mosr evenings.
Do you play a musical Yes, thc guitar.
instrument?
I worlc very 11Clr<i
Do you like reading? Yes, 1 read a lot. in m!:jjob. 1
Do you travcl much? Yes, 1 go away two or three Ml'\1t 11Me. M!:j
times a year. fre.e. üme..

Escribe frases sobre Karen con used to ....


1 ·--~~--~-~~---~--.9~---~-~~.".".'.~9~~~--~ . 4 .
2 .. Sl1e. . 5
3 . 6

26.3 Completa estas frases con used to o con el PRESE1'T SIMPLE (1 play/ he lives etc.).
1 1 ....~.~-~--~-~---· tennis. 1 stopped playing a few years ago.
2 'Do you do any sport?' 'Yes, 1 ..~ basketball.'
3 'Have you gota car?' 'No, 1 one bur I sold it.'
4 George a waiter. Now he's the manager of a hotel.
5 'Do you go to work by car?' 'Sometimes but most days 1 by train.'
6 When 1 was a child, 1 never rneat, bur 1 eat it now.
7 Mary loves watching TV. She TV every evening.
8 We near the airport but wc moved to thc city centre a few years ago.
9 Normally I start work ar 7 o'clock, sol up very early.
1O What games you when you were a child?

26.4 Traduce al inglés:


I Ana tenía un jardín grande cuando vivió en Kent.
2 Yo solía leer ese periódico.
3 Mi hermano y Sergio solían salir juntos.
4 Solía viajar mucho, pero no viajo mucho ahora.
5 A Bruce no le gustaba el café.
6 Había muchos parques en mi barrio. (barrio = neighbourhood)
7 Mi mujer solía caminar al trabajo, pero ahora suele tomar el autobús.
53
What are you doing tomorrow?
(presente con significadofuturo)

Thcy are playing tennis (now). He is playing tennis tomorrow.


Están jugando al tenis (ahora). Mañana juega al tenis.

Se usa am/is/arc + -ing (PRESENT CONTINuous) para algo que está sucediendo ahora:
• 'Whcrc are Sue and Carolinc?' 'They'rc playing ten nis in rhe park.' Están jugando al tenis ...
• Please be quier. I'm working. Guarda s1lenc10, por favor. Estoy trabajando.
Se usa am/is/arc + -ing también para el futuro (tomorrow I nexr week, etc.):
• Andrew is playing tcnnis tomorrow. Andrew juega mañana al tenis.
• I'm nor working ncxt week. La semana próxima no trabajo.

I am doing something tornorrow (= mañana hago algo) significa que he previsto o mis planes son hacer alguna cosa:
• Alice is going to the dentist on Friday .
... va al dentista el viernes.
• We're having a party next weekend. l'm goi.ng to
Damos una fiesta ... o. concut
tomorrow.
• Are you meeting Bill this evening?
¿Ves a Bill esta noche?
• What are you doing romorrow evening?
¿Qué haces/hacéis mañana por la noche?
• I'm not going out tonight. l'm staying at home.
No salgo esta noche. Me quedo en casa.
También se puede decir 'I'm going to do sornething' (~ Unidad 28).

Normalmente no se usa el PRESENT SIMPLE (1 stay Ido you go? etc.) para hablar de previsiones o planes personales:
• l'm staying at home this evening. (no 'I sray .. .')
• Are you going out tonight? (no 'Do you go out ... ?')
• Ann isn'r coming to the parry next week. (no 'Ann doesn'r come .. .')
Pero se usa el PRE.SEl\'T SIMPLE en horarios, programas de espectáculos, trenes, autobuses etc.:
• The train arrives at 7.30.
• What time does rhe film 6nish?
Observa la diferencia:

J>RESENT CONTINUOUS: generalmente referido a personas I PRESENT SIMPLE: para horarios, programas, etc.

en español se usa el presente en ambos casos


• l'm going to a conccrr tomorrow. • The concert starts at 7.30.
Mañana voy ... ... empieza a las 7.30.
• What time are you lcaving? • What rime does your train leave?
¿A qué hora te vas? ¿A qué hora se va tu tren?

PRESENT COITTINUOUS ~ ji .¡¡ :fil1 PRESENT SIMPLE~ • i i AJO I'm going to ... ~ • ; ¡ • fH
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 27
27.1 Observa los dibujos y responde: ¿Qué hacen estas personas el viernes que viene?

1 ANDREW 2 RICHARD 3 BARBARA 4 5 ToM AND SuE

l .. ~r.4!..~ .. ~ .. ~~9 ~~ 9.r... .fr.~:.... 4 lunch with Ken.


2 Richard tO the cinema. 5 .
3 Barbara .

27 .2 Escribe preguntas referidas al futuro.


1 (you / go /out/ tonight?)
2 (you / work / next week?)
3 (what / you /do/ tornorrow evening?)
4 (what time/ your friends / arrivc?)
5 (when / Liz / go / on holiday?)

27.3 ¿Qué haces los días que vienen? Responde contando tus planes o previsiones.

1 .. r~..~.~~9#....~9.~.'!:..~r.!1~~-'···
2 .. i.·~--9~9 t:r;> t!.'f!:..t!.'.~!:- ~.l'! ~I'.'~: ...
3 ··················································
4 .
5
6

27.4 Escribe los verbos en PRESE.NT CONTINUOUS (he is leaving etc.) o en PRESENT SIMPLE (the train leaves etc.).
'Are .!:!OIA goi.ng ( you /go ) out t h.is everung:
1 ............. . ~· 'N o, I' m too t1re
. d. '
2 ...W!:-'.r.!:-.. 9.~9. : (we/go) to a concert this evening. ...!~.. ~.~-- (it/start) at 7.30.
3 Do you know about Sally? (she/get) married next rnonth!
4 A: My parents (go) on holiday next week.
B: Oh, that's nice. Where (they/go)?
5 Silvia is doing an English course at the moment. The course (finish) on
Friday.
6 There's a football match tomorrow but (Vnot/go).
7 (Ugo) out with some friends tonight. Why don't you come too?
............................................................................. (we/meet) at John's house at 8 o'clock.
8 A: How (you/get) home after the party tomorrow? By taxi?
B: No, 1 cango by bus. The last bus (lcave) at midnight.
9 A: Do you want to go to che cinema tonight?
B: Yes, what time (che film/ begin)?
10 A: What (you/do) on Monday afternoon?
B: (l/work).

27.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿A qué hora llega el tren de Glasgow? (de= from)
2 El autobús sale a las 12.30.
3 '¿Juegas mañana al fútbol?' 'No puedo, trabajo.'
4 Este verano vamos a Italia.
5 ¿Cuándo vienen tus padres de Londres?
6 '¿Cuándo vas al médico?' 'Mañana.'
7 Este programa acaba a las JO.
8 Los domingos vamos a menudo al campo, pero este fin de semana vienen mis padres y nos quedamos en
casa. (el campo= the country}
55
l'm going to ...

l'm going to (do somerhing}

por la mañana

esta noche

Shc is going to watch TV rhis cvening. Va a ver la televisión esta noche.


Se usa arn/is/arc going to ... para el futuro:

l am do ...
he/she/it IS (nor) going to drink ...
we/you/thcy are watch ...

am 1 buy ... ?
is hc/she/ir going to eat ... ?
are we/you/they wcar ... ?

I am going to do something = Voy a hacer algo.


am/is/are going to ... equivalen al español 'voy a ... /vas a .. ./va a ... /van a .. .' etc. y se usan para expresar una intención:

I decided to do ir -------- I'm going to do it


past now future

• I'm going to buy sorne books rornorrow. Voy a comprar ...


• Sarah is going to sel! her car. ... va a vender ...
• I'm not going to have breakfasr this morning. I'm not hungry. No voy a desayunar ...
• What are you going to wear ro rhc party tonight? ¿Qué vas a ponerte para la fiesta de esta noche?
• 'Your hands are dirty.' 'Yes, I know. l'm going to wash thern.' ... voy a lavármelas.
• Are yo u going to invite John ro your parry? ¿Vas a invitar ... ?
Observa que se dice I'm going to ... (no 'I go to .. .'}:
• My hands are dirty. l'm going to wash rhem. (no 'I go to wash thcm.')
Cuando hablamos del futuro, especialmente de planes, se usa también el PRESENT CONTINUOUS (T am doing)
(~ Unidad 27):
• l am playing tennis with Julia rornorrow.

Sornerhing is going to happen


Cuando parece evidente que algo va a suceder se usa también arn/is/arc going to ... :
• Look ar the sky! Ir's going to rain .
... Va a llover.
• Oh dear! Ir's 9 o'clock and l'm not ready.
l'm going to be late.
Voy a llegar tarde.

presente con significado futuro => 1ij:jj,rj,fj• will => 11 :jj,,j,jffliO\ltl


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 28
28.1 ¿Qué dicen estas personas? Observa los dibujos y responde a la pregunta .

.!.'.!!1... 99.~9 ..~


-~-~ ...TY. . ..
3

Wc .

28.2 Completa las frases usando going to ... + uno de los siguientes verbos:
cat do give lie clown stay walk -wash watch weaF-

1 My hands are dirry ... J'.m.. .9.~9..~--~~n. .... them.


2 What ..~.~.!:IC)t.(.. 9.~9 ..~ .. lv.~ .. to rhe party tonight?
3 1 don't want to go home by bus. 1 .
4 John is going to London next week. He........................................... with some friends.
5 I'm hungry. 1 this sandwich.
6 lt's Sharon's birthday next week. We her a present.
7 Sue says she's feeling very ti red. She for an hour.
8 There's a good film on TV this evening. . you it?
9 Whar Rache!................. .. when she lea ves school?

28.3 Observa los dibujos. ¿Qué va a pasar?

2 4

1 .. w~.
9~9..~ ..r~ . 3 The car
4 He
..
.
2 The shelf .

28.4 ¿Qué vas a hacer hoy o mañana? Escribe tres frases.


1 l'm .
2 .
3 .

28.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Mañana no voy a estudiar inglés.
2 '¿Vais a jugar al tenis el sábado?' 'No, vamos a jugar al fútbol.'
3 Tengo sed. Voy a beber un vaso de agua.
4 ¿Va a comprarse un coche Marisa?
5 'El cielo está gris y hace frío.' 'Sí, va a nevar.'
6 Cuando llegue a casa voy a tomar una ducha. (llegar a casa = get home)

57
will/shall ( 1)

Sarah goes ro work every day. She is always


rhere from 8.30 until 4.30.
Ir is 11 o'clock. Sarah is at work.
Son las 11. Sarah está en el trabajo.
Ar 11 o'clock yesterday, she was ar work.
Ayer a fas 11 estaba en el trabajo.
Ar 11 o'clock tomorrow she will be at work.
Mañana a las 11 estará en el trabajo.

will + infinitivo (will be/will win/will come etc.)

be be?
l/we/you/thcy } will ('ll) WIO 1/we/you/they win?
he/shc/ir will
will not (won't) eat he/she/it eat?
come etc. come? etc.

will se contrae en '11: l'IJ (= 1 will) / you'll / she'll etc.


will not se contrae en won'r: 1 won't (= I will not) / you won't / ir won't etc.

B Se usa will para hablar del futuro (tomorrow / next week etc.):
• Sue travels a loe. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow she'll be in Rome. Next week she'll be in Tokyo .
.. . estará ... estará ...
• You can phone me this evening, 1'11 be at home. . .. Estaré ...
• Lea ve the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it. ... se lo comerán.
• We'll probably go out this evening. . .. saldremos ...
• Will you be ar home this evening? ¿Estarás ... ?
• I won't be here tornorrow. No estaré ...
• Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep. . .. No dormirás.
Con frecuencia se dice I think ... will ... :
• I think Diana will pass the exam. Creo que Diana aprobará el examen.
• Do you think che examination will be difficulr? ¿Crees que ... será ... ?
En inglés, se dice I don'r think ... will ... (no 'I think ... won't ... '). Por ejemplo:
• 1 don'r think ir will rain this afternoon. (no 'I rhink it will not rain.')
En español, se puede decir 'No creo que llueva esta tarde.' o 'Creo que no lloverá esta tarde.'

C No se usa will para hablar de cosas ya acordadas o decididas(~ Unidades 27-28):


• We're going to rhe cinema on Sarurday. (no 'We will go ... ')
• l'm not working tomorrow. (no 'T won'r work ')
• Are you going to do rhe exam? (no 'Will you do ?')

O Shall
Se puede decir I shall (= 1 will) y we shall (= we will):
• J shall be late tornorrow. o J will (1'11) be late romorrow.
• I rhink we shall win. o I think we will (wc'H) win.
Pero no uses shall con you/they/he/she/ir:
• Tom will be late. (no 'Tom shall be late.')

Whar are you doing romorrow? => ¡, ¡.¡¡ tD rm going w ... => ¡, ifrfH will/shall 121 => ¡11 uüfli•
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 29
29.1 Helen está viajando por Europa. Completa las frases usando she was, she's o she'll be.
l Yesterday ;;!':1~ ~.~--- in Paris. I-IELEN
~
~R"1,.1º~~ AHSHRDAt-1
(TOMORRO'w)
2 Tomorrow in Amsterdam.
3 Last week in Barcelona. •
8Rl.65ELS
• (NOW"'
4 Next week in London. PARlS '1
5 At rhe moment in Brussels. (YfSTERDAY) HÚNICH
6 Three days ago in Munich. <'J (30AYS AGó)
7 At the end of her trip very tired.
~RCELONA ~ ~
QAST WEEl0 .) '<,
29.2 ¿Dónde estarás? Responde hablando de ti y usando:
I'll be ... I C'II probably be ... I I don't know where 1'11 be.
1 (ar 10 o'clock tomorrow)
... !.'.~.. P.~!?.~.~~--~~...9.!')...~~---~-~.: q !.'.~--~~ #... ~!?.~., 9- , !Y?r.1..~~~---~-~~~.Ü:l:-.Jlr., .
2 (one hour from now) .
3 (at midnight tonight) .
4 (ar 3 o'clock tomorrow afternoon) .
5 (two ycars from now) .

29.3 Completa las frases con will ('11) o con won't.


1 Don't drink coffee bcforc you go to bcd. You ~.~!')\.. slccp.
2 'Are you ready yet?' 'Not yet. 1 be ready in five minutes.'
3 I'm going away for a few days. I'm leaving tonight, so I be at home tomorrow.
4 lt rain, so you don't need to take an umbrella.
5 A: I don't feel very well this evening.
B: Well, go to bed early and you feel berrer in rhe morning.
6 It's Bill's birthday nexr Monday. He be 25.
7 I'rn sorry I was late this morning. Ir happen again.

29.4 Escribe frases que empiecen por I think ... o por I don't think ....
1 (Diana will pass the exam) ... 1 .. thi..nk .. Di.o.no... wi.U.. po.ss .. the. ..e.l<o..m ·....
2 (Diana won't pass the exam) .. 1 .. Glon't .. thi..nk.. Di.o.no.... wi.U J>O.ss .. !:he.. e.)(o..m_. .
3 (we'Il win the game) I .
4 (I won't be here tomorrow)
5 (Sue will like her present)
6 (they won't get rnarried)
7 (you won't enjoy the film)

29.5 En cada frase hay dos verbos subrayados. Estudia la Unidad 27 y decide cuál es el correcto.
1 We'II go I We're gojng to the theatre tonight. We've got tickets. We're going es /a forma correcta
2 'What will you do I are you doing tomorrow evening?' ' othing. l'm free.'
3 They'll go I They're going away tomorrow morning. Their rrain is ar 8.40.
4 l'm sure she'Jl lend I she's lending us sorne money. She's very rich.
5 'Why are you putting on your coat?' 'l'II go / l'm going out.'
6 Do you think Claire wjl1 phone I is phonin¡; us ronighr?
7 Steve can't meet us on Saturday. He'H work I He's workjng.
8 Will / Shall you be at home romorrow evening?

29.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Carmen estará en la oficina a las 9.
2 No creo que Daniel venga este fin de semana.
3 Creo que llegaremos tarde. (llegar tarde = be late)
4 No creo que Ricardo se compre estos zapatos.
5 ¿Crees que ganarás la carrera? (carrera = racc)
6 Creo que veré a Andy el domingo.
7 ¿Cuándo sabrás el resultado de tu examen? (resultado= rcsult)
8 Es una buena estudiante. Aprobará sus exámenes. (aprobar = pass)
9 Creo que no terminaré este ejercicio hoy.

59
will/shall (2)

Se puede usar 1'11 ... ( = 1 will) cuando decidimos u ofrecemos hacer algo:
• 'My bag is very heavy.' '1'11 carry it for you.' ... Yo te lo llevo/llevaré.
• 1'11 phone you rornorrow, OK? Te llamo/llamaré (por teléfono) mañana, ¿de acuerdo?
Con frecuencia se dice I think I'II ... / 1 don't think 1'11 ... cuando dec1d1mos hacer o no hacer algo:
• l'm ti red. J think l'II go to bcd early ronighr. . .. Creo que me acostaré pronto esta noche.
• It's a nicc day. 1 think 1'11 sit in the garden. . .. Creo que me sentaré en el jardín.
• It's raining. 1 don't think 1'11 go our. (no 'I rhink I will not go our.') ... No creo que salga. o Creo que no
saldré. (~ Unidad 29).
No uses el PRESENT SIMPU, (1 phone I I bring etc.) en frases de este tipo:
• 1'11 phone you tomorrow, OK? (no '1 phone you .. .')
• l.'11 carry your bag for you. (no '1 carry .. .')

No uses I'II para hablar de decisiones ya tomadas(~ Unidades 27-28):


• l'm working rornorrow. (no '1'11 work .. .')
• Therc's a good film on TV ronighr. l'm going to watch ir. (no '1'11 warch .. .')
• Whar are you doing ar the weekend? (no 'What will you do ... ?')

Shall 1 ... ? Shall wc ... ?

No,
i.t's OK. l 1lL
o..nswe.r i.t.

-
Shall 1/we ... ? se usan para ofrecerse a hacer algo o para proponer hacer alguna cosa. Ooserva en los siguientes
ejemplos la equivalencia con el español:
• It's vcry warm in chis room. Shall Topen rhe window? ... ¿Abro/Quieres que abra ... ?
• 'Shall l phone you this evening?' 'Yes, picase.' '¿Te 1/amo/Qweres que te //ame ... ?'
• I'rn going to a parry ronight. What shall I wear? ... ¿Qué me pongo?
• Ir's a nicc <lay. Shall wc go for a walk? ... ¿Vamos/Quieres que vayamos a dar un paseo?
• Wherc shall wc go for our holidays this ycar? ¿Dónde vamos ... ?
• 'Ler's go out rhis evening.' 'Okay. What time shall wc meet?' '... ¿A qué hora nos vemos?'

What are you doing tomorrow? ~ 1 ¡:, !• fH l'm going to ... ~ 1 j lj fH will/shall (J) ~ 1 .¡j ffi
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
30
30.1 Completa las frases con 1'11 (T will) + uno de estos verbos:
do eat send show sit stay
1 My bag is very heavy. .. .!.'.(+...~!:! .... it for you.
2 Enjoy your holiday. Thank you. .. you a posrcard.
3 I don'r wanr rhis banana. Well, I'rn hungry ir.
4 Do you want a cha ir? No, ir's OK. .. on rhe floor.
5 Did you phone Jenny? Oh no, J forgor. .. ir now,
6 Are you coming with me? No, 1 don't think so. .. here.
7 How do you use rhis camera? Give it to me and you.

30.2 Completa las frases con I think 1'11 ... o I don't think 1'11 ... + uno de estos verbos:
buy have play
1 Ir ' s cold today 1 d.on't t:l1ink l'U. .9o out.
2 l'm hungry. 1 something ro eat.
3 1 feel ti red tennis.
4 This camera is too expensive. . it.

30.3 ¿Cuál de los verbos es correcto?


1 I phone / 1'11 phone you romorrow, OK? I'II phone es la forma correcta
2 I haven't done rhe shopping yer. 1 do I 1'11 do ir la ter.
3 I like sport. I warch I I'II warch a lor of sport on TV.
4 I need sorne exercise. 1 rhink I go / l'll go for a walk.
5 Jim is going to buy / will buy a new car. He rold me lasc wcck.
6 'This lcrtcr is for Rose.' 'OK. 1 givc I I'll give I l'm going ro givc ir to her.'
7 A: Are you doing I Will you do anything this cvening?
B: Yes, I'm going I I'll go our with sorne fricncls.

30.4 Escribe frases con Shall I ... ? Elige palabras del cuadro A y del B.

turn on make sorne sandwiches the telcvision


A 13
turn off &peA- the windo·,r,· rhe light

1 It's very warm in this room. ...?l:1~ ... t ..o.P.~... #:1~ ..W.~.w.3..
2 This programmc isn'r very good.
3 l'm hungry.
4 Ir's dark in this room.

30.5 Escribe frases con Shall we ... ? Elige palabras del cuadro A y del B.

what where buy invite


A B
what time who go -meef

1 Lcr's go out ronight. OK, ~n..#..Ji.rn..~..~!'!.~ ..~~ ..m..~.? .


2 Ler's havc a holiday. OK, ..
3 Ler's spend sorne money. OK, .
4 Ler's have a party. OK, .

30.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 No tengo dinero ahora. Te pago mañana.
2 Creo que me quedaré en casa esta tarde.
3 Te veo mañana a las 10, ¿de acuerdo?
4 El viernes próximo limpiaremos el coche, ¿de acuerdo?
5 '¿Quieres que haga té?' 'Sí, por favor.'
6 Hace frío. ¿Cerramos las ventanas?
7 Estoy muy cansado. Hablamos mañana.
8 ¿Quieres que vayamos al cine?
9 ¿Te traigo el periódico? 61
might

l 'm not sure,


I mignt 90 to
New Yorl:::.

He might go to New York. It might rain.


Quizá vaya ... / Es posible que vaya ... Quizá llueva. / Es posible que llueva.

might va seguido de un infinitivo (might go / might be/ might rain etc.):

be
1/we/you/they go
might (not)
he/she/it play
come etc.

Se usa might para expresar algo que es posible y que quizá suceda:
• l might go to the cinema this evening. Quizá vaya ...
• A: When is Barbara going to phone you?
B: I don't know. She might phone this afternoon. Es posible que llame ...
• Take an umbrella with you. It might rain. Quizá llueva.
• Buy a lottery ticket. You might be lucky. Podrías tener suerte.
• 'Are you going out tonight?' 'I might.' Quizá sí. /Es posible.
Observa la diferencia:
seguridad posibilidad
• I'm playing tennis tornorrow. • 1 might play tennis tomorrow.
• Barbara is going to phone later. • Barbara might phone later.

e La negación es might not:


• I might not go to work tornorrow. Quizá/Es posible que no vaya .
• Sue might not come to the party. Quizá/Es posible que no venga .

D may
Se puede usar may con el mismo valor. 1 may ... = 1 might :
• 1 may go to the cinema this evening. Quizá vaya /Es posible que vaya ...
• Sue may nor come to the parry. Quizá no venga Sue ... /Es posible que Sueno venga ...
Para pedir permiso se usa May I ... ? (=¿Puedo ... ?):
• May I ask a qucstion? ¿Puedo hacer una pregunta?
• 'May I sit hcrc?' 'Yes, of course.'
También se puede usar Can 1 ... ? :
• Can I sit here?
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
31
31.1 Escribe frases usando might.
1 (it's possible that 1'11 go to the cinema) . ..1 IYl~n.~.. 9.0 l:o, .. !!l.~.. ~~-~: .
2 (it's possible that I'II see you tornorrow) 1 .
3 (it's possible rhat Ann will forger to phone)
4 (it's possible that it will snow today)
5 (it's possible thar 1'11 be late tonight)
Escribe frases usando might not.
6 (it's possible that Mary will not be here)
7 (it's possible that I won't have time to meet you)

31.2 Alguien te pregunta qué planes tienes. Aún no lo sabes con seguridad. Responde usando alguna de las posibilidades de la
lista con l might.
fish go away Monday new car taxi

l Where are you going for your holidays? l'm not sure .. ...l. .. 1Yl~h.t9P .. l:o, 1.~, ..
2 What are you doing at the weekend? l don't know. I .
3 When will you see Ann again? I'm not sure ...
4 What are you going to have for dinner? I don't know.
5 How are you going t0 get home tonighr? l'm not sure ..
6 I hear you won sorne money. What are I haven't decided yet .
you going to do with it?

31.3 Le preguntas a Bi/1 sobre sus planes. En algunos casos está seguro, pero la mayoría de las veces no.

1 Are you playing tennis tomorrow? Yes, in the afternoon.


2 Are you going out in the evening? Possibly.
3 Are you going to ger up early? Perhaps.
4 Are you working tomorrow? No, I'm not,
5 Will you be ar home rornorrow morning? Maybe.
6 Are you going to watch television? I might.
7 Are you going out in rhe afternoon? Yes, [ am.
8 Are you going shopping? Perhaps.

Ahora escribe frases completas sobre /os planes de Bill. Usa might cuando sea necesario.
1 .. !:f~'.s. .. ~u.-)9...~~---~t:".~.º-~.. !1.-~~-~ ......
2 .. !:f~ .. 1Yl~l:1t.9~---~t-~~---~Y.~9: .
3 He .
4
5
6
7 .
8

31.4 Escribe tres cosas que quizá hagas mañana usando might.
1 .
2
3

31.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Quizá vayamos al cine el viernes.
2 ¿Puedo usar cu teléfono?
3 La puerta está cerrada. Es posible que la tienda no esté abierta.
4 Quizá telefonee Juan esta tarde.
5 Quizá Elena nos visite este fin de semana. Es posible que venga con su novio.
6 Quizá no llueva mañana, pero es posible que esté nublado.

63
can ycould

He can play thc piano. ¿Podría abrir la puerta. por favor?


Sabe tocar el piano.
can va seguido de un infinitivo (can do/can play/can come etc.):

1/we/you/they
he/she/it
I can
cannot (can't)
do
play
scc
can
1/we/you/they
hc/shc/ic
do?
play?
scc?
come etc. come? etc.

Observa que la forma negativa completa se escribe como una so/a palabra: cannot (no 'can nor').

T can do sorncrhing significa 'sé hacer algo' o 'puedo hacer algo':


I can do something = Sé hacer algo
• J can play che piano. My brothcr can play che piano roo.
• Sarah can speak lralian but shc can't spcak Spanish.
• Can you swim? ¿Sabes nadar?
I can do sornerhing = Puedo/Soy capaz de hacer algo
• 'Can you changc twcnry pounds?' 'l'm sorry, 1 can't.'
• Paul and Jenny can't come to rhc parry.
• This box isn't very hcavy. 1 can lift ir.
En inglés se suele usar can con los verbos de percepción (1 can scc / wc can hcar etc.). En español se dice simplemente
'veo/oímos' etc.:
• Can you hear me? ¿Me oyes?
• 1 can scc a light. Veo una luz.

Para el pasado (yesterday / last week etc.) se usa could/couldn't:


• When I was young, 1 could swim very well. ... sabía nadar ...
• Beforc shc carne to Britain, shc couldn't understand much English. Now shc can undersrand everything .
.. . no podía entender ... Ahora lo entiende todo.
• I was rired last night but I couldn't sleep. . .. no pude dormir.
• I hada party last week but Paul and Jenny couldn't come. . .. no pudieron venir.

Can you ... ? Could you ... ? Can I ... ? Could 1 ... ?

Se usa Can you ... ? o Could you ... ? para pedir a las personas que hagan algo:
• Can you open the door, please? o Could you open rhe door, please? =¿Puedes/Podrías ... ?
• Can you wait a momenc, please? o Could you wait ... ?
Se usa Can I have ... ? o Could l have ... ? para pedir cosas t- Quisiera ;Desearía .. ./¿Me da ... ?):
• (en una tienda) Can l have these postcards, please? o Could I havc ?
Can 1 ... ? o Could 1 ... ? = ¿Puedo ... ?:
• Tom, can I borrow your umbrella? o Torn, could I borrow your umbrella?
• (al teléfono) Helio. Can I speak to Gerry, picase? o Could I speak ... ?

May 1 ... ?:::) jijfjj,Jl,fj#


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 32

º
32.1 Pregúntale a Steve si sabe hacer estas cosas.

1 ....~ .. .H~ .. ~.~.~.L


2
3
4
5
6

¿Y tú? Escribe frases sobre lo que sabes o no sabes hacer. Usa I can o I can't.
7 1 . 9 .. 11 ..
8 .. 10 .. 12

32.2 Completa estas frases usando can o can't + uno de estos verbos:
find hear see speak

1 I'm sorry but we .. ~.'.t...~rr.~ to your party nexr Saturday.


2 I like chis hotel room. You the mountains from the window.
3 You are speaking very quietly. l you.
4 Have you seen my bag? I it.
5 Catherine got the job beca use shc five languages.

32.3 Completa estas frases. Usa can't o couldn't + uno de estos verbos:
eat decide find go go -sleep
1 1 was rired bue 1 ..c;:O.<:Al4.n.} ..s.~ ..
2 1 wasn't hungry yesterday. 1 my dinner.
3 Ann doesn't know whar to do. She ..
4 I wanted ro speak to Martin yesterday bue I him.
5 Jim toche concert next Saturday. He has to work.
6 Paula to the meeting last week. She was ill.

32.4 ¿Qué dirías en estas situaciones? Usa can o could y las palabras entre paréntesis.

2 (pass)

~·································

4 (have) ¡_;··· ···············.·...........


........................ ········· ]

32.5
~,
Traduce al inglés:
1 ¿Puedo usar tu teléfono? 6 '¿Me ves?' 'Te oigo, pero no te veo.'
2 Sé hablar francés, pero no sé hablar italiano. 7 Mi hermano no sabe conducir.
3 Brian no sabe nadar, pero sabe esquiar muy bien. 8 Bruce no pudo arrancar el coche ayer.
4 Rosa sabe tocar la guitarra. También sabe tocar (arrancar = start)
el piano. 9 ¿Podrías dejarme 5.000 pesetas? (dejar= lend)
5 Cuando (yo) era más joven sabía patinar muy 10 ¿Me da un bolígrafo, por favor?
bien. (patinar = skate)

65
must mustn't needn't

must = debo, debes, etc.

must va seguido de un infinitivo (must do/ must see etc.):


do
I/we/you/they stop
must
he/she/it go
write etc.

must = 'deber' o 'tener que':


• The windows are very dirty. 1 must clean them. . .. Debo limpiarlas.
• It's a fantastic film. You must see it. . .. Tienes que verla.
• We must go to che bank coda y. We haven't gor any money. Debemos ir ...
En pasado (yesterday I last week etc.) se usa had to ... (had to do/ had to stop etc.), que equivale al español
'tuve/tuviste etc. que .. .':
• We had to go to the bank yesterday. Tuvimos que ir al banco ayer.
• I had to walk home last nighr, There werc no buses. Tuve que ir a píe a casa ...

musrn't (= rnust not) t, J •. ' ~


tf ' YOIA ITIIA.SbÚ toodi
I mustn't (do sornething) significa 'no debo (hacer algo)': li1 e, picl:I.(res .
• I rnust hurry. 1 musrn't be late.
Debo darme prisa. No debo llegar tarde.
• I mustn't forget to phonejulia. (= 1 must remembcr to phone her.)
No debo olvidar telefonear a Julia.
• Be happy! You mustn't besad .
.. . No debes estar triste.
• You mustn't touch the pictures.
No debes tocar los cuadros.

needn't (= need nor)


l ncedn't (do sornething) significa 'no es necesario (hacer algo)'. Observa cómo el infinitivo que sigue a necdn't equivale
a un presente de subjuntivo en español:
• I needn't clean the windows. They aren't dirty.
No es necesario que limpie ...
• You needn't go to the bank. 1 can give you sorne money.
No es necesario que vayas ...
También se puede decir don't need to ... (= needn't):
• I don't need to clean che windows.
• You doo't need to go to the bank today.
Compara needn't y mustn't:
• You oeedn't go. You can stay here if you want. (= no es necesario)
• You mustn't go. You must stay here. (= no es correcto o lo tienes prohibido)

I have to ... ~ 11: j.rjf~1


1
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
33
33.1 Completa las frases con must + uno de los verbos siguientes:
be go learn meet wash wm
1 We .. ~.~~~--9~... to rhe bank today. We haven't got any money.
2 Marilyn is a very interesting person. You her.
3 My hands are dirty. 1 thcrn.
4 You to drive. lt will be very useful.
5 1 to the pose office. I need sorne stamps.
6 The game rornorrow is very irnportant for us. We .
7 You can't always have rhings irnrnediarely. You patient.

33.2 Completa las frases con I must o I had to.


1 ..!..r..%.~... go to che
bank yesterday to get sorne moncy.
2 lt's late. .. go now.
3 1 don't usually work on Saturdays bue last Saturday work.
4 ger up early tornorrow. l've gota lot to do.
5 I went to London by train last week. The train was full and stand all rhe way.
6 I was ncarly late for my appointmcnt chis morning. . run to gct there on time.
7 T forgot to phone David yesterday. .. phonc him later roday,

33.3 Completa las frases con mustn't o needn't y uno de los verbos siguientes:
forget hurry lose wait write
1 The windows arerr't very dirty. You ~~J . ~ .. them.
2 We have a lot of time. We .
3 Keep these documents in a safe place. You thern.
4 I'rn not ready yet but you forme. You cango now and I'll come la ter.
5 We to turn off the lights before we lea ve.
6 I the letter now. 1 can do it tomorrow.

33.4 Relaciona dos frases, una de cada cuadro, que signifiquen lo mismo.

1 We can lea ve the meeting early. A We muse stay until che end. 1 . .P. ..
2 We muse lea ve the meeting early. B We couldn't stay until che end. 2
3 We mustn'r lea ve rhe meeting early. C We can't stay until che end. 3
4 We needn't lea ve che meeting early. D We needn't stay until the end. 4
5 We had to lea ve the meeting early. E We can stay until the end. 5

33.5 Completa las frases con must / had to/ mustn't / ncedn't.
1 You .. r e.uln't go. y ou can sray h ere Iif you want.
2 It's a fantastic film. You .. ~~~.L see it.
3 We've got enough food, so we go shopping.
4 Wc didn't havc any food yesrerday, so we go shopping.
5 1 want to know what happened. You tell me.
6 You tell Sue what happened. T don't want her to know.
7 1 hurry or 1'11 be late.
8 'Why were you so late?' 'I wait half an hour for a bus.'
9 We decide now. Wc can decide la ter.

33.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 No debes hablar en la biblioteca. (biblioteca = library)
2 No debo olvidar escribir una postal a Paula. (postal= postcard)
3 No había trenes a Edimburgo y tuve que viajar en autobús. (Edimburgo = Edinburgh)
4 Tengo que irme ahora. Mi marido me está esperando. (irse= go)
5 No es necesario que vayas a correos. Hay un buzón en la esquina. (buzón = post box)
6 Debes visitar el zoo. Es muy interesante.
7 Manolo llegó tarde y tuvimos que esperarlo.
8 No es necesario que vengas mañana, pero el lunes debes estar aquí a las 8.

67
should

should = deberla/deberías etc.

should va seguido de un infinitivo


(should do/ should watch etc.):

do
Vwe/you/theyJ stop
should
he/she/it go
watch etc.

should se usa para dar consejos u opiniones sobre lo que debe hacerse:
• Torn should go to bed earlier. He goes to bed very late and he's always ti red .
. . . debería acostarse más pronto ...
• It's a good film. You should go and see it.
• When you play tennis, you should always watch the ball.

(You) shouldn't (do something) = 'no deberías (hacer algo)', no es bueno. Shouldn't = should not:
• Tom shouldn't go to bed so late. Tom no debería acostarse tan tarde.
• You watch TV ali the time. You shouldn't watch TV so much. No deberías ver tanto la televisión.

Con frecuencia se usa think junto con should:

I think ... should ... (Creo que ... debería/deberías, etc.):


• I think Carol should huy sorne new clothes.
• Ir's late. 1 think we should go home now.
• A: Shall I buy this coar?
B: Yes, 1 rhink you should.
I don't think ... should ... (Creo que no ... ):
• 1 don't think you should work so hard.
Creo que no deberías trabajar tanto.
• 1 don't think we should go yet. It's too early.
Creo que no deberíamos irnos aún ...
Creo que no ... suele corresponder a I don't think ... en inglés.
Do you think ... should ... ? (¿Crees que debería/deberías, ... , etc.?):
• Do you think 1 should huy this hat?
• What time do you think we should go home?

must = 'debo/debes' etc. o 'tengo que/tienes que' etc., tiene más fuerza que should:
• lt's a good film. You sbould go and see it.
• lt's a fantastic film. You must go and see it.

ought to ... es otro modo de decir 'debería/deberías', etc.:


• lt's a good film. You ought to go and see it. (= you should go)
• 1 rhink Carol ought to huy sorne new clothcs. (= Caro! should buy)

sha11 ~ 11):IM·MfffO<JiJ must ~ llfüHJi·ikl


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
34
34.1 Completa las frases con you should + uno de los verbos siguientes:
clean go takc visit ~h wear
l When you play tennis, .~CJ«. .. S.hCJ«..14 ~.~ the ball.
2 lt's late and you're very tired to bed.
3 your tecth twice a day.
4 lf you have time, rhc Science Museum. lt's very inreresting.
5 When you'rc driving, a seat belr.
6 lt's too far to walk from here to the srarion a taxi.

34.2 Escribe frases sobre /as personas de los dibujos usando He/She shouldn't ... so ... (so = tan; so much = tanto).

J .. She... shool.dn't. .. wCl.tdl..TV .. so .. mt.1cn .. 3 : hard.


2 1 le . 4 .

34.3 Le estás pidiendo consejo a un amigo o amiga. Hazle preguntas usando Do you think l should ... ?
You are in a shop. You are trying on a jacket. (buy?)
You ask your friend: .P.o. .. !i~ ...~~ ... l...~.hCJ«..~...b.1:-t!i..~~-j~.~r
2 You can't drive. (learn?)
You ask your friend: Do you think .
3 You don'r likc your job. (gcr anothcr job?)
You ask your friend: .
4 You are going ro havo a party. (invite Gary?)
You ask your friend: .

34.4 Escribe frases usando I think should ... o I don't think should ....
I lt's late. (go home now) ! ~.~ ... ~~ ..S.~.CJ«..14.. 9.1?...'1.0.".l'.~ ~~-'
2 That coar is too big for you. (buy ir) ! 4.o.~J ~~ .. !il?.l:4 ~~.1?.1:4.14.. ~.!L~,.
3 You don't need your car. (sel! ir) .
4 Diane nceds a resr. (have a holiday) ..
5 Sally and Colín are too young. (get married) ..
6 You'rc nor well this morning. {go to work) ..
7 James isn't well toda y. (go to the doctor) ..
8 The hotel is too expensivc for us. (sray there) ..

34.5 ¿Qué piensas? Escribe frases con should.


1 T rhink ....~X~~ .. s.h~~ ~ ~~~ ~9~M~:...
2 1 think everybody ..
3 1 rhink .
4 J don't rhink ..
5 1 think I should .

34.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Deberíamos comer más fruta y verduras. 6 ¿Crees que deberíamos comprar un vídeo nuevo?
2 No deberías trabajar tanto. 7 No deberías conducir tan rápido.
3 Es tarde. Creo que debería irme a casa. 8 Liz dice que esa película es muy buena.
4 Debo visitar a Juan. Está enfermo. Deberíamos verla.
5 Creo que los bares no deberían estar abiertos
tan tarde. (los bares = bars)
69
I have to ...

