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The universe

The universe

The Universe is made up of everything! The Universe includes

the Earth and all the stars and planets.

stars planets

•Scientists monitor (look at, watch and measure) changes in the


•Scientists monitor changes in the Universe to find out how it

was made.

•Scientists think that the Universe was created (made) about

14 billion years ago (14,000,000,000 !).

•Scientists have a theory (an idea) that the Universe was made

in a big bang, this is called the Big Bang Theory.


The Big Bang theory

Scientists think that all the energy and matter (things that

have mass) in the Universe was compressed

(squashed) into a very tiny space (smaller than a

pin head)

•Scientists think that all the energy and matter

suddenly exploded (in a 'big bang').

•Then the Universe started to expand

(spread out, get bigger), making our


•The Universe is still expanding (getting bigger).


•The Universe is a very, very big place.

•There are lots of different things in the Universe:


Stars are huge (very big), very hot and very far

away. Stars give out lots of light (they look small

because they are so far away). The Sun is our

closest star (the star that is most close to us).


The Solar System

The Solar System is made up of the Sun, 9 planets (including

Earth) and lots of moons; these are all pulled together (kept in

place) by a force called gravity.


The Milky Way galaxy

Planet Earth is part of the Milky Way Galaxy. There are

billions (100,000,000's) of other stars and planets in the Milky


There are lots and lots of other galaxies in the Universe. The

Universe is VERY BIG !


•Astronomers are scientists who study (look at, think about and

measure) planets, moons, stars and galaxies.

•Astronomers use telescopes to look at things that are very far



•Different types (kinds) of telescopes are used to look at

different things:

optical telescope-this is good for looking at the surface of a


x-ray telescope-this is good for looking at things you can't

really see, like an exploding star:

Measuring the Universe

We use miles and kilometres (Km) to measure distances between

the planets in our solar system


•When we measure outside our solar system the distances (how

far it is) are so big that we cannot use Km.

•Scientists measure these large (big) distances using light


a light year is the distance that light travels through a vacuum

in one year.

Vacuum is a space that has nothing in it

•1 light year =9,460,000,000,000 Km


The Sun is our nearest star, the next closest star is Alpha

Proxima, 4.2 light years away (4.2 x 9,460,000,000,000Km)

Match the words to the right boxes:


Draw diagrams/pictures/cartoons to explain/show the

'Big Bang' theory:


Answer these questions by ticking the box:

1.Stars are very far away, but we can still see them


they are very big,

they are very hot,

they give out lots of light.

2.The closest star to Earth is:

the Sun,

Alpha Proxima,

Alpha Centauri.

3.A light year measures distance in space. A light year is:

9,460 Km,

9,460,000,000,000 Km,

9,460,000,000 Km.