J have to do something = tengo que hacer algo


Thi-5 is lllH
meal.wie.. 1 110..ve. to
t:oJ:e. i.t foor times
o..~.

Uwe/you/they have to do
to work
to go
he/she/it has to wear etc.

• I'll be late for work tomorrow. J have to go to the dentist. Tengo que ir ...
• Jill srarts work at 7.00, so she has to get up at 6.00. . .. tiene que levantarse ...
• You have to pass a test before you can ger a driving licence. Tienes que aprobar ...

El pasado (yesterday/last week etc.) es had to ... :


• I was late for work yesterday. l had to go to the dentist. Tuve que ir ...
• We had to walk home last night. There were no buses. Tuvimos que ir a pie ...

En la interrogación y en la negación se usa do/does (PRESENT) y did (PAST):


PRESENT
do Uwe/you/they J/we/you/they don't
have to ... ? have to ...
does he/she/it he/she/it doesn't

PAST

Uwe/you/they 1/we/you/they
did have to ... ? didn't have to ...
he/she/it he/she/it

• What time do you have to go to the dentist tomorrow? ¿ tienes que ir ... ?
• Does Jill have to work on Sundays? ¿Tiene que trabajar Jil/ ?
• Why did they have to leave the party early? ¿Por qué tuvieron que irse pronto de la tiesta?
I don't have to (do something) = 'no tengo que (hacer algo}':
• l'm not working tomorrow, sol don't have to get up early. ... no tengo que levantarme pronto.
• Jan doesn't have to work very hard. He's got an easy job. ... no tiene que trabajar mucho ...
• We didn't have to wait very long for the bus. No tuvimos que esperar mucho el autobús.

must y have to
Se usa must (= deber) o have to (= tener que) para decir fo que se considera necesario o para expresar una opinión:
• lt's a fantastic film. You must see it. o You have to see it.
Para expresar obligación, con independencia de tu opinión, usa have to (= tener que):
• Jill won't be at work this afternoon. She has to go to the doctor.
• In many countries, men have to do military service.

must / mustn't I needn't ~ 1ij;jj,frfO


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 35
35.1 Completa las frases usando have to o has to+ uno de los verbos siguientes:
do read speak travel
1 My eyes are not very good. I .. h?.-:Y.~..~--~·~·-· glasscs.
2 Ar che end of the course ali che studenrs a test.
3 Mary is studying literature. She a lot of books.
4 Albert doesn't understand much English. You vcry slowly to him.
5 Kate is not often at home. She a lot in her job.

35.2 Completa las frases con have to o had to + uno de los verbos siguientes:
answcr buy changc go
1 We ....~"4.J~ ~.~--- home lasr night. Therc werc no buses.
2 lt's late. I now. l'll see you tornorrow,
3 I went to the superrnarket after work yesrerday. 1 sorne food.
4 This train doesn't go ali the way to London. You at Bristol.
5 We did an exam yesterday. We six questions out of ten.

35.3 Escribe preguntas apropiadas. En algunos casos deben ser en presente y en otros en pasado.

1 I have to get up early romorrow. What time .. 4'>..!i~--~-~te:J:() .. 9~-~.P.L


2 George had to wait a long time. How long ?
3 Liz has to go somewhere. Where ?
4 We had to paya lot of money. How much ?
5 l have to do sorne work. What exactly ?

35.4 Escribe frases con don't/docsn't/didn't have to ....


1 Why are you going out? You 4'>r\h?.-:Y.~..~-.9.9. ..~t ..
2 Why is Ann waiting? She .
3 Why did you ger up early? You .
4 Why is Paul working so hard? He ..
5 Why do you want to leave now? We .

35.5 ¿Cuál es la frase correcta? En algún caso tanto must como have to son correctos.
1 It's a great film. You must see I have to see it. las dos formas son correctas
2 In many countries, men muse do I have to do military service. have to do es la forma correcta
3 You can't park your car here for nothing. You must pay / have to pay.
4 I didn't have any money with me last night, so I must borrow / had to borrow sorne.
5 I eat too much chocolate. l really must stop I have to stop.
6 'Why is Paula going now?' 'She must meet I has to meet sornebody.'
7 What's wrong? You must tell/ have to tell me. I want to help you.

35.6 Escribe cosas que tú, tus amigos o alguien de tu familia tenéis que hacer o tuvisteis que hacer.
1 (every day) . ..!..!'.1.?.-:Y.~..~.P:?.-:'.<'.~ ..~--~~~ .. ~Y.~ ..4~~L..
2 (every day) .
3 (tomorrow) .
4 (yesterday) .

35.7 Traduce al inglés:


1 Antonio tiene que levantarse a las 6 mañana.
2 Tengo que ir al médico esta tarde.
3 Ayer tuvimos que trabajar hasta las 8.
4 ¿Tienes que trabajar el sábado que viene?
5 Patricia no tuvo que esperar mucho al autobús.
6 Vicente no tiene que ir al dentista esta semana.
7 Después de la fiesta tuvimos que ordenar la casa. (ordenar la casa= clear up)
8 Venecia es maravillosa. Tenéis que ir allí. (Venecia = Venice)
9 ¿Tenemos que leer estos dos libros?

71
Would you like . . . ?. l'd like ...

Would you like ... ? = ¿Quieres ... ? (literalmente: ¿Te gustaría ... ?)
Se usa would you like ... ? para ofrecer algo:
• A: Would you like sorne coffee? ¿Quieres café?
B: No, thank you.
• A: Would you like a chocolate?
B: Yes, please.
• A: What would you like, tea or coffee?
B: Tea, please.
Se usa would you like to ... ? para invitar a alguien:
• WouJd you like to go for a walk?
¿Quieres ir a dar un paseo?
• A: Would you like to have dinner with us on Sunday? ¿Quieres cenar con nosotros el domingo?
B: Yes, l'd love to. Sí, me gustaría mucho.
• What would you like to do this evening?

I'd like ... = 'quisiera', es una manera educada de pedir algo, de decir 'I wanc'. I'd like = I would like:
• l'm thirsty. l'd like a drink.
• (en una oficina de turismo) l'd like sorne inforrnation about hotels, please.
• I'd likc to see the film on televisión chis evening.

Would you like ... ? y Do you like ... ?


Observa la diferencia:

Would you like ... ? I I'd like ...


¿Quieres ... ? /Quisiera ...
...--W-O<A-l<:L-- ~e.s,
!:IO<A Like. sorne, p(.e4se..
teo..?

Would you like sorne tea? ¿Quieres (un poco de) té? Do you like tea? ¿Te gusta el té?
• A: Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? • A: Do you like going to che cinema?
¿Quieres/Te gustaría ir ... ? ¿Te gusta ir al cine?
B: Yes, l' d love to. B: Yes, I go to the cinema a lot.
Si, me gustaría mucho. Sí, voy mucho al cine.
• l'd like an orange, please. • I like oranges.
Quisiera una naranja, por favor. Me gustan las naranjas.
• What would you like to do next weekend? • What do you like to do at weekends?
¿Qué quieres/te gustaría hacer ... ? ¿Qué te gusta hacer ... ?

like to do ylike -ing => ilj jj,,j,ffJ l would do something if ... => ji¡¡jj,¡.¡.JifJ
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 36
36.1 Observalos dibujos. ¿Qué dicen estas personas? Usa Would you like ... ?

36.2 ¿Qué le dirías a Sue en estas situaciones?Usa Would you like to ... ?
1 You want to go to the cinema tonight. Perhaps Sue will go with you. (go)
You say: ...W.CX;A.14.!:l()IA.. @:e.J:1:>.. gc:>..!:Q..f:l:1~.~~.~.!:Q~l1.I/
2 You want to play tennis tomorrow. Perhaps Sue will play too. (play)
You say: .
3 You've got sorne holiday photographs. Sue hasn't seen them yet. (see)
You say: ..
4 You have an extra ticket for a concert next week. Perhaps Sue will go. {go)
You say: . ..
5 lt's raining and Sue is going out. She hasn't got an umbrella but you have one. (borrow)
You say: ..

36.3 Escogela forma correcta.


1 'De ve1,1 like J Would you like a chocolate?' 'Yes, please.' Would you like es la forma correcta
2 'Do you like / Would you like bananas?' 'Yes, 1 love them.'
3 'Do you like / Would you like an ice-cream?' 'No, thank you.'
4 'What do you like / would you like to drink?' 'A glass of water, please.'
5 'Do you like ! Would you like to go out for a walk?' 'Not now. Perhaps later.'
6 1 like I I'd like tornatoes but I don't eat them very often.
7 What time do you like / would you like to have dinner this evening?
8 'Do you like / Would you like something to eat?' 'No, thanks. l'm not hungry.'
9 'Do you like / Would you like your new job?' 'Yes, l'm enjoying ir.'
10 l'm ti red. r like / l'd like to go to sleep now.

36.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Quieres un vaso de leche?
2 Quisiera un té, por favor.
3 ¿Quieres venir a la playa?
4 Me gusta mucho la leche.
5 ¿Quieres salir conmigo el viernes?
6 A Robert no le gusta ir a la playa.
7 '¿Quieres más queso?' 'No, gracias. He comido demasiado.'
8 '¿Quieres ir a Italia?' 'Sí, me gustaría mucho ir.'
9 Quisiera pasar una semana en Escocia. (pasar = spend)
10 '¿Quieres pollo o pescado?' 'Pescado, por favor.' 73
there is there are

SUNDAY
MONDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY
THURSDAY ·~
FRIDAY
SATURDAY _,,
There's a man on che roof. Thcrc's a train ar 10.30. There are seven days in a week.
Hay un hombre en el tejado. Hay un tren a las 10.30. Hay siete días en una semana.

singular
there is ... (thcrc's) • There's a big tree in the garden. Hay un árbol grande ...
hay ... • There's a good film on TV ronight.
is rhere ... ? Hay una buena película ...
¿hay ... ? • A: Have you gor any money?
there is not ... (rhere isn't o B: Yes, rhere's sorne in my bag.
no hay .. . there's nor) • A: Excuse me, is thcre a hotel near here? ... , ¿hay un hotel ... ?
B: Yes, there is./No, there isn't. Sí,/No.
• We can't go skiing. There isn't any snow. . .. No hay nieve.

• There are sorne big trees in che gardcn.


plural
Hay algunos árboles grandes ...
therc are ... • Therc are a loe of accidents on chis road.
hay ... Hay muchos accidentes ...
are there ... ? • A: Are thcre any lerrers forme toda y? ¿Hay cartas ... ?
¿hay ... ? B: Yes, there are./No, there aren't.
there are not ... (there aren't) • This restaurant is very quier. There arcn't many people hcre.
no hay ... .. . no hay mucha gente ...
• How many players are there in a football team?
¿Cuántos jugadores hay ... ?
• There are 11 players in a foorball team. Hay 11 jugadores ...

B No confundas there is con it is:

thcre is = hay ir is= es/está/hace

1 1
There's a book on che table. I like !chis book!. It's interesting.
Hay un libro sobre la mesa. Me gusta este libro. Es interesante.

Compara:
• 'What's rhat noise?' 'It's a train.' (it = rhat noisc) '¿Qué es ese ruido?' 'Es un tren.'
There's a train at 10.30. lt's a fast train, (it = che 10.30 train) Hay un tren a las 10.30. Es un tren rápido.
• There's a loe of sale in chis soup. Hay mucha sal en esta sopa.
I don't like chis soup. Ir's roo salry. (it = chis soup) No me gusta esta sopa. Está demasiado salada.
• lt's cold and there's a lot of snow, Hace frío y hay mucha nieve.

there was I were I has been etc. ~ ., ¡ ¡¡ U• it y there ~ 11 j.¡¡.fn sorne y any ~ I' j,jj,flif
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
37
37.1 Kenham es una ciudad pequeña. Con la información del cuadro escribe frases sobre Kenham. Usa There is/are o
There isn't/aren't.

1 a castle? No 1 Tu.~~.. ~r.'.L~..~~, ...


2 any restaurants? Yes (a lot) 2 To~~ .. ?.-!.~.. ~ ..~.t.o.f.. t~~r.~~.,...
3 a hospital? Yes 3
4 a swimming pool? No 4
5 any cinemas? Yes (two) 5
6 a universiry? No 6
7 any big hotels? No 7 .

37.2 Escribe frases sobre tu ciudad (o una ciudad que conozcas) usando Thcrc is/ are/ isn't / aren't.
1 .. The.re,. o.re,. ca.. fe.w .re-sbw.ro..r1t6 r.. 4 .
2 Tu.~~.'.~.. !!-:.. ~~ ..~.:... 5
3 .. 6

37.3 Completa las frases con there is I there isn't I is there I thcre are I there aren't / are there.
1 Kenham isn't an old town To.~~-.~~'.L any old buildings.
2 Look! a photograph of your brother in the newspaper!
3 'Excuse me, a bank near here?' 'Yes, at the end of the street.'
4 five people in my family: rny parents, my two sisters and me.
5 'How many studenrs in the class?' 'Twenty.'
6 'Can we take a photograph?' 'No, a film in the camera.'
7 ' a bus from che city centre to the airport?' 'Yes. Every 20 minutes.'
8 ' any problems?' 'No, everything is OK.'
9 nowhere to sit clown. .. any chairs.

37.4 Escribe frases con There are .... Escoge una palabra o expresión de cada cuadro.

se.ve& twenry-six letters ~ September the solar system


nin e thirty players days che USA aweek
fifteen fifry planees states a rugby team the English alphabet

1 ... To.~~.. ~~ .. ~-~'.'~.-~~ ...~ .. !!-:.. ~~: ....


2
3
4
5
6

37.5 Completa las frases con there's I is there I it's I is it.


1 ' .. To.~.\Ú.. a train at 10.30.' ' . ..!.~ ..~ a fase train?'
2 l'm not going to buy rhis shirt very expensive.
3 'What's wrong?' ' something in my eyc.'
4 a red car outside the house yours?
5 ' anything on televisión tonight?' 'Yes, a film at 8.15.'
6 'What's that building?' ' a school.'
7 ' a restaurant in rhis hotel?' 'No, I'm afraid not.'

37.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Hay una toalla en el cuarto de baño? (toalla = towcl)
2 No hay mucha gente en este museo.
3 ¿Hay muchos trabajadores en esa fábrica? (fábrica= factory)
4 ¿Cuántas escuelas hay en esta ciudad?
5 '¿Hay queso?' 'Sí, en la nevera.'
6 Hay seis estudiantes, pero sólo hay un diccionario.
7 ¿Hay una cafetería en esta calle? (cafetería= coffee shop)
8 '¿Hay sopa?' 'Sí, hay un poco en la cocina, pero está fría.'

75
there was/were there hasjhave been
there will be

there was / thcrc werc = había/hubo

There is a train every hour. Hay un tren cada hora.


The time now is 11.15. Ahora son /as 11 y cuarto.
There was a train a t 11. Hubo un tren a las 11.

Compara:

there is/are (presente) thcre was/were (pasado)


• Thcre is a good film on TV tonight. • There was a good film on TY last night.
Hay una buena película ... Hubo una buena película ...
• We are staying ata vcry big hotel. There • We stayed ata very big hotel. There were
are 250 rooms. 250 rooms.
... Hay ... . .. Había ...
• Are there any letters for me this morning? • Were there any letters forme yesterday?
¿Hay ... ? ¿Hubo ... ?
• I'm hungry but there isn't anything ro eat, • When I got home, I was hungry but therc
. . . no hay nada ... wasn't anything to eat. . .. no había ...

8 therc has becn / thcrc havc bccn = ha habido


• Look! There's bccn an accidenc. .. . Ha habido ...
(there's becn = there has been)
• This road is very dangerous, There have been many
accidents. . .. Ha habido ...
Compara con el pasado there was:
• There was an accident last night.
(no' ... has been an accident last night. ')
En la Unidad 21 está el contraste entre PAST SIMPLE y PRESENT
PERFECT.

thcrc will be = habrá


• Do you think thcrc will be a lot of people at the party
on Saturday?
¿Crees que habrá mucha gente ... ?
• The manager of the company is leaving, so there will be
a new manager soon .
. . . pronto habrá un nuevo director.
• I'm going away romorrow. 1'11 do my packing today
beca use there won't be time tomorrow (there won't be
= there will not be)
... porque mañana no habrá tiempo.

,vasl,vere => ll@4'j1jil has/have been eeIIWMMiil=#IFI will => l!l,il•f hffl there is/are es ¡1;¡jj•ii•fQ
it y there => jlj,Utf.MfffEj sorne y any => llj:jji,;.¡¡;j
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
38
38.1 Observa los dos dibujos. Ahora la habitación está vacla, pero ¿qué había la semana pasada? Escribe frases usando There
was ... o There were ... + las palabras de la lista.
an arrnchair a carpct sorne flowcrs a sofa
sorne books a eleek three picrurcs a small table

1 Tu.~!;-..~~--~-~-- on rhe wall near rhe winclow.


2 on rhc floor.
3 on thc wall ncar rhc <loor.
4 in the rniddle of rhe room.
5 on rhe rabie.
6 on the shclvcs.
7 in rhe corner near the door.
8 opposite rhe door.

38.2 Completa las frases con there was I there wasn't I was there / there were / there wcrcn't / were there.
1 1 was hungry but ...~.~!;,..~~r.) .. anything to cat.
2 ..w~!;-.. #!.~.~--- any lcrrers forme ycsrerday?
3 .. a foothall match on TV last nighr. Did you sce ir?
4 'Wc sraycd ata very nice hotel.' 'Did you? a wimrning pool?'
5 'Did you buy any cggs?' ' o, any in thc shop.'
6 The wallet was empty. . any money 111 rt.
7 ' many people ar rhc meeting?' 'No, very few.'
8 Wc didn'r visir the rnuseum enough time.
9 I'm sorry l'm late a lot of traffic.
I O Twcnty years ago many tourisrs hcre. Now there are a lot.

38.3 Completa las frases con there + is I are/ was / were / has been / have been / will be.
1 ..ToY.~..~.~-- a good film on TV yesrcrday evening.
2 24 hours in a day.
3 a parry ar thc club lasr Friday bur I didn'r go.
4 'Where can I buy a newspaper?' ' a shop ar the end of the srrccr.'
5 'Why are rhosc policemen ourside rhe bank ?' '......................... . a robbery.'
6 When wc arrived at rhc cinema, a long qucuc to see the film.
7 When you arrive rornorrow, somebody ar rhe station to mccr you,
8 Ten years ago 500 childrcn ar rhc school. Now more
than a thousand.
9 Lasr week 1 went back to rhe town where l was born. lt's very differenr now. . .
.......................................................... a lot of changos.
1 O l think everything will be OK. l don't think any problerns.

38.4 Traduce al inglés:


I Había muchos niños en el parque.
2 Hubo una tormenta anoche. (tormenta = storrn)
3 Este verano habrá conciertos en el parque.
4 Hay tres huevos en 13 nevera. Ayer había doce.
5 Ha habido un accidente en el centro de la ciudad.
6 '¿Vamos al supermercado hoy?' 'No, habrá demasiada gente.' (demasiada= too many)
7 No habrá mucha gente en el cine. Hay un partido de fútbol en la televisión. (partido de fútbol = foorball
match)

77
lt ...

Se usa it para hablar de la hora, días y fechas, distancias y condiciones atmosféricas:

• What time is it? ¿Qué hora es?


/ahora~
• It's half past ten. Son las diez y media.

.1:
·11 . ·.
• It's lace. Es tarde.
• It's time to go home. Es hora de ir a casa.

• What day is it? ¿Qué día es?


• lt's Thursday. Es jueves.
• lt's 16 March. Es el 16 de marzo.
• lt was my birchday yesterday. Ayer fue mi cumpleaños.

distancias • It's 5 kilornetres from our housc to the city centre.


Hay 5 kilómetros desde nuestra casa al centro de la ciudad.
,..---.... • How far is it from London to Bristol? ¿A qué distancia está
¡¡--s f,;;;,... ~ w,tre. Londres de Bristol?
'~ • It's a long way from here to the station, La estación está lejos
de aquí.
• We can walk home. It isn't far. Podemos ir a pie a casa. No está
lejos.
far(= lejano/lejos) se usa generalmente en preguntas (is it far?) y en
negaciones se usa {it isn't far).
Se usa a long way (= lejano/lejos) en afirmaciones (it's a long way).

condiciones atmosféricas • It's raining. Llueve. lt isn't raining. No llueve.


Is it snowing? ¿Nieva?
• le rains a loe here. Llueve mucho .
lt didn't rain yesterday. No llovió .
Ooes it snow very often? ¿Nieva a menudo?
• It's dark. Está oscuro. It's cloudy. Está nublado.
• Ir's col d. Hace frío. Ir's foggy. Hace niebla/Hay niebla.
• It's warrn/hor, Hace calor. lt's fine. Hace buen tiempo.
• lt's windy. Hace viento. It's sunny. Hace sol.
• It's a mee day toda y. Hoy hace un buen día.

Compara el uso de it y de there:


• It rains a lot in wincer. Llueve mucho en invierno.
There is a lot of rain in wincer. Hay mucha lluvia en invierno.
• lt was very windy. Hizo mucho viento.
There was a srrong wind yesterday. Hubo un fuerte viento ayer.

8 it's nice to ... etc. Así se inician frases con un adjetivo seguido de infinitivo con 'to':

easy / difficult / impossible / dangerous / safe


It's to ...
expensive / interesting / nice / wonderful / terrible etc.

• Jt's nice to see you again. Es agradable verte otra vez.


• Ir's impossible to understand her. Es imposible entenderla.
• lt wasn 't easy to find your house. No fue fácil encontrar tu casa.

C No olvides el sujeto it que no tiene equivalente en español:


• lt's late. (no 'Is late.') Es tarde.
• It's raining again. (no 'Is raining .. .') Llueve otra vez.
• Is ir true that you are going away? (no 'Is true that ... ?') ¿Es verdad que te vas?

there is~ lf,l,H}ffl


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 39
39.1 ¿Qué tiempo hace en cada dibujo? Usa lt's ....

1 ...l.f~.t~.9: . 4 .
2 . 5
3 . 6

39.2 Completa /as frases con it is (it's) o is it.


1 What time ..~ .. il?. .. ?
2 We must go now. . very late.
3 true that Bill can fly a hclicopter?
4 'What day today? Tuesday?' 'No, Wednesday.'
5 ten kilometres from the airport tO che city centre.
6 possible to phonc you at your office?
7 'Do you want to walk to the restaurant?' 'I don't know. How far ?'
8 Linda's birthday today. She's 27.
9 1 don't believe it! impossible.

39.3 Escribe preguntas con How far ... ?


1 (here / the station) ... H~~..fo..:r..i:6. ..i:i;..fr.~rr. .. ~.~~--f!.?.. #1.~..~~-ti.o.~.?. ..
2 (che hotel I the beach) How .
3 (New York/ Washington)
4 (your house / the airport)

39.4 Completa /as frases con it o there.


1 . ..l.L rains a lot in winter. 6 l was afraid beca use was very dark.
2 .. To.~~-- was a strong wind yesterday. 7 was a storrn last night. Did you
3 was a nice day yesterday. hear it?
4 We can't go skiing isn't any snow. 8 .'s a long way from here to rhe
5 .'s hot in this room. Open a window. nearesr shop.

39.5 Completa las frases. Escoge una palabra o expresión de cada cuadro.

easy dangerous work in this office get up early


it's difl'ieulc nice to visit different places go out alone
impossible interesting see you again make friends

1 If you go to bed late, .. w~. ~-~.Y?..!;g..9.~-~P. ..~ in thc morning.


2 Helio, Jill. How are you?
3 There is too much noise.
4 Everybody is very nice at work. . .
5 l like travelling .
6 A lot of cities are not safe at night.

39.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Son las 8. Es hora de ir a trabajar.
2 '¿Qué día es mañana?' 'Es jueves.'
3 En diciembre nevó e hizo frío, pero en enero hizo calor.
4 Fue difícil encontrar el hotel. Estaba muy lejos del centro.
5 No es muy caro viajar a Londres desde Barcelona. Es más caro viajar a Berlín.
6 Hace sol y calor. Es agradable estar aquí.
7 '¿A qué distancia está la playa desde el hotel?' 'No está muy lejos.'
8 ¿Es verdad que no puedes venir a la fiesta?
79
I am I don't etc.

She isn't tired but he is. He likes tea but she doesn't.
(he is = he is tired) (she docsn't = she doesn't like tea)
En estos ejemplos no es necesario repetir algunas palabras ('he is tired', 'she doesn't like tea'}.
Del mismo modo se pueden usar los verbos siguientes:

am/is/arc • T haven't got a car bue my sisrer has. (= my sister has gota car) ... mi hermana sí.
• A: Please help me.
was/were
B: l'm sorry, 1 can't. (= I can'r help you) lo siento, no puedo.
ha ve/has
• A: Are you tired?
do/does/did
can B: I was, but I'm not now. (= I was ti red bue I'm not tired now) Antes sí, pero ahora no.
• A: Do you think Ann will phone chis evening?
will
might B: She might. (= She might phone} Quizá.
• A: Are you going now?
must
B: Yes, l'm afraid I must. (= I muse go) Me temo que sí.

No se pueden usar las contracciones 'm/'s/'ve en estos casos. Usa las formas completas am/is/have etc.:
• She isn't tired bue he is. (no' ... but he's. ') Ella no está cansada pero él sí.
Pero se pueden usar las contracciones negativas isn't / haven't / won't etc.:
• My sisrer has gota car but I haven't. Mi hermana tiene coche pero yo no.
• 'Are you and Jim working tomorrow?' 'I am but Jim isn't.' ... 'Yo sí pero Jim no.'

Se pueden usar estas formas a am / I'm not etc.} detrás de Yes o de No:
• 'Are you tired?' 'Yes, I am / No, I'm not.'
• 'Will Alan be here tomorrow?' 'Yes, he will. / No, he won't.'
• 'Is there a bus to the airport?' 'Yes, there is./ No, there isn't.'

Se usa do/does para el PRESENT SlMPLE: (::) Unidades 7-8}


• 1 don't like hot weather but Sue does. . .. pero a Sue sí.
• Sue works hard bue I don't. ... pero yo no.
• 'Do you enjoy your work?' 'Yes, 1 do.' ... 'Sí.'

Se usa did para el PAST SIMPLE: (::) Unidad 13)


• A: Did you and Tom enjoy the film?
B: I did but Tom didn't. A mí sí, pero a Tom no.
• 'I enjoyed the film.' 'I <lid too.' ... 'A mí también.'
• 'Did it rain yesterday?' 'No, it didn't.' ... 'No.'

have you? I don't you? etc.=) ii)ij)fr(H so am I I neither do I etc.=) hiifrtfJ


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
40
40.1 Completa estas frases usando cada vez un solo verbo (is/havc/can etc.).
I Kare wasn'r hungry bur we --~~.~--- . 4 1 haven'r seen rhc film but Torn .
2 l'm nor rnarried but my brorher . 5 Diane won't be hcrc but Chris .
3 Bill can't help you bue 1 . 6 You wercn'r late bur 1 .

40.2 Completa estas frases con un verbo en forma negativa (isn't/havcn't/can't etc.).
1 My sister can play the piano bue I ~J .. 4 Richard has gota car but l .
2 Ann is working today bue I . 5 I'rn ready to go but Tom .
3 I was working bur my friends . 6 l've gota key but Sally .

40.3 Completa estas frases con do/does/did o con don't/docsn't/didn't.


1 I don't like hot weather but Sue ...~~S. ...
2 Sue likes hot wearher but l ...~!'!:t ..
3 My morhcr wears glasses bur my farhcr .
4 You don'r know Paul very well bur J .
5 1 didn't cnjoy che parry but my fricnds .
6 I don'r watch TV much bur Pcrcr .
7 Katc lives in London but her parents .
8 You hada shower chis morning bur I .

40.4 Completa estas frases escribiendo sobre ti y sobre otras personas (observa el ejemplo).
1 I didn 'r .. 9º.. ~L~t...n.i-9ht..~<A.t.i:n~. fr.~4s... 4:!4, .
2 I like bue .
3 Idon't but .
4 I'rn . .
5 1 haven't .

40.5 Pon un verbo afirmativo o negativo en ros huecos.


1 'Are you rired?' 'I ...~.~---· carlier but l'm not now.'
2 John is happy today bue he ycstcrday.
3 The post office isn'r open yer bue che shops .
4 I haven't gor a video camera bur I know somebody who .
5 I would like to help you but l'm afraid I .
6 1 don't usually go to work by car but 1 yesterday.
7 A: Have you ever been to rhe United States?
B: No, bue Sandra She went there on holiday last year.
8 'Do you and Ann warch TV a lot?' 'I but Ann doesn't.'
9 I've been invited to the parry but Kate .
1O 'Do you think Diane will pass her cxams?' 'Yes, l'm sure she .
11 'Are you going out this cvening?' 'l...................................... 1 don'r know for surc.'

40.6 Responde a estas preguntas sobre ti. Usa Y es, I have. / No, f'm not, etc.
1 Are you Brirish? --~º~..l'.~ ..r.i.~t..... 6 Do you like classical music? .
2 Have you gota car? .. 7 Will you be in París tomorrow? .
3 Do you feel well? . . 8 Have you ever been in hospital? .
4 Is it snowing? . 9 Did you buy anything yesterday? .
5 Are you hungry? . . 10 Were you asleep at 3 a.m.? .

40.7 Traduce al inglés:

1 Yo sé hablar inglés, pero mis padres no.


2 '¿Tienes hambre?' 'Tenía, pero ahora no.'
3 No tengo mucho dinero, pero tú sí.
4 'No he visto el musco.' 'Es muy interesante. Debes visitarlo.'
5 Estaba lloviendo ayer, pero hoy no.
6 '¿Vais a estudiar inglés?' 'Yo no, pero mi hermana sí.'
7 '¿Habéis estado en Francia?' 'Carmen sí, pero yo no.'
8 '¿Crees que Luis vendrá a la fiesta?' 'Quizá.'
9 '¿Hay restaurantes cerca de aquí?' 'Había antes, pero ahora no.'
10 '¿Irás este verano a Inglaterra?' 'Si puedo, sí.'
81
Have you? Are you? Don't you? etc.

En la conversación se puede decir have you? / is it? / can't he? etc. (=¿Sí?/ ¿De verdad?/ ¿No?) para mostrar interés
o sorpresa:
• 'You're late.' 'Oh, am I? I'm sorry.'
• '1 was ill last week.' 'Were you? I didn't know that.'
¿S1?
• 'It's raining again.' 'Is it? Ir was sunny fivc minutes ago.'
• 'There's a letter for you.' 'Is there? Where is it?' ¿Ah, SI?
• 'Bill can't drive.' 'Can't he? Ididn 't know that.'
• 'l'm not hungry.' 'Aren't you? 1 am.'
• 'Sue isn't at work today.' 'Isn't she? Is she ill?' ¿Ah, no?

Se usa do/docs con el PRESF.NT SlMPLE y did con el PAST SIMPLE: ¿No?
• 'l speak four languages.' 'Do you? Which ones?'
• 'Tom doesn't ear mear.' 'Ooesn't he? Does he ear fish?'
• 'Linda got married last week.' 'Oid she? Really?'

B Las QUESTJON TAGS ( ... have you? / ... is it? / ... can't she? etc.)
Question tags son preguntas breves al final de una frase que
corresponden a expresiones en español como: '¿no?/ ¿verdad?'
Si la frase es afirmativa, la QUESTlON TAC es negativa.
Si la frase es negativa, la QUESTION TAC es afirmativa.

frase afirmativa ~ negativa confirmación

lt's a beautiful day, isn't it? Yes, it's lovely.


Sally lives in London, doesn't she? Y es, that's right .
You closed the window, didn't you? ... , ¿no?
Yes, I think so.
Those shoes are nice, aren't they? Yes, vcry nice.
Tom will be here soon, won't he? Yes, probably.

frase negativa ~ afirmativa

That isn't your car, is it? No, my car is white.


You haven't met my mother, have you? No, 1 haven't .
Sally doesn't smoke, ... , ¿verdad?
docs she? No, she doesn't.
You won't be late, wiU you? No, l'm never late.

I am / 1 don't etc.~ ..j:¡j,,1,(!11


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 41
41.1 Responde usando Do you? / Doesn't she? / Oíd thcy? etc.

1 1 spcak four languages. --~--H~ .. ? Which ones?


2 I work in a bank. .................................. ) I work in a bank too .
3 I didn't go to work ycstcrday. .................................. ) Were you ill?
4 Jill doesn't like me. ·································· )
Why not?
5 You look tired. .................................. ) 1 feel fine .
6 .Julia phoncd me last night. ................................... ) What <lid she say?

41.2 Responde usando Havc you? / Havcn't you? / Oíd shc? / Oidn't she? etc .

"J l've bought a ncw car. ...!:l.~Y:~.~~---· ? What makc is it?


2 Tim doesn't eat mea t. ...Doesn't ne... ) Does he cat fish?
3 l've losr my key. ................................... )
When did you last have it?
4 Sue can't drive. .................................. ) She should lcarn.
5 lwas born in Italy. ··································.
)
l didn't know that.
6 I didn'r sleep well last night. ................................... )
Was the bed uncomfortable?
7 There's a film on TV ronighr. .................................. ) Are you going to watch it?
8 l'm not happy. .................................. ) Why not?
9 I mct Paula lasr week. .................................. ) How is she?
10 Margaret works in a factory. .................................. ) What kind of factory?
11 I won't be here next week. ................................... )
Where wíll you be?
12 The clock isri't working. ...................................
)
lt was working yesterday.

41.3 Completa estas frases con una questjon tag (isn't it? / haven't you? etc.).

1 It's a beautiful day, .. 1:6.n..\.~ ? Yes, it's lovely.


2 These flowers are nice, . Yes, what are they?
3 Judywasattheparty, ? Yes, bue Ididn't speak to her.
4 You've been to París, ? Yes, man y times.
5 You speak German, ? Yes, bur not very well.
6 Martín looks tired, ? Yes, he works very hard.
7 You'll hclp me, ? Yes, of course T will.

41.4 Completa estas frases con una question tag afirmativa (is it? / do you? etc.) o negativa (isn't it? I don't you? etc.).

1 You haven't gota car, .. h~v.~..!:l~ ? No, Ican 't drive.


2 You arcn't rired, ? No, I feel fine.
3 Ca rol is a very nice pcrson, ? Yes, everybody líkcs her.
4 You can play the piano, ? Yes, but l'm not vcry good.
5 You don't know Mikc's sister, ? No, I've never met her.
6 Sally went to university, ? Yes, shc srudicd cconornics.
7 The film wasn't very good, ? No, it was terrible.
8 Ann livcs ncar you, ? That's right. In the same street.
9 You won't tell anybody what I said, ? No, of coursc not.

41.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 'Pareces cansado.' '¿De verdad?'
2 'Julíán tuvo un accidente.' '¿Oc verdad?'
3 'No me gusta conducir.' '¿ De verdad?'
4 'Roberto y Lucía se han comprado un coche' '¿Sí?'

5 Estuvisteis en Austria, ¿no?


6 Laura no sale mucho, ¿no?
7 Sabéis nadar bien, ¿verdad?
8 Vas a la fiesta mañana, ¿no?
9 Eduardo trabaja en un banco, ¿no?
83
too/either so am 1 / neither do I etc.

too = también not ... eithcr = tampoco

too y eithcr se colocan al final de la frase.

Se usa too detrás de un verbo afirmativo: Se usa either detrás de un verbo negativo (am not /
isn't / can't etc.):
• A: I'm happy. • A: l'rn not happy.
B: I'm happy too. Yo soy feliz también. B: I'm not happy either. Yo tampoco soy feliz.
• A: 1 enjoyed the film. • A: I can't cook.
B: l enjoyed ir too. A mi también me gustó. B: I can't either, Yo tampoco sé.
• Mary is a doctor. Her husband is a doctor too. • Bill doesn't watch TV. He doesn't read
. .. también es médico. newspapers either. Tampoco lee periódicos .

So am I / Neither do I etc. (Y) yo también/(NiJ yo tampoco etc.

am/is/are .
was/were .
so
do/does .
did ...
have/has ...
neither
can .
will .
would ...

So ... y Ncither ... se colocan al principio de la frase. Detrás se usa el auxiliar (am/have/did etc.) correspondiente al verbo
de la frase anterior.

so am I = I am too, so have I = I havc roo (etc.) neithcr am 1 = l'm not either, neither can I = I can'r
en español = (Y) yo también either (etc.), en español= (ni) yo tampoco
• A: l'm working. • A: l havcn't gota key.
B: So am C. (Y) yo también. B: Neithcr have l. (Ni) yo tampoco.
• A: I was late for work toda y. • A: Ann can't cook.
B: So was John. (Y) John también. B: Neithcr can Tom. Ni Tom tampoco.
• A: I work in a bank • A: 1 won't (= will not) be here tomorrow.
B: So do J. (Y) yo también. B: Neithcr will l. (Ni) yo tampoco.
• A: We went ro the cinema last night. • A: I never go to the cinema.
B: Did you? So did we. (Y) nosotros también. B: Neither do L (Ni) yo tampoco.
• A: l'd like to go to Australia.
B: So would l. (Y) a mi también. En lugar de Neither ... se puede usar también Nor ... :
• A: l'm not married.
B: Nor am l. o Neither arn l.

Observa el orden de las palabras detrás de So ... I Neither ... /:


• 'I'm rired.' 'So aro l.' (no 'So I am.')
• 'I haven't gota key.' 'Neither have l.' (no 'Neither I have.')

I am / 1 don't etc.=> 1i¡¡¡j,1.j,(li1


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 42
42.1 Completa las frases con too o con either.

1 l'm ha ppy. I'rn happy .J~ .


2 l'rn nor hungry. I'rn not hungry .
3 l'rn going out. I'rn going out .
4 Ir raincd on Saturday. lt raincd on Sunday .
5 Jenny can't drive a car. She can't ride a bicycle .
6 l don't like shopping, l don't like shopping .
7 Janc's mothcr is a tcacher. Her fathcr is a tcachcr .

42.2 Responde a estas observaciones con So ... I (So am I I So do II So can I etc.) .

1 Iwent ro bcd late last night. ...So. d.i.d,..t ...


2 I'rn thirsty.
3 I've just had dinner.
4 1 need a holiday.
5 I'II be late tomorrow.
6 I was very tired rhis morning.

Ahora haz lo mismo pero usando Ncither.

7 I can't go to thc parry.


8 1 didn't phone Alcx last night.
9 I haven't got any money.
10 T'm not going out tomorrow.
11 l don't know what to do.

MARIA
1 I'rn learning English.
2 I can ride a bicycle.
3 I'm not American.
4 I likc cooking.
5 l dori't like cold weather.
6 l slept well last night.
7 I've never been to Scotland,
8 I don't write letters very often.
9 I'm going out tomorrow evening.
10 T haven't gota headache.
11 I didn't watch TV last night.
12 I often go to che cinema.

42.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 'Rosa no sabe cocinar.' 'Ni yo tampoco.'
2 'He visto esa película.' 'Y nosotros también.'
3 'No tenemos mucho tiempo.' 'Yo tampoco.'
4 'Estoy cansado.' 'Yo también.'
5 Brian no ve la televisión. Tampoco va al cine.
6 Rob vive en Manchester. Sarah vive allí también.
7 'No trabajo mañana.' 'Susana tampoco.'
8 'Me gusta la música clásica.' 'A mí también.'
9 Sandra trabaja en una escuela y escribe libros para niños también.
10 'Nunca vamos al teatro.' 'Nosotros tampoco.' 85
Negaciones: isn't haven't don't etc.

Se usa not (n't) en la negación:

afirmación ~ negación
am am not ('m not) l'm not tired.
IS is not (isn't o 's not) It iso't (o lt's not) raining.
are are not (arcn't o 're not) They aren't (o Thcy're not) here.
was was not (wasn't) Julian wasn't hungry.
were were not (weren't) The shops weren't open.
have havc not (haven't) I baven't finished my work.
has has not (hasn't) Sue hasn't gota car.
will will not (won't) We won't be here rornorrow.
can cannot (can't) George can't drive.
could could not (couldn't) I couldn't sleep last nighr.
rnusr rnust not (mustn't) I mustn't forget to phone Ann.
should should not (shouldn't) You shouldn't work so hard.
would would not (wouldn't) I wouldn't like to be an actor.

B don't/doesn't/didn't
l/we/you/rhey do not (don't) }
Negación del PRF.SEITT ~IMPLE: . work/livc/go etc.
he/she/ir does not (doesn'r)
Negación del PAST SIMPLE: l/they/he/she (etc.) did not (didn't) work/live/go etc.

afirmación ~ negación
I want ro go out. ~ 1 don't want ro go out.
They work hard.~ Thcy don't work hard.
Liz plays rhe guitar.
~ Liz doesn't play rhe guitar.
My father likcs his job. ~ My farhcr docsn'r like his job.

I got up early this morning. ~ 1 didn't get up early this morning.


They workcd hard yesrerday. ~ Thcy didn't work hard yesterday.
We playcd tennis. ~ We didn't play tennis.
Diane had a bath. ~ Diane didn't havc a bath.

Don't ... se usa para la negación del imperativo:

Look! ~ Don't look!


Wait for me. ~ Don't wait for me.

Cuando el verbo principal es do (= hacer), la negación es don't do I doesn't do I didn't do:

Do something! ~ Don't do anything!


Sue does a lor ar weekends. ~ Sue doesn't do much ar weekends.
I did what you said. ~ 1 didn't do what you said.

PRESENT SIMPLE. (negación)==> C!3J PAST s1~1PLE (negación)==> i,. !• 10 Why isn't/don't ... ? ==> V! FU•
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
43
43.1 Escribe estas frases en forma negativa.
1 He's gone away H~.. !'.!~Y.l.'t.9~r.~..~~ . 4 Ir's cold toda y .
2 They're married .. 5 We'II be late .
3 I've had dinner . 6 Yo u should go .

43.2 Escribe estas frases en forma negativa usando don't/doesn't/didn't.


1 She saw me Q:1.~..~.'.t..~.~--~~.: . 4 He lives here .
2 l like cheese . 5 Go away! .
3 They understood . 6 1 did the shopping .

43.3 Escribe estas frases en forma negativa.

1 She can swim ~.e:.. ~'.t.~~~-'-· 6 He'II be pleased .


2 They'vc arrived . 7 Phone me tonight .
3 I went to the bank . 8 lt rained yesterday .
4 He speaks German . 9 l could hear them .
5 We were angry . 10 1 believe you .

43.4 Completa estas frases con un verbo negativo (isn't/haven't/don't etc.).


1 They aren't rich. They ·--~-~~-~\. ... got much money.
2 'Would you like something to eat?' 'No, thank you. l hungry.'
3 1 find my glasses. Have you seen them?
4 George write letters very often. He prefers t0 use the phone.
5 We can walk to the starion from here. lt very far.
6 'Where'sjill?' '1 know. l seen her roday.'
7 Be careful! fall!
8 We wcnt to thc cinema last night. I like the film very much.
9 l've been to Spain many times but I been to Portugal.
10 Julia be here tornorrow. She's going away.
11 'Who broke that window?' 'Nor me. J do it.'
12 We didn't see what happened. We looking ar the time.

º
43.5 le haces a Gary varias preguntas a las que siempre responde con 'Yes' o 'No'. Escribe frases afirmativas o negativas

sobre Gary. Ace 'º" man;ed?


Do you live in London?
No.
Yes.
fü GA;Y .. ~.•."1.oJ...,,."".!i<4,...
2 He..~e.s .. i.n.Lond.on .
Wcre you born in London? No. 3 .
Do you like London? No. 4 .
Would you like to live in the country? Yes. 5 .
Can you drive? Yes. 6 .
Have you gota car? No. 7 .
Do you read newspapers? No. 8 .
Are you inrercsted in politics? No. 9 .
Do you watch TV rnost evenings? Yes. 10 .
Did you watch TV last nighc? No. 11 .
Did you go out last night? Yes. 12 .

43.6 Traduce al inglés:

1 Bruce no está cansado. No trabajó ayer.


2 No era muy tarde, pero no había autobuses.
3 No tendremos tiempo para visitar a tu hermana.
4 No me gusta la playa porque no sé nadar.
5 ¡No te sientes ahí! Ese asiento no es el tuyo. (asiento = seat)
6 No deberías acostarte tan tarde.
7 No hice mis deberes esta semana. (deberes= hornework)
8 No hables tan fuerte. No puedo oír la televisión.
9 No me gustaría ser profesor.
10 No me levanté pronto ayer porque no tenía que trabajar.
11 Liz no hace la compra en el supermercado. 87
. .1t . . . ?.
Is have y o u . . . ?. do they ... ? etc.
(la interrogación 1)
afirmación you >< are You are caring.
interrogación are you Are you earing? Whar are you earing?
En la interrogación, el verbo auxiliar (is/are/have etc.) va delante del sujeto:

afirmación interrogación
su1eto + verbo verbo + sujeto
am lare. ~ Am 1 larc?
Thar sear is free. ~ Is that seat free?
Shc was angry. ~ Why was shc angry?
David has gonc. ~ Where has David gone?
You have gota car. ~ Havc you gor a car?
They will be herc soon. ~ When will they be herc?
Paula can swim, ~ Can Paula swim?

Observa bien el orden de las palabras: el sujeto va detrás del primer verbo:
• Where has David gone? (no 'Where has gone David?') ¿Dónde ha ido David?
• Are those pcople waiting for somerhing? (no' Are wairing thosc people ... ?')
¿Esperan algo aquellas personas?
• When was the telcphone invcnrcd? (no 'When was invented ... ?')
¿Cuándo se inventó el teléfono?

do ... ? / does ... ? / did ... ? se usan en la interrogación con el PRfSENT ~IMPLr y con el PAS 1 .,1,1r11.

do 1/we/you/they ) k/1' e/ etc


Interrogación del PRrsr:-.....- SIMPLL: hc/she/it wor rv go ·
does
Interrogación del PA', 1 s1M1•1 r: did you/she/thcy (etc.) work/livc/go etc.

afirmación interrogación
They work hard. ~ Do they work hard?
You watch rclcvision. ~ How often do you watch televisión?
Chris works hard. ~ Docs Chris work hard?
She gcrs up carly. ~ What time docs she get up?
They workcd hard. ~ Oíd they work hard?
You had dinner. ~ What did you havc for dinner?
She gor up early. ~ What time <lid she get up?

Cuando el verbo principal es do (= hacer) la interrogación es do you do I does shc do / did they do etc.:
• What do you usually do ar weekends?
• 'What does your brorher do?' 'He works in a bank.'
• 'I broke my finger last week.' 'How did you do that?' (no 'How <lid you thar?')

e Why isn't ... ? / \Vhy don't ... ? etc.


Presta atención al orden de las palabras en las preguntas negativas con Why ... ?:
• Why isn't John hcrc? (no 'Why John isn'r here?') ¿Por qué John no está aqu,?
• Why can't Paula come ro the meeting romorrow? (no 'Why Paula can'r ... ?')
¿Por qué no puede venir Paula mañana a la reunión?
• Why didn't you phonc me lasr nighr? (no 'Why you didn'r phonc me ... ?')
¿Por qué no me llamaste anoche?

PRESl:.NT ~IMPLE (interrogaclÓll)=> c::mJ PAST Sl~IPI E (interrogación)=> i'j: ,t.¡u la interrogación 2 Y 3 => 1 : j\ jfu#j]
what/which/how ... ? => 11 H\4if4U•
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
44.1 Escribe las preguntas sugeridas por las palabras entre paréntesis.
44
1 I can swim. (and you?) - ~--~o.«. ~~0:'..L
2 1 work hard. (and Jim?) .. .!?.~~~--~~ ~º~--~~.4.? ..
3 1 was late chis morning. (and you?) . .
4 I've got a key. {and Ann?) .................................................................................................................................
5 J'II be here tomorrow. (and you?) . .
6 l'm going out this evening. (and Paul?) . .
7 I like my job. (and you?) .................................................................................................................................
8 1 live near here. {and Linda?) . ..
9 1 enjoyed my holiday. {and you?) .................... ............................................................................................................
1 O J hada shower this morning. (and you?) .................................................................................................................................
44.2 Estás hablando con un amigo sobre conducir coches. Escribe las preguntas completas.

1 (have / a car?) ~~r~ . .!i~ 9~---~---~X. Yes, I have.


2 (use/ a lot?) it .. Yes, nearly every <lay.
3 (use/ yesterday?) . Y es, to go to work.
4 (enjoy driving?) . Not very much.
5 (a good driver?) .. I think I am.
6 (ever / have / an accident?) . No, never.

44.3 Pon las palabras en el orden correcto. Todas las frases son preguntas.
1 (has I gone I where I David?) --~-~~ .. n!'.§. t?~ri4.. 9C?r.i.~.L
2 (working /Rache!/ is/ today?) . ..l.~ .. R~.e.l ~.~rt.\r9!:9.~.L
3 {che children / what /are/ doing?) What ..
4 (made /is/ how / cheese?) .
5 (to the party / coming /is/ your sister?) .
6 (you / the truth /tell/ don't / why?) .
7 (your guests / have / yet / arrived?) .
8 (leave/whattime/yourtrain/does?) .
9 (your car/ in che accident / was / damaged?) .
1O (to work / Ann / why / go / didn't?) .

44.4 Completa las preguntas.

1 I want to go out. Whcre ...M..~~.. W.@~ ..W. . .g9..?...


2 Ann and Paul aren't going to the party. Why a.r.en'.t.theij..goi.l'lg.?. .
3 l'rn reading. What .
4 Sue went to bed early. What time .
5 My parenrs are going on holiday. When .
6 1 met Toma few days ago. Where .
7 Tina has gone away. Whcre .
8 1 can't come to rhe party. Why .
9 1 need sorne money. How much .
10 Angela doesn't like me. Why .
11 lt rains sornetirnes. How often .
12 l did che shopping. When .

44.5 Traduce al inglés:


l ¿A qué hora abren las tiendas?
2 ¿Tienes un bolígrafo?
3 ¿Dónde han ido los niños?
4 ¿ Estará en casa tu hermana mañana?
5 ¿Cuándo llamó David?
6 ¿ Estás escuchando la radio?
7 Hace un buen día. ¿Por qué no vamos a pasear? (a pasear= for a walk)
8 ¿Qué hace tu hermano? ¿Es médico?
9 ¿Qué haces aquí? ¿Por qué no estás en tu oficina?
89
Who saw you? Who did you see?
(la interrogación 2)

Sylvia saw Paul.


Who saw Paul?
Sylvia. (Sylvia saw him.)
Who did Sylvia see?
Paul, (She saw Paul.)
PAUL

~--------4Sylvia saw Paul-----~


sujeto objeto
l
Somebody saw Paul. Sylvia saw somebody.
l
Algwen vio a Paul. Sylvia vio a alguien.
l J
Who saw Paul? Who did Sylvia see?

Sylvia. (Sylvia saw him.) Paul, (She saw Paul.)


'who' es el sujeto 'who' es el objeto
'Paul' es el objeto 'Sylvia' es el sujeto

8 Si en estas preguntas Who (= ¿Quién?) o What (= ¿Qué?) son el sujeto, la frase se construye como si fuera afirmativa:
• Who lives in chis house? (no 'Who does live ... ?')
(= Alguien vive aquí, ¿quién?)
• What bappeoed? (no 'What did happen?')
(= Algo ocurrió, ¿qué?)
• What's happcning? (What's = What is)
• Who's got my key? (Who's = Who has)
Si Who (= ¿A quién?) o What (= ¿Qué?) son objeto, la frase se construye como una interrogación:
• Who did you meet yesterday? (= Conociste a alguien, ¿a quién?)
• What did Paul say? (= Paul dijo algo, ¿qué?)
• Who are you phoning?
• What was he wearing?
Compara los dos tipos de frase:
• George likes oranges. ~ Who likes oranges? - George.
What <loes Gcorge likc? - Oranges,
• Jill won sorne rnoncy. ~ Who won sorne rnoney? - Jill.
What did Jill win? - Sorne money,

la interrogación~ 1 :,¡. :iJ%1X):j what/which/how ee h j,rj.gfl


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
45
45.1 Escribe preguntas con who o what. En estas frases who/what son sujeto .

1 Somebody broke the window. ... ~~ ..b.!':~~.~-~ ..\':l.~.~t.


2 Sornething fell off the shclf. What .
3 Somebody wants to see you. .................................................................................................. me>
4 Somebody rook my umbrclla.
5 Somcthing madc me ill.
6 Somcbody is coming.

45.2 Escribe preguntas con who o what.

1 I bought somcthing. .,~aj:;.#.4,!;t~ .. ~~.?. ..


2 Somebody lives in this house. ..\vho. Li..ve.s. in. tni.6 .. hOCAst..? ..
3 1 phoned somebody.
4 Sornerhing happcned last nighr.
5 Somebody knows the answcr.
6 Somebody did the washing-up.
7 Jill did somcching.
8 Sornething woke me up.
9 Somebody saw the accident.
10 1 saw somcbody.
11 Somebody has goc my pen.
12 This word means sornerhing.

45.3 Escribe preguntas con who o what para obtener la información que falta (XXXXX).

I losr XXXXX yesterday bur fortunately


XXXXX found it and gave it back to me.
¡. .
:~·cüd.M.!i:? wse.? ..
:fo<A .
2 XXXXX phoned me Jase night. She wanted
xxxxx. 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
3 1 necded sorne ad vice, so I asked XX:XXX.
He said XXX:XX. 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
4 1 1 hear thar XXXXX got married lasr week.
XXXXX rold me. 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
5 1 1 rnet XXXXX on my way home chis
evcning. She rold me XXXXX. 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
6 Sreve and I played rennis yesrerday. 1 1
XX.XXX won. Afrer the garne we XXXXX

7 Ir was my birthday lasr week and 1 had


sorne presenrs. XXXXX gave me a book 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1
and Catherine gave me XXXXX.

45.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Qué estáis leyendo?
2 ¿ A quién viste en la fiesta?
3 ¿Qué hiciste el domingo?
4 ¿Quién sabe hablar italiano?
5 ¿Qué dijo la profesora?
6 ¿A quién visitaste ayer?
7 ¿Quién te dio este libro?
8 ¿Qué pasó el viernes? ¿Perdiste el autobús? (perder= miss)
9 ¿Quién nos envió esca postal? (postal = postcard)
10 ¿Quién quiere hablar conmigo? 91
Who is she talking to? What is it like?
(la interrogación3)

Julia is talking to somebody.


Who is she talking to?

\
En /as preguntas que empiezan por Who ... ? / What ... ? / Where ... ? / Which ... ? /as preposiciones
(to/for/about/with etc.) van al final. En español estas preposiciones van al principio:
• 'Where are you from?' 'l'm from Thailand.' '¿De dónde eres?' ...
• 'John was afraid.' 'What was he afraid of?' '¿De qué tenía miedo?'
• Who do these books bclong to? ¿A quién pertenecen ... ?
• 'Tom's father is in hospital.' 'Which hospital is he in?' ... '¿En qué hospital está?'
• 'Kare is going on holiday.' 'Who with?' / 'Who is shc going with?' ... '¿Con quién (va)?'
• 1 want to talk to you. 'What about?' / 'What do you want to talk to me about?'
... '¿De qué (quieres hablar conmigo)?'

What is it like? / What are they like? etc. (= ¿Cómo es ... ? / ¿Cómo son ... ?)

Cuando se dice 'What is it like?', like es una preposición(= cómo). No es el verbo like ('Do you Like music?'
'¿Te gusta la música?' etc.).
• A: There's a new restaurant in our street,
B: What's it like? Is it good? ¿Cómo es? ...
A: 1 don't know. 1 haven't caten therc yer.
• A: What's your new teacher like? ¿Cómo es tu nueva profesora?
B: She's very good. We learn a lot,
• A: 1 met Linda's parents yesterday.
B: Did you? What are they Iike? ... ¿Cómo son'
A: They're very friendly.
• A: Did you have a nice holiday? What was rhe weather like? ... ¿Qué tiempo hizo?
B: Ir was lovely. The sun shone every day.

Compara:
• 'What's Linda like?' 'She's very nice.'
'¿Cómo es Linda?' ...
• 'How is Linda?' 'She's very well.'
'¿Cómo está Linda?' ...

la interrogación=) 1ij:jj,¡j,1f#CU1 what/which/how =) 1ij:jj,,.¡.¡fj preposiciones =) 1@j,¡j,jfjjH1=$j•fl


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
46
46.1 Escribe preguntas con who o what para obtener la información que falta (XXXXX).

l ~tter is from XXXXX. ) (__


... Wh~º-~---~_e.Ldtu~-·fr_~_?_
....~~~-~~__,
2 [ l'm looking for a XXXXX. ) [ What you .

3 [ 1 wcnt to che cinema with xxxxx.] [.._ ....,

4 [ Thc film was about XXXXX. ) ['-- .... _......... _........ _......... _......... _......... _......... __ --J

5 [,..-¡
g_a_v_e_r_h_e
_m_o_n_e_y_r_o_X_XX
__ X_X_.
------.] [
,,_ ....,

6 [ The hook was writtcn by XXXXX. ) [.._ ....,

46.2 Completa una pregunta apropiada para cada dibujo. Usa uno de estos verbos + una preposición:
listen look ralk fftH< wait write

1 .. ~º. . 0. ~n..~. ~-~9 l::oL 4 What .


2 What .. 5 What .
3 \'Vho . 6 Which bus ..

46.3 Escribe preguntas que empiecen por Which ... ?

1 Tom's father is in hospital. ...Whi.dl _11ospito.L_~ .11e_i.n?.


2 We staycd ata hotel. .................................................. you ..
3 Jack plays for a football ream.
4 T wenr to school in this rown, ...............................................................................................................

46.4 Necesitas información sobre un país y le preguntas a alguien que ya ha estado allí. Escribe preguntas con
What is/are ... likc?
1 (che roads) .. ~~-~~..~~.r.~~ .. ~-~.?... 3 (rhe people) ..
2 (thc food) . 4 (rhe wearhcr) .

46.5 Escribe preguntas con What was/wcre ... like?


1 Your friend has jusr come back from holiday. Ask abour che wearher .
...~,aj¡__ '!:-/.~ ...~~ .. ~~.'!!....!*-~.?..
2 Your friend has jusr come back from rhc cinema. Ask abour che film.

3 Your friend has just finished an English course. Ask abour rhe lessons.

4 Your fricnd has jusr come back from holiday. Ask abour rhe hotel.

46.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿De qué estáis hablando?
2 ¿ Con quién fuiste a Barcelona?
3 ¿ De dónde es este vino?
4 ¿A quién estamos esperando?
5 '¿Cómo es Jenny?' 'Es muy simpática.'
6 '¿Cómo está tu marido?' 'Muy bien, gracias.'
7 ¿ Para quién son estas cartas?
8 ¿Qué tiempo hace esta mañana? 93
What ... ? Which ... ? How ... ?
What ... ?
What + sustantivo (What type ... ? I What colour ... ? etc.) =¿Qué ... ? / ¿De qué ... ?:
• What time is it? ¿Qué hora es?
• What day is it today? ¿Qué día es hoy?
• What type of job do you want? (o What kind of job ... ? I What sort of job ... ?)
¿Qué tipo de trabajo quieres?
• What colour is your car? ¿De qué color es ... ? • What colour are your eyes? ¿De qué color son ?
• What size is this shirt? ¿De qué talla es ... ? • What make is your TV set? ¿De qué marca es ?
What sin sustantivo = ¿Qué ... ? o ¿ Cuál ... ?:
• What's your favourire colour? ¿Cuál es ... ?
• What do you want to do? ¿Qué quieres hacer?

Which ... ?
Which + sustantivo (= ¿Qué ... ? / ¿Cuál ... ?) al hablar de cosas o de personas:
• Which train did you catch- the 9.50 or the 10.30? ¿Qué tren tomaste ... ?
• Which doctor did you see - Doctor Ellis, Doctor Gray or Doctor Hill? ¿A qué médico viste - ... ?
Which sin sustantivo se usa al hablar de cosas, no de personas:
• Which is bigger - Canada or Australia? ¿Cuál es más grande ... ?
Se usa who sin sustantivo al hablar de personas (no 'which'):
• Who is taller- Bill or Gerry? (no 'Which is taller?') ¿Quién es más alto, Bi/1 o Gerry?

What o which?
Se usa which cuando pensamos en un número limitado de posibilidades:

[1}{!} , [y)o, [!]


• We cango this way or that way. Which way shall we go?
... ¿Por dónde vamos? (hay sólo dos posibilidades)
• There are four umbrellas here. Which is yours?
... ¿Cuál es el tuyo? (hay sólo cuatro posibilidades)
What tiene un valor más general y se usa en los otros casos: WHICH?
• What is the capital of Argentina? ¿Cuál es la capital de Argentina?
• What sort of music do you like? ¿Qué tipo de música te gusta?
Compara:
• What colour are his eyes? (no 'Which colour ... ?')
Which colour do you prefer, pink or yellow?
• What is the longest river in the world?
Which is the longest river - the Mississippi, the Amazon or the Nile?

How ?
How ? suele corresponder a ¿Cómo ... ?:
• How was the party last night? ¿Cómo estuvo la fiesta ... ?
• How do you usually go to work? ¿Cómo vas normalmente ?
Se pueden hacer preguntas con how + adjetivo/adverbio (How tall ? I How often ... ?). Normalmente estas
preguntas se hacen en español con ¿Qué ... ? o ¿Cuánto(s) ... ?:
• How tallare you? ¿Qué estatura tienes?/ ¿Cuánto mides?
• How big is the house? ¿Qué tamaño tiene la casa?
• How old is your mother? ¿Qué edad/Cuántos años tiene tu madre?
• How far is it to the airport? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto?
• How often do you use your car? ¿Con qué frecuencia usas tu coche?
• How long have you been married? ¿Cuánto tiempo llevas casado?
Se dice también How high ... ? I How deep ... ? I How heavy ... ? ! How much ... ? ! How fast ... ? etc.

la interrogación~ 1ij:u,,j,j{##l1 How ... ? y\Vhat ... like? ~ NMWIJ which one(s) ~ ..¡,jj,(i,lfj
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
47
47.1 Escribe preguntas con What.

1 I've gor a new TV set. (make?) ..Miu .m<lke..i.6. i.t?...


2 Iwant a job. (kind?) .. ~.#...~~ ..~f.j~ .. M.!:l~ .. ~~v .
3 l've gota new sweater. (colour?) What .
4 l gor up early chis morning. (time?) .............................................................................. get up?
5 I like music. (type?)
6 I want to buy a car. (kind?)

47.2 Completa las preguntas usando \Vhich ... ?

47.3 Completa las preguntas con what/which/who.


1 ..~.#. is that man's name? 7 is more expensive, meat or fish?
2 ..~.Í0. way shall we go? Left or right? 8 is older, Ann or George?
3 You can have tea or coffee do you prefer? 9 kind of camera have you got?
4 ' day is it today?' 'Friday.' JO A: Mary has got three cameras.
5 This is a nice housc room is yours? B: camera does she use rnost?
6 is your favourite sport? 11 nationaliry are you?

47.4 Completa las preguntas usando How + un adjetivo o adverbio (high/long etc.).

1 ..!:!~~..~.~~.. is Mount Evercst? Nearly 9000 metres.


2 is it to the station? Ir's abour two kilometres from here.
3 is Helen? She's 26.
4 do the buses run? Every ten minutes.
5 is rhe water in the pool? Two merres.
6 havc you lived here? Nearly three years.

47.5 Escribe preguntas usando How ... ?

1 Are you 1 merre 70? 1.75? 1.80? .. !:!9.~..~ ..?.!..~.!:l~.L


2 Is this box one kilogram? Two? Three? ..
3 Are you 20 years old? 22? 25? .
4 Did you spend flO? f15? f20? .
5 Do you watch TV every day? Once a week? Never?
······························································ ·········································································································•··································································
6 Is it 1000 miles from Paris to Moscow? 1500? 2000?
··· ···························································································································································································································

47.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿De qué marca es tu reloj? 5 ¿Qué tipo de literatura prefieres?
2 ¿Qué ciudad prefieres, Londres o París? 6 ¿Con qué frecuencia vas al dentista?
3 ¿De qué color es tu coche? 7 ¿Cuál es tu restaurante favorito?
4 ¿Qué país es más grande, México o Perú? 8 ¿A qué distancia está el mar?

95
How long does it take ... ?

How long docs it take ... ?


_,,,..: \, ,.-
How long <loes it take by plane from London to Madrid? ~·~... ,.:} -,

¿Cuánto se tarda ... ?


..(:,..r-:,:-:!..
lt takes rwo hours.
Se tarda/Cuesta dos horas. r.
How long <loes it take ? ¿Cuánto se tarda
by plano ..---
rwo hours by tra in from ... to ... dos horas ...
Tt takes ten minutes by car Se tarda diez minutos ...
a long time mucho tiempo ...

• How long <loes it cake by train from London to Manchester?


• It takes two hours by train from London ro Manchcsrcr.
• How long <loes it take by car from your house to che station?
• It takes ten minutes by car from my housc to thc starion.

How long <loes it take to (do somerhing)?


takes a week
took a long rime

I
does
will take rhree hours
How long did ir cake to (do something)? lt to (do something)
will doesn't
didn't take long

I
¿Cuánto tiempo se tarda en (hacer algo) ... 7 won't

I
una semana
Se tarda mucho tiempo en (hacer algo)
tres horas

• How long does it take to cross rhe Atlantic Ocean by ship? ¿Cuánto se tarda en cruzar el Atlántico ... ?
• How long will it take to get to Granada? ¿Cuánto se tardará en llegar ... ?
• It takes a long time to learn a language. Se tarda mucho tiempo en aprender un idioma.
• lt took about an hour to get to the airport. Se tardó casi una hora en llegar al aeropuerto.
• lt doesn't rake long to cook an omelette. No se tarda mucho en ...
• lt won't take long to repair the computer. No se tardará mucho en reparar ...

How long <loes it takc you (to do somcthing)?


También se puede decir:

How long <loes ir cake you ¿Cuánto tiempo tardaste en (hacer algo)?
Ir rakes me a long time Tardo mucho tiempo en (hacer algo)
ro (do somerhing)
It rook Ann two hours Ann tarda mucho tiempo en (hacer algo)
Ir won'r rake us long No tardaremos mucho tiempo en (hacer algo)

Por ejemplo:
I srarrcd reading che book on Monday.
I finished ir on Wednesday evening.
Ir took me rhree days toread it.
Tardé tres días en leerlo.

Otros ejemplos:
• Ir takcs me rwenry minutes to get to work in rhe morning. Tardo 20 minutos en llegar ...
• It took Toman hour to do his shopping. Tom tardó una hora en hacer las compras.
• Did it take you a long rime to find a job? ¿Tardaste mucho en encontrar trabajo?
• How long will it take me ro learn to drive? ¿Cuánto tardaré en aprender a conducir?
• It will cake usan hour to cook rhc dinner. Tardaremos una hora ...
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 48
48.1 Observa los dibujos y escribe preguntas usando How long ... ?

' "'""t.-..... l;, , __


' ,.. , ,!
""--~

1 ~.~~ !P..~9 4P..~~---~.. ~-~ b!;i ..~.!:..fr~ .. J~~~ tf? ~!!!~~~.?....


2 .
3 .
4 .

48.2 ¿Cuánto tiempo se tarda en hacer estas cosas? Escribe frases completas.
1 fly from your city/country to London
.. .l.t..~~~ . ..li~P.. h..~.r.~...tf?. f4i.fr~ .. ~.J:C?..~.~~: ...
2 fly from your city/country to New York

3 srudy to be a doctor in your counrry

4 walk from your home ro rhe nearest shop

5 gct from your home to the nearesr airporr

48.3 Escribe preguntas con How long did it take ... ?


1 (She found a place to live.) ...l:1!?~..~~9..4!4:.~.~.~ ..~.~.. ~ ..f.~.~ ..P.!·!;~~d:~..w.r.!:.L.
2 (1 walkcd to the starion.) you ..
3 (He cleaned the windows.) .
4 (I learnt to ski.) ..
5 (They rcpaired the car.) ..

48.4 Examina las situaciones y escribe frases con lt took ....


l read a book last week. l startcd reading ir on Monda y. 1 finished ir three days la ter.
. .!.~.. ~~.. ~.e..~t~ . ~~ ..~ . .r~.~-~--~-~ . ....
2 We walked home last night. We left at 10 o'clock and we arrived home at 10.20.

3 I learnt to drive lasr year. 1 had my first driving lesson in January. 1 passed my driving tese six months lacer.

4 Mark drove to London yesterday. He left home at 8 o'clock and gor to London at 10.

5 Linda began looking for a job a long time ago. She gor a job lasr week.

6 Escribe una frase verdadera sobre ti.

48.5 Traduce al inglés:


I ¿Cuánto se tarda en coche de Madrid a Valencia?
2 Se tarda eres horas en eren de Valencia a Madrid.
3 ¿Cuánto tiempo tardas en llegar al trabajo?
4 ¿Cuánto tardarán en venir desde el aeropuerto? (venir= get herc)
5 Ann cardó cinco minutos en vestirse. (vestirse = get dressed)
6 No se tarda mucho en aprender a esquiar.
7 No tardaré mucho en leer el periódico.
8 ¿Tardarás mucho en llegar a casa? (llegar a casa = ger home)

97
Do you know where ... ? I don't know what ...

Se dice: Wherc · Paula? ¿Dónde está Paula?


pero:
Do you know where Paula .is ?
(no 'Do you know where is Paula?')
¿Sabes dónde está Paula?

¡
Observa el orden de las palabras:
sujeto verbo
I know ! ! Sé
I don'r know whcre Paula is No sé dónde está Paula.
Can you tell me ¿Me puedes decir ?

Compara estos otros ejemplos con sus correspondencias en el cuadro:

Who are those pcople? pero who those people are


Do you know how old Linda is
How old is Linda? ?
Can you tell me whar time it is
What time is it?
Where can T go? whcre I can go -
How much is chis carnera? how much this camera is
I know
When are you going away? when you're going away
I don't know
Where havc they gone? where they have gone
I don't remember
What was Ann wearing? what Ann was wearing

Preguntas con do/does/did (PRESENT SIMPLE y PAST SIMPLE):


Where does he live?

Do you know where (no 'Do you know whcre does he live?')

Compara estos otros ejemplos con sus correspondecias en el cuadro:

How do acroplanes fly? pero Do you know how acroplanes fly ?


-
What does Jane want? I don't know what Jane wants
Why did shc go home? I don't remembcr why shc went home
Whcre did I put rhe key? T know whcrc J put the key

Preguntas que empiezan por Is ... ? I Do ... ? I Can ... ? (que se pueden responder con 'yes' o con 'no'):
Compara estos otros ejemplos con sus correspondencias en el cuadro:

Is Jack at home? pero Do you know Jack is at home


?
Have they gor a car? if they've got a car
-
Can Brian swim? o Brian can swim
Do they live near here? l don't know whether they live near here
Did anybody see you? anybody saw you

En estas frases se puede usar tanto if como whether:


• Do you know if they've gota car? o Do you know whether they'vc gota car?
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 49
49.1 Responde a las preguntas con l don't know whcre/when/why ... etc.

I Havc your friends gone home? (wherc) 1 ..~n'.t. ~~ .. ~h~~ ~~·-~~--g~!')~, .


2 Is Kate in her officc? (where) 1 don'r know ..
3 Is thc casrlc very olcl? (how old) ..
4 Will Paul be here soon? (when) ..
5 Was he angry bccause I was late? (why) ..
6 Has Sally lived here a long time? (how long) ..

49.2 Completa las frases.


1 (How do aeroplanes Ay?) Do you know .. !'.l.~ ..~ ..&r.
2 (Where does Susan work?) I don 't know .
3 (What <lid Perer say?) Do yo u rernern ber ?
4 (Why did he go home early?) Iclon't know ..
5 (What time does che film begin?) Do you know ?
6 (How did che accidenr happen?) 1 don't remernber .

49.3 ¿Cuál es la forma correcta?


1 Do you know whar rime is-tf./ it is? Do you know what time i.t.li? es la forma correcta
2 Why are you I you are going away?
3 1 don't know where are rhey I they are going.
4 Can you tell me where is the museum I the museym is?
5 Where do you want / you want to go for your holidays?
6 Do you know what do elephants eat I elephants eat?

49.4 Escribe preguntas con Do you know if ... ?


1 (Have rhcy gota car?) .. Do.!iru.kl'\Ow.Y:.tn~'ve..~.e1..C4r.?.
2 (Are thcy married?) Do you know ..
3 (Docs Sue know Bill?) ..
4 (Will George be here tomorrow?) ..
5 (Did he pass his exam?) .

49.5 Escribe preguntas que empiecen por Do you know ... ?


1 (What does Ann want?) ... ~ . .!l~ .. ~.!°)~ .. ~h~.An!')..~~~.?..
2 (Where is Paula?) Do ..
3 (Is she working today?)
4 (What time does she start work?)
5 (Are che shops open tomorrow?)
6 (Where do Sarah and Tim live?)
7 (Did thcy go to Ann's party?)

49.6 Completa las frases con tus propias ideas.


1 Do you know why -~-~..~-~ ~.~ ~r.
2 Do you know what time ?
3 Excuse me, can you tell me where ?
4 1 don't know what ..
5 Do you know if ?

49.7 Traduce al inglés:


I No sé dónde vive Joy.
2 ¿Sabe Vd. a qué hora llega el avión?
3 No recuerdo lo que hice ayer.
4 ¿Recuerdas dónde aparqué el coche?
5 ¿Puede Vd. decirme a qué hora es el concierto?
6 No sé si Patricia está en Francia ahora.
7 No sé cuándo Jane se fue a casa.
8 ¿Sabes a qué hora llegué a casa ayer? (llegar a casa = gct home)
9 ¿Sabes si Carolina ha leído mi carta?
10 No sé por qué tienes miedo de Sandra. 99
11 ¿Sabes cuántos años tiene Sue?
She said that ... He told me that ...

Hoy le estás contando a Paul lo que


La semana pasada en una fiesta con
tus amigos dijeron:
amigos te dijeron varias cosas:

DIANE
Diane said rhar shc was enjoying her new job.
j l'm enjoying my new job) am }
is ~ was
Diane dijo que le gustaba su nuevo trabajo.
She said that her father wasn't very wcll.
\ My father isn't very well) Dijo que su padre no estaba muy bien.

We're gomg to Sarah and Tim said rhar thcy wcre going to
SARAH~ buy a house. are ~ were buy a house.
! TIM
... dijeron que se iban a comprar una casa.
.. "..: ..

Peter said that he had to go early.


~I have to go early.)
Peter dijo que tenía que irse pronto.
My sisrer has He said that bis sister had gone to Australia.
gone to Australia. Dijo que su hermana se había ido a Australia.
PETER

ANN~
~ -S l can't find a job.) can ~ could
Ann said thar she couldn't find a job.
Ann dijo que no podía encontrar trabajo.

~ STEVE
Stevc saicl thar he would phone me.
will ~ would
~ -=:::(rll phone you.) Steve dijo que me llamaría por teléfono.

Angela said thar she didn't like her job.


Angela dijo que no le gustaba su trabajo.
~ did Shc said that her son didn't like school.
Dijo que a su hijo no le gustaba el instituto.

J. Y ou look rired.)

~~º
look ~ looked Mike said rhar I looked tired.
feel felt Mike dijo que yo parecía cansado.
etc. etc. I said that I felt fine.
(presente) (pasado) Yo dije que me encontraba bien.

say y tell corresponden a 'decir' en español. Observa los ejemplos para distinguir cuándo se usa un verbo o el otro:
say (pasado: saidJ tell (pasado: rold)
• He said rhat he was rired. (no 'lle said me ... ') • He told me that he was cired. (no 'He cold that .. .']
• Whar did she say to you? (no' ... did shc say you ?') • What did she tell you? (no' ... did shc tell to you?')
No se puede decir: 'he said me'/ 'T said Ann' etc. No se puede decir: 'he told thar .. .' o 'he rold ro me .. .'

Detrás de say y tell se puede omitir 'that':


• He said that he was tired. o He said he was tired.
• Angela tolcl me that she didn't like her job. o Angela told me she didn'r like her job.

l told him to ... ~ fijjfrfM


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
50
50.1
1 n
Lee lo que dicen estas personas y escribe frases con He/She/They said (that) ....

< l've lost my watch.) 6 .. < I don't feel very well.]

f)<'.;::ve,y~u:;) -<'.~~·¡¡~;~~=;;~;;J .
He sru.d., he ho..cl L.ost hi.6 wo..tc.11.
2 7

3 ~ < I can't go to the party.) 8 ....... <·~·;~~·;·~~~·~~~~~·~~~·~ . ~;~;~·~~;·;~ay.)

4 }f ' ' '=2"~··~·~~~·~~··~~·~~~·:·j"' ' ' '"' ' ' ' ' '"' ' 9 0·· · =2··~·:~· ~~;~~·~·~· ~~;·~· ~~·~~~·t~·~·:·J
.rJ... -< J
l'm learning Russian.
1O ~·<·~~··~~~·~~·:~·~~~·~· ~·~;·.·) .
5

50.2 Completa /as frases con la información de /os dibujos.

1
1 'm e.r¡j0!:ji.n9
mH newjob.

1 1 rner Diane last week. She said ....~.~.~..~.~-..~~l:1~9.~.~ . .1·1~:~d9.~.,.


2 Berry didn'r want anyrhing to cat. Shc said .
3 1 wanrcd ro borrow Mike's ladder bue he said ..
4 Sally was invitcd to rhe party bur shc said .
5 Sharon rold me shc didn'r want thc picturc. Shc said .
6 Martin has just gone away on holiday. He said .
7 1 was looking for Robert. Linda said ..
8 'Why did Srcvc sray ar home?' 'He said .'
9 'Has Mary gone out?' 'J think so. She said ..

50.3 Completa /as frases con say/said o tcll/told.


1 He ... ~aj.4... he was rircd. 7 The woman she was a reponer.
2 What did she ...~ .. you? 8 The woman us she was a reporter.
3 Ann she didn't like Peter. 9 They askcd me a lot of questions but T
4 Jack me that you were ill. didn't them anything.
5 Picase don't Jim whar happcned. 10 They asked me a lot of questions but I
6 Did Lucy she would be late? didn't anything.

50.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 Dijeron que habían esperado dos horas. 5 Os dije que no me gustaba la música clásica.
2 Le dije a Marta que Paco estaba cansado. 6 Tony dijo que no trabajaba el martes.
3 Andrés me dijo que no podía quedarse. 7 Dije que yo compraría las bebidas.
(quedarse = stay) 8 Luis nos dijo que quería dormir.
4 Ana dijo que llamaría a Javier.

101
work/working go/going do/doing

En inglés el infinitivo se usa a veces sin to (play/finish etc.) y otras veces con to (to play/ to finish etc.). Las dos
formas corresponden normalmente al infinitivo del español. Observa:
• I can't play rennis. (play= jugar)
Would you like to play tennis? (to play= jugar)
• 1 muse finish. (finish = terminar)
l wanr to finish. (to finish = terminar)

8 Se usa el infimtivo sin to (play I finish etc.) detrás de los verbos siguientes:

will Ann will be here soon.


shall Shall I open thc window? } => Unidades 29/30
might I might phone you Jacer.
may May l sit here? } => Unidad 31
can l can't rneer you tomorrow. }
=> Unidad 32
could Could you pass the salt, please?
must lt's late. I must go now. => Unidad 33
should You shouldn't work so hard. => Unidad 34
would Would you like sorne coffee? => Unidad 36

Tambiéncon do/does/did, en la negación e interrogación, se usa infinitivo sin to:

do/does Do you work? => Unidades 7/8


(PRF.5ENT SIMPLE) They don't work very hard.
Tim doesn't know many peoplc.
How much does it cost?

did What time did they leave? => Unidad 13


(PAST SIMPLE) We didn't sleep well.

C Se usa to+ infinitivo (to work I to go I to be etc.) con /as siguientesformas verbales:

(l'm) going to ... I'm going to play tcnnis tornorrow. => Unidad 28
What are you going to do?
(1) havc to ... I have to go now. => Unidad 35
Everybody has to cat.
(1) want to ... Do you want to go out? => Unidad 52
They don't want to come with us.
(1) would like to ... I'd like to talk to you. => Unidad 36
Would you like to go out?
(1) used to ... Dave uscd to work in a factory. => Unidad 26

O Se usa -ing (going I working I playing etc.) con am/is/are/was/were:

am/is/are + -ing Picase be quier. I'm working. => Unidades 4-5, 9, 27


(PRESENT CONTI uous) Tom isn't working today.
What time are you going out?
was/were + -ing lt was rainiog, so wc didn't go out. => Unidades 14-15
(PAST CONTINUOUS) What were you doing when che phone rang?

verbos que rigeninfinitivoo -ing ~ .i¡ ¡¡.¡ j,ffj go + -ing ~ ¡;¡¡jj,¡i,f!•


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
51
51.1 Completa cada frase con ... phone Paulo con ... to phone Paul.
1 l'll P.~.?.~~.r~~--. 6 Do you have ?
2 l'm going ·--~--~~-~!;-..P.~~-. 7 You should .
3 Can you Paul? 8 1 want .
4 Shall 1 ? 9 1 might .
5 I'd like 10 You must .

51.2 Completa /as frases con un verbo del cuadro. Tendrás que usar unas veces infinitivo sin to (work/go etc.) y otras
-ing (working/going etc.).

do/doing get/getting sleep/sleeping wa tch/watching


eat/eating go/going stay/staying wear/wearing
fly/flying listen/1 is ten i ng wait/waiting worlc/worki ng

1 Please be quiet. l'm ...~.Q!!~.9....


2 I feel tired roday. 1 didn't ~~--- very well last night.
3 What time do you usually up in the morning?
4 'Where are you ?' 'To che bank.'
5 Oíd you telcvision last níght?
6 Look ar that plane! It's very low.
7 You can turn off che radio. l'm not ro it.
8 They didn't anything beca use chey weren't hungry.
9 My friends were forme when I arrived.
10 'Does Sharon always glasses?' 'No, only for reading.'
11 'What are you this evening?' 'l'm at home.'

51.3 Completa las frases con /a forma correcta del verbo entre paréntesis:
infinitivo sin to (work/go etc.) o infinitivo con to (to work / to go etc.) o -ing (working/going etc.)
1 Shall l ...QP.~ ... the window? (open)
2 It's late.I have ... ~ ..9Q ... now. (go)
3 Ann isn't ...~.Q!!~.9... this week. She's on holiday. (work)
4 I'm tircd. T don't want out. (go)
5 It might , so cake an umbrella wirh you. (rain)
6 What time do you have rornorrow morning? (lea ve)
7 I'rn afraid I can't you. (help)
8 My brother is a student. He's physics. (study)
9 Would you like on a trip round the world? (go)
10 When you saw Janet, what was she ? (wear)
11 When you go to London, where are you going ? (stay)
12 I'rn hungry. I must something to eat. (have)
·13 'Where's George?' 'He's a bath.' (have)
14 I used a car bur I sold it last year. (have)
15 He spoke very quíetly. I couldn't him. (hear)
16 You don'r look well. 1 don't think you should ro work today. (go)
17 1 don't know what he said. 1 wasn't to him. (listen)
18 I'm sorry T'm lace. I had a phone call. (make)
19 1 want what happened. (know) You muse me. (tell)
20 May 1 your phone? (use)

51.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Puedo tomar café? (tomar= havc)
2 ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas?
3 Deberíamos escribir a Elena.
4 Voy a comprarme unos zapatos.
5 Los niños no quieren ir a la cama ahora.
6 John 110 debería comer canto. (canco = so much)
7 Sue quisiera salir con nosotros hoy, pero debe trabajar.
8 '¿Lloverá mañana?' 'Podría llover.'
9 Rob 110 puede venir al cine porque tiene que ver al médico.
10 '¿Qué haces aquí?' 'Estoy esperando a Marga.'
11 No sé nadar bien.
103
to ... (1 want to do) e -ing (1 enjoy doing)

Los verbos siguientes llevan detrás to+ infinitivo (1 want to do):

want plan decide try


hope expcct offer forget + to ... (to do/ to work / to be etc.)
nccd promise rcfuse lcarn

• What do you want to do this cvcning? ¿Qué quieres hacer esta noche?
• Tina has dccidcd to sel! her car. Tina ha decidido vender su coche.
• Yo u forgor to switch off rhe light when you went out. Olvidaste apagar la luz ...
• My brother is learning to drivc. Mi hermano está aprendiendo a conducir.
• 1 tricd to rcad rny book but l was roo ti red. Intenté leer ...

Los verbos siguientes llevan detrás -ing (l enjoy doing):

enjoy stop
suggest + -ing (doing / working / being etc.)
mind finish
-~ eaj~ MYIW19~~;-"""' .,
- -.,..:,,;~
En español se usa el infinitivo:
• I enjoy dancing. Me gusta bailar.
• 1 don't mind getting up early. No me importa madrugar.
• Has it stopped raining? ¿Ha dejado de llover?
• Sonia suggested going to the cinema. Sonia sugirió ir al cine.

Los siguientes verbos pueden llevar detrás to + infinitivo o -ing:

like love start


contioue + -ing (doing etc.) o to ... (to do etc.)
prefer hate bcgin

En español se usa el infinitivo:


• Do you like getting up early? o Do you likc to gct up early? ¿Te gusta madrugar?
• 1 prefer travelling by car. o I prefer to travel by car. Prefiero viajar en coche.
• Ann loves dancing. o Ann loves to dance. A Ann le encanta bailar.
• I hate being late. o I hate to be late. No me gusta nada llegar tarde.
• It started raining. o It started to rain. Empezó a llover.

Los verbos siguientes, precedidos por would, llevan detrás to + infinitivo:

would like would love


+ to ... (to do/ to work / to be etc.)
would prefer would hate

En español se usa el infinitivo:


• Julia would like to meet you. (no 'would like meeting') A Julia le gustaría conocerte.
• I'd love to go to Australia. (I'd = J would) Me encantaría ir a Australia.
• 'Would you like to sit down?' 'No, I'd prefer to stand, thank you.'
'¿Te gustaría sentarte?' 'No, preferiría quedarme de pie, gracias.'
• I wouldn't like to be a teacher, No me gustaría ser profesor.

would like ~ i@i·i'·fl1 1 want you to ... ~ ., ¡ ¡¡ H• go + -ing ~ • !' H1 preposición+ -ing ~ i@i·i'·Ul1
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 52
52.1 Escribe /os verbos entre paréntesis en la forma correcta: to ... o -ing.
I J enjoy .. ~C:!,1:19. .. (dance). 9 Wherc's Bill? He promised .
2 What do you want ..~ ..~ .. (do) tonight? (be) hcre on time.
3 Goodbye! I hope (see) you 10 l'm nor in a hurry. l don't mind ..
again soon. (wait).
4 1 learnt (swim) when l was 1 1 What have you decided . (do)?
.five years old. 12 George was very angry and refused
5 Have you finished (clean) . (speak) to me.
the kitchen? 13 Where's Ann? l need (ask)
6 l'm tired. 1 want (go) to bed. her something.
7 Do you enjoy (visir) other 14 1 was very upser and started ..
countries? (cry).
8 The weather was nice, so I suggested 15 I'm trying (work). Please stop
............................................ (go) for a walk by the river. ............................................. (talk) .

52.2 Completa /as frases con /os verbos de la lista en la forma correcta: to ... o -ing.
go help -lw-e- lose ram read sce scnd -t:ake- wait walk watch
1 l like London but I wouldn't like ....~ ..~~ ..... there.
2 l like .. ~.4':19..(9 ..~ ..t4:-~).. photographs when I'rn on holiday.
3 Linda has a lot of books. She enjoys ..
4 T'm surprised that you're here. 1 didn't expect you.
5 Don't forget usa postcard when you're on holiday.
6 'Shall we ger a taxi to the cinema?' 'If you like, but it isn't far. J don'r mind '
7 This ring is very beautiful. l'd hace it.
8 Julia had a lot to do, so I offered her.
9 Whar shall we do this afternoon? Would you like to rhc beach?
1 O Whcn T'm ti red in che cvcnings, I like relcvision.
11 'Shall we go now?' 'No, I'd prefcr a fcw minutes.'
12 l'm not going out unril ir stops .

52.3 Completa /as respuestas a /as preguntas.

~¡ Do you usually get up early? Yes, I like .9.~gJQ .. ~ ..9~2..~P.. ~ .


2 Do you ever go to museums? Yes, l love .
3 Do you often wrire lctters? No, 1 don't like .
4 Have you ever been to New York? No, but I'd lovc one day.
5 Do you often travel by train? Yes, J enjoy .
6 Shall we eat at home or go ro a I don't mind a restaurant
restaurant? but l'd prefcr home.

52.4 Completa estas frases acerca de ti. Usa to o -ing.


1 1 enjoy .
2 1 don't like ..
3 If it's a nice day tornorrow, I'd like ..
4 When l'm on holiday, I like . ..
5 J don't mind but .
6 1 wouldn't like . .

52.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Me gusta leer el periódico, pero olvidé comprarlo esta mañana.
2 Mi vecino prometió dejar de hacer ruido.
3 No me importó ir contigo al dentista.
4 Me encantaría ir contigo al cinc.
5 Empezó a llover y Bruce intentó encontrar un taxi.
6 '¿Te gustaría jugar al fútbol?' 'Preferiría jugar al tenis.'
7 No fuimos a pasear por el parque porque empezó a llover.
8 Sandra sugirió ir a la playa, pero su marido quería quedarse en casa.
105
I want you to ... I told you to ...

I want you to ...


The woman wants to go.
La mujer quiere irse.

The man docsn't want rhe woman to go.


El hombre no quiere que la mujer se vaya.

He wants her to stay.


Quiere que ella se quede.

En inglés se dice:
'I want somebody to do sornething' (se usa to + infinitivo).
En español se dice: 'Quiero que alguien haga algo' (se usa 'quiero que' + subjuntivo).
Compara el inglés y el español en los siguientes ejemplos:
• I want you to be happy. (no '1 want rhat you are happy.') Quiero que seas feliz.
• They didn'r want anybody to know rheir sccrct. No querían que nadie supiera su secreto.
• Do you want me ro lend yo u sorne money? ¿Quieres que te preste dinero?
Del mismo modo se usa would like:
• Would you like me to lend you sorne money? ¿Te gustaría que te prestara dinero?

Sue asked a friend to lend her sorne money. ... pidió a un amigo que le prestara ...
1 told you to be careful. Te dije que tuvieras cuidado.
What do you ad vise me to do? ¿Qué me aconsejas que haga?
I didn't expect them to be here. No esperaba que estuvieran aquí.
We persuaded George to come with us. Convencimos a George de que viniera ...
I taught my brother to swim. Enseñé a mi hermano a nadar.

I rold you to ... I I told you not to ...


La forma indirecta del imperativo se hace con tell + objeto + (not) to + infinitivo:

~ -<w,,, fo, me)


MEit
Ann told me to wait for her.
-t Ann me dijo que la esperara.

'1.. Paul rold Suc not to wait for him.


~ Don't wait fo, me.) .
-t Paul le dijo a Sue que no lo esperara .
SU(

make y let
Detrás de makc y let se usa infinitivo sin to:
• He's very funny. He makes me laugh. (no' ... makes me to laugh.') Me hace reír.
• At school our teacher made us work very hard. . .. nos hizo trabajar mucho.
• Sue let me use her computer because mine wasn't working. (no' ... let me to use .. .') ... me dejó usar ...
Para proponer hacer algo juntos se usa Ler's ... (= Let us) + infinitivo sin to:
• Come on! Ler's dance! ;Venga! ;Bailemos!
• 'Shall we go out tonight?' 'No, I'm ti red. Ler's stay ar home.' '... Quedémonos en casa.'

He told me that ... ~ 11 ¡¡¡ •M I want to ... ~ 11j:jj,ji,ffj


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
53
53.1 Escribe frases que empiecen por I want yo u I I don't want you ... I Do you want me ... ?
1 (you must come with me) ... 1.. wo.nt.HOO. ro. a>me. .wi»i. me. .
2 (listen carefully) I want .
3 (please don't be angry) I don't .
4 (shall I wait for you?) Do you .
5 (don't phone me tonighr) ............................................................................................................................................................................
6 (you must meet Sarah) ............................................................................................................................................................................

53.2 Observa los dibujos y completa las frases.

l'm not weU..

1 Dan persuaded ...~.~--~.9.q..b.?.. #).~--~-~~:...


2 1 wanted to get to the station. A woman told .
3 Brian wasri't well. 1 advised .
4 Linda had a lot of luggage. She asked .
5 1 was busy. 1 told .
6 1 wanted to make a phone cal!. Paul let .
7 Sue is going to phone larer. 1 rold .
8 Ann's morher raught .

53.3 Completa estas frases con los verbos de la lista. A veces to es necesario (to go / to wait etc.), a veces to no es
necesario (go/wait etc.).
arrive borrow get go make rcpeat tell think wait
1 Pleasc stay here. I don't want you ....b.?.. 9~ .
2 [ didn't hear what she said, so I asked her it.
3 'Shall we begin?' 'No, ler's a few minutes.'
4 Are they already here? 1 expecred rhern much later.
5 Kevin's parents didn't want him married.
6 1 want to stay here. You can't make me with you.
7 'Is thar your bicycle?' 'No, it's John's. He let me it.'
8 Mary can't come to the party. She rold me you.
9 Would you like a drink? Would you likc me sorne coffee?
10 'Ann doesn't like me.' 'What makes you that?'

53.4 Traduce al inglés:

1 Mis padres quieren que estudie en Francia.


2 Sue quiere que estemos aquí a las 8.
3 Mi jefe me dejó ir a casa a las 4. (jefe = boss)
4 Alicia me pidió que la ayudara.
5 Nos gustaría que fueras feliz.
6 Liz me convenció de que comprara este libro.
7 El médico me dijo que no comiera demasiado. (demasiado = too much)
8 Te he dicho que no juegues con el teléfono.
9 ¡Vamos a un restaurante! No quiero cocinar.
10 Mi hermano me pidió que le enseñara a jugar al ajedrez. (ajedrez= chess) 107
I went to the shop to ...

Paula wanred a newspaper, so shc wcnt to thc shop.


Why did she go to rhe shop?
To buy a newspaper.
A,!Para comprar un periódico.
She wenr to che shop to buy a newspaper.
Fue a la tienda a comprar un periódico.

to+ infinitivo (to buy / to see etc.) se usa para indicar por qué o con qué finalidad se hace algo. to= 'a' o 'para':
• 'Why are you going out?' 'To gct sorne bread.' 'A,!Para comprar .. .'
• Ann wenr ro rhe srarion to rnect her fricnd. . .. a/para encontrarse ...
• Sue turned 011 rhe televisión to watch rhe news. . .. para ver ...
• l'd like to go to Gerrnany to lcarn German. . .. a/para aprender ...
money/rime to (do something) dinero/tiempo para (hacer algo):
• We need sorne rnoney to buy food.
• 1 haven't gor time to watch television.

to ... y for ...

to+ verbo for + sustantivo


(to buy / to see etc.) (for a ncwspapcr / for food etc.)
• 1 went to che shop to buy a newspaper. • 1 went to che shop for a newspaper.
(no 'for to buy')
• They're going to Scotland to sec their fricnds. • Thcy're going to Scotland for a holiday.
(no 'for to see')
• We need sorne money to buy food. • We need sorne rnoncy for food.

wait for ... (= esperar ... )


Observa estas tres construcciones:
wait for somebody/sornething «esoerer s alguien/esperar algo:
• Please wait for me. Por favor, espérame. I co..n't 90 (X.(t 8et. I'm
• Are you waiting for che bus? ¿Estás esperando el autobús? wo..wng for Jonn to pnone..
wait to (do something) = esperar para (hacer algo):
• l lurry up! l'rn wairing to go. . .. Estoy esperando para salir.
• Are you waiting to see che doctor? ¿Estás esperando para ver
a/médico?
wair for somebody/sornerhing to ... = esperar (a) que alguien/algo ... :
• 1 can't go out yer. l'm waiting for John to phonc .
. . . Estoy esperando que llame John.
• Are you wairing for che doctor to come?
¿Estás esperando a que venga el médico?

go to •..y go for ... ~ ., , ¡¡.¡,a somerhing to eat I nothing to do etc.~ i'! .j,¡¡,¡e, enough ro/for ... ~ i'ili ,rLiiH
too ... to/for ... => jij/juf f,Jfj
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 54
54.1 Escribe frases con l went to ... Elige un elemento de cada cuadro.

~~-aet1- rhe pose office buy sorne food ger sorne starnps
rhe café che supcrrnarket catcl~ a train rneer a friend

1 .. L~~t .. ~ .. #:1.~ ..s.~.~..~ ...~--~.J:r:~.: ...


2 I went .
3
4 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

54.2 Completa las frases. Elige un final apropiado del cuadro.

ro open this <loor to wake hirn up to sce who ir was


to watch che news ro rcad che newspapcr to gcr sorne fresh air

1 I turned on thc television ...~ ..~~ #'!~ ..~~-~ .


2 Alice sar clown in an armchair .
3 Do l need a key ?
4 1 went for a walk by the river .
5 I knocked on che <loor of David's room .
6 The doorbell rang, so I looked out of the window ..

54.3 Con tus propias ideas completa estas frases usando to ...
1 1 went to the shop .. ~ ..b_t.4~ ..~--~-~-~P.<'-.-P.~-
2 l'm very busy. T haven'r got time .
3 l phoned Ann .
4 I'rn going our ..
5 1 borrowed some money ..

54.4 Completa las frases con to o for.


1 Paula went to rhc shop ..f!.? buy sorne bread.
2 We went to a restaurant have dinner.
3 Roben wants to go to universiry study economics.
4 I'rn going to London an interview next week.
5 l'm going to London visir sorne friends of mine.
6 Have you got time a cup of coffee?
7 1 got up late this morning. 1 didn'r have time wash.
8 Evcrybody needs money live.
9 The office is very small. There's space only a desk and chair.
10 A: Excuse me, are you waiting use rhc phone?
B: No, I'rn wairing somebody.

54.5 Completa las frases usando /as palabras siguientes:


Jol'IA / f)hone- it / to arrive you / tell me the film/ begin
1 I can't go out yer. I'rn waiting ...fc>r..::!~~-~--~ ..P.h.~.n.~., ..
2 T sat clown in rhe cinema and waited .
3 We called an arnbulance and waited ..
4 'Do you know what to do?' 'No, I'rn waiting ..

54.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Uso gafas para leer. 7 Necesitamos dos entradas para el concierto.
2 Mi esposa necesita un coche para ir al trabajo. 8 Estamos esperando que llegue el autobús.
3 Necesito ropa nueva para la boda de Terry. 9 Esperé a que mi hermana llegara.
(boda = wedding) 10 ¿Estás esperando que telefonee tu marido?
4 Pulsa aquí para abrir la puerta. (pulsar= prcss) 1 ·1 Necesitas un visado para viajar a China. (visado
5 Se fueron a Madrid a trabajar. = visa)
6 Quisiera ir a París para ver Notrc Dame. 12 Estoy esperando que abra el supermercado.

109
go to ... go on ... go for ... go -ing

'A go to ... (go to work I go to London I go to a concert etc.) = 'ir a .. .'


• Whar rime do you usually go to work? ¿ ... vas al trabajo?
• l'rn going to France nexr week. Voy a Francia ...
• Tom didn'r want to go to thc concert.
• 1 went to the dentist lasr week.
--- go to __.. o
go to bed = 'acostarse', go to sleep = 'dormirse':
• 1 went to bed and l went to sleep quickly. Me acosté y me dormí rápidamente.
go borne (sin to):
• l'm going home now. (no' ... going to home .. .')

B go on ...

holiday de vacaciones
a trip de viaje
a tour ir de viaje organizado
go on
an excursion a una excursión
a cruise a un crucero
srrike a la huelga

• We're going on holiday next week.


• Children often go on school rrips,
• When we were in Scotland, we went on a lot of excursions to different places.
• The workers have gone on strike.

e go for ...

a walk dar un paseo


a run correr
a swim ir a nadar
go (somewhere) for
a drink beber algo
a mea! comer fuera
a holiday pasar unas vacaciones

• 'Where's Ann?' 'She's gone for a walk.'


• Do you go for a run every day?
• The sea looks nice. Ler's go for a swim.
• We went for a drink after work yesterday.
• Shall we go out for a meal? 1 know a good restaurant.
• They've gone to Scotland for a holiday.
(Se dice 'on holiday' pero 'for íl holiday'.)

o go + -ing
Se usa go + -ing con muchas actividades deportivas (swimming I skiing etc.) y también con shopping:

shopping ~
I go
swimming ~
he is going
fishing
we went
sailing
they have gone
skiing
she wa nts to go
jogging etc.

• Are you going shopping this a fternoon? ¿Vas a ir de compras ?


• Ir's a nice day. Ler's go swirnming. (o Let's go for a swim.) Vayamos a nadar.
• Rache! has a small boa e and she often goes sailing. . .. va a navegar.
• I went jogging before breakfast rhis morning. Fui a hacer footing ...
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 55
55.1 Completa las frases con to/on/for donde sea necesario.

1 I'm going ..~ ... France ncxr week.


2 Rache! often goes .. :::... sailing.
3 Sue went Mexico last year.
4 Would you líke to go the cinema this evening?
5 Jack goes jogging every morning.
6 I'rn going out a walk. Do you want to come?
7 I'rn tired because I went to a parry Iast night and went bed very late.
8 Martin is going holiday Italy next week.
9 The wearher was warm and rhe river was clean, so we went a swim.
1O There will be no buses next week beca use the bus drivers are going strike.
11 I need some stamps, so I'm going thc post office.
12 It's late. I musr go home now.
13 Would you likc to go a tour of the city?
14 Shall wc go out a meal this cvcning?
15 My parents are going a cruise rhis summcr.

55.2 Observa /os dibujos y completa las frases usando go/goes/going/wcnt + -ing.

often 2 last Saturday 3 euery day

RACIIEL OIANE GFORGt LINDA PEITR s1m1LA

1 Rache! has a boat, She often .. 9~~~..~~9 .


2 Lasr Saturday Diane went .
3 George cvery day.
4 Linda is going on holiday next month. She is .
5 Peter is going out later. He has to .
6 Sheila after work yesterday evening.

55.3 Usa las palabras del cuadro para completar las frases. Usa to/on/for si es necesario.

home shopping holiday -a-swim sleep


awalk Portugal riding rhe bank skiing

1 The sea looks nice. Ler's go .. ~!'. ...~ ..~~~ .


2 'Is Ann at home?' 'No, she's gone to ger some money.'
3 I'rn going now. 1 have to buy sorne presents.
4 l was very tired Iast night. 1 sat clown in an armcbair and went .
5 T wasn't cnjoying the parry, so I went early.
6 We live near the mountains, In winter we go cvery weekend.
7 Richard has gota horse. He often goes .
8 The weather is nice. Shall we go in the park?
9 A: Are you going soon?
B: Yes, next rnonth. We're going .

55.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 Jane se fue de vacaciones la semana pasada.
2 Carmen se ha ido a dar un paseo.
3 ¿ Fuiste de compras ayer?
4 Ayer .fuimos de excursión a Windsor.
5 Fueron a pescar el sábado.
6 Sara estaba cansada. Se acostó y se durmió.
7 Juan se fue a nadar con sus amigos.
8 ¡Vamos a mi casa a comer algo!
9 ¿Os vais a esquiar este fin de semana?
111
10 ¿Cuándo te vas de vacaciones? (de vacaciones= on holiday)
get

El verbo get se usa en varias construcciones y tiene diversos significados. En los casos aquí tratados. get indica cambio
de lugar, estado o situación.

gct + sustantivo (get a lctter I get a job etc.) = recibir/conseguir, obtener, comprar/tomar, ir a llamar o a buscar.
encontrar, traer, etc: t it
____,~-~ youge 1 ------
you aon't have sometning --............ ou have ir

• 'Did you gct my letter?' 'Yes, T got it yesrerday.' '¿Recibiste ... ?' 'Sí, la recibí .. .'
• 1 like your pullover. Where did you get it? ¿ ... lo compraste?
• Can you get me a knife from rhe kitchen? ¿Puedes traerme un cuchillo ... ?
• (al teléfono) 'Helio, can I speak ro Ann, picase?' 'Onc momenr. 1'11 gct her.' 'La llamo.'
• Wc gct wool from shccp. La lana se obtiene ...
• lt's difficult to gct a job at rhe moment. Es difícil encontrar trabajo ...
También se dice: gct a bus I a train I a taxi (= tomar un autobús/ un tren/ un taxi):
• 'Did you come here on foot?' 'No, I got che bus.'

get + adjetivo (get hungry I get cold I get tired etc.) = hacerse/volverse + adjetivo.

--=---------~
you're not liungry
you get liun
~ you are liungry
Esta construcción corresponde a verbos españoles, con frecuencia reflexivos o derivados de adjetivos. Por ejemplo:
get angry (enfadarse) get dressed (vestirse) get late (hacerse tarde)
gcr cold (enfriarse) get lose (perderse) get hungry (entrar hambre)
ger drunk (emborracharse) gct marricd (casarse) get bcttcr/worse (mejorar/empeorar)
get tired (cansarse) gcr ready (preparar/prepararse) get dark (oscurecer/hacerse de noche)
gct wet (mojarse) gcr hurt (hacerse daño) get old (envejecer)
• If you don't eat, you get hungry. • Linda and Frank are getting married soon.
• Drink your coffee. Ir's getting cold. • I got up and got dressed quickly.
• l'm sorry your mother is ill. I hope she gets better soon. • We went for a walk and got lost.
• We got very wet beca use we didn't have an umbrella.

get to + lugar = llegar a:


• I usually get to work before 8.30. Normalmente llego al trabajo antes de las 8.30.
• We left London ar 10 o'clock and got to Manchester ar 12.45.
• How did you ger here? By bus?
pero: get home (sin ro)= llegar a casa:
/
/
/
~o
• What time did you get home last night? (no 'get to home')

get in/out/on/off = subir/bajar (de los medios de transporte)

[
get in (a car) get out (of a car) get on get off
(a bus I a train I a plane)
• Kate got in (o into) the car and drove away. Kate subió al coche y se alejó.
• A car stopped anda man gor out. ... y bajó un hombre.
• We got on the bus ourside the hotel and got off in Church Srreet. Subimos ... y bajamos ...
Pero se dice out of + sustantivo:
• A man got out of the car .... bajó del coche.
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
56
56.1 Completa estas frases usando get(s) y un elemento del cuadro.

a taxi my letter sorne milk a doctor


your jacket a good salary a ticket the job

1 1 wrote to you last week. Did you .. 9.tj; .. m..!:L~ .. ?


2 Where did you ? Ir's very nice.
3 Quick! This man is ill. We must ..
4 1 don't want to walk home. Let's ..
5 1 hadan interview with che manager bue I didn't .. .
6 When you go out, can you ?
7 'Are you going to the concert?' 'Yes, if 1 can ..
8 Margaret has gota well-paid job. She .. ..

56.2 Completa estas frases usando getting + una de tas palabras siguientes:
dark late -€6ld- rcady married
1 Drink your coffee. lt's 9.~9..':<l~: .
2 Turn on the light. It's .
3 'l'm nexr week.' 'Oh, really? Congratulations!'
4 'Where's Sally?' 'She's to go out.'
5 lt's lt's time to go home.

56.3 Completa las frases usando ger/got + una de las palabras siguientes:
angry bcttcr lrnngry lost married ncrvous old wet
1 If yo u don 'r ea t, yo u ....9~..h..~!'.'.9.1'."!:L.
2 Don't go out in thc rain. You'll .
3 My brorhcr last year. His wife's name is Julia.
4 Why did you with me? 1 didn't do anything wrong.
5 Wc tricd ro find rhc hotel bur wc .
6 Evcrybody wanrs ro sray young bur wc ali .
7 The beginning of rhc film wasn'r very good bur it .
8 Mosr peoplc bcforc examinations,

56.4 Escribe frases con I lcft ... and got to ....


I home/ 7.30 ~ work I 8. l. 5 ... !...~ ..!'.l.'?.1'.n.~..~.L.~.9...Cl.:>"4.. 9~t~...~.O.r.k...aj;.. tJ~. . ..
2 London / 10.15 ~ Bristol / 11.45
I lcfr London ar 10.15 and ..
3 thc parry / 11.15 ~ home/ midnight

4 Escribe una frase verdadero acerca de ti.


I left .

56.5 Completa las frases con gor in I gor off I got on I got out of.
] Kate .9.~-~---- thc car and drove away.
2 1 rhc bus and walkcd ro my housc from rhe bus stop.
3 Ann the car, shut rhe door and went into a shop.
4 1 rnade a stupid mistake. 1 the wrong train.

56.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Puedes traerme el azúcar de la cocina, por favor?
2 Me voy a casa. Está oscureciendo.
3 ¿Cómo puedo llegar a la estación?
4 ¿Dónde puedo comprar un periódico?
5 Tu hermana se enfadó conmigo ayer.
6 Era muy tarde cuando llegaron a casa.
7 Lucía y Roberto se casan hoy.
8 '¿Dónde está Andy?' 'Se está preparando para salir.'
9 Subimos al avión en Barcelona y dos horas más tarde bajamos en Londres. {más tarde= larcr)
10 Ayer llegué tarde al concierto porque me perdí.
113
do ymake

Los dos verbos, do y make, se corresponden normalmente con 'hacer' en español.

Do se usa para hablar de actividades de un modo general:


• Whac are you doing chis cvening? (no 'What are you making?') ¿Qué haces esta noche?
• 'Shall I open che window?' 'No, it's OK. I'll do ir.' '... Yo lo haré.'
• Julia's job is very boring, She <loes the same thing every day. . .. Hace lo mismo todos los días.
• I did a loe of things yesterday. Hice muchas cosas ayer.
What do you do?= What's your job? ¿A qué te dedicas? (trabajo/profesión):
• 'What do you do?' 'I work in a bank.'

Make = elaborar/fabricar/crear. Por ejemplo:

She's making coffee. He has madc a cake. They makc umbrellas, le was made in France.
Compara do y make:
• l did a loe of things yesterday. J cleancd my room, 1 wrotc sorne lctters and I made a cake.
Hice muchas cosas ... limpié ... escribí ... hice un pastel.
• A: What do you do in your free time? Sport? Reading? Hobbies? ¿Qué haces en tu tiempo libre?
B: l make clothes. 1 make drcsses and jackets. 1 also makc toys for children.
Hago ropa. Hago vestidos y chaquetas. También hago juguetes para niños.

Expresiones con do

an exarn (exarnination) I a test un examen • I'm doing my driving test nexr week.
a course un curso • John has just done a training course.
homework /os deberes • Have che children done their homework?
do hacer
(somebody) a favour un favor (a alguien) • Ann, could you do me a favour?
exercises ejercicios • l go for a run and do exercises every morning.
housework las labores de casa • I hace doing houscwork, especially cleaning.

También se dice: do the shopping (hacer la compra)/ the washing (lavar la ropa)/ the washing-up (lavar los platos)/
the ironing (planchar)/ the cooking (cocinar) etc.
• I did the washing bur I didn't do thc shopping.

Expresiones con make

a phone call una llamada • Excuse me. I have to make a phone call.
a list una lista • Have you made a shopping list?
a noise hacer
make ruido • lt's late. We mustn't make a noise.
a bed una cama • Sometimes I forget to make my bed in the morning.
a mistake cometer un error • I'm sorry, I made a mistake.
an appointrnent concertar una cita • 1 muse make an appointment to see che doctor.

Se dice make a film(= hacer una película), pero take a photograph (= tomar una foto):
• When was chis film made? ¿Cuándo se hizo esta película?
• When was chis phorograph taken? ¿Cuándo se tomó esta foto?

do/does/did (negación e interrogación) ~ 1ij:jj,j j,j{JB#M make somebody do something ~ 11 jj.¡j,f U


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
57
57.1 Completa las frases con make/making/made o do/doing/did/done.
1 'Shall I open the window?' 'No, it's OK. 1'11 ....~ ... ir.'
2 What did you at the weekend? Did you go away?
3 Do you know how to bread?
4 Paper is from wood.
5 Richard didn't help me. He satinan armchair and nothing.
6 'What do you ?' 'l'm a doctor.'
7 I asked you to clean the bathroom. Have you it?
8 'What do they in that factory?' 'Shoes.'
9 l'm sorne coffee. Would you like sorne?
1 O Why are you angry with me? 1 didn't anything wrong.
11 'What are yo u tomorrow afternoon ?' 'I'm working.'

57.2 ¿Qué están haciendo estas personas?

1 ...tt~'.~ 1:1:1.#..~9 ~ ..~~.: . 7 .


2 They . 8 .
3 He . 9 .
4 10 .
5 11 .
6 12 .

57.3 Completa las frases con una forma correcta de make o do.
1 J hate . .4.~9... housework, especially cleaning.
2 Why do you always rhe same mistake?
3 'Can you mea favour?' 'It depends what it is.'
4 'Have you your homework?' 'Not yet.'
5 I need to see the dentist but I haven't an appointment.
6 I'rn a course in photography at the moment. It's very good.
7 The last time 1 an exam was ten years ago.
8 When you've finished Exercise 1, you can Exercise 2.
9 There's sorncthing wrong wirh the car. The engine is a strange noise.
1O It was a bad mistake. lt was the worst mistake l've ever .
11 Let's a list of al! the things we have to toda y.

57.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Qué hiciste ayer?
2 'No puedo cerrar esta caja.' 'Tu hermano lo hará.'
3 '¿A qué se dedica tu esposa?' 'Es médico.'
4 Mi madre hizo estos pasteles.
5 A veces hago yo el desayuno en casa.
6 No hagas ruido. Jorge está haciendo ejercicios de yoga.
7 Ayer hice dos exámenes.
8 No me gusta hacer mi cama, pero alguien tiene que hacerlo.
9 Haz la lista y yo haré las compras.
10 Bob me hizo un favor: cuando yo estaba planchando, él lavó los platos. 115
have

havc y havc got (=> Unidad 1 O)


I'vc gor (somcthing} o I havc (somcrhing) = tengo (algo):
• I'vc gota ncw car. o I havc a ncw car. Tengo un coche nuevo.
• Sue has got long hair. o Suc has long hair. Sue tiene el pelo largo.
• Have rhcy gor any children? o Do thcy havc any children? ¿Tienen niños?
• Tim hasn't gota job. o Tim docsn'r have a job. Tim no tiene trabajo.
• How much time havc you got? o How much time do you have? ¿Cuánto tiempo tienes?
También se usa have o havc got para hablar de problemas de salud:
• !'ve gor a headache. o I have a headache. Tengo dolor de cabeza.
• Have you gota cold? o Do you havc a cold? ¿Tienes un resfriado?
El pasado (pasr) es I had (sin gor) / 1 didn't havc / Oid you havc? etc.:
• Whcn I firsr met Sue, shc had short hair. ... tenia el pelo corto.
• He didn't havc any money hccausc he didn't have a job. No tenía ... porque no tenia ..
• How much rime did you havc? ¿Cuánto tiempo tuviste/tenias?

have breakfasr / havc a shower etc.


Have (sin got) se usa también en varias expresiones como have breakfast y havc a showcr. El verbo eqwvalente en
español varía según la expresión (comer. tomar etc.).

breakfast / lunch / dinner desayunar/almorzar/cenar • 'Where's Ann?' 'She's having lunch.'


a mcal / sornething to ear tomar una comida/ • l don't usually have brcakfasr,
or drink algo de comer o beber
havc
a cup of coffee / a glass tomar/ beber una taza de • l had thrcc cups of coffcc rhis morning.
of milk etc. café/ un vaso de leche etc.
a sandwich/ a pizza etc. comer un bocadillo/ una pizza etc. • 'Have a biscuir!' 'Oh, rhank you.'

havc = dar

a parry una fiesta • We're having a parry ncxt wcck. You musr come.
havc a walk dar un paseo • 1 usually havc a walk on Sunday mornings.
a look (ar) un vistazo (a} • Can I have a look ar your ncwspapcr?

bavc = tener
a holiday unas vacaciones • Sarn had a holiday lasr monrh.
a good journey tener un buen viaje • Goodbyc! Have a good journey.
havc
a dream / an accident un sueño / un accidente • l.asr ycar Suc had an accidenr.
a baby un hijo • Sandra has jusr hada baby.

Otros significados:

a bath / a showcr tomar un baño/una ducha • 1 had a shower chis morning.


a game (of) jugar a • Shall we have a game of chess?
havc a rest descansar • Kathy is ti red. She's having a resr.
a swim nadar • lt's sunny and hor. Let's have a swim.
a nice/good time pasárselo bien • Did you have a good time in London?
• Enjoy your holiday! Have a nice time!

Compara l'vc got y I have:


• l've got / 1 havc a ncw showcr. lt's vcry good. Tengo una ducha nueva ...
• l havc a showcr cvcry morning. (no 'l've gor .. .') Me ducho ...
• A: Whcre's Paul?
B: He' having a shower. Se está duchando.
• How oftcn do you havc a showcr? (no' ... havc you a showcr?')
¿ ... te duchas?

I havc / I've got:::) I' ¡.¡¡,.¡i1 I've (done) (PR~f.NT PFRFECT):::) 1 : ¡¡.¡;¡¡,;u I have to ... ~ 1 1 ij U1
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 58
58.1 Completa las frases con la forma correcta de have o have got.
1 !..~\."1~X~ time to do the shopping yesterday. (1 I not I have)
2 :!:!~--~-~-9~ {9.. ~~~---1,.i§.~.."1~".~J. a car?'
'No, shc can't drive.' (Lisa I have?)
3 He can't open rhe door a key. (he I nor I have)
4 a cold last wcek. He's better now. (George I have)
5 What's wrong? a headache? (you I have?)
6 We wanred to go by taxi but enough money. (we/not/have)
7 Liz is very busy much free time. (she I not I have)
8 any problems when you wcrc on holiday? (you / have?)

58.2 ¿Qué están haciendo estas personas? Usa expresiones de la lista siguiente:
a rest a cup of tea a bath breakfast dinncr a nice time

1 ..n:i.~·r.~.!:i.~'f.\l'\9.)r.~~.L.. 4 They .
2 She . 5 .
3 He . 6 ..

58.3 ¿Qué dirías en estas situaciones?


1 Ann is going on holiday. What do you say to her before she goes?
. . H..<l.".~..~--~--1'1~.!...
2 You meet Claire ar the airport, She has just got off her plane. Ask her abour che flight .
.. M.!!~ .. !:!~Y.~.. ~ ..9~--~~t:f ..
3 Tom is going on a long journey. What do you say to him before he leaves?

4 Ir's Monday morning. You are at work. Ask Paula about her weekend.

5 Paul has just come home after playing tennis with a friend. Ask him about the game.

6 Rache! is going out for a meal tonight. What do you say to her before she goes?

58.4 Completa las frases usando have/had y una de las expresiones siguientes:
an accidcnt a glass of water a look a walk il-1.)El-Fty something to eat
l We ..."1~--~-~--- a few weeks ago. We invitcd fifty pcoplc.
2 'Shall we ?' 'No, l'm not hungry.'
3 l was rhirsty, so I .
4 I like to ger up early and before breakfasr.
5 Tina is a very good driver. She has never .
6 There's sorncrhing wrong with the cnginc of my car. Can you at it?

58.5 Traduce al inglés:


No tengo un perro. Tengo un gato.
2 Tengo un resfriado, pero no tengo fiebre.
3 Normalmente me ducho por la noche.
4 La gente normalmente almuerza tarde en España. (la gente= peoplc)
5 Siempre tomo una taza de café por la mañana.
6 Cuando Sue no tenía trabajo, tenía mucho tiempo para leer.
7 Pareces cansada. Toma una taza de té y descansa.
8 Da ve, da un vistazo a estas fotos.
9 Dimos una fiesta el sábado y nos lo pasamos muy bien. 117
1/me he/him they/them etc.

Personas

sujeto 1 we you he she they


objeto me us yo u him her them

sujeto objeto
J I know Ann. Ann knows me. me Conozco a Ann. / Ann me conoce.
we We know Ann. Ann knows us. us Conocemos a Ann. / Ann nos conoce.
you You know Ann. Ann knows you. you Conoces a Ann. / Ann te conoce. •
he He knows Ann. Ann knows him. him Conoce a Ann. / Ann lo conoce.
she Shc knows Ann. Ann knows her. her Conoce a Ann. / Ann la conoce.
they They know Ann. Ann knows them. them Conocen a Ann. / Ann los conoce.

• you (sujeto y objeto) se puede referir a 'tú/vosotros(as)/usted/ustedes'.


En inglés los pronombres objeto van detrás del verbo (Ann knows him.); en español suelen ir delante (Ann /.Q conoce).

8 Cosas

sujeto it thcy
objeto ir them
• I don't want this book. You can have it. . .. Te lo puedes quedar.
• 1 don't want those books. You can have thcm. .. . Te los puedes quedar.
• Diane ncvcr drinks milk. She docsn't like it. ... No le gusta.
• I nevcr go to partie . l don't like thcm. ... No me gustan.

e Se usan los pronombres objeto (me/him/them etc.) detrás de las preposiciones (for/to/with
• This lerter isn't forme. It's for you. ... para mí. Es para tJ.
etc.):

• Who is rhat woman? Why are you looking at her? ... ¿Por qué la estás mirando?
• We're going to the cinema. Do you want to come with us? ... ¿Quieres venir con nosotros?
• Sue and Kevin are going ro the cinema. Do you want to go with them? ... ¿Quieres ir con ellos?
• 'Where's the newspaper?' 'You're sitting on it.' ... 'Estás sentado encima.'
Con frecuencia it/them precede a los otros complementos:
• T want rhar book. Picase, give it to me. . .. Dámelo.
• Robert wants those books. Can you givc thcm to him, picase? ... ¿Puedes dárselos?

O En inglés es necesario usar el pronombre sujeto. En español se omite casi siempre:


• 'What <loes your sisrer do?' 'Shc works in a bank.' ... 'TrabaJa .. .'
• 1 can't do ir. It's roo difficult. No sé hacerlo. Es demasiado difícil.

my/his/their etc. =) ¡,; • 11 CM Give me that bookl I Givc it to me=) 1 O (j:t


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 59
59.1 Completa las frases con him/her/them.
I I don't know those girls. Do you know #.!~ ?
2 I don't know that man. Do you know ?
3 1 don't know those people. Do you know ?
4 1 don't know David's wife. Do you know ?
5 1 don't know Mr Stevens. Do you know ?
6 1 don'r know Sarah's parents. Do you know ?
7 [ don't know the woman with the black coat. Do you know ?

59.2 Completa las frases usando 1/mc/you/she/hcr etc.


I want to scc her but .... ;;.\'!.~... doesn'r want to see ...m..~....

2 They want to sce me but don't want to see .


3 She wants to sec him but doesn'r want to see .
4 We want to see them but don't want to see .
5 He wanrs to see us but don't want to see .
6 They want to see her but doesn't want to scc .
7 1 want to see them but don't want to see .
8 You want to see her but doesn't want to sec .

59.3 Escribe frases que empiecen por I like ... , 1 don't like ... o Do yo u like ... ?
1 1 don't eat toma toes. . .. L~n.'.t..!~~~..!?.').~ .
2 Gcorge is a very nice man. l like .
3 This jacket isn't very nice. 1 don't .
4 This is my new car. Do ?
5 Mrs Clark is not very friendly. I .
6 These are my new shoes ?

59.4 Completa las frases usando rtme/he/him etc.


·1 Who is that woman? Why are you looking at ..!'!.~ ?
2 'Do you know that man?' 'Yes, 1 work with '
3 Wherc are rhc tickets? I can't find .
4 l can't find my keys. Where are ?
5 We're going out. You can come wirh .
6 Margaret likcs music plays che piano.
7 l don't like dogs. I'm afraid of .
8 I'm talking to you. Picase listen to .
9 Where is Ann? 1 want to talk to .
10 My brother has a new job doesn'r like very much.

59.5 Completa las frases.


1 I want that book. Can you .. 9~-~.i:!::.~--~~-- ?
2 He wants the key. Can you give ?
3 She wants the keys. Can you ?
4 T want that letter. Can you ?
5 They want che money. Can you ?
6 We want thc photographs. Can you ?

59.6 Traduce al inglés:


I Nunca como plátanos. No me gustan.
2 Es muy fácil. Podéis hacerlo.
3 Conozco a Sarn y él me conoce a mí.
4 A Sueno le gusta Tom. No quiere salir con él.
5 No tenemos la dirección de jane. ¿La tienes tú?
6 '¿Quieres este bolígrafo?' 'Sí. ¿ Puedes prestármelo?'
7 Dile que no quiero verlo.
8 '¿Dónde está mi diccionario?' 'Lo tiene Tom.'
9 Juan necesita ese dinero. Dáselo.
1O No tengo las fotos aquí. No puedo enseñároslas.
119
my/his/their etc.

mi ... nuestros ... tu ... su ... su ... sus ...

I ~ my r likc my job.
we ~ our Wc likc our jobs.
you ~ your You like your job.
he ~ his He likcs his job.
she ~ her She likes her job.
rhey ~ their They like their jobs.
ir ~ irs Oxford is farnous for its univcrsiry. (irs = su, de Oxford)

my/your/his etc. llevan detrás un sustantivo:


my hands mis manos his morher su madre her new car su coche nuevo
our housc nuestra casa your bese friend tu mejor amigo their room su habitación
your equivale en español a 'tu/tus/vuestro/vuestra/vuestros/vuestras' y también a 'su/sus' (cuando el poseedor es
Vd.¡Vds.).
• Excuse me, is chis your handbag? ... ¿ ... su bolso?
• Sue, Bruce, tell us something abour your rrip to India. . .. contadnos algo de vuestro viaje a la India.

his/her/their I= 'su/sus' en español) se refieren al poseedor (masculino/femenino/plural) y no a lo poseído:

w)ANOY
MR AND MRS TI IOMSO:-J

~~
W\&
her car ~ his bicycle their son
(= Diane's car)

her husband
their daughrcr
(= Diane's ' his sisrer
husband)

her children
(= Diane's ~ his parents their children
children)

it es diferente de it's:
it = su/sus (de cosa o an,mal) • Oxford is famous for its univcrsiry. ... por su universidad.
it's = ir is • 1 like Oxford. Ir's a nicc city. (= Ir is a nice ciry.)

En inglés se usan con frecuencia los posesivos al hablar de partes del cuerpo, prendas de vestir y objetos personales.
Observa las diferencias entre inglés y español:
• How often do you clean your teerh? ¿Con qué frecuencia te limpias los dientes?
• She's gota small scar on her face. Tiene una cicatriz pequeña en la cara.
• He always has his hands in his pockcrs, Siempre está con las manos en los bolsillos.
• Please, cake off your hat. Por favor, quítese el sombrero.
• My legs ache. Me duelen las piernas.
• We can'r find our keys. No podemos encontrar las llaves.

mine/yours etc.~ IIJfjjif 11111 1/me/my/mine ~ IIJfü•ti•iifJ


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
60
60.1 Completa las frases siguientes:
1 l'm going to wash .. rn.!i.l-:1.~S..: .. 4 He's going to wash .
2 She's going to wash .. 5 They're going to wash .
3 We're going to wash .. 6 Are you going to wash ?

60.2 Completa las frases siguientes:


1 I le . -~~~- .1:-11#.'!. ~~- -~~~-· . 5 I parcnts.
2 They live with parcnrs. 6 John .
3 We parcnrs, 7 Do you live ?
4 Julia lives .. 8 Most chilclren ..

60.3 Observa el árbol genealógico y completa las frases usando his/hcr/chcir.


1 1 saw l.iz with .. .I'.!~ .... husband, Philip.
2 1 saw Ann and Ted with children.
3 l saw Ted wirh wife, Ann.
1 4 l saw George with brother, Bill.
5 I saw Ann with brorher, Bill.
Ann = Ted, 6 1 saw Liz ancl Philip wirh son, Bill.
~
Georg e. BilL 7 l saw Ann with parents.
1
8 I saw Diana and Robert wirh parents.

Robert

60.4 Completa las frases con my/our/your/his/her/their/its.


1 Do you like ... !l<l<A.r. .. job?
2 1 know Mr Watson but I don't know wife.
3 Mr and Mrs Baker livc in London. .. son lives in Australia.
4 We're going ro have a party. We're going to invite ali friends.
5 Ann is going out with .. .. .... fricnds chis cvening.
6 1 like tennis. lt's favourite sport.
7 'Is rhar car?' 'No, I haven't gota car.'
8 I want to phone Ann. Do you know phone number?
9 Do you think most people are happy in johs?
1 O T'm going to wash hair bcfore I go out.
11 This is a beauriful cree. .. lea ves are a beautiful colour.
12 John has a brorher anda sister. brother is 25 and sistcr is 21.

60.5 Completa las frases usando my/his/their etc. y una de /as palabras siguientes:
coar horncwork housc husbancl kcy namc
1 Jim doesn't cnjoy ...~l§j~~.... lr's not very interesting.
2 1 can'r open thc door. 1 havcn'r gor .
3 Sally is married works in a bank.
4 lr's very cold toda y. Put on when you go out.
5 'What are thc children doing?' 'They're doing .'
6 'Do you know thar man?' 'Yes, but I don't know .
7 We live in Barton Street. .. is ar rhe encl on che left.

60.6 Traduce al inglés:


l Mi coche es muy viejo.
2 ¿Tenéis vuestros libros aquí?
3 Veo a Carlos y a su hermana los domingos.
4 ¿Puede Vd. enseñarme su pasaporte?
5 Siempre nos lavamos las manos antes de comer. (comer= dinncr)
6 Quítese la chaqueta, por favor.
7 Pablo y su madre están esperándote.
8 Voy a lavarme el pelo.
9 r uestra casa no está lejos de la estación.
10 Avila es famosa por sus murallas. (muralla= wall)
121
Whose is this? lt's mine/yoursjhers etc.

(el) tuyo/ (el) vuestro


(el) suyo (de Vd.)

I -1 my -1 mme lt's my money. lt's mine.


we -1 our -1 ours lt's our money. Ir's ours.
yo u -1 your -1 yours It's your money. It's yours.
he -1 his -1 his lt's his money. Ir's his,
she -1 her -1 hers lt's her money. Ir's hcrs.
rhey -1 rheir -1 theirs Tt's rheir moncy. l r's thcirs.

8 my/your etc. llevan detrás un sustantivo (my hands / your book etc.):
• My hands are cold. Tengo las manos frías.
• Is rhis your book? ¿Es éste tu libro?
• Ann gave me her umbrella. Ann me dio su paraguas.
• lt's their problem, not our problcm. Es su problema, no nuestro problema.
mine/yours etc. se usan solos, sin un sustantivo detrás. Tampoco van precedidos de the:
• Is this book mine or yours? ¿Este libro es mío o tuyo?
• I didn't have an umbrella, so Ann gave me hers. (no' ... the hers.')
No tenía paraguas, así que Ann me dio el suyo.
• It's their problem, not ours. (no' ... the ours. ') Es su problema, no el nuestro.
• We went in our car and thcy went in theirs. (no' ... in the theirs.') ... y ellos fueron en el suyo.
bis puede ir seguido o no de un sustantivo:
• 'Is this his camera or yours?' 'It's his.' '¿Es ésta su cámara o la tuya?' 'Es la suya.'

e En inglés se dice a friend of mine I a fricnd of his / sorne friends of ours etc. (un amigo mío/ un amigo suyo/ unos
amigos nuestros etc.):
• I went out ro meet a friend of mine. ... a un amigo mío/ a una amiga mía.
• Tom was with a friend of his. . .. con un amigo suyo/ con una amiga suya.
• Are those people friends of yours? ¿ ... amigos tuyos?

D Whose ... ? = ¿De quién ... ?


• Whose book is this?
¿De quién es este libro?
Whose puede ir seguido o no de un sustantivo:

l
• Whose money is this?
¿De quién es este dinero?
lt's mine.
Whose is this?
¿De quién es esto?
• Whose shocs are these?
¿De quién son estos zapatos? They're John's.
Whose are these? ) Son de John.
¿De quién son éstos?

my/his/their etc. => 1•):jj,¡t,M1i1 I/me/my/mine => 11. j,/j,UJ Ann's camera I my brother's car => 1i):j),rl,M{1
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
61
61.1 Completa las frases con mine/yours etc.
1 Ir's your money. lt's .. .H~r.~ . 5 lt's their house. It's ..
2 It's my bag. It's . 6 They're your books. They're ..
3 lt's our car. lt's .. 7 They're my glasses. They're ..
4 They're her shoes. They're . 8 It's his coat. It's ..

61.2 Escoge la palabra correcta.

1 lt's their/4eifs. problem, not fü!f(ours. thei r y ours son /as palabras correctas
2 This is a nice camera. Is it your/yours?
3 That's not my/mine umbrella. My/Mine is black.
4 Whose books are these? Your/Yours or my/mine?
5 Catherine is going out with her/hers friends this evening.
6 My/Mine room is bigger than her/hers.
7 They've got rwo children but I don't know their/theirs na mes.
8 Can we use your washing machine? Our/Ours is broken.

61.3 Completa las frases siguientes con friend(s) of mine/yours etc.


1 1 wcnt to the cinema with a .. ~4.~.~-~-~: ....
2 They went on holiday with sorne fr.~4~.. ~.#.1.~~-=-··
3 Shc's going out with a friend .
4 We had dinner with sorne .
5 1 played tennis with a .
6 Tom is going to meet a ..
7 Do you know those people? Are they ?

61.4 Observa /os dibujos. ¿Qué dicen estas personas?

61.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 '¿De quién son estos zapatos?' 'Son míos.'
2 Luisa está usando mi diccionario. Ha perdido el suyo.
3 '¿Son vuestros estos libros?' 'No, los nuestros están aquí.'
4 '¿Esta casa es tuya?' 'Sí, es mía.'
5 Un amigo vuestro es también amigo mío.
6 He terminado mi cena pero John no ha terminado la suya.
7 '¿De quién es esta bicicleta?' 'Pregúntale a Jane. Creo que es suya.'
8 Mi marido viene esta noche al teatro, ¿y el tuyo?
123
1/me/my/mine

Pronombres personales Posesivos


sujeto objeto determinantes pronombres
(===) Unidad 59) ,~ Unidad 59) ,~ Unidad 60) (===) Unidad 61)

~ l know Torn. Torn knows me. lr's my car. lt's mine.

~é WeknowTom. Torn knows us. Ir's our car. lt's ours.


1'~
~ You know Torn. T om knows you. lt's your car. lt's yours.

~ Hc knows Tom, Tom knows him. lr's his car. lr's his.

She knows Tom. Tom knows her. Ir's her car. lt's hcrs,

They know Tom. Torn knows thcm. lr's their car. Ir's theirs.

• A: Do you know rhar man? ¿Conoces a aquel hombre?


B: Yes, 1 know him hur I can't rcrnernbcr his namc. Si, lo conozco, pero no recuerdo su nombre.
• Shc was vcry pleased beca use wc invited her to stay with us ar our housc.
Estaba muy contenta porque la invitamos a quedarse con nosotros en casa.
• A: Where are the children? Havc you secn them? ¿Dónde están los niños? ¿Los has visto?
B: Yes, they are playing with their friends in the park. Sí. Están jugando con sus amigos en el parque.
• That's my pen. Can you give ir to me, picase? Esa es mi pluma. ¿Puedes dármela, por favor?
• A: Is this your umbrclla? ¿Es éste tu paraguas?
B: No, it's yours. No, es el tuyo.
• He didn't havc an urnbrella, so she gavc him hcrs, Él no tenía paraguas, así que ella le dio el suyo.
• I'rn meeting a friend of mine rhis cvcning. Esta noche veré a un amigo mío/ una amiga mía.

myselflyourself etc.~ 111 j friilii Givc me that book! I Givc ir to me! ~ 111 ¡j,¡j,¡:IJ
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
62
62.1 Responde a las preguntas como en el ejemplo.

Yes, I ~.!')~.1:...-:> \1.~ ..!?~~.. .l. ..~'..~J.~.~.~~...\1.~ .. Yes, l know but Ican'r
...~~~.: . remcm bcr .

4
~ou know me?)

.,- ~

y es, 1 but I .. Yes, 1 but .


................................................................................. na mes.

62.2 Completa las frases como en el ejemplo.


1 Wc invitcd her ... t:o...S.~ ..W..it:\1. .V.:S. aj;__~r. ..h.~S..e.,.
2 He invited us to stay wirh house.
3 They invited me to stay wirh house.
4 I invired rhern .
5 She invired us .
6 Did you invite him ?

62.3 Completa /as frases como en el ejemplo.


1 1 gave him ..!)1!:i ..~~:;_5. __ ~4 ..\1.e..9~:'.e...m..e...\1~ .
2 l gave her address and she gave me .
3 He gave me address and I gavc ..
4 We gave rhem address and they gave .
5 She gave him address and .
6 You gave us address and ..
7 Thcy gave you address and ..

62.4 Completa las frases usando him/hcr/yours etc.


1 Where's Ann? 1 lave you seen ..\1.~... ?
2 Where are my kcys? Whcrc did J put ?
3 This lerrcr is for Bill. Can you givc ir to ?
4 We wrore to John bur he didn 't answcr lcttcr.
5 '1 can't find rny pcn. Can I use ?' 'Yes, of coursc.'
6 We'rc going to rhe cinema. Why don'r you come with ?
7 Did your sister pass exams?
8 Sorne pcople talk about jobs ali the time.
9 Last night I wcnr out for a mcal with a friend of .

62.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Roberto me dio su número de teléfono y yo le di el nuestro.
2 Mi hermano trabaja aquí. ¿Lo conoces?
3 ¿ Dónde están tus fotos? ¿ Puedo verlas?
4 Vuestros amigos os están esperando.
5 La vimos en el cine, pero ella no nos vio.
6 Suc me prestó su coche. El mío estaba en el taller. (taller= garage)
7 No me des ahora el libro, guárdalo en tu bolsa. (guardar= keep)
8 Tom está enfadado. Su hermana no le ayuda nunca.

125
myself/yourself/themselves etc. (reflexivos)

He is looking ar hirnselí, Help yoursclf They're enjoying themselvcs.


Se mira. ;Sírvase! Se divierten.

myself mí mismo/me • 1 looked ar mysclf in a mirror. Me miré ...


himsclf sí mismo/se • He cut himself with a knife. {no 'He cut him .. .') Se cortó ...
herself sí misma/se • She fell off her bike but she didn't hurt herself. ... no se hizo daño ...
yoursclf ti mismo/te • Please, help yourself, Sue. Por favor, sírvete tú misma, Sue.
(Vd.) sí mismo/se • Please, belp yourself, Mr Grant. . .. sírvase Vd. mismo, Sr. Grant.
yourselves vosotros mismos/os • Picase, help yoursclves. Por favor, servíos.
ourselves nosotros mismos/nos • We hada good holiday. We enjoyed oursclves. ... Nos divertimos.
themselvcs ellos mismos/se • They hada good time. They cnjoyed thcmselves. ... Se divirtieron.
ellas mismas

B by myself I by yoursclf etc. = a solas/solo


• I wcnt on holiday by myself. Fui de vacaciones solo.
• 'Was she with her fricnds?' 'No, shc was by herself.' '... No, estaba sola.'

e each other = el uno al otro


• Jill and Ann are good friends. They know each othcr well. ... Se conocen bien.
• Paul and l live near cach other, Paul y yo vivimos cerca (el uno del otro).
Compara -selves con cach othcr:

=~J~~!J~
each orher = acción recíproca ourselvcs/yourselves/thcmselves = acción reflexiva

• Steve and Sue looked ar each other. • Steve and Sue looked ar themselvcs.
.. . se miraron (el uno al otro). . .. se miraron (cada uno a sí mismo) .
cach other = el uno al otro -selves = si mismos
• Thcy hurr cach other. Se hicieron daño. • They hurt themsclves. Se hicieron daño.
• Help each other! ¡Ayudaos! • Help yourselvcs! ¡Servíos!

D Algunos verbos no son reflexivos en inglés pero son reflexivos o pronominales en español:
• Are you fccling ali right? ¿Te encuentras bien?
• Whcre can I wash my hands? ¿Dónde puedo lavarme las manos?
• What time shall we meet? ¿A qué hora nos veremos?
A veces gcr + adjetivo (=> Unidad 56) corresponde a un verbo reflexivo o pronominal en español:
• Brian got ti red and stopped working. Brian se cansó ...
• They fell in love and got marricd. Se enamoraron y se casaron.
A veces un PHRASAL VERS inglés (Unidades 108-109) corresponde a un verbo reflexivo o pronominal en español:
• Take off your coat and sit down, picase. Quítese la chaqueta y siéntese, por favor.
• What time do you gct up? ¿A qué hora te levantas?
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
63
63.1 Completa /as frases usando myself/yoursclf etc.
1 He looked at ... h.~~#..... in rhe mirror.
2 l'm not angry with you. I'm angry with .
3 Margaret had a nice time in London. She enjoyed .
4 My friends had a nice time in London. They enjoyed .
5 l picked upa very hor piare and burnr .
6 He never thinks abour othcr pcople. He only thinks about .
7 J want to know more abour you. Tell me abour (one person)
8 Goodbye! Have a nicc holiday and look after ! (two people)

63.2 Completa /as frases usando by mysclf / by yourself etc.


1 1 went on holiday alone. ...!..~~~-~-~..h.~).H.. !!!!f~.~, .
2 Whcn I saw hirn, he was alone. When I saw him, he .
3 Don't go out alone, Don'r .
4 l went to thc cinema alone. 1 .
5 My sister lives alone. My sisrer .
6 Man y people live alone. Many pcople .

63.3 Escribe frases usando each other .

................................................ ,...................... ·······································································


.......... ,............................................................ . .

63.4 Completa /as frases usando cach orher, o oursclvcs/yoursclvcs/thcmsclvcs o us/you/thcm,


I Paul and I livc ncar ... ~ ...q,~~ ....
2 Who are those people? Do you know .J~.~ ... ?
3 You can help Tom and Tom can help you. So you and Tom can help .
4 Therc's food in the kirchcn. lf you and Chris are hungry, you can help .
5 We didn't go ro Ann's parry. She didn'r invite .
6 When we go on holiday, wc always enjoy .
7 Mary and Jane were at school rogerher bur thcy never see now.
8 Diane and I are very good friends. We've known for a long time.
9 'Did you see David and Diane ar che parry?' 'Yes, bue I didn't speak to .
1O Many people talk ro when rhey're alone.

63.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Estaba afeitándose y se cortó.
2 Miraos en el espejo.
3 Aquí está la ensalada. Sírvete tú mismo.
4 Vino de Inglaterra sola.
5 ¿ Cómo se encuentra tu padre?
6 ¿Os divertisteis ayer?
7 Mi esposa y yo nos enamoramos y nos casamos en dos meses.
8 Se escriben a menudo. 127
9 Tuvieron una pelea pero no se hicieron daño. (pelea = fight)
-'s (Ann's camera/ my brother's car etc.)

B ./
o
~
MY I\RO'IHFR

Ann's camera my brother's car thc manager's officc


la cámara de Ann el coche de mi hermano la oticrna del director
's se usa normalmente con personas para expresar posesión, relación familiar o dependencia. En español se indica esta
relación con la preposición 'de':
• l stayed at my sister's housc. (no' ... rhc housc of my sister.')
... en casa de mi hermana.
• Have you met Mr Kelly's wife? (no' thc wife of Mr Kclly?') ¿ ... la esposa de Mr Kelly?
• Are you going to Jamcs's party? (no' the jarnes's party?') ¿Vas a la tiesta de James?
• Paul is a man's namc. Paula is a woman's name. ... nombre de hombre .... nombre de mujer.
Observa que delante de los nombres de personas no se usa the:
Ann's coat (no 'the Ann's coar') Jamcs's party (no 'rhc James's party')
También se puede usar -'s a solas:
• Mary's hair is longer than Ann's. (= Ann's hair) ... más largo que el de Ann.
• 'Whose urnbrella is this?' 'It's my mother's.' (= my mother's umbrella) ... el de mi madre.
• 'Where were you last night?' 'Ar Paul's.' (se sobreentiende= Paul's house) En casa de Paul.

friend's y friends'

Si usamos un nombre en singular (friend/studenr/ Si usamos un nombre en plural acabado en -s


mother), añadimos -'s: (friends/students/parents etc.), añadimos sólo el
apóstrofo ( - '):

my fricnd's house la casa de mi amiga my fricnds' house la casa de mis amigos


my mother's car el coche de mi madre rny parents' car el coche de mis padres

Se usa of ... (=de ... ) para hablar de cosas, lugares, etc.:


• Look at rhe roof of that building (no 'thar building's roof') ... el techo de aquel edilicio.
• Wc didn't see the beginning of thc film (no 'the film's beginning') ... el principio de la película.
• What's the namc of this villagc? ¿Cuál es el nombre de este pueblo?
• Do you know the cause of thc problern? ¿ ... la causa del problema?
• You can sit in the back of the car. . .. en la parte de detrás del coche.
• Madrid is the capital of Spain. ... la capital de España.

mine/yours etc.=:::) il) l •ti•itJI whosc ... ? ===> (1 Hi•#f$1 -'s (hc's I Mary's etc.)~ f i4¡:j1[ .. JI
UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 64
64.1 Observa el árbol genealógico y escribe frases sobre los miembros de la familia.

1 ( Brian/husband) .. fü:~ ...l6....M~!.!Ú ~~~~.a.r.i.4..,


2 (julia/mothcr) ....:-1~~--~--.P.~'.~ ~.@.~.:..
3 (Mary/wifc) Mary is wifc.

,~0
4 (jamcs/brorhcr) James .

"~+®~,
~DANIEL
5
6
7
(Jamcs/unclc)
(Julia/wife) Julia
(Mary/grandrnother)
unclc.
.

Mary and Brian are marricd.


8 (julia/sistcr) .
They have a son, James, anda
9 (Paul/husband) .
daughrer, Julia.
10 (Paul/farhcr) .
Julia is married to Paul.
11 (Daniel/nephew]
Julia and Paul have a son, Daniel.

64.2 Observa el dibujo y responde con una sola palabra.

JANE ANDY ALICI-' DIANF DAVIO

3 .41A And this?


.........................................
And this?

4~ And these? 6 r/50 And these?


~ .

64.3 ¿Son correctas estas frases? Corrige las que no estén bien.
1 1 stayed atÜhc house of my sistey ... ~!i..5.~.~.'.s... n..~.s.e:....-
2
3
What is the name of this villa~c?
Do you like rhc colour of this coat?
· ·º~·-·
4 Do you know the phone numbcr of Bill?
5 The job of mv brorher is very intcresting.
6 Write your namc at the top of thc page.
7 For me the morning is the besr part of thc day.
8 The favourite colour of Paula is blue,
9 Whcn is rhc birthdav of your mother?
10 The house of mv parents isn'r very big.
1l The walls of rhis house are very thin.
12 The car sroppcd ar rhe cnd of rhc streer.
13 Are you going ro the party uf Silvia ncxr wcck?
14 The manager of rhe hotel is on holiday at the moment.

64.4 Traduce al inglés:


l '¿Es ese bolso de Carla?' 'No, el <le Carla es blanco.'
2 Este es el dormitorio de mis hermanas.
3 ¿Es nuevo el coche de rus amigos?
4 El marido de Susana me telefoneó anoche. (anoche = last night)
5 Ayer fuimos a la boda de Marta.
6 '¿Es este paraguas de Tom?' 'No, es de Lucy.'
7 El precio de la leche ha subido. (subir= increase)
8 Ayer fuimos a casa de Sue.
9 '¿Quién es ese hombre?' 'Es el hermano de mi esposa.'
10 Me voy de vacaciones al final de mayo.
129
ajan (1)

A
'rr
1
-
1 -

He's got a camera. She's waiting for a friend. It's a nice day.
Tiene una cámara. Espera a un/a amigo/a. Hace (un) buen día.
a/an = 'un, una'
Se usa a delante de una consonante (b/c/d/j/w/y etc.):
• They've got rwo childrcn, a boy and a girl. Tienen dos hijos, un chico y una chica.
• Al ice works in a bank. en un banco.
• Can I ask a question? ¿ hacer una pregunta?
• Birmingham is a large ciry in central England. . .. una ciudadgrande ...
Se usa an delante de una vocal (a/e/i/o/u):
• Do you want an apple ora banana? ¿ ... una manzana o un plátano?
• l'm going to buy a hat andan umbrella. . .. un sombreroy un paraguas.
• lt is an inreresting film. . .. una película interesante.
también an hour (la h no se pronuncía)
pero se usa a delante del sonido /ju:/: a univcrsity a European country
another (= an + orher) = 'otro/otra'se escribe como una sola palabra:
• Can Ihavc anothcr cup of tea? ¿ ... otra taza de té?
• Open another window. lt's vcry hor. Abre otra ventana ...

B Se usa a/an para designar cosas o personas:


• The sun is a star. . .. es una estrella.
• Football is a gamc. . .. es un juego.
• A mouse is an animal. lt's a small animal. ... es un animal. Es un animal pequeño.
• Joe is a very nice person. . .. es una persona muy agradable.
a/an se usan delante de los nombres de profesiones:
• 'Whac's your job?' 'l'm a dentist.' (no 'I'm dentist.')
... 'Soy dentista.'
• 'What does Mark do?' 'Hc's an cngincer.'
... 'Es ingeniero.'
• Would you like to be a teacher? ¿ ... ser profesor?
• Beethoven was a composcr. . .. era/fuecompositor.
• Picasso was a famous painter. . .. era/fue un pintor famoso.
• Are you a student? ¿Eres estudiante?
.. a/an es singular. Para expresar la idea de 'unos/unas'del español,
se puede usar some/any (~ Unidad 76).

a/an (2) ~ ., i I U1 a car I sorne money (contables e incontables)~ ., ¡.¡ ¡.¡qa;:a


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
65
65.1 Escribe a o an.
1 .. ~. old book 4 airporr 7 univcrsiry
2 window 5 . .. ncw airport 8 hour
3 horsc 6 organisanon 9 cconomic problcm

65.2 ¿Qué son estas cosas? Escoge una opción del cuadro y completa las frases.

&+ffl fruir mountain rivcr musical insrrumcnr


flowcr garnc planee tool vegcrahlc

I A duck is .. ~Ji!r.4 . 6 jupirer 1s .


2 A carror is . 7 Apear is .
3 Ten nis is . 8 The Amazon is .
4 A hammer is . . 9 A rose is .
5 Evere r is . 10 A trumpet is .

65.3 ¿Cuál es su profesión? Observa los dibujos y completa las frases usando las siguientes profesiones:
clectrician nurse photographer prívate detective shop assistant taxi driver

1 ..~.e.'s...~ ..~.~h .. 5 .
2 Hc's . 6 .
3 She """'" 7 .. . .
4 8 And you? l'm ..

65.4 Escribe frases completas usando un elemento del cuadro A y otro del B. Usa a/an cuando sea necesano.
A B
I waAt re aslc y01:1 Barbara works in old house artist
Tom never wears Ann wanrs to learn parry -{JtJ~
Ican't ride Jim lives in bookshop forcign languagc
My brother is This evening I'm going to hat bicycle

1 J ..~~~..~.. ~k... !í~ ..~ ..q~.~~.~z.;


2
3
4
5
6
7
8

65.5 Traduce al inglés:


I Mi padre es mecánico y mi madre es médico.
2 Cervantes fue escritor.
3 Estoy leyendo un libro interesante.
4 Sandra quiere ser periodista.
5 ¿! lay universidad donde vives?
6 Nuestro piso está en un edificio viejo.
7 '¡Toma otra taza de café!' 'No, gracias, pero quisiera un vaso de agua.'
8 Tenemos que esperar una hora.

131
a/an (2)

A En los siguientes casos en inglés se usa a/an, pero ningún artículo en español.

Whar a big car! Shc's gor a cold.


¡Qué gato tan grande! Está resfriada.
en las exclamaciones:
• Whar a noise! ¡Qué ruido!
• What an awful day! ¡Qué día tan malo!
detrás de without (= sin):
• Don'r go out without an umbrella. ... sin paraguas.
• They boughr a housc withour a garage. ... sin garaje.
con los numerales 100 y 1000:
• There are a hundred (o onc hundred) pence in a pound. Hay cien peniques en una libra.
• In thar shop rhere are overa thousand (o one thousand) CDs. ... hay más de mil compact discs.
al hablar de pertenencias o efectos personales:
• Have you gor a watch / a car/ a computcr / a driving licencc / a passport?
¿Tienes reloj/ coche/ ordenador/ permiso de conducir/ pasaporte?
al hablar de ciertos problemas de salud:
• !'ve gor a cough / a ternperarure / a headache / a cold.
Tengo tos/ fiebre/ dolor de cabeza. / Estoy resfriado.
en algunas expresiones o frases hechas, por ejemplo:
• When he was a child ... Cuando era pequeño ...
• Are you an only child? ¿Eres hijo único?
• l'm in a good/bad mood. Estoy de buen/mal humor.

Se usa a/an pero normalmente 'el/la' en español para hablar de características físicas:
• David has got a big nose. David tiene la nariz grande.
• Her car has a very short raíl. Su gato tiene la cola muy corta.
• I've got a sore rhroar, Tengo la garganta irritada.

C También se usa a/an para expresar relaciones de frecuencia+ tiempo, precio+ cantidad, etc.:
rhree lessons a wcek tres clases a la semana
8 hours a day 8 horas al día
ll.50 a kilo .íl.50 el kilo
90 kilornetres an hour 90 kilómetros por hora
• Thcse roma roes arel 1.75 a kilo. ... son a !1. 75 el kilo.
• Thac crain era veis ar 125 miles an hour. ... viaja a 125 millas por hora.

a/an (1) => 1lj:jj,¡t,C:¡.j a car I sorne money (contables e incontables)=> i'iiii·ii4JH\EM
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
66
66.1 Escribe una exclamación para cada dibujo usando What a/an ... !

large interesting tall beawtiful exciting nicc old horrible

1 h:'h..aj; ~.)-~~L. . .9ir.L ! 5 face!


2 day! 6 ................................................................................................ room!
3 book! 7 .................................................................................................... film!
4 ! 8 .......................................................................................................... !

66.2 Observa bien a estas personas o animales y describe sus rasgos más marcados.

1 ·--~-~\ ..9~--~--r.~!'.14 .. :~.: . 4 ..


2 He mouth. 5 .
3 lt . 6 mousrache.

66.3 Observa los dibujos y escribe frases verdaderas usando I've gota ... / l haven't gota ...
4 5 6

1 !.'.~~--9.~..~ .. ~;;~-~-'(O t.._11~:,:-_~\.9~.t...~.~-;;1>9r,t;,.) 4 .


2 . 5
3 . 6

66.4 Traduce a/ inglés:


1 ¡Qué día tan frío!
2 Es una casa grande pero sin jardín.
3 Lucy tiene fiebre.
4 En mi escuela tenemos seis clases al día. (clase= Jesson)
5 Mi hermano está de muy mal humor hoy.
6 '¿Es Teresa hija única?' 'No, tiene una hermana.'
7 Tengo dolor de cabeza. Dame una aspirina.
8 ¡Hola Bruce, qué sorpresa! (sorpresa = surprise)
9 Es un tren rápido. Viaja a 250 kilómetros por hora.

133
flower(s} bus(es} (singular y plural)

A El plural de un sustantivo es normalmente singular+ -s.


singular ~ plural
a flower ~ sorne flowcrs unas flores
a week ~ six weeks seis semanas
a nice place ~ many nice places muchos sitios bonitos
rhis shop ~ thcsc shops estas tiendas
a flower sorne flowers
Ortografía (spelling) de las terminaciones del plural:

El plural de los sustantivos que bus~ buses dish ~ dishes


~ -es church ~ churches box ~ boxes
terminan en -s I -sh I -ch I -x

también se forma añadiendo -es: pocaco ~ potatoes tomate ~ tomatoes


-y~ -ies baby ~ babies dictionary ~ dictionaries party ~ parties
pero -ay I -ey I -oy ~ -ys day ~ days rnonkcy ~ monkeys boy ~ boys
-f /-fe ~ -ves shelf ~ shelves knife ~ knivcs wifc ~ wivcs

8
¡J/
Estas palabras son plural en inglés:

""
á& ~ ~
scissors glasscs trouscrs jea ns pyjamas
tijeras gafas pantalones pantalones pijama (singular en español)
vaqueros

• Do you wear glasscs? ¿Llevas gafas?


• Those jeans make you look younger. Esos pantalones vaqueros te hacen parecer más joven.
• Where are my pyjamas? ¿Dónde está mi pijama?
A veces se dice a pair of scissors I a pair of trousers etc. para indicar uno de estos objetos:
• l need a new pair of pyjamas. o ... sorne new pyjamas. (no 'a new pyjamas') Necesito un pijama nuevo.
Observa que clothes (= ropa) es plural:
• My clothes are dirty. 1 muse wash them. Mi ropa está sucia. Debo lavarla.

e Algunos plurales irregulares que no terminan en -s son:

this man (hombre)~ rhese mcn one foot (pie) ~ rwo feet that shccp (oveja) ~ rhose sheep
a woman (mujer) ~ sorne women a tooth (diente)~ ali rny teeth a fish toeú-« many fish
a child (niño/a)~ many children a mouse (ratón) ~ sorne mice

Observa también: a person ~ two pcople I sorne people I a lor of people etc. El plural 'persons' no es tan frecuente
como 'people'.
• She's a nice person. Es una persona agradable.
pero:
• They are nice people. Sonpersonas agradables.

D People es plural, a diferencia de 'gente':


A lot of people speak English. (no 'a loe of people speaks') Mucha gente habla inglés.
• l like those people tberc. Thcy are very nice. Me cae bien esa gente. Es muy agradable.
Policc también es plural:
The police are coming. (no 'The policc is coming.') Viene la policía.
Do the police carry guns in your country? (no 'Does rhe police ... ?') ¿Va armada la policla ... ?
Para hablar de una persona se usa policcman/policcwoman, police officer:
• My sisrer is a policewoman. Mi hermana es policía.

Ortografía (spclling) ~ Mi 1,@Jj


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS
67
67 .1 Escribe el plural.
1 Aower ...~.~ . 5 urnbrella . 9 family .
2 boar .. 6 address . 10 foor .
3 wornan .. 7 knifc . 11 holiday ..
4 ciry . 8 sandwich .. 12 potaro .

67.2 Observa los dibujos y completa las frases.

1 There are a lot of ...~!').~ in rhe field. 4 Jill has got rwo .
2 George is cleaning his . 5 There are a lor of in the river.
3 There are rhree .. . ar rhe bus stop. 6 The are falling from rhe tree.

67.3 Algunas de estas frases son correctas, pero la mayoría no. Corrige las que no estén bien.
l'm going to buy sorne Ilowers .... <?.~....
2 1 nee<l(a new jeans) .. !..n~ o. n~ ..p<Ur ofj~.. O 1 ~ som~.~j~s ...
J lt's a lovcly park with a lot of beautiful rree .
4 Therc was a woman in rhc car with rwo rncns .
S Shcep ear grass. .. .
6 David is married and has rhrcc childs .
7 Mosr of my fricn<l are studcnr, .. - .
8 He pur on his pyjama and wcnt to bcd .
9 Wc wenc fishing hut we didn'r carch many fish. .. - ·········-·····- .
10 Do you know many persons in rhis town? - - .
11 1 like your rrouser. Where di<l you gct ir? .
12 The rown centre is usually foil of tourist. .
13 1 don't like micc. l'm afraid of rhem .
14 Th1s scissor isn 'r very sharp. .. .

67 .4 ¿Qué opción es la correcta? Completa las frases.


I
lr's a nice place. Many people ...Ee> .... rhere for a holiday. (go ogoes?)
2
Sorne people . always late. (is o are?)
3
The president is not popular. The people like him. (don'r o doesn't?)
4
A lor of pcople televisión every day. (watch o watchcs?)
5
Thrce people injured in rhe accidenr. (was o were?)
6
How many people in rhat house? (livc olives?)
7 . rhe poi ice carry guns in your country? (Do o Does?)
8
Thc police looking for rhe stolen car. (is o are?)
9
1 nce<l my glasses bur I can'r find .... (ir o rhem?)
10 l'm going to buy new jeans today. (a o sorne?)

67.5 Traduce al inglés:


I En esta rienda puedes comprar flores y plantas.
2 ¿Cuánta gente había en el restaurante?
3 La policía está buscando a los ladrones. (ladrón = thief)
4 ¿Cuántos diccionarios hay en las estanterías?
5 Estas pararas son muy buenas pero los tomares están verdes.
6 En esta ciudad hay muchas iglesias. (muchas = a lot of)
7 Me gusta tu ropa. ¿Dónde la compraste?
8 Me compré unos pantalones, dos camisas y un pijama.
135
a car/ sorne money (contable/incontable 1)

Un sustantivo puede ser contable (counrable) o incontable (uncounrable).

Sustantivos contables
Por ejemplo: (a) car (a) man (a) kcy (a) housc (a) flowcr (an) idea (an) accident

Se puede usar oncftwo/three etc. con sustantivos contables (se pueden contar):

one car rwo cars rhree men four houses


Los sustantivos contables pueden ser singular o plural:
singular: a car my car the car etc.
plural: cars two cars rhe cars sorne cars many cars etc.
• Iam going to buy a car. Voy a comprar un coche.
• There aren't many cars in rhe car park. No hay muchos coches en el aparcamiento.
• New cars are very expensive. Los coches nuevos son muy caros.
No uses el singular (car/house ere.) solo. Acompáñalo de ajan,~ Unidad 66).
• What a nice car! (no 'What nice car!')
• We can't ger in wirhout a key. (no 'withour key')
• It's a nice house, bur there isn'r a gardcn. (no 'rhere isn't garden')
• 1 haven't gota watch. (no 'I haven't got watch')

Sustantivos incontables
Por ejemplo: water air rice salt plastic money mu sic ten nis

lt & water
\

salt
No se puede decir onc/two/three etc. + estas cosas: ~
money
~
muste

Los sustantivos incontables sólo tienen una forma (singular):


mooey the money my money sorne moncy much money etc.
• 1 've gor sorne moncy. Tengo algo de dinero.
• There isn't much moncy in the box. No hay mucho dinero ...
• Money isn't everything. El dinero no lo es todo.
Los sustantivos incontables se pueden usar solos:
• We can't live withour water. No podemos vivir sin agua.
No uses a/an + sustantivo incontable: X moncy X music etc.
Para indicar una cierta cantidad decimos a piece of ... / a glass of ... etc.:
a glass of water a can of oil a bar of chocolate a piece of cheese
un vaso de agua una lata de aceite una barra/tableta de un trozo de queso
chocolate
a bottle of milk a piecc of music a bowl of rice a cup of coffee a game of tennis
una botella de leche una pieza de música un bol de arroz una taza de café un partido de tenis

a/an ~ jijfü,,1,jfifJHI contable/incontable 2 ~ ••@UUi•


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
68
68.1 ¿Qué son estas cosas? Algunas son contables y otras incontables. Escribe a/an si es necesario.
bucker envelopc milk ~ Sp(}&ff- toorhpasre
cgg jug money sand toothbrush wallct

lr's lt's Ir's lt's . lt's lr's ..

68.2 A algunas de estas frases les falta a/an. Otras son correctas. Escribe a/an donde sea necesario.
I J havcn't got ~rch ... ~ ..1::1.~ .... 9 Jamaica is island .
2 Do you likc cheese? ..~ . IO I don'r need key ..
3 Ann nevcr wears har .. 1 1 Evcrybody needs food ..
4 Are you looking for joh? . 12 I'vc goc good idea ..
S Mary doesn'r ear mea t .. 1~ Can you drivc car? ..
6 Mary ears apple every day . 14 Do you wanr cup of coffee? .
7 I'rn going to party tonighr, .. 15 J don't like coffec without milk .
8 Music is wonderful thing . 16 Don 'r go out without urnbrella .

68.3 Observa los dibujos y escribe a ... of ... para cada dibujo usando las palabras de los cuadros.

2 3

bar cup loa f hread ffl+lk. rea


~ glass piccc chocolate paper water
bowl [ar piece honey soup wood

1 o.. . bo!fle.. of miil:: ... 4 . 7 .


2 . 5 8
3 . 6 9

68.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Tienes reloj?
2 Mi padre siempre lleva sombrero.
3 Necesitamos una botella de leche, una ha rra de chocolate, un vaso de agua, algo de azúcar y un huevo.
4 '¡Qué casa tan grande!' 'Sí, pero no tiene jardín.'
5 No hay mucho vino, pero hay cerveza y zumo de naranja. (zumo de naranja = orange juice)
6 No olvides el dinero para las entradas. (entradas= rickcrs)
7 No salgas sin chaqueta. Hace frío.
8 No puedo traducir la carta sin diccionario. 137
a car/ sorne money (contable/incontable2)

A a/an (un/una) y sorne (un poco de/ algo de/ unos/ unas/ algunos/ algunas)

a/an se usa con un sustantivo contable en singular (car/apple/shoe etc.):


• 1 nced a new car. Necesito un coche nuevo.
• Would you like an apple? ¿Quieres una manzana?
an apple
sorne se usa con:
sustantivos contables en plural (cars/apples/shoes etc.):
• 1 need sorne new shoes. Necesito zapatos nuevos.
• Would you like sorne apples? ¿Quieres unas manzanas? sorne apples

sustantivos incontables (water/money/music etc.):


• 1 need sorne money. Necesito dinero.
• Would you like sorne cheese?
¿Quieres un poco de queso? sorne cheese o
(o Would you like a piece of cheese?) a piece of cheese

Compara a y sorne:
• Linda bought a hat, sorne shocs and sorne perfume.
• 1 read a newspaper, wrote sorne letters and listened to sorne music.

B Muchos sustantivos son a veces contables y otras veces incontables. Por ejemplo:

sorne chicken o
a chicken sorne chickens ~ a piece of chicken
un pollo unos pollos un trozo de pollo

a paper (= a newspaper) es 'un periódico'. Pero sorne paper / a piece of paper es 'un poco de papel/una hoja de
papel'.
• I want something to read. I'rn going to buy a paper.
• 1 want to make a lisr, 1 need sorne paper / a piece of paper. (no 'a paper')

C Cuidado con estas palabras, normalmente son incontables en inglés:


information advice weather news bread hair furniturc work
• I need sorne inforrnation about horels in London. (no 'informations')
Necesito algunas informaciones sobre ...
• Sue gave me sorne good advice. (no 'ad vices/ a good advice')
... me dio unos buenos consejos.
• It's nice weather today. (no 'a nice weather') Hace buen tiempo hoy.
• Listen! I've just had sorne good news. (no 'a good news') ... unas buenas noticias.
• I'm going to huy sorne bread. (no 'a bread') ... comprar pan.
• Sue has gor very long hair. (no 'hairs') Sue tiene el pelo muy largo.
• They've got sorne very nice furniture in their house. (no 'furnitures') Tienen unos muebles muy bonitos ...
• Have you done your homework? (no 'homeworks') ¿ ... tus deberes?
• 'Do you like your job?' 'Yes, but it's hard work.' (no 'a hard work') ... 'Sí, pero es (un trabajo) duro.'
work significando 'trabajo/actividad' es incontable y a job es 'un trabajo' o 'un puesto de trabajo':
• l've got sorne work ro do. Tengo trabajo que hacer.
• l've gota new job. (no 'a new work') Tengo un trabajo nuevo.

contable/incontable 1 ~ 11 ¡.¡ !U• sorne y any ~ ¡;¡¡jjfrf¡J


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
69
69.1 ¿Qué compraste? Responde usando I bought ... y la información de los dibujos.

1 . .I.J~9-~t.~!?ro..~.~-~-~-~,
.. ~ ..~#...~4 ..~!?'"o.'?:..~.~'!.f!'.~ .
2 I bought .
3 .
4 ,,.,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,, .

69.2 Escribe frases usando Would you like a ... ? o Would you like sorne ... ?

1 ..W~.!4. .!:!~ ..14.~..~!?ro..~.q)~~~L 4 ,,,,,,,, ?


2 Would you like ? 5 ?
3 Would ? 6 ?

69.3 Completa las frases cona/ano con sorne.

1 1 read ..'!-:.. book and lisrened to ...~.!?ro.'?:.. music.


2 1 need money. I want co buy food.
3 We rncr intcresting pcople ar the party.
4 l'm going to open window to get frcsh air.
5 She didn't ear rnuch for lunch - only apple and bread.
6 Wc livc in big housc. There's nice garden with beautiful trces.
7 l'm going to rnake a table. First 1 need wood.
8 Listen to me carefully. T'm going ro give you advicc.
9 I want to write a letter. 1 necd papcr and pcn.

69.4 ¿Qué alternativa es la correcta?

I I'm going to buy sorne new§fteet'.shoes. sboss es la forma correcta


2 Marrin has got brown eye/eyes.
3 Paula has got shorr black hairzhaírs.
4 The rourist guide gave us sorne information/informations about the town.
5 We're going to buy sorne new chair/chairs.
6 We're going to buy sorne new furniture/furnitures.
7 It's difficult to get a work/job at che mornent.
8 We had lovely wearher / a lovely wcather when wc were on holiday.

69.5 Traduce al inglés:

1 Estoy buscando un trabajo en Barcelona. (buscar= look for)


2 Dame papel y un lápiz, por favor.
3 Me gustaría comprar muebles nuevos.
4 Tengo hambre. Voy a comer pan. (comer= have)
5 Javier tiene un problema difícil. Necesita consejos.
6 Tengo buenas noticias. Carlos y Roberto aprobaron sus exámenes. (aprobar= pass)
7 Quiero algunas informaciones sobre el nuevo museo.
8 Ayer tuvimos un tiempo horroroso. (horroroso= awful)
139
the

the corresponde normalmente a 'el/la':


• Thc sky is blue and thc sun is shining. El cielo ... el sol ...
• Lima is thc capital of Peru. . .. la capital de ...
• Can you tell me thc time, picase? ¿Puedes decirme la hora ... ?
• My office is on the first floor. ... en el primer piso.
• Do you live near the city centre? ¿ ... cerca del centro de la ciudad?
• Excuse me, where is the nearest bank? ¿ ... el banco más cercano?
• Do you drive on the right or on the left in your counrry? ¿Se conduce a la derecha o a la izquierda en tu país?
• My house is at the end of this strcct. . .. al final de esta calle.
Se dice in the middle of (en medio de):
• The table is in the middle of the room. (no 'in middle of')

En los casos siguientes no se usa thc en inglés:

colores: • I don'r like red or whitc. No me gusta el rojo ni el blanco .


comidas: • I never have breakfast. (no 'the breakfast') Nunca desayuno .
• What time do you have lunch? ¿A qué hora almuerzas?
• Dinner is ready. La cena está preparada .
títulos: ( Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms/ Aun t/U ncle/Doctor/Captain etc.):
• Do you know Mrs Smith? ¿ ... a la Sra. Smith?
• Uncle Robert is ill. El tío Robert está enfermo .
• Captain Cook discovered Australia. El Capitán Cook ...
Mum/Dad y otros miembros de la familia:

Mum's gone ro rhe cinema. La mamá se ha ido al cine .

Sue is playing wirh Grandad. .. . con el abuelo .
nombres de los días (Monday!Tuesday etc.)
• l'll be away from Monday to Friday. Estaré fuera desde el lunes hasta el viernes .
• Do you work on Saturdays? ¿Trabajas los sábados?
next/last (+ week/month!year/summer/Mondayetc.):
• I'm not working next week. ... fa semana que viene .
• Did you have a holiday lasr summer? ¿ ... el verano pasado?

e television/radio
Se dice:
• l watch tclcvision a lot. Veo mucho la televisión.
• Whar's on television tonight? ¿ ... en fa televisión ... ?
pero se dice rhe radio:
• I listen ro the radio a lor. Oigo mucho la radio.
• What's on rhe radio ronight? ¿ ... en la radio ... ? THE
Cuando nos referimos al televisor se dice thc tclevision:
• Can you turn off the television? ¿Puedes apagar el televisor? THE

• 1 Otros usos y omisiones de the ~ ji¡:j¡.¡Mffi§i:i the oldest I the rnost expensive etc. ~ N!H j,Jlil
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
70
70.1 Escribe the donde sea necesario. Si la frase es correcta escribe OK.
1 Whar is (name) of this srrcct? .. Jn.e: ..~~i;, ....
2 What's on rclevision tonighr? .... .Q!<- .
3 Our apartment is on second floor .
4 1 wenr to cinema wirh Dad .
5 Which is besr hotel in rhis town? .
6 What time is lunch? .
7 How far is ir ro ciry centre? .
8 Wc'rc going away ar cnd of May .
9 What are you doing next weekend? .
10 Is Mr Sullivan ar home? ..
1 1 I'rn going out afrer dinncr ..
12 There is a srarue in middle of founrain .
13 My sisrer got married last rnonrh .
l 4 My dictionary is on top shelf on right ..
15 We live in country abour five miles from nearcst villagc .

70.2 Observa los dibujos y completa las frases usando the si es necesario.

1 ...D.i:n.l'.l.e.r... is ready. 4 They'rc having ..


2 He's lisrening to .. . 5 They're watching .
3 Srnith is in his office. 6 She's travelling to Paris on .

70.3 Completa las frases usando /as palabras de la lista y the si es necesario.
breakfast diAAer last Sunday lunch green radio next month middle
television ~
1 'Can you tell me ..~~.~.~. picase?' 'Yes, it's half past six.'
2 We had ..~~~-·-ara restaurant lasr night.
3 is a good colour for you. Ir makcs you look younger.
4 Did you see the film on last night?
5 I was hungry this morning bccausc I didn't havc .
6 wc wcnt to the beach.
7 There is a bus stop in of the squarc.
8 'What did you havc for ?' 'Justa salad.'
9 When l'm working at home I like listening to ..
10 We are going to huy a new car .

70.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 Mi color favorito es el verde.
2 El Sr. López está esperándonos.
3 Ayer vimos a la tía Lola en el centro de la ciudad.
4 ¿A qué hora es el desayuno?
5 Hay una isla pequeña en medio del río. (isla = island)
6 El cine está al final de esta calle a la izquierda.
7 El Dr. Gómez trabaja en el Hospital General.
8 ¿Puedes encender el televisor? (encender= turn on)
9 Liz escucha la radio a menudo pero nunca ve la televisión.
10 El lunes las tiendas abren a las 9.

141
go to work / go home / go to the cinema

She's at work. They're going to school. He's in bed.


Normalmente no se usa the con los lugares de trabajo, estudio, iglesias, etc.:

(go) to work, (be) at work, start work, finish work:


• Goodbye! l'm going to work now. (no 'to rhe work')
... me voy al trabajo ahora.
• 1 finish work at 5 o'clock evcry day. Termino el trabajo ...
(go) to school, (be) at school, srart school, leave school etc.:
• What did you learn at school toda y? ¿Qué has aprendido hoy en la escuela?
• Some children don 't like school. A algunos niños no les gusta la escuela.
(go) to universiry/college,(be) at university/colJege:
• Helen wants to go to university (no 'go to the university') when she leaves
school (no 'leaves the school').
Helen quiere ir a la universidad cuando deje el instituto.
• What did you study at college? ¿Qué estudiaste en la universidad?
(go) to hospital, (be) in hospital:
• Jack was in an accident. He had to go to hospital. (no 'to rhe hospital')
... ir al hospital.
(go) to prison, (be) in prison:
• Why is he in prison? (no 'in che prison') What did he do?
¿Por qué está en la cárcel? ...
(go) to church, (be) in/ar church:
• David usually goes to church on Sundays. ... va a la iglesia ...
(go) to bed, (be) in hed:
• I'm tired. l'm going to bed (no 'to the bed'). Estoy cansado. Me voy a la cama.
• 'Where's Jill ?' 'She's in bed.' ... 'Está en la cama.'

También:
(go) home, (be) at home etc.:
• l'm tired. l'm going home (no 'to home'). . .. Me voy a casa.
• Are you going out ronighr orare you staying at home? ¿... o te quedas en casa?

B Se utiliza the con otros nombres de lugares como:

(go to) the cinema I the theatre I the bank I the post office I the station I
the airport I the ciry centre etc.:
• I never go to the theatre but I often go to the cinema.
• 'Are you going to the bank?' 'No, the post office.'
(go to) the doctor, the dentist:
• You're nor well. Why don't you go to the doctor?
• I'rn going to the denrist tomorrow.

the ee UNIDADES 70, 72-73 in I ar => I' ) JHfJltJl#$(1il


1 to/ in I at => (1 j fi illfj (at) horne ee ll)'jj,01IHfJ
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
71
71.1 ¿Dónde se encuentran estas personas? Observa los dibujos y completa /as frases. Usa thc cuando sea necesario.

1 He's in ... ..b.~: . 3 She's in .. 5 They're at ..


2 They're at . 4 She's at . 6 He's in ..

71.2 Completa las frases con palabras de la lista. Usa the cuando sea necesario.
bed home post office school station

1 I need some money, I must go to ...~~.~~ .......


2 David usually goes to ... c:11.u..r<:J:1 on Sundays.
3 In Britain, children go to from che age of five.
4 Therc wcrc a lot of people at waiting for the train.
5 I phoned you last night but you weren'r at .
6 I'rn going to now. Goodnight!
7 I'rn going ro to get some srarnps.

71.3 Completa las frases. Usa the cuando sea necesario.

1 lf you want ro catch aplane, you ... 9~..!:9. ..~~-~!:t ..


2 lf you want to see a film, you go to .
3 lf you are tired and you want to sleep, you ..
4 lf you rob a bank and thc poi ice catch you, you ..
5 lf you have a problern wirh your teeth, you ..
6 If you wanr to study after you lea ve school, you ..
7 If you are injured in an accident, you ..

71.4 Escribe the donde sea necesario. Si la frase está completa escribe OK.

1 We went(to cinenla) last night ..... t.o #.1~..~~.~ ..


2 I finish work at 5 o'clock every day .9~ ..
3 Mary wasn't feeling well yesterday, so she wenr to doctor. .
4 I wasn't feeling well chis morning, so I stayed in bed .
5 Why is Angela always late for work? ..
6 'Where are che children?' 'They're at school.' ..
7 We've got no money in bank. .. .
8 When I was younger, I went to church every Sunday ..
9 What time do you usually get home from work? .
1O Do you live far from city centre? .
11 'Where shall we meet?' 'At station.' ..
12 Jim is ill. He's in hospital ..
13 Margaret takes her children to school evcry day .
14 Would you like to go to univcrsity? .
15 Would you like to go to theatre this evening? .

71.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Dejé la escuela y fui a la universidad en 1998.
2 Después del accidente estuve en el hospital durante tres semanas. (durante= for)
3 Voy a correos. Necesito sellos.
4 No vamos a la iglesia los domingos.
5 Es tarde. Quiero ir a casa.
6 Conocí a Jane en el trabajo. (conocer = meet)
7 Lola está enferma. Tuvo que ir al médico esta mañana.

143
l like music I hate exams

4o
3o
lo

o
-10
o
-z»

No se usa the con los nombres que tienen un sentido general. Cuidado: en español a veces se usa 'el/la/los/las':

m
• 1 like music, cspecially classical music. (no 'rhe rnusic ... thc classical rnusic']
Me gusta la música, especialmente la música clásica.
• Wc don'r car mear vcry oftcn.
No comemos carne muy a menudo.
• Lifc is not possiblc without water. (no 'the life ... rhe water')
La vida no es posible sin (el) agua.
• 1 hate exams. (no 'the exams')
Detesto los exámenes.
• Do you know a shop that sells forcign ncwspapers?
¿ ... que venda periódicos extranjeros?
• I'm nor vcry good ar writing letters.
No se me da muy bien escribir cartas.
No se usa the con /os nombres de juegos ni de actividades deportivas:
• My favourirc sporrs are tcnnis and skiing. (no 'rhe rennis ... rhc skiing')
Mis deportes favoritos son el tenis y el esquí.
• Can you play chcss? (no 'thc chcss')
¿Sabes jugar al ajedrez?
Tampoco se usa the con los idiomas ni las asignaturas (hisrory/geography/physics/biology etc.):
• Do you think English is difficult? (no 'the English')
... el inglés ...
• 1 prefer physics to chemistry. (no 'the physics ... che chemistry')
Prefiero la física a la química.

flowers o the flowers?


Compara:

al hablar en general no se usa thc: al hablar de casos particulares se usa thc:


• Flowcrs are beauriful. • This is a lovcly gardcn. Thc flowcrs
Las flores son bonitas. are bcautiful. (las de este jardín)
• 1 don'r like cold wcathcr. • Thc weathcr isn't very nicc toda y.
No me gusta el tiempo frío. (= el tiempo que hace hoy)

• Are you interested in history? • Are you inrerested in the history


¿Te interesa la historia? of your counrry? (= la de tu país)
• Everybody needs food. • It's a nice hotel and the food is
Todo el mundo necesita comida. very good. (= la comida de ese hotel)

the => UNIDADES 70-71, 73


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 72
72.1 ¿Cuál es tu opinión sobre estas cosas?

dogs big cities motor racing TV quiz shows exarns parties


museums tea basketball cornpurer games loud music hard work

Elige siete cosas y escribe frases que empiecen por:


I like ... Idon't like ... I love ... I hatc ... I don't mind ... (= ir's OK)

1 ... l)1o..te. .e.XOJYI$ ....


2
3
4 .
5
6
7
8

72.2 ¿Te interesan estas cosas? Responde usando las expresiones siguientes:

l'rn (vcry) intcrcsred in ... I know a lor abour . I don't know much about ...
I'm not intcrestcd in ... I know a littlc ahour . I don't know anyrhing abour ...

(h isrory) .. __ l_'_rri__ r.~ -~~~~~ ..~..~.ͧ.~!'.!:I., .


2 (politics) I .
3 (sport) .
4 (art) .
5 (asrronomy) .
6 (cconornics) .

72.3 Observa las palabras subrayadas y escoge la forma correcta:


1 :\ 1 y Favourire sport is ten nis /rhe te1rnis. rennis es la forma correcta
2 1 like chis hotel. Reems-/Thc rooms are ver)' nice. The rooms es la forma correcta
3 Everybody necds friends / the friends.
4 Jane docsn't go to parties / the parrics vcry oftcn.
5 1 wcnt shopping rhis rnorning. Shops / Thc shops werc vcry husy.
6 'Wherc's milk / the rnilk?' 'Ir's in rhe fridge.'
7 1 don't like rnilk / thc milk. l nevcr drink ir.
8 'Do you do any sports?' 'Yes, l play foothall / the foorball.'
9 Thcsc days a lot of pcople use computers I the computcrs.
10 Wc wenr [or a swim in rhc river. Water /The water was very cold.
11 1 don 't like swimming in cold water/ rhe cold water.
12 Excuse me, can you pass salt / thc salr, please?
13 1 like this town. I likc pcoplc I thc pcoplc here.
14 fuetablcs / The vegeta bles are good for you.
15 '\X'herc are children / che children?' 'Thcy'rc in the garden.'
16 1 cau't sing this song. 1 don 'r know words / thc words.
1- 1 cnjoy raking phorographs I the photographs. lr's rny hobby.
18 1 must show you phorographs / thc phorographs rhar I took when l was on holiday.
19 English / The English is used a lor in inrcrnarional business / rhe inrernarional business.
20 \loncy I Thc mone\' doesn 'r always bring happiness / rhe happiness.

72.4 Traduce al inglés:


No me gusta la música rock. Prefiero la música clásica.
2 ¿El azúcar tiene muchas calorías? (calorías= calories)
3 ¿Te gustaría jugar al fútbol?
4 L1 biología es muy difícil. El inglés C!-. fácil.
S Gent'ralmentc no me gusta el pescado, pero el pescado de este restaurante es muy bueno. (de= in)
6 I.os tomates son más caros que las patatas.
7 A l.ucy le encantan la fruta y· las verduras.

145
the (con nombres de lugares)

'A Nombres de lugares (continentes/países/estados/islas/ciudades/pueblosetc.)

Normalmente no se usa the con /os nombres geográficos:


• Argentina is a very large country. (no 'rhe Argentina') La Argentina ...
~ • Cairo is the capital of Egypt. (no 'che Cairo') El Cairo ...
~ • Peru is in South America. (no 'the Peru' ... 'rhe South America') El Perú está en Sudamérica.
Pero se usa the con /as palabras 'republic'/'states'/'kingdom':
the Republic of Ireland (o the Irish Republic) the Czech Republic
THE
the United States of America (the USA) thc United Kingdom (the UK)

B Nombres en plural

Se usa the con /os nombres en plural de países, is/as y montañas:


THE che Netherlands the Canary Islands the Philippines the Andes

C Mares, ríos, etc.

Se usa the con /os nombres de océanos, mares, ríos y canales:


the Atlanric (Ocean) the Mcditcrrancan (Sea) the Amazon
THE thc (River) Nile the Sucz Canal the Black Sea

O Montañas y lagos

Normalmente no se usa thc con nombres de montañas o lagos:


JM{ (Mount) Evcrcst (Mount) Etna Lakc Michigan Lake Leman

E Lugares en centros urbanos (calles, plazas, edificios, etc.)

Normalmente no se usa che con nombres de calles, plazas, etc.:


• Kevin lives in Newton Street. (no 'che Newton Strect')
JM{ • Where is Highficld Road, picase?
• Times Square is in Ncw York.
No se usa thc con airport/station/university/castle etc., si van precedidos del nombre:
~ Kcnncdy Airport Victoria Starion Cambridge University
~ Wcstminstcr Abbcy Edinburgh Castle London Zoo

pero se suele usar the con nombres de hoteles, restaurantes, pubs, cines, teatros, museos, etc.:
thc Hilton (Hotel) the Star of India (restaurante)
THE the Science Museurn the Odeon (cine)
thc Prado (Museum) the Nacional Thcatrc

~ rhc ... of ...

las locuciones que llevan ... of ... van precedidas de the:


the Republic of Ireland the Bank of England
THE
the Great Wall of China the Tower of London
Se dice thc north / thc south / the east / the west / thc middle (of ... ):
• I've been to the north of ltaly but not to the south.
• Santander is in the north of Spain. Valencia is in che east.
• Madrid is in the middle of Spain.
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
73
73.1 Repasemos geografía. Escoge la palabra correcta en cada caso y escribe the donde sea necesario.

7 3
12~ 5

15 1,Í
..,_,__13
4 ... 8

10

1 ~IL is thc capital of Egypt. Alps


2 Th~.A~ti&, is berween Africa and América. Amazon
3 is a country in northern Europe. Andes
4 is a river in South America. Asia
5 is the largest continent in thc world. Atlantic
6 is the largest ocean. Bahamas
7 is a river in Europe. Ga+Fe-
8 isa country in East A frica. Kenya
9 is betwecn Canada and Mexico. Malta
10 are mountains in South América. Pacific
11 is thc capital of Japan. Red Sea
12 are rnounrains in central Europe. Rhine
13 is berween Saudí Arabia and Africa. Sweden
14 is an island in the Mediterranean. Tokyo
15 are a group of islands near Florida. United States

73.2 Escribe the donde sea necesario. Si la frase es correcta escribe OK.

1 Kevin lives in Newton Street. .. ...OK.....


2 We went to see a play(at National Theatie). ..Afi..th!:-.. N.w.naj, ..Th.~i:: .
3 Have you ever been to China? ..
4 Havc you ever been to Philippines? .
5 Have you ever been to south of France? .
6 Can you tell me where Regal Cinema is? .
7 Can you tell me where Merrion Street is? ..
8 Can you tell me where Museum of Modern Art is? ..
9 Europe is bigger than Australia .
1O Belgium is smaller than etherlands ..
11 Which river is longer - Mississippi or Nile? ..
12 Did you go to National Gallery when you were in London? ..
13 'Where did you stay?' 'At Park Hotel in Hudson Road.' ..
14 How far is it from Trafalgar Square ro Victoria Station (in London)? ..
IS Rock y Mounrains are in North America .
16 Texas is famous for oíl and cowboys .
17 Panamá Canal joins Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. . ..
18 I hope to go to Unitcd Sta tes ncxt ycar .
19 Mary comes from a small rown in west of lreland .
20 Atan studied physics at Manchcster University .

73.3 Traduce al inglés:


I El Japón es un país rico.
2 Chicago está junto al lago Michigan. (junto a= on)
3 ¿Hay trenes del aeropuerto de Gatwick a la estación Victoria?
4 El verano pasado fui a Filipinas.
5 El río Mississippi es muy largo.
6 El océano Atlántico es más frío que el mar Mediterráneo.
7 Inverness está al norte de Escocia. Brighton está al sur de Inglaterra.
8 La China es más grande que la India.
9 El museo Guggenheim es muy interesante.
lO El aeropuerto Kennedy y el aeropuerto de Newark están cerca de Manhattan.
147
this/that/these/those

this = este/esta/esto thcse = estos/estas rhat (singular) those (plural)

J;
this picturc that picrure
this (= this picturc here) that (= thar picrurc there)

these thcsc flowcrs those those pcople


~ (= thcse flowers here) {= rhosc pcople there)

this/that/thcsc/those pueden llevar detrás un sustantivo (this picturc I that girl, etc.) o ir so/os:
con sustantivo:
• This hotel is expensive, bur it's very nicc. Este hotel ...
• 'Who's that girl?' 'l don't know.' '¿Quién es esa/aquella chica?'
• Do you likc rhcsc shocs? 1 boughr thcm last weck. ¿Te gustan estos zapatos?
• Thosc applcs look nice. Can l havo one? Esas/Aquellas manzanas ...
sin sustantivo:
• This is a nicc hotel bue ir's very cxpcnsivc. Éste es un hotel bonito ...
• 'Excuse me, is this your bag?' 'Oh, yes. Thank you.' '¿ ... es ésta su bolsa?'
• Who's that? (= Who is rhat pcrson?) ¿Quién es?
• Which shocs do you likc mosc? Thcsc or chosc? ... ¿Éstos o ésos/aquéllos?

that = algo que ha ocurrido:


• 'I'rn sorry I forgoc to phonc you.' 'That's all righr.' ... 'No importa.'
• That was a rcally nice mcal. Thank you very much, Ha sido una comida estupenda ....
that = algo que alguien acaba de decir:
• 'You're a tcachcr, aren't you?' 'Yes, thar's right.' ... 'Sí, exacto.'
• 'Martín has gota new job.' 'Has he? 1 didn't know that.' ... 'No lo sabía.'
• 'I'rn going on holiday next week.' 'Oh, thar's nicc.' ... 'Oh, está bien.'

this/that pueden referirse a personas. Observa los ejemplos:


• Who's that? ¿Quién es?
Al teléfono:
• Helio. This is David. Diga. Soy David.
• Is that Sarah? ¿Eres Sarah?
Al hacer presentaciones se usa this:
• A: Brian, this is Chris. Brian, éste es Chris.
B: Hello, Chris - pleascd to meet you. Hola, Chris. Encantado
de conocerte.
C: Helio. Hola.

like this/like that = así (de este modo/ de ese modo):


• Don't do it like that. Do it Jike chis. No lo hagas así. Hazlo así.
• Don't look ar me like that. No me mires así.
LINDA BRIA:S.: CHRIS
this one / that one => 1ij.jj,frifJ
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
74
74.1 Completa las frases con this/that/thcsc/rhose + una de las palabras siguientes:

birds housc pi ates postcards seat shocs


1 3 ~~~~~~~~~-
H o w much are .

=
__.

74.2 Escribe preguntas usando Is this/that your ... ? o Are these/those your ... ?

74.3 Completa las frases usando this is I rhar's I thar,


A: l'm sorry l'rn late. 5 A: Jill plays the piano very well.
B: ...Tu~fs. .... ali right. B: Really? I didn'r know .
2 A: T can't come to the party tornorrow. 6 Mark meets Paul's sister (Ann}:
B: Oh, a pity. Why not? Paul: Mark, my sisrer, Ann.
3 (011 the telephone) Mark: Helio, Ann.
Suc: Helio, Ann Sue. 7 A: I'rn sorry I was angry ycstcrday.
Ann: Oh, helio, Sue. How are you? B: OK. forget it!
4 A: You're lazy. 8 A: You'rc a friend of John's, aren'r you?
B: not true! B: Y es, righr.

74.4 Traduce al inglés:


I Esta tala está sucia.
2 Estos coches son nuevos.
3 Me gustan esas flores.
4 (Al teléfono:) 'é Quién es?' 'Brian.'
5 'Lo siento. Olvidé telefonear a tu hermana.' 'No importa.'
6 'éEs Vd. el profesor?' 'Exacto.'
7 No uses el cuchillo así. Mira, úsalo así.
8 ¡Mira ese coche! Quiero uno así.

149
one/ones
A one es un número(= 1), pero, como en español, a veces se usa para evitar repetir un sustantivo:

Would you like ¿Quieres uno?

Would you like lliilliil


one = a/an ... (a chocolate/ an apple ere.)

• Ineed a pen. Have you got one? Necesito un bolígrafo. ¿Tienes uno?
• A: Is rhere a bank near here?
B: Yes, there's one round the comer. Sí, hay uno al volver la esquina.

B one yones
one (singular) y ones (plural) pueden sustituir a sustantivos. A veces no tienen equivalente en español:

onc (singular)

Which onc? = Which hat? Which oncs? = Which flowers?


¿Cuál?= ¿Qué sombrero? ¿Cuáles?= ¿Qué flores?

this one / that one = éste/ése/aquél No se suelen usar these/those con ones:
• Which car is yours? This one or that one? • Which flowers do you want? These or
¿Éste o ése/aquél? those? ... ¿Éstas o ésas/aquéllas?
the one ... = el/la que está ... the ones ... = los/las que están ...
• A: Which hotel did you stay at? • A: Which keys are yours?
B: The one opposite rhe station. B: The ones on the table.
El que está enfrente de la estación. Las que están en la mesa.
the + adjetivo + one the + adjetivo + oncs
• l don't like the black coat but I like the • I don't like the red shoes bue I like the
brown one. . .. la marrón. green ones. .. . los verdes.
• Don't buy that camera. Buy the other • Don't buy those apples. Buy the othcr
one. . .. la otra. ones. .. . las otras.
a/an + adjetivo+ onc (sorne) +adjetivo+ oncs
• This cup is dirty. Can l have a clean one? • These cups are dirty. Can we have
... ¿Me das una limpia? sorne clean oncs? ... ¿Nos das limpias?
• That biscuit was nice. I'rn going ro have • My shocs are very old. [ must buy
another one. . .. otra sorne new ones .
.. . He de comprarme unos nuevos.

En inglés no se suele decir a/the + adjetivo sin un sustantivo detrás. Se puede usar onc/oncs en lugar del sustantivo para
no repetirlo:
• I'm going to sell my car and buy a new one. (no 'a new')
• 'Which shoes do you like?' "The grey ones.' (no 'The grey')

which ... ? ~ ll]'jj•fl1(Q another => 11, ¡.t\1#f1 a/an ~ 11 HM!J:}111 rhis/thar etc.=> lij:jji(l,f(I
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
75
75.1 Con la información del cuadro escribe las respuestas de Balas preguntas de A. Usa one en lugar de a/an ... en las
respuestas.

B docsn'r necd a car B has jusr hada cup of coffee


rhere's a chemist in Mil! Road B is going to buy a bicycle
B hasn't gut a pen B hasn't got an umbrella

I A: Can you lend me a pcn? B: I'rn sorry, .. .!. ..h.~~~1.9~.PI')~: .


2 A: Would you likc to havc a car? B: No, 1 don't .
3 A: Havc you gota bicyclc? B: No, but .
4 A: Can you lcnd mean umbrclla? B: I'rn sorry but .
S A: Would you like a cup of coffee? B: No, thank you .
6 A: Is therc a chernisr near here? B: Yes, .

75.2 Completa las frases usando a/an ... onc y las palabras siguientes:
bctter big different new old
1 This cup is dirry. Can T have ....~.~ ..<>!')~ ?
2 I'rn going to sell my car and buy .
3 That's nota very good phorograph but chis is .
4 I want today's newspaper. This is .
S This box is too small. I necd .
6 Why do we always go to the same restaurant? Ler's go to .

75.3 Completa los diálogos con la información del cuadro. Usa onc/ones.

rhe coat is black I took rhe phorographs on the beach last week
the girl is tal! with long hair the shoes are green
the hotel is opposite the station rhe pictures are on rhe wall
the house has got a red door the books are on rhe top shelf
rhe flowers are yellow rhe man has got a moustache and glasses

1 A: We stayed ata hotel. . 6 A: Are those your books?


B: ..Y'J.11.~ .. ~".'~.. ? B:
A: ..Tu.~. <>ri.e:..C?PPP.S.*-.. !:n..e:..s.~.ri..... A:
2 A: Those shoes are nicc . 7 A: Do you know that girl?
B: ····················································································.
)
B: .................................................................................... '
A: A:
3 A: That's a nice house. 8 A: Those flowers are beautiful,
B: ...............................
)
8: .................................................................................... ?
A: ...................................... with .... A:
4 A: l like that coat. 9 A: Who's rhar man?
B: ..................................................................................... )
B: .................................................................................... '
A A:
s A: l like those pictures. 10 A: Have you sccn my photographs?
B: .................................................................................... )
B: .................................................................................... '
A: A:

15.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 Estas naranjas son muy dulces. ¿Quieres una? (dulce= swccr)
2 'Dame las llaves.' '¿Cuáles?'
3 No me gusta la camisa amarilla. Prefiero la verde.
4 'Necesito un vaso.' '¿Éste grande?' 'No, uno pequeño.'
5 Estos zapatos marrones no me gustan. ¿Puedo ver los negros?
6 Esta toalla está mojada. Necesito una seca. (mojado = wct)
7 'Me gustan esas rosas.' '¿Cuáles? ¿Las rojas o las blancas?'
8 '¿Qué libro quieres? ¿El que está en la mesa?' 'No, el que está en la silla.'
9 Pásame esa bolsa, la que está a tu derecha. (pasar= pass)
·1 O ¿Qué camisa prefieres, la azul o la blanca?
151
sorne y any

sorne y any indican una cantidad indeterminada. Equivalen a 'algo de/un poco de/unos/algunos/unoscuantos' etc.

l 've got sorne.


money.

Usa sorne en frases afirmativas: Usa any en frases negativas:


• l'rn going ro buy somc clothes. • l'rn not going ro buy any clothcs.
Voy a comprar ropa. No voy a comprar (nada de) ropa.
• There's sorne ice in the fridgc. • Thcre isn't any orange ju ice in the fridge.
Hay algo de hielo en la nevera. No hay zumo de naranja en la nevera.
• We did sorne exerciscs. • We didn't do any excrcises,
Hicimos unos ejercicios. No hicimos ejercicios/ ningún ejercicio.

any y sorne en preguntas Ho..ve Ho« got


AAH money?
En la mayor parte de las preguntas (pero no en todas) se usa any:
• Is there any ice in the fridge? ¿Hay (algo de) hielo en la nevera?
• Has he got any friends? ¿Tiene amigos/ algún amigo?
• Did you take any photographs? ¿Hicista algunas fotos?
Cuando se pregunta para ofrecer algo se suele usar some:
• A: Would you like some coffec? ¿Quieres (un poco de) café?
B: Yes, picase. ~~ Wooui Ho« Uke.

e/,~ ~
- ":Y~ sorne, c.offee,?
También se usa sorne para pedir algo: ' !:' ~
• A: Can I have some soup? ¿Puedo tomar sopa? ~ ~ )~
B: Yes. Help yourself.
• A: Can you lend me some money? ¿Puedes prestarme (algo de)dinero? {.;::,_ª
j ~
B: Sure. How much do you need? { ~rJ'iil
sorne y any a veces se usan so/os, sin sustantivo. Observa estos ejemplos en que somc/any pueden ser necesarios
en inglés pero la palabra equivalente no es necesario en español:
• J didn't takc any photographs but Ann rook sorne. ... pero Ann hizo.
• You can havc sorne coffee, bur I don't want any. yo no quiero.
• I'vc jusr madc sorne coffcc. Would you likc somc? ¿Quieres?
• 'Whcrc's your luggagc?' 'I havcn't gor any.' ... 'No tengo.'
• 'Are there any biscuirs>' 'Yes, there are sorne in the kitchcn.'
'¿Hay galletas?' 'Sí. Hay (algunas/unas pocas) ... '

something, sornebody etc.


Sornerhing (algo) y sorncbody/somconc (= alguien) se usan en frases afirmativas y algunas preguntas (ofrecimientos
y peticiones).
Anything y anybody/anyone se usan en frases negativas y en la mayoría de las frases interrogativas.

• She said sorncthing, Dijo algo. • Shc didn't say anything. No dijo nada.
• 1 saw somcbody {o sorneone). • l didn't see anybody {o anyone).
Vi a alguien. No vi a nadie.
• Would you like something to cat? • Are you doing anything rhis evening?
¿Quieres comer algo? ¿Haces algo ... ?
• Quick! Somebody's coming. • Where's Ann? Has anybody seen her?
¡De prisa! Viene alguien. . .. ¿La ha visto alguien?

a y some ee jlj:jj,,i.¡¡jM#füi somebody/anything etc. :::) ¡,¡ j,,j,flii


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
76
76.1 Completa /as frases con sorne o any.

J I bought ...~~~e. .. cheesc bur I didn't buy ~.!:! .... bread.


2 l'rn going to che pose office. 1 necd sramps.
3 There arcn't shops in this part of town.
4 Georgc and Al ice havcn't got children.
5 Have you gor brorhers or sisters?
6 There are beautiful flowers in rhc garden.
7 Do you know good horcls in London?
8 'Would you likc rea?' 'Yes, please.'
9 Whcn we wcre on holiday, we visitcd very intcrcscing places.
10 Don't buy rice. We don'r need .
11 l wenc out to huy rnilk bur they didn'r have in rhc shop.
12 l'rn thirsty. Can I havc water, picase?

76.2 Completa las frases usando sorne o any y una de las palabras siguientes:
air checsc hclp lcttcrs photographs
batteries fricnds languagcs milk -5-hampoo
1 1 wanr ro wash my hair. Is rherc .. ~Ji..~.~-~~ ?
2 This evcning l'm going ro wrire . .
3 1 haven't got my camera, sol can't rake .
4 Do you spcak forcign ?
5 Yesrerday evening I wcnt to a restaurant wirh • . of mine.
6 Can I have in my coffec, picase?
7 Thc radio isn'r working. Thcre arcn't . 1111t.
8 lr's hot in this office. l'm going out for frcsh . .
9 'Would you likc ?' 'No, rhank you. I've had enough to ear.'
I O l can do chis job alone. 1 don't nccd .

76.3 Completa las frases usando sorne o any.

I Ann didn'r rakc any phorographs bur ....l...~---~~e.......... (1/rake)


2 'Whcrc'c; your luggage?' '.! ..~.~~~\.9~..~l:i .' (1/nor/have)
3 'Do you nccd any money?' 'No, thank you. . .' (l/have)
4 'Can you lend me sorne moncy?' 'I'rn sorry bur .' (1/notlhave)
5 Thc romaroes in che shop didn'r look very good, so (l/nor/buy)
6 Thcre wcre sorne nicc ornngcs in rhc shop, so................................................................................................... (1/buy)

76.4 Completa las frases con somcching/somebody/anything/anybody.

I She said .. ~.~.~~-~9 ro me bue l didn'r undcrsrand ic.


2 'What's wrong?' 'Thcrc's in rny eye. •
3 Do you know abour polirics?
4 1 wenr ro rhe shop but I didn't buy . .
5 has hroken rhe window. 1 don'r know who.
6 Thcrc isn'r in rhc bag. lr's cmpry.
7 l'rn looking for my keys. Has................... . seen rhem?
8 WoulcJ you likc to drink?
9 1 didn'r cae beca use J wasn'r hungry.
IO This is a secrer. Picase don'r tell . .

76.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿ Hay queso en la nevera?
2 Compré algo de carne y unas manzanas.
3 ¿Sales con alguien esta noche?
4 '¿Tienes amigos en Londres?' 'No, pero tengo algunos en Manchcstcr.'
5 'Necesito azúcar. ¿Me puedes prestar?' 'Lo siento. No rengo.' (prestar= lend)
6 Sally no tenía hambre, por eso no comió nada. (por eso= so) .
7 '¿Queréis leche?' 'No, gracias. ¿Tienes zumo de fruta?' (zumo de fruta = fruit juice)
8 Necesito algo de beber. ¿Puedes darme agua, por favor?
9 ¿Hay alguien en casa?
153
not + any no non e

Thc car park is empty. El aparcamiento está vacío.

There aren't any cars. ) No hay coches/ ningún coche.


There are no cars,

How many cars are thcre in thc car park?


Nonc. Ninguno.

any se usa en /as frases negativas (not ... any}:


• There aren't any cars in che car park. No hay coches/ ningún coche ...
• Sally and Sreve haven't gor any children. ... no tienen hijos.
• Yo u can ha ve sorne coffee bue l don't wanc any. . .. pero yo no quiero.
no+ sustantivo (no cars / no garden etc.}
no ... = not + any ... o not + a /an ... :
• There are no cars in che car park. (= rhere aren't any cars in che car park.)
• We've got no coffee. (= We haven't got any coffee)
• It's a nice house but there's no garden. (= rhere isn't a garden)
Se usa no ... especialmente detrás de have (gor) y there is/are.
Observa y compara:

verbo negativo + any = verbo afirmativo+ no


• They haven't got any children. No tienen hijos. • They've got no children.
(no 'They haven't got no children.'}
• There isn't any sugar in your coffee. No hay azúcar... • There's no sugar in your coffee.

no y none
no va seguido de un sustantivo (no money / no children etc.}:
• We've got no money, No tenemos dinero.
• Everything was OK. There were no problems. . .. no hubo problemas/ ningún problema.
none se usa so/o, en lugar de no + sustantivo:
• 'How much rnoney have you got?' 'None.' (= no money) 'Nada.'
• 'Were there any problems?' 'No, none.' (= no problems) 'Ninguno.'

none y no-one
none (= 'nada', 'ninguno/ninguna') responde a /as preguntas How much? (= ¿Cuánto/Cuánta?) y How many?
(¿Cuántos/Cuántas?):
• 'How much rnoney have you got?' 'None.' (= no money)
• 'How many people did you meet?' 'None.' (= no people)
no-one = 'nadie') significa lo mismo que nobody (=> Unidad 78). Responde a la pregunta Who?:
• 'Who did you meet?' 'No-one.' '¿A quién conociste?' A nadie.·

negación~ hiH i.U• sorne y ªºY~ ..¡:¡ .¡¡.¡a anybody/nobody/nothing etc. ~ i'iiii,¡.t,it¡¡:51
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 77
77.1 Escribe estas frases de nuevo usando no.

I Wc havcn't gor any money. . w~·.'f.~.


.9~ ..~ ..m!?r.l~.: ..
2 Therc aren't any shops near hcre. There are .
3 Caro! hasn'r got any free time.
4 There isn'r a light in rhis room.
Escribe estas frases de nuevo usando any.
5 We've goc no money.
6 There's no tea in che por.
7 There are no buses roday.
8 Tom has got no brorhers or sisrers.

77.2 Completa las frases con no o con any.

I Therc's ...r:\~ ... sugar in your coffee.


2 My brother is married bue he hasn't got childrcn.
3 Sue docsn't speak foreign languages.
4 l'm afraid there's coffee. Would you like sorne rea?
5 'Look at chosc birds!' 'Birds? Wherc? 1 can't see birds.'
6 'Do you know whcre Jane is?' 'No, l've gor idea.'
Completa las frases con no, any o none.
7 There aren't pictures on che wall.
8 The weacher was cold bue there was wind.
9 1 wanted to buy sorne oranges bue they didn'r havc in the shop.
1O Everyrhing was correct. There were mistakes,
11 'How much luggage have you got?' .
12 'How rnuch luggage have you got?' '[ havcn't got .'

n.3 Completa las frases usando any o no y una de las palabras s,gwentes:
answer diffcrcncc film fricnds furniture heating moncy photographs
t1rolilems questions
1 Everything was OK. There wcrc .. ~ . .P.t:~.~·~··········· .
2 They wanr to go on holiday bue chey've gor .
3 I'rn not going to answer .
4 He's always alone. He's got .
5 There is becween rhese two machines. Thcy're exactly che same.
6 There wasn'c in the room. lt was cornpletely empty.
7 I tried to phone you yesterday bue there was .
8 The house is cold because rhere isn't .
9 1 can't rake Therc's in che camera.

n.4 Da respuestas breves (una o dos palabras) usando nonc donde sea necesario.

I How man y letters did you write yescerday? . ..T.~!?.,. ./..~ ..~ ..../Jj.C?.1'.1~: .
2 How many sisters have you gor? .
3 How much coffee did you drink yesterday? .
4 How man y photographs have you taken coday? .
5 How man y legs has a snake gor? .

n.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 No voy a gastar dinero hoy. (gastar= spend)
2 Ana compró dos camisas, pero yo no compré ninguna.
3 '¿Hay café?' 'Sí, pero no hay leche.'
4 Manuel y Sandra no tienen amigos en Londres.
5 '¿Cuánto azúcar quieres?' 'Nada.'
6 No hay restaurantes japoneses en esta ciudad. (japonés = Japancsc)
7 '¿A quién estás esperando?' 'A nadie.'
8 No comí nada de fruta ayer.
9 '¿Cuántos vasos hay en la mesa?' 'Ninguno.'
1O No tengo sellos. ¿Tienes tú? (sellos= stamps) 155
not + anybody/anyone/anything
nobody/no-one/nothing

not + anybody/anyonc} nadie not + anything}


. d
na a
nobody/no-one not h mg

• There i n't { anybody} in rhc room. • There isn't anything in rhe bag.
anyone
No hay nada ...
No hay nadie ...

• There is { nobody} in rhc room. • Therc is nothing in the bag.


no-onc
No hay nada ...
No hay nadie ...
• A: Who is in rhc room? • A: What's in thc bag?
B: Nobody. / No-one, B: Nothing.
(-body y -onc significan lo mismo)

B not + anybody/anyonc not + anything


• 1 don't know anybody (o anyonc) hcre. • I can't rcmernber anything.

¡
No conozco a nadie aquí. No me acuerdo de nada.
nobody = not + anybody
no-one = not + anyonc nothing = not anything
• l'm lonely. l've got nobody to ralk to. • Shc said nothing.
(= 1 havcn't gor anybody) (= Shc didn't say anything.)
... No tengo a nadie con quién hablar. No dijo nada.
• The housc is ernpty. There is no-onc in it, • Therc's nothing to car.
(= There isn't anyonc in it.) (= Therc isn't anything to ear.)
La casa está vacía. No hay nadie dentro. No hay nada para comer.

C Se puede usar nobody/no-onc/nothing como su1eto al princ1p10 de una frase o solos para responder
a una pregunta:
• The housc is ernpty. Nobody lives there. • Nothing happencd. (no 'lt didn't happcn
La casa está vacía. Nadie vive allí. anything.') No pasó nada.
• 'Who did you speak to?' 'No-one.' • 'What did you say?' 'Nothing.'
'¿Con quién hablaste?' 'Con nadie.' '¿Qué has dicho?' 'Nada.'

D Recuerda que anybody/anyone/anything se comportan como any.


Nobody/no-one/nothing se comportan como no:
verbo negativo + anybody/anyone/anything
verbo afirmativo + nobody/no-one/norhing
• He doesn't know anything. (no 'He docsn't know nothing.') No sabe nada.
• Don't rell anybody. (no 'Don'ttcll nobody.') No se lo digas a nadie.
• There is nothing to do in this rown. (no 'Therc isn't nothing .. .')
No hay nada que hacer en esta ciudad.

sorne y any ee •': ifrii1 any y no :::::) iiiii!·n·fi• somebody/anything/nowhere etc.:::::) 1 ¡¡ iiii
1
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 78
78.1 Escribe estas frases de nuevo usando nobody/no-onc o nothing .
I Therc isn't anyrhing in rhe bag, ...To~~·-~..\:~.~9.. ~ ..~~.~a.9: .
2 There isn 'r anybody in che officc. There's ..
3 l havcri'r got anyrhing ro do. 1 .
4 There isn't anything on TY.
5 There wasn't anyone ar home.
6 We didn't find anyrhing.

78.2 Escribe estas frases de nuevo usando anybody/anyone o anything .


1 There's nothing in the bag. ... Tu.~~..~r.i'.t. ..~~~!:':'.9..~.. ~.~--~-~: .
2 There was nobody on the bus. There wasn't .
3 l've got nothing toread.
4 I've gor no-onc to help me.
5 She heard nothing.
6 We've gor nothing for dinner.

78.3 Responde usando nobody/no-onc o nothing.


Ia What did you say? .JiQthir.19 .... 5a Who knows the answer? ..
2a Who saw you? ...N~ . 6a What did you buy? ..
3a Whar do you want? .. 7a Whar happened? .
4a Who did you meet? .. 8a Who was late? .
Responde las mismas preguntas con frases completas.
Usa nobody/no-onc/nothing o anybody/anyone/anything.
lb ...L~.'.t..~-~-~~~.... 5b ........................................................................................ rhe answer.
2b .. t~~~~~ ~-~ '.'!1.~..... 6b
3b I don't 7b
4b 1................................................................................................... 8b

78.4 Completa las frases usando nobody/no-one/nothing/anybody/anyone/anything.


1 That house is empry . ..!~~ ... lives rhere.
2 Jack has a bad memory. He can'r remember ...~~~!:':'.9....
3 Be quier! Don'r say .
4 I didn't know about the meeting rold me.
5 'What did you have to eat?' ' 1 wasn'r hungry.'
6 1 didn't eat J wasn't hungry.
7 Jenny was sitting alone. She wasn't wirh .
8 l'm afraid I can't help you. There's 1 can do.
9 I don't know abour car engines.
1O The museum is free. lt doesn'r cosr ro go in.
1 ·1 I heard a knock on rhc door bur when 1 opened ir therc was.. . rhere.
12 She spoke very fast, 1 didn't undersrand .
J3 'What are you doing this evening?' · Why?'
14 Helen has gene away knows where she is. She didn'r tell where
shc was going.

78.5 Traduce al inglés:


I Era tarde y no había nadie en la calle.
2 ¿Hay algo en esta caja?
3 o hay nada en la nevera.
4 Nadie sabe que me voy mañana. {irse= leave)
5 Estuve en unas cuantas tiendas pero no compré nada.
6 Liz no quiere ver a nadie.
7 '¿Quién habla ruso aquí'?' 'Nadie.' (ruso= Russian)
8 '¿Qué tienes en la mano?' 'Nada.'
9 No entendí nada porque hablaban muy rápido. {rápido= quickly)
1O ¿Hay alguien esperando al doctor?

157
somebody/anything/nowhere etc.

? ? ?
? • ?
LONDON
? ? ?
Somebody (o someone) has broken Thcre is somcthing in her mouth. Tom lives somewhere near London.
the window.
somebody/someone = alguien something = algo somewhere = en algún sitio

Los compuestos de some-/any-/no- (somebody/anything/nowhere etc.) se usan en frases afirmativas, negativas o


interrogativas igual que some/any/no (~ Unidades 76-77).
personas (-body o -one)

somebody o someone • There is somebody (o someone) in the garden. Hay alguien ...
• Is there anybody ( o anyone) in the garden? ¿Hay alguien .. .?
anybody o anyone
• There isn't anybody (o anyone) in the garden. No hay nadie ...
nobody o no-one • There is nobody (o no-one) in the garden. No hay nadie ...

-body y -one son lo mismo: somebody = someone, nobody = no-one, etc.


cosas (-thing)

something • She said something but I didn't understand her. Dijo algo ...
• Are you doing anything this evening? ¿Haces algo ... ?
anything
• 1 was angry but I didn't say anything. ... pero no dije nada.
nothing • 'What did you say?' 'Nothing.' ... 'Nada.'

lugares (-where)

somewhere • They live somewhere in the south of England. Viven en algún lugar ...
• Did you go anywhere interesting for your holidays? ¿Fuiste a algún sitio interesante ... ?
anywhere
• l'm staying here. I'm not going anywhere. ... No voy a ningún sitio.
nowhere • 1 don't like this rown. There is nowhere to go. ... ningún sitio donde ir.

something/anybody etc. pueden llevar detrás un adjetivo (big/cheap/interesting etc.)


• Did you meet anybody interesting at the party? ¿Conociste a alguien interesante ... ?
• We always go to the same place. Lct's go somcwherc diffcrcnt. ... Vamos a algún otro sitio.
• 'What's that letrer?' 'lt's nothing important.' ... 'No es nada importante.'

something/anybody etc. pueden llevar detrás un infinitivo (to ... ):


• I'm hungry. 1 want something to eat, ... algo para comer.
• He hasn't got anybody to talk to. .. . nadie con quien hablar.
• There is nowhere to go in this town. .. . ningún sitio donde ir ...

sorne yany => 1ij:j¡,jl,f1:1 any y no => .i¡:jj.¡j,fi• anybody/nothing etc.=> 1lj:jj,ii.fu everything/-body/-where => lmll!J
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
79
79.1 Completa las frases con somebody (o someone) I something I somewhere.

1 She said .~.~.~.~9.: . What did she say?


2 I'vc losr . What have you lose?
3 Thcy wenr .. Where did they go?
4 l'm going to phone .. Who are you going to phonc?

79.2 Responde con nobody (o no-one) I nothing / nowhere .

la What did you say? ... ~<>#1.~9.: .


2a Where are you going?
3a What do you want?
4a Who are you looking for?

Ahora responde con frases completas. Usa nor + anybody/anything/anywhere.


lb . ..l...~J.. ~.~--~~-~.:......................................... 3b .
2b l'm not 4b .

79.3 Completa las frases con somcbody/anything/nowhcrc etc.


1 Ir's dark. l can't see ...~.~---.
2 Torn lives ...~.~ro.~.':!~~--- near London.
3 Do you know abour cornpurers?
4 'Listen!' 'What? I can't hear .
5 'What are you doing here?' 'I'm wairing for .'
6 Picase listen carefully. Theres 1 want to tell you.
7 'Die! sce rhc accidenr?' ', o, .'
8 We weren't hungry, so we didn't ear .
9 'What's going to happcn?' 'l don'r know. . knows.'
I O 'Do you know in London ?' 'Y es, a fcw peo ple.'
11 'What's in rhar cupboard?' ' lr's ernpty.'
12 I'rn looking for my glasses. 1 can'r fine! them .
13 1 don't like cold wearher. I wanr to live warrn.
14 Is there inreresting on relevision tonight?
J 5 Have you ever met farnous?

79.4 Completa las frases usando una palabra de cada cuadro. Puedes usar las palabras del cuadro A varias veces.
A B
sorncthing anything nothing do drink eat ge-
somewhere anywhere nowhere play read sir sta y

I We don't go out very much beca use rhcre's ...~<?~~~~- . ~ 9<? .


2 Therc isn't any food in che house. We haven'r gor .
3 l'rn bored. l've gor .
4 'Why are you standing?' 'Beca use rhcrc isn't .'
5 'Would you like ?' 'Yes, picase - a glass of orange ju ice.'
6 Ali the horels were ful!. There was .
7 T want l'm going to huy a magazine.
8 Children need .

79.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Hay alguien aquí?
2 '¿Viste algo extraño?' ' o, nada.' (extraño= strange)
3 Hay alguien en la casa.
4 ¿Vamos a algún sitio el domingo?
5 Llovió ayer. No fuimos a ningún sitio.
6 Alguien ha estado en mi habitación. La ventana está abierta.
7 ¿Hay algo interesante en esta revista? (revista= magazine)
8 ¿Puedes darme algo de beber, por favor?

159
every y all

Every house in che srreet is thc same.


every housc in the streer = ali rhe houses in the street
cada casa ... todas /as casas ...

Se usa every + sustantivo en singular (every house / evcry country / every time etc.):
• Atice has bccn to cvery country in Europc. (no 'evcry countrics') ... en todos tos países ...
• Evcry summcr wc havc a holiday by rhe sea. Cada verano/ Todos /os veranos ...
• She looks cliffcrcnt cvcry time I see her. ... cada vez que ...
Detrás de every ... usa el verbo en singular (is/was/has crc.).
• Evcry housc in the streer is rhe same. (no 'Every house ... are .. .')
• Evcry country has a nacional flag. (no 'Evcry country havc .. .')
Compara cvcry I= cada uno/todos individua/mente) y ali I= todos globalmente):

• Evcry studenr in the class passed rhe • Ali the students in che class passed the examination.
examinarion. Cada estudiante ... Todos /os estudiantes ...
• Evcry country has a nacional flag. Cada país ... • Ali countrics havc a nacional flag. Todos /os países ...

cvcry day y ali day

every day = cada día/todos los días (frecuencia) ali day = todo el día
boto o(ten?
Beginning how long? End ol
I s~N H M~N H T~E H w;o H TH1uRH F~1 H s;r I oJ the day
...... ALL DAV
the day
.
EVERV DAV
• A: l low often do you read a newspaper?
B: Evcry day. (no 'ali rhe days')
• Thc weather was bad yesrerday. lt rained ali day.
... llovió todo el día.
Cada día/Todos los días.
• Bill warches TV for about two hours cvcry • l was ti red aftcr work ycsterday, so I warched
evening. (no 'every evenings / ali the evenings') TV ali evening. (no 'ali rhe evening')
. .. cada noche/ todas las noches. ... toda la noche .
Se dice every morning/night/summcr etc. Se dice ali morning/night/summer etc.

cverybody (o everyone) / everything / cvcrywhere

personas everybody o cvcryonc • Everybody (o Everyone) needs friends.


todos/todo el mundo Todo el mundo necesita amigos.
cosas everything • Have you got cverything you need?
todo ¿Tienes todo lo que necesitas?
lugares everywhere • I'vc losr my watch. J've looked everywhcrc for ir.
por todas partes He perdido el reloj. Lo he buscado por todas partes.

Detrás de everybody/everyone/everything usa el verbo en singular:


• Everybody has problems. (no 'Everybody have ... ') Todo el mundo tiene problemas.
Observa que 'todo el mundo' corresponde a everybody o everyonc (no 'ali'):
• Everybody needs friends. (no 'All needs fricnds')
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 80
80.1 Completa las frases usando cvcry + una de las palabras siguientes:
day room -sweent- time word
1 .. J~.~!:í..~.t:IA.~~-..... in the class passcd thc cxam.
2 My job is very boring. . is the sarne.
3 Kate is a vcry good tennis player. When we play, she wins .
4 in the hotel has a prívate bathroom.
5 'Did you understand what she said?' 'Mosr of it bue not .

80.2 Completa las frases con cvery day o con ali <lay.
1 Yesterday it rained o.J:l..~., .
2 T buy a newspaper hut sornerirnes T don't read ir.
3 !'111 nor going out romorrow. 1'11 be ar home .
4 T usually drink abour four cups of coffee .
5 Paula was ill yesrerday, so shc sraycd in bcd .
6 l.asr year we wenr ro rhe seaside for a week and ir raincd .
7 1'111 ti red now beca use I've been working hard .

80.3 Completa las frases con every o con all.


1 Bill watches TV for about two hours ....e:v.e,ni..... cvening.
2 Barbara gers upar 6.30 .. . ... morning.
3 The wearher was nice yesterday, so we sat in the garden afrernoon.
4 I'rn going away on Monday. 1'11 be away week.
5 'How often do you go skiing?' ' year. Usually in March.'
6 A: Were you ar home at 10 o'clock yesterday?
B: Yes, J was ar home morning. J wcm out afcer lunch.
7 My sisrer likes cars. She buys a new onc year.
8 1 saw Jack ar rhe party. He wasn't vcry friendly. He didn'r speak to me evening.
9 Wc go away on holiday for two or rhrcc wccks summcr.

80.4 Completa las frases con cvcrybody/cvcrythingleverywhere.


J .. .f.v.e,nib.~ ... needs friends.
2 Chris knows abour computers.
3 1 like che people here. . is very friendly.
4 This is a nice hotel. lt's comfortable and is very clean.
5 Kevin never uses his car. He goes by mocor-bike.
6 Let's have dinner. . is hungry.
7 Sue's house is full of books. There are books .
8 You are right you say is true.

80.5 Completa las frases con el verbo apropiado (sólo una palabra).
I Everybody ... !:1.~ .... problcms.
2 Are you ready yer? Everybody wairing for you.
3 The house is ernpty. Everyone gone out.
4 George is very popular. Everybody him.
5 This town is completely different. Everything changed.
6 I arrived home very late. 1 carne in quietly because everyone .. .. asleep.
7 Everybody mistakes!

80.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 Leo el periódico todos los días.
2
Todos los estudiantes están en la biblioteca ahora.
3
Cada estudiante tiene tres clases a la semana. (clase= lesson)
4
Van a Francia todos los veranos.
5
Estuvo despierta toda la noche. (despierto= awake)
6
Hemos trabajado mucho coda la semana. (trabajar mucho = work hard)
7
Todo lo que he comprado está en la cocina.
¿ Vais al cine todas las semanas?
8
9
Tomo una ducha todos los días.
10 Cada vez que viajo en avión me pongo muy nervioso. (ponerse nervioso = get nervous)
161
all most some any no/none

Compara:

Cuando se habla de personas o cosas en sentido general Cuando se habla de algo concreto se usa the/these/rny etc.
no se usa the/these/rny etc.
children/rnoney/books (sin the/this/rny etc.): the children / the rnoney / these books etc.:
• Children like playing. A los niños les gusta jugar. • Where are the children? ¿Dónde están /os niños?
(a los niños en general) (aquí, rhe children = our children)
• Money isn't everything. El dinero no lo es todo. • I wam to buy a car but I haven't got che rnoney.
(el dinero en general) ... pero no tengo el dinero. (el necesario para comprarlo)
• I enjoy reading books. Me gusta leer libros. • Have you read these books? ¿ ... estos libros?
• Everybody needs friends. • r ofren go out with rny friends.
Todo el mundo necesita amigos. Salgo con mis amigos con frecuencia.

rnost/most of ... , sorne/sorne of ... etc.

Al hablar en general se usa rnost/sorne etc. + Al hablar de cosas determinadas se usa rnost
sustantivo: of/sorne of etc. + the/this/my ... etc.:

all ali (of)


cities the ...
rnost rnost
childrcn this/that ...
sorne et sorne
books of these/those ...
any any
rnoney rny/your etc.
no non e

rnost sorne any no/none / not + any


• Most children like playing. • Most of the children at chis school are under
A la mayoría de los niños /es gusta jugar. 11 years old.
La mayoría de /os niños de esta escuela ...
• I don't want any money. No quiero dinero. • I don't want any of this rnoney.
No quiero nada de este dinero.
• Sorne books are berter rhan orhers. • Sorne of these books are very old.
Algunos libros son mejores que otros. Algunos de estos libros ...
• He's got no fricnds. No tiene amigos. • None of rny friends live near me.
Ninguno de mis amigos ...
• Ali cities have che same problerns.
Pero se dice ali the ... / all rny ... etc. (normalmente
Todas las ciudades (en general) ...
sin of!:
No uses of en estas frases: • All rhe srudents in our class passed the exam.
• Most people drive too fasr, (no 'Most of • Silvia has lived in London ali her lifc.
people')
• Sorne birds can't fly. (no 'Sorne of birds')

ali of it / most of thern / none of us etc.


Con los pronombres personales se usa of (ali of it / rnost of thern / sorne of us etc.):

ali • Yo u can have sorne of this cake bur not ali of ir. . .. un poco de este pastel, pero no todo.
it • A: Do you know those people?
rnost
thern B: Most of thern, bue not ali of them. A la mayor parte pero no a todos.
sorne of
us • Sorne of usare going out tonight. Why don'r you come with us? Algunos de nosotros ...
any
you • l've gota lot of books bue I haven't read any of thern. . .. ninguno.
non e
• 'How rnany of these books have you read?' 'None of them.' ... 'Ninguno.'

the => t•!ii1ti•ifJ


1 sorne yany => l'l:IMJ1fl1 no/none/every==> 1•t:U•ti ifl
1 all yevery => l'WHi·l:f1J
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 81
81.1 Completa cada frase usando la palabra entre paréntesis (somelmost etc.). En algunos casos deberás añadir of (sorne of I
most of etc.).
1 ~~.t:. ... children like playing. (most)
2 ~.'!-:..<?f this money is yours. (sorne)
3 people never stop talking. (sorne)
4 the shops in the city centre dose at 6.30. (rnost)
5 You can change your moncy in banks. (rnosr)
6 1 don't like the pictures in the living room. (any)
7 He's lost his money. (ali)
8 my friends are married. (none)
9 Do you know the people in rhis photograph? (any)
10 birds can fly. (most)
11 I enjoyed the film but I didn't like rhe ending. (most)
12 sports are very dangerous. (sorne)
13 We can't find anywhere to sray. . the hotels are ful!. (ali)
14 You must have this cheese. Ir's delicious. (sorne)
15 The weather was bad when we were on holiday. It rained rhe time. (rnost)

81.2 Observa los dibujos y responde usando all/most/some/none + of them / of it.

tfllllf
llttttt
t~tlttf
1 How many of rhe people are women? ... /IAost .of. t:nem ....
2 How many of rhe boxes are on the rabie?
3 How many of the menare wearing hats?
4 How many of the windows are open?
5 How man y of the people are standing?
6 How much of the rnoncy is Ben's?

81.3 Corrige /as frases incorrectas y escribe OK en las que estén bien.
1 (Most of childreg) like playing .... ~:;~ ..9.'.1.i!4.!.~.....
2 Ali the srudents failed the exam. .Q~ .
3 Sorne of people work too hard. .. .
4 Sorne of questions in the exam were very easy ..
5 I haven't seen any of those people before. . .
6 Ali of insects have six legs. . .
7 Have you read ali these books? . .
8 Most of students in our class are very nice. .. .
9 Most of my friends are going to the party ..
10 I'rn very tired this morning - 1 was awake most of night .

81.4 Traduce a/ inglés:


1 '¿ Has leído alguno de estos libros?' 'No, ninguno.'
2 Todos los autobuses escolares son amarillos en Estados Unidos. (autobús escolar= school bus)
3 La mayor parte de mis amigos son españoles. Algunos de ellos son de Madrid.
4 Ninguna de esas camisas está limpia.
5 ¿Te gusta alguna de estas chaquetas?
6 Ninguno de mis amigos es médico.
7 La mayoría de estos estudiantes aprobaron el examen. (aprobar= pass)
8 Algunos países europeos son muy pequeños.

163
both either neither

both/either/neither se refieren a dos cosas o personas:

both
[!}[!] either neither (not + either)
ambos/los dos uno de los dos/uno u otro ninguno de los dos/ni uno ni otro
• Rosemary has two children. Both are married. . .. Ambos/Los dos están casados.
• Would you like tea or coffee? You can have either. Puedes tomar lo que quieras (té o café).
• A: Do you want to go to rhe cinema or thc theatre?
B: Neither. I wanr to stay at home. A ninguno (ni a uno ni a otro). Quiero quedarme en casa.

¡
Compara cither y neither:
'Either. I don'r mind.' 'Lo uno o lo otro. No me importa.'
• 'Would you like tea or coffee?' '1 don't wanr either.' (no 'I don't want neither.') ... 'Ninguno de los dos.'
'Neirher.' 'Ninguno de los dos.'

both/cither/neirher pueden llevar detrás un sustantivo:

both + plural: both windows/books/children etc.


cither
neither
+ singular: cither
· h } wm , e tc.
. d ow lb oo k/ e hild
neit er

• Lasr year 1 went to Paris and Rome. I liked borh cities very much. . .. Me gustaron mucho las dos ciudades.
• First I worked in an office, and la ter in a shop. Ncithcr job was very interesting.
Ninguno de los dos trabajos ...
• There are two ways from here to the srarion. You cango either way. ... puedes ir por cualquiera (de los dos).

Si el sustantivo va precedido de the/these/my etc. se dice borh of ... / either of ... I neithcr of ... :

both the ...


either of these I rhosc ...
neither my I your / Ann's ... etc.

• Neither of my parents is English.


Ni mi padre ni mi madre son ingleses.
• I haven't read cither of these books .
. . . ninguno de estos (dos) libros.

Se puede decir both (of) the ... I both (of) those ... / both (of) my ... (con o sin of):
• I like both of those pictures. o I like borh those pictures.
Me gustan esos dos cuadros.
• Both of Ann's sisters are married. o Borh Ann's sistcrs are married.
Las dos hermanas de Ann están casadas.

Con los pronombres personales se usa of (both of rhern / neither of us etc.):

both them
either of us
neither you

• Ann has got two sisters. Both of them are married. ... Las dos están casadas.
• Toro and I didn't eat anything. Neither of us was hungry. . .. Ninguno de los dos tenia hambre.
• Who are those people? I don't know either of them. . .. No conozco a ninguno de los dos.

I can't either / neither can I ~ 1ij¡jj.¡j,tfJ


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 82
82.1 Completa /as frases con both/either/neither. Usa of donde sea necesario.
1 Lasr year I wcnt to París and Rome. 1 liked .J~ cities very much.
2 Thcrc were two picturcs on rhc wall. 1 didn't like ~.~ .. !?f.. them.
3 lt was a good football match rearns playcd well.
4 Ir wasn't a good foorball match rearn playcd wcll.
5 'Is your fricnd English or American?' ' She's Australian.'
6 We went away for rwo days bur rhe weather wasn't good. It rained on days.
7 A: 1 bought rwo newspapers. Which one do you want?
B: It doesn't matter which one.
8 1 invited Diana and Mike to the party but them carne.
9 'Do you go to work by car or by bus?' ' 1 always walk.'
10 'Which jacket do you prefer, this one or rhat one?' 'I don't like them.'
11 'Do you work orare you a student?' ' I've gota job and I study too.'
12 Paula and I didn't know the time because us hada watch.
13 Ann has got rwo sistcrs and a brother sisters are married.
14 Ann has got rwo sisters anda brother. l've met her brother but I haven't met her sisters.

82.2 Completa /as frases sobre los dibujos usando Both ... o Neithcr ....

1 ~ ~~ .. ~~ empty. 4 cameras.
2 are open. 5 to the airport.
3 wearing a hat, 6 right.

82.3 Un hombre y una mujer respondieron lo mismo en un cuestionario. Escribe frases usando Both/Neither of them ....

1 Are you married? No No~ 1 ti~.~..~ ..#.!~ ...~ ..!!!~:....


2 How old are you? 21 21 ~ 2 ~ .. g.f.~.~ .. ~.~..?..J.: ..
3 Are you a student? Yes Yes~ 3 studenrs.
4 Have you gota car? No No 4 a car.
5 Where do you live? London London 5
6 Do you like cooking? Yes Yes 6
7 Can you play the piano? No No 7
8 Do you read newspapers? Yes Yes 8

9 Are you interested in sport? No No 9 .

82.4 Traduce al inglés:


1 Mis dos hermanas hablan francés, pero ninguna de ellas ha estado en Francia.
2 Hay dos cuartos de baño en la casa. Puedes usar cualquiera.
3 Estas dos camisas son baratas.
4 No me gusta ninguno de esos dos coches. Son demasiado pequeños.
5 Ambos hermanos son muy inteligentes.
6 '¿Quieres té o zumo de fruta?' 'Ninguna de las dos cosas, gracias, pero ¿puedo tomar una taza de café?'
7 Nos interesan las dos posibilidades.
8 No te gustará ninguna de las dos películas.

165
a lot much man y

a lot of moncy nor much moncy a lor of books not many books
mucho dinero no mucho dinero muchos libros no muchos libros

much (mucho/mucha) + sustantivo incontable: rnany (muchos/muchas) + sustantivo en plural:


much food I much money etc. many books / many people etc.
• Did you buy much food? • Did you buy many books?
• We haven't got much luggage. • We don't know many people.
• How much money do you want? • How many photographs did you take?
• A: Have you got any money? • A: Did you take any photographs?
B: I've got sorne but not much. B: J took sorne bue not many.
How much ... ? = ¿Cuánto/Cuánta ... ? How man y ... ? = ¿Cuántos/Cuántas ... ?
• How much money do you want? • How many photographs did you cake?

a lot of (=mucho/mucha/muchos/muchas)+ sustantivo de cualquier tipo:


• We bought a lot of food. • We boughr a lot of books.
• Paula hasn't gor a lot of free time. • Did they ask you a lot of questions?
Presta atención al verbo, ya que a lot of puede acompañar a un singular o a un plural:
• There is a loe of food/money/wateretc. • There are a lot of rrees/shops/people etc.
Hay mucha comida/mucho dinero/mucha Hay muchos árboles/muchas tiendas/
agua etc. muchas personas etc.
• A lot of people speak English. (no 'speaks')

Se usa much en las preguntas y en las negaciones, pero normalmente no se usa en frases afirmativas:
8 • Do you drink much coffee I a lor of coffcc?
• 1 don't drink much coffee / a lor of coffee.
pero • J drink a lot of coffee. (no 'l drink much coffee.')
• 'Do you drink much coffee?' 'Yes, a lor.' (no 'Yes, much.')
Se usa many y a lot of en cualquier tipo de frases:
• Have you gor man y friends I a lot of friends?
• We haven't got many friends / a lot of friends.
• We'vc got many friends I a lot of friends,

e much y a lot se pueden usar solos, sin sustantivo:


• Diane spokc to me but she didn'c say much. ... no dijo mucho.
• 'Do you watch TV much?' 'No, not much.' '¿Ves mucho la televisión?' 'No, no mucho.'
• We like films, so we go ro the cinema a lot. (no 'much' - lee el apartado B de arriba)
Nos gustan las películas, por eso vamos mucho al cine.
• 1 don'r like him very much. No me cae muybien. /No me gusta mucho.
Compara a lot y a lor of ... :
• He ears a lot. (no 'a lot of') Comemucho.
• He eats a lot of fruit. Come mucha fruta. (a lot of + sustantivo)

contables e incontables => • :,j rj ifH#iU


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 83
83.1 Completa las frases con much o many.
1 Did you buy .. rn.~qi··· food? 5 Did students fail the examination?
2 There aren't hotcls in this town, 6 Paula hasn't got moncy.
3 \Y/e haven'r got perrol, 7 1 wasn'r very hungry. 1 didn'r ear .
4 Were rhere people on the rrain? 8 1 haven't seen George for ycars.
Completa las frases con How much o How many.
9 pcople are coming to rhe party?
10 milk do you want in your coffee?
11 bread did you buy?
IZ players are rhere in a football tearn?

83.2 Completa las frases usando much o man y y una de las siguientes palabras:
countries luggagc peoplc time times
1 1 don'r read very much. 1 haven't got . ~~~.b.~.~-·.
2 Quick! We must hurry. \Y/e havcn't got .
3 Do you rravcl a lor? Have you been to ?
4 Tina hasn't lived here very long, so she doesn'r know .
5 'Have you got ?' 'No, only chis bag.'
6 1 know Paris very well. l've been there .

83.3 Completalas frases con a lot of y uno de los siguientes elementos:


accidcnts -eeeks- fun interesting things traffic
1 l like reading. 1 have ...~.~ ..«?.Ü.~~.:....
2 We cnjoyed our visir to the muscum. We saw ..
3 This road is very dangerous. There are .
4 \Y/e enjoyed our holiday. We had .
5 Ir rook me a long time to drive here. There was .

83.4 En algunas de estas frases much no resulta adecuado. Cámbialas o escribe OK.
1 Do you drink much coffee? ... oK. .
2 1 drink {much tea) .. ll..t.ot.of.t.ed. .
3 lt was a cold winter. We had mych snow.
4 There wasn'r much snow last winter.
5 Ir coses much money to rravel around che world.
6 We hada cheap holiday. It didn't cose mesh.
7 Do you know much abour computers?
8 'Havc you gor any luggage?' 'Yes, mnsh.'

83.5 Escribe frases sobre estas personas usando much y a lor.


1 Jim loves films. (go to che cinema) .. He. .9C>e.$. to .li1e. cine.mil.. <l. .t.ot .
2 Linda thinks TV is boring. (watch TV) . Sne d..oe.sn't w~ ..TV. mv.cn ..
3 Tina is a good cennis player. (play tennis) She .
4 Martín doesn't like driving. (use his car) He .
5 Paul spends most of the time at home. (go out)
6 Sue has been ali over the world. (rravel)

83.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 '¿Cuánto dinero quieres gastar?' 'No mucho.' (gastar= spend)
2 Tenemos muchos exámenes esta semana.
3 '¿Cuántas sillas necesitáis?' 'No muchas, eres o cuatro.'
4 Tom conoce a mucha gente, pero no tiene muchos amigos.
5 Rosa sabe mucho inglés, pero no mucho francés.
6 Tenemos mucho café, pero no mucha leche.
7 Ayer no tuve mucho que hacer y tuve mucho tiempo libre.
8 No hay muchos árboles en este parque.
9 '¿Había mucha gente en la reunión?' 'Sí, mucha.' (en la reunión= at the meeting)

167
(a) little (a) few


a little water un poco de agua a few books unos pocos/ unos cuantos libros
(a) little + sustantivo incontable: (a) fcw + sustantivo en plural:
(a) little water (a) little money (a) few books (a) few quesrions
(a) little time (a) lirrle soup (a) fcw people (a) few days

a littlc = un poco (de) a fcw = unos pocos/ unos cuantos


• She didn'r car anything but she drank a little • Lasr nighr I wrore a fcw lcrters.
water. . .. pero bebió un poco de agua. . .. escribí unas cuantas cartas.
• 1 speak a little French. • 1 speak a few words of Frcnch.
Hablo un poco de francés. Sé decir unas pocas palabras ...
• A: Can you speak French? • A: Are therc any shops in rhe village?
B: A little. Un poco. B: Yes, a few. Sí, unas pocas.
• We're going away for a fcw days.
Se dice:
... unos cuantos días.
• I'd like a little water. (no 'a little of water')

)(little (sin a) = poco/poca )( few (sin a) = pocos/pocas


• There was little bread in che shop. • Thcrc were few pcople in rhe park.
Había poco pan ... Había poca gente en el parque.
very lirtle = poquísimo/muy poco very fcw = poquísimos/ muy pocos
• Dan is very thin beca use he ears very little. • Your English is very correcr. You make very fcw
... porque come muy poco/ poquísimo. mistakes. . .. Haces poquísimas/ muy pocas faltas.

Compara linte y a little: Compara few y a few:


a linte da una idea positiva: a fcw da una idea positiva:
• They have a littlc money, so they are not poor. • l've gota few friends, so l'm not lonely.
(no 'a little of money') Tienen un poco de dinero ... Tengo unos pocos amigos, así que no estoy solo.
)(littlc da una idea negativa: )( fcw da una idea negativa:
• They have lirrle moncy. They are very poor. • l'rn sad and l'm lonely. l've got few fricnds.
Tienen poco dinero. Son pobres. Estoy triste y estoy so/o. Tengo pocos amigos.

contables e incontables~ •·@fritJHM•


UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
84
84.1 Responde con a little o a few.
1 'Have you got any money?' 'Yes, ...~..~ '
2 'Have you got any cnvelopes?' 'Yes, ..
3 'Do you want sugar in your coffee?' 'Yes, , picase.'
4 'Did you cake any phorographs when you wcrc on holiday?' 'Yes, .
5 'Does your friend speak English?' 'Yes, '
6 'Are there any faccories in rhis rown?' 'Yes, '

84.2 Completa las frases con a littlc o a fcw + una de las palabras siguientes:
arr chairs days fricnds milk Russian times
I Lasr night Iwrote ~--~--~~ t0 my family and friends.
2 Can I have in my coffec, picase?
3 'When did Julia go away?' '........ . ago.'
4 'Do you speak any foreign languages?' 'l can speak .'
5 'Are you going out alone?' 'No, I'm going with .
6 'Have you ever been to Rome?' 'Yes, .
7 There wasn't much furniture in the room - justa table and .
8 l'm going out for a walk. 1 need .. fresh ..

84.3 Completa las frases con very little / very few + una de las palabras siguientes:
coffee hotcls misiekes peoplc rain time work
1 Your English is very good. You make X~ .. ~ ..m..~.~~~ .
2 I drink T don't like it.
3 The weathcr hcrc is very dry in surnmcr. There is .
4 lt's difficult to find a place to stay in this town. There are .
5 We muse hurry. We've gor .
6 The rown is very quietar night. . go out.
7 Sorne people in the office are very lazy. They do .

84.4 Completa las frases con little / a littlc I fcw / a fcw.

1 Thcrc was .. J~~~.... food in rhc fridgc. lt was nearly crnpty.


2 'When <lid Sarah go out?' minutes ago.'
3 T can't decide now. 1 need time to think about it.
4 There was traffic, so we arrived earlier than we expected.
5 The bus service isn't very good at night - there are buses after 9 o'clock.
6 'Would you like sorne soup?' 'Yes, , picase.'
7 I'd like to practise my English more but l have opportunity.

84.5 Corrige las frases si es necesario. Escribe OK si la frase es correcta.


1 We're going away lfor few days) next week. . ... fo.r. ..~..~ ...~s..
2 Everybody needs lirrle luck.
3 1 can't talk to you now - l've got few things to do.
4 1 eat very little meat - 1 don't like it very much.
5 Excuse me, can I ask you fcw questions?
6 There were little pcople on the bus - it was nearly ernpty.

84.6 Traduce al inglés:


1 '¿Hay huevos en la nevera?' 'Unos pocos.'
2 He leído unos cuantos libros interesantes este verano.
3 Lucy tiene poco tiempo libre.
4 Tengo un poco de dinero en el banco.
5 Quisiera comprar unas cuantas camisas, pero tengo muy poco dinero.
6 Hay un poco de azúcar en la cocina.
7 Hice unos cuantos amigos cuando estuve en los Estados Unidos.
8 Carmen está preocupada. Tiene unos cuantos problemas con su familia. (preocupada= worried)
9 Tenemos poca información sobre la nueva profesora. (sobre= about)
10 John es muy brusco. Tiene pocos amigos. (brusco= rudc)

169
old/nice/interesting etc. (adjetivos)

En inglés los adjetivos son invariables. Por ejemplo, red = rojo, roja, rojos, rojas.
a red shirt two red shirts (no 'two reds shirts')
Normalmente los adjetivos se usan delante de un sustantivo (a red car) o solos detrás de ciertos verbos
(my car is red).

adjetivo + sustantivo (nice day / blue eyes etc.).

adjetivo + sustantivo
lt's a nice day toda y. . .. un buen día ...
Laura has got brown eyes. . .. los ojos castaños.
There's a very old bridge in chis village. . .. un puente muy antiguo ...
Do you like ltalian food? ¿... la comida italiana?
l don't speak any foreign languages. . .. lenguas extranjeras.
There are sorne beauriful yellow flowers in che garden. . .. bonitas flores amarillas ...

El adjetivo se coloca delante del sustantivo:


• They live in a modero house. (no' house modern') ... una casa moderna.
• Those are modern buildings. (no' buildings modern') ... edificios modernos.

be (am/is/are/was/were etc.) + adjetivo


• The weather is nice roda y. Hace buen tiempo hoy.
• These flowers are very bcautiful. Estas flores son muy bonitas.
• The film wasn't very good. It was boring. La película no era muy buena. Era aburrida.
• Please be quier. l'm reading. Por favor, cállate. Estoyleyendo.
be + adjetivo corresponde a veces a 'tener'+ sustantivo en español(~ Unidad 3 ):
• Are you cold? ¿Tienes frío?
• l'm hungry. Tengo hambre.
• He's afraid of dogs. Tiene miedo de los perros.

look/feel/smell/taste/sound+ adjetivo
Estos verbos se refieren a la vista, el oído, el olor, el sabor, el tacto o a sensaciones y van seguidos de adjetivo. A veces
equivalen a 'parecer':

• 'Yo u look tired.' 'Yes. I feel tired.' 'Pareces cansado.' 'Sí, me noto/siento cansado.'
• You sound happy. Pareces contento (por la voz).
• lt tastes good. Tiene buen sabor. (sabe bien)
• Don't cook thar meat. lt doesn't smell good. . .. No huele bien.
• He feels ill. Se siente maVenfermo.
Recuerda que cuando no hablamos de sensaciones o de los sentidos, el equivalente a 'parecer' en general es seem:
• It seems easy. Parece fácil.

get + adjetivo (get hungry/tiredetc.) => 1ij/(j,(1,f-:J something/anybody + adjetivo=> 111 jj.¡j,fpa
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
85
85.1 Pon las palabras en el orden correcto.
1 (ncw / livc in/ housc / they / a) ..To~.W.,:~.i:11 ..~.r.1.~ .. r.~~.~ ..
2 (likc /jacket/ l / rhat / green) 1 .
3 (music / like /do/ classical / you?) Do ?
4 (had / wondcrful /a/ 1 / holiday) .
5 (went to/ restaurant/ a/ Chinese / we) ..

85.2 En el cuadro tienes adjetivos (black/foreign etc.) y sustantivos (air/job etc.). Completa las frases usando un adjetivo y un
sustantivo.

atr clouds foreign holiday job languages sharp


black dangerous fresh hot knife long water

1 Do you speak any .. :fur~~ ..~9.~~~~ ?


2 Look ar those It's going to rain.
3 Suc works very hard and she's very ti red. She needs a .
4 I want ro havc a barh bur rhcre's no .
5 Can you open rhe window? We need sorne .
6 Ineed a to cut thcsc onions,
7 Fire-fighting is a . .

85.3 Completa las frases de cada dibujo con las palabras de los cuadros.
+
feel(s) look(s) sound(s) ~ ill mee
look(s) smell(s) taste(s) horrible new surprised

85.4 A y B no están de acuerdo. Completa /as frases de B usando las palabras entre paréntesis.
A B
1 You look tired. Do T? T .. M~J ..M ..~.~:.......................................................... (feel)
2 This is a ncw coat. Ts it? Ir (look)
3 I'rn American. Are you? You (sound)
4 You look cold. Do T? 1 (feel)
5 These bags are heavy. Are they? They (look)
6 That soup looks good. Does it? It (raste)

85.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 ¿Te gustan estos zapatos negros?
2 Me gusta este vino italiano. Está muy bueno.
3 Mi trabajo es fácil, pero es muy aburrido.
4 ¿Tienes mucha hambre?
5 Tu hermana parece muy joven.
6 Viven en una casa vieja.
7 ¿Qué estás cocinando? Huele bien.
8 ¿Puedes llevar los vasos pequeños y los platos blancos al comedor? (llevar= take)
9 Este pastel huele muy bien y sabe delicioso.
10 He leído un libro muy interesante.
171
quickly/badly
/suddenly etc. (adverbios)

7· 10 7· 12 7- 15

s: 6
;""'" "ii::, ~
[- .:!i

He ate his dinner very quickly. Suddenly rhe shelf fell clown.
Cenó muy de prisa. De repente se cayó la estantería.
quickly y suddenly son adverbios.

adjetivo + -ly ~ adverbio:


adjetivo quick bad sudden careful heavy
rápido malo/mal repentino cuidadoso pesado
adverbio quickly badly suddenly carefully heavily
de prisa mal de repente con cuidado pesadamente etc.
Nota las diferencias de ortografía: easy ~ easily heavy ~ heavily
Ver también el Apéndice 5.

Los adverbios explican cómo ocurre un hecho o una acción:


• The train stopped suddenly. El tren se paró de repente.
• 1 opened the <loor slowly. Abrí la puerta lentamente.
• Picase listen carefully. Por favor, escucha atentamente.
• 1 understand you perfectly. Te entiendo perfectamente.
• lt's raining heavily. Llueve mucho.
Compara:

adjetivo adverbio
• Sue is very quiet. ... muy silenciosa. • Sue speaks very quietly. (no 'speaks very quiet'). ... muy bajo.
• Be careful! ¡Ten cuidado! • Listen carefully! ¡Escucha atentamente!
• lt was a bad game. Fue un mal partido. • Our team played badly. (no 'played bad') ... jugó mal.
• Ifeel nervous. Me noto nervioso. • I waited nervously. Esperé con inquietud.

hard fast late early Estas palabras son adjetivos y adverbios:

• Sue's job is very hard. • Sue works very hard. (no 'hardly')
• Ben is a fast runner. • Ben can run fast. (no 'fastly')
• The bus was late/early. • 1 went to bed late/early.

hardly significa 'apenas', 'casi no' y no 'duramente':


• I hardly know him, Apenas/Casi no lo conozco.

good (bueno) es adjetivo y su adverbio es well (bien):

• Your English is very good. • You speak English very well. (no 'very good')
• Ir was a good game. • Our tearn played well.

well significa también 'con buena salud':


• 'How are you?' 'l'm very well, thank you.' ... 'Muy bien, gracias.'

adjetivos=> 1,j:jj,¡.t,fM
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 86
86.1 Observa los dibujos y completa las frases con uno de los adverbios siguientes:
angrily badly dangerously fast quictly

-\
~
3 4 5 6
2~

~n -
~r:~
.

·~ -<,

!,~
1 lr's raining ·---~~:-'.!:l:H., .
, f[ ~
J\(~
\'

4 She shourcd at me
....~

.
2 He sings vcry .. 5 She can run very .
3 They carne in .. 6 He was driving .

86.2 Escoge un verbo (Cuadro AJ y un adverbio (Cuadro 8) para completar las frases.
A
know sleep win
+ B earefully clearly hard well
come
explain H-Sfe-A- think work carefully easily quickly well

1 I'rn going ro tell you somcthing vcry imporranr, so picase ..~.~-..~~-~ ...
2 Ann! 1 need your help !
3 Thcy Ar thc end of rhc day rhcy're always ti red.
4 l'm tired this morning. l didn't last night.
5 You're a much better tcnnis player than me. When we play, you always .
6 beforc you answcr the qucstion.
7 l've mee Alice a fcw rimes bur I don't her vcry .
8 Our reacher isn't vcry good. Sometimes he doesn't things very .

86.3 Escoge la palabra correcta.


I Don'r eat so~quickly. It's not good for you, ~ es la palabra correcta
2 Why are you angry/angrily? l haven't done anything.
3 Can you speak slow/slowly, please?
4 Come on, Dave! Why are you always so slow/slowly?
5 Bill is a very carefu 1/carcfully driver.
6 Jane is scudying hard/hardly for her exarninations.
7 'Where's Diane?' 'She was here but she lefr sudden/suddenly.'
8 Please be quiet/quietly. l'm studying.
9 Sorne companies pay cheir workers very bad/badly.
10 Those oranges look nice/nicely. Can I have one?

86.4 Completa las frases con good o con well.


1 Your English is very 9~4.... You speak English very ... IN..e.tL.
2 Jackie did very in her exams.
3 The party was very I enjoyed ir very much.
4 Martín has a difficult job but he does ir .
5 How are your parents? Are they ?
6 Did you have a holiday? Was che weather ?

86.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Tus padres hablan español muy bien.
2 El avión llegó carde y tuvimos que esperar pacientemente.
3 De repente se fue la luz. (irse= go out)
4 Conduce con cuidado. Esca carretera es peligrosa.
5 Escribo mal. Hago muchas faltas.
6 ¿Puedes hablar despacio, por favor? Casi no podemos entenderte.
7 No me gusta andar lentamente.
8 La puerca se abrió de repente.

173
old/older expensive/more expensive

old older heavy heavier expensive more expensive


viejo más vieJo pesado más pesado caro más caro
Oldcr I heavier I more expensive son comparabvos.
El comparativo termina en -er (older) o se forma con more ... (more expcnsivc).

Comparativo en -cr (oldcr/hcavier etc.)

Ad1etivos cortos (una sílaba)-+ -er.


old -+ older (más vie10) slow --+ slowcr (más lento) chcap=-s cheapcr (más barato)
nice -+ niccr (más bonito) largc -+ larger (más grande) big -+ biggcr (más grande)
Nota las drferenc,as de ortografía: brg --+ bigger hot --+ horter --+ rhin --+ rhinner
Ver también el Apéndice 5.
Adjetivos terminados en -y --+ -ier:
casy --+ ca icr (más fácil) heavy --+ heavicr (más pesado) carly --+ carlier (más pronto)

• Rorne is old bur Arhcns is oldcr. (no 'more old')


• Is it cheapcr to go by car or by tram? (no 'more chcap')
• Helen wanrs a bigger car. (no 'more big')
Th1~ coar rs OK bur thc orher one is nicer. (no 'more mee')
• Don 't scnd a lerrer. lr's casicr to phonc. (no 'more casy')
far (leJano)--+ furthcr (más le1ano):
'How far is ir to rhe srarion? A mile?' 'No, ir's furthcr. Abour rwo miles.'

C Comparativo con more ...

Adjetivos más largos (2/3/4 s,1abas) --+ more ... :


carcfuf -e more carcful (más cu,dadoso) polite --+ more politc (más educado)
expensive -+ more cxpen ive (mas caro) inreresring --+ more interesring (más interesante)

• You rnusr be more carcful.


• I don't like my job. 1 want ro do sornerhing more interc ting.
• Is ir more expensive ro go by car or by trarn?

O Comparativos rrregulares:

good (bueno) } . bad (malo) }


wcll (bien) --+ berter (me1or) badly (mal) --+ wor e (peor)

• The wearher wasn't good yesterday but ir's bctter today.


• 'Do you feel better today?' 'No, l feel worse.'
• Which is worsc - a hcadachc ora toothache?

older than ... / more expensive than ... ~ 1 1\ IH rhe oldesr / rhe most expcnsive ~ 1 ff iil'•
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 87
87.1 Observa /os dibujos y escribe el comparativo (older / more intcrcsting etc.).

heavy
4

cxpensivc high dangerous .

87.2 Escribe el comparativo.


1 old ..... 9~ . 6 good .
2 strong . 7 large ..
3 happy . 8 serious .
4 modern .. 9 pretty .
5 important . 10 crowded .

87 .3 Escribe el contrario de estos comparativos:


1 younger ~~···· 4 better .
2 colder . 5 ncarcr ..
3 cheaper . 6 easier .

87 .4 Completa las frases usando un comparativo.


1 Helcn's car isn't very big. She wants a ..... ~!-9.9,~ ..... one,
2 My job isn't very interesting, 1 want to do something ~9r.!;-..H'.\~.~~-L .
3 You're not vcry rall. Your brothcr is .
4 David doesn't work very hard. l work .
5 My chair isn't very comfortable. Yours is .
6 Your plan isn'r vcry good. My plan is .
7 These flowers aren't very nice. The blue ones are .
8 My bag isn't very heavy. Your bag is .
9 I'm not very interested in art. I'm in history.
10 lt isn't very warm today. lt was yesterday.
11 These tomatoes don't taste very good. The other ones tasted .
12 Britain isn't very big. France is .
13 London isn't very beautiful. Paris is .
14 This knife isn't very sharp. Have you gota one?
15 People roda y aren't very poli te. In che past thcy wcrc .

87.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Tu coche no es muy viejo. Mi coche es más viejo.
2 No me sentía bien esca mañana, pero me siento mejor ahora.
3 Este queso es más caro, pero sabe mejor. (saber= tastc)
4 No me gustan los autobuses. Siempre viajo en tren porque es más rápido y más cómodo.
5 Me levanté más pronto ayer y estaba más cansado por la noche.
6 Estos zapatos son mejores, pero son más caros.
7 Tengo un trabajo más fácil ahora.
8 El hotel Central está más lejos, pero es más barato.

175
older than ... more expensive than ...

Shc's taller than him, The Europa Hotel is more cxpcnsivc than rhe Grand.
Es más a/ta que él. .. . es más caro que el Grand.
Se usa than (= que} detrás de los comparativos (oldcr than ... / more cxpcnsivc than ... etc.):
• Arhcns rs oldcr than Rome. (no 'older thar')
Atenas es más antigua que Roma.
• Are orangcs more expensive than bananas? (no 'more cxpcnsivc rhar')
. caras que ....
¿ ... mas '
• lr's casier to phone than ro writc a lcrrcr.
Es más fácil telefonear que escribir una carta.
• 'l low are you today?' 'Not bad. Bcttcr than ycstcrday.'
' ... Mejor que ayer.'
• The restaurant is more crowded than usual.
... más lleno de gente que de costumbre.

Se dice ... than me/ ... rhan hirn / ... rhan her I ... than us I ... rhan rhern. Se puede decir:
• 1 can run faster than him. o I can run fastcr than he can.
• You are a berter singer than me. o You are a bcrtcr singer than I am.
• Igor up carlier than her. o I gor up earlier than she did.

more than ... = más que/de ... less than ... = menos que/de ... :
rim TMM' 30
• A: How much did your shocs cosr? l30?
B: , o, more than rhat. (no 'more that') No, más. ~~-------30,.._ .... _
• The film was very short - less than an hour. . .. menos de una hora.
• They'vc gor more moncy than thcy need. ... más dinero del que necesitan.
• You go out more than me. Sales más que yo.
USHIIAII~

a bit older (= un poco más viejo) I much older (= mucho más viejo) etc.

Box A is a bit bigger rhan Box B. Box C is much biggcr than Box D .
.. . un poco más grande que ... . .. mucho más grande que ...

bigger
a bit older
bcrtcr rhan ...
much
more difficulr
more cxpensivc

• Ca nada is much biggcr rhan Francc. ... mucho más grande que ...
• Jill is a bit older rhan Gary - she's 25 and hc's 241'2. . .. un poco más vieja que ...
• The hotel was much more expensive than T expecred. . .. mucho más caro ...
• You go out much more rhan me. Sales mucho más que yo.

old /older, expensive/more expensive ~ 11@,i'ifl notas (old) as~ 11: l·ii•H•
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS
88.1
88
Escribe frases con than comparando a Liz y a Ben.

I'rn 26.
2 l'rn nota very good swirnrner.
3 l'rn I rnerrc 68 mil.
4 I starr work ar 8 o'clock.
~
1 17.
1 l'rn 24.
2 l'm a vcry good swimmer.
J 1'111 1 rncrrc 63 rall.
4 1 tarr work ar 8.30.
tJ
IWN

5 1 don'r work very hard. 5 I work very hard.


~
6 I haveri'r gor much money. 6 I've gor a lor of money.
7 I'rn a very good driver. 7 l'm nora very good driver.
8 I'rn not very paricnr. 8 l'rn very parienr.
9 l'm nora vcry good dancer. 9 I'rn a good dancer.
10 I'rn very inrelligcnr. 10 l'rn nor very inrelligenr.
1 1 Ispeak French very well. 11 I don'r speak French very well.
12 I don'r go ro the cinema very much. u l go to rhe cinema a loe.
1 Liz_ i.6__ol.cter _ tflo.n_ Sen .... 7 Liz is a . .
2 Sen_i.6 __0.._bettu ..s1>JÍITlmu _tflo.n_Liz . 8 Ben .
3 Liz is . 9 Ben ..
4 Liz srarrs Ben. 10 Liz ..
5 Ben . l l Liz ..
6 Ben has gor . 12 Ben ..

88.2 Completa las frases usando than.

I He isn'r very rall. You .. \~--~--~~--~-~., JQ ..,-.-.. t:>1.~..l.1~.~- L.


2 She isn'r very old. You'rc .
3 1 don'r work very hard. You work ..
4 He docsn't warch TV very rnuch. You ..
5 1 'rn nora vcry good cook. Yo u .. . ..
6 We don't know rnany people. You .
1 They haven'r gor rnuch money. You .
8 1 cari'r run vcry fasr. You can .
9 She hasn 't bccn here very long. Y ou .
IO They didn'r ger up very early. You .
11 He wasn'r vcry surprised. You ..

88.3 Completa las frases con a bit o much + un comparativo (older/bettcr etc.).
1 Jill is 25. Gary is 241/z .
.. Ji.U...i.6.. o.. _bi.t. ol.cter..tflo.n .Gru:!i ·...
2 Jack's mother is 54. His farher is 69.
Jack's mother .
3 My camera cost f100. Yours cosr f96.
Mycamera ..
4 Yesrerday I fclt terrible. Today I fecl OK.
I feel ..
5 Today rhe rernperarure is 12 degrees. Yesrerday ir was ten degrees.
Ir's .
6 Ann is an excellenr tennis player. l'rn nor very good.
Ann ..

88.4 Traduce al inglés:


La reunión fue muy larga - más de dos horas.
2 Sabes nadar mejor que yo.
3 Antonio come mucho más que tú.
4 Estaremos en Madrid en menos de tres horas.
5 El japonés es mucho más difícil que el inglés.
6 Esrc piso es más nuevo y un poco más grande que el mío. {piso= flat)
7 Creo que Hamlet es mucho más interesante que Ki11g Lear.
8 Estos pantalones cuestan más dinero del que puedo gastarme. {gastarme= afford)
9 Ellos tienen más dinero que nosotros.

177
notas ... as

A notas ... as (=notan ... como}

She's old but she's not as old as he is. Box A isn't as big as box B.
Es vieja, pero no es tan vieja como él. . .. no es tan grande como ...

• Rome is not as old as Athens. Roma no es tan antigua como Atenas.


• The Grand Hotel isn't as expensive as che Europa. . .. no es tan caro como ...
• I don't play rennis as often as you. No juego al tenis tan a menudo como tú.
• The wearher is better rhan yesterday. lt isn't as cold. No hace tanto frío.

8 nor as much as ... (= no tanto como ... }/ nor as many as ... (= no tantos como ... }
• I haven't gotas much money as you. No tengo tanto dinero como tú.
• I don't know as many people as you. No conozco a tantas personas como tú.
• 1 don't go out as much as you. No salgo tanto como tú.

C Compara not as ... as y than:

• Rome is not as old as Athens.


Athens is older than Rome.
• Tennis isn't as popular as football.
Football is more popular than ten nis.
• 1 don't go out as muchas you.
You go out more than me.

O Se dice ... as me/ as him / as her etc. Se puede decir:


• She's notas old as hirn. (no 'as he') o She's notas old as he is.
• You don'r work as hard as me. o You don't work as hard as Ido.

E Se dice the same as ... (no 'the same chat') (= el mismo/ la misma que}:
• The weather toda y is rhe same as yesterday. . .. el mismo que ayer.
• My hair is the same colour as yours. . .. del mismo color que el tuyo.
• I arrived ar che sarne time as Tim. . .. a la misma hora que Tim.

much/many => iij j.¡j,f:EI older than ... I more expensive than ... => 1ij:j¡,¡t,NH
UNIDAD
EJERCICIOS 89
89.1 Observa los dibujos y escribe frases comparando A, By C.

1 A is b.i.gg~,-~-~.. ~--b.f:4t!')~.~ ..b.i.g .~ ..B.., .


2 A is B but not C.
3 C is A but ..
4 A is but ..
5 B has got .
6 C works .

89.2 Escribe frases que signifiquen lo mismo usando as ... as ....


1 Athens is older than Rome. Rorne ---~-~\.~ .. .'?-~--~ ..A~~~-'--·
2 My room is bigger than yours. Your room isn't ..
3 You got up earlier than me. I didn't .
4 We played better than them. They .
5 I've been here longer than you. You ..
6 She's more nervous rhan him. f-le .. . .

89.3 Completa las frases con as o con than.


1 Athens is older --~~---- Rome. 5 Jim isn't as clever he rhinks.
2 1 don't watch TV as much you. 6 Belgium is smaller Switzerland.
3 You eat more me. 7 Brazil isn't as big Ca nada.
4 l feel better 1 felt yesterday. 8 1 can't wait longer an hour.

89.4 Lee lo que dicen estas personas y escribe frases sobre Julia, Andrew y Caroline usando thc same age I thc same srreet etc.
ANJ)llEW C/\ROLINE _
JULIA
l'm 2.4. l'm 2.4.
l'm 2.2..
I live. i.n Scu:u I live. i.n HUL Stru.t.
I live. i.n HUL Stru.t. Sb-eet. 1 ~otup oJ; 7 .45.
I gotv.p o.t 7.15. I got v.p oJ; 7 .15. I ve. got o.. car.
I no..ve.n't got o.. co.r. I t's clo.rk blv. e.
~ co.r i.6 M.rl: bw.e..

1 (age) ___.b._~c.4:~ ..~ .. tn..~..~~~-<A:g!,,,.~ .. ~9.!ix.i~: .


2 (street) Julia lives .
3 (time) Julia got up ..
4 (colour) Andrew's .

89.5 Traduce al inglés:


1 Mi hermano no es tan inteligente como mi hermana.
2 Tom no come tanta fruta como Brian.
3 Tenemos la misma profesora que tú.
4 En Barcelona no hay tantos teatros como en Madrid.
5 Bill no tiene cantos amigos como tú.
6 Me siento mejor que ayer. No estoy tan cansada.
7 Sueno gana tanto como yo. (ganar= earn)
8 Tenemos la misma profesora que el año pasado.

179
the oldest the most expensive

HOTEL PRICES IN KINTON


(i- pe<'Sº" . rer nigkt)
Europa Hotel
Grand
.Roy.,l
Hotel
i.'15
.C..55·50
i85
Grosvenor
Bennetts
Carltan

158
155
A1tona. l70 Slar Jso
P.ilaec 165 Statton í'fS

Box A is bigger rhan box B. The Europa Hotel is more cxpcnsive than che Grand.
Box A is bigger than all che orher boxe . The Europa Hotel is more expensive rhan all che orher horcls.
Box A is the biggesr box . The Europa Hotel is che most expensive hotel in the rown.
... la caja más grande. . .. el hotel más caro ...
Bigger / older / more expensive etc. son comparativos,~ Unidad 87).
Biggest / oldesr / most expensive etc. son superlativos.

El superlativo termina en -est (oldest) o se construye con most ... (rnost expensive):

Adjetivos breves (old/cheap/nice etc.) 4 che -est:


old 4 thc oldest cheap 4 rhe cheapcst nice 4 the nicest
pero good 4 the best bad 4 the worst
Nota las diferencias de ortografía: big 4 rhc biggest hot 4 the hottesr
Ver también el Apéndice 5.
Adjetivos terminados en -y (easy/heavy etc.) 4 che -icsr:
easv 4 the easiest heavv 4 the heaviesr nrcrrv ~ the orerriest
Adjetivos largos (careful/expensive/interesring etc.) ~ rhc rnost ... :
carcful ~ che rnost careful interesring 4 the most intcresting

Se usa che delante del superlativo: che oldest ... I the rnosr expensivc ... etc.:
• This church is very old. lt is the oldcst building in rhc town. . .. el edificio más antiguo ...
• What is the longcst river in che world? ¿ ... el río más largo del mundo?
• Money is importanr but it isn't the most important thing in lifc. ... lo más importante ...
• Excuse me, where is the nearest bank? ¿ ... el banco más cercano?
Observa la posición de los adjetivos antes de un sustantivo:
• the oldest building el edificio más antiguo
• che most expensive hotel el hotel más caro
Observa también que se dice:
the oldest building in the town (no 'of che rown') el edificio más antiguo de la ciudad
rhe longest river in the world (no 'of the world') el río más largo del mundo

Los superlativos che oldest / che bese I che most expensive etc. pueden usarse solos, sin sustantivo:
• Ken is a good playcr bur he isn't the besr in rhe rcarn. . .. el mejor del equipo.

Con frecuencia el superlativo se usa con !'ve e ver ... / you 've cver ... etc:
• Thc film was ver}' bad. 1 think ir's che worst film l've ever seen. . .. la peor película que he visto.
• What is thc rnost unusual thing you'vc cvcr done? ¿ ... la cosa más insólita que has hecho?

Compara el comparativo con el superlativo:

comparativo superlativo
• Tom is taller rhan me • Jim is the tallcst in rhc class. (no 'the taller in che class')
. .. más alto que yo. ... el más alto de la clase .
• Is London more intcresting than París? • New York is the rnost intcresting ciry in the world.
¿ ... más interesante que ... ? (no 'rhe more inrcrcsting ciry in che world')
... la ciudad más interesante del mundo.

PRr.~ENT l'r.RFECT + ever => 1ij:jj.¡j,¡j:t older I more cxpensivc ee frjj,,j,jfifJ:Hi


UNIDAD

EJERCICIOS 90
90.1 Escribe frases con comparativos {oldcr etc.) y superlativos (che oldest etc.).
(biglsmall)
(A/0) ...-A.-.. ~J\99~..~-~ .. .I?.., ...
(A) .. A..~ ..~-~)~9~.t ..
( B) . B..i.6. Uie. .smoJ.Le.st ..

2 A--~--~--~~~-A (long/short)
(C/A) C is.............................................. . A.
B---------------B
C~-------------------C (D)
(B)
D is
B
..
..
D-----------------------i
3 (young/old)
(D/C) D .
(B) .
(C) ..

4 (cxpcnsivc/cheap)
(D/A) .
(C) .
(A) .

(good/bad)
5 RESTAURANT A mellent (A/C) .
RESTAURANT B n.oé bad. (A) .
RESTAURANT C 9ood. bvt not wonderfuL
(D) ..
RESTAURANT D a..wfu.l

!ll.2 Completa las frases con un superlativo (che oldcst ctc.).


1 This building is vcry old. lt's ... ~.~..~~ ..b~~9. in the town,
2 lt was a very happy day. lt was of my life.
3 lt's a vcry good film. lt's I've ever seen.
4 She's a very popular singer. She's in the country.
5 lt was a very bad mistake. lt was I'vc ever made.
6 It's a very pretty village. lt's l've ever seen.
7 lt was a very cold day. It was of che year.
8 He's a very boring person. He's I've ever met.

!ll.3 Usa las palabras de los cuadros para escribir frases con un superlativo (thc longest etc.).

~ Brazil large country planee the USA rhc solar sysrcm


Evercst .Ju pi ter long Ei-ey state A frica South Arncrica
Alaska thc Nile high river mountain the world ~+a

1 .... ~~~ ..~ ...~~...4!-!E.~t~ .. ~ ...~~kaj~~.......


2 Everest .
3 ·············-··························································································· .
4 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5
6 .............................................................