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FLANGES

Flanges are joined to each other by bolting and joined to the piping system by welding or
threading.The flange is second most used joining method after welding. Flanges are used when
joints need dismantling. It Provides flexibility for maintenance. Flange Connects the pipe with
various equipment and valves. Breakup flanges are added in the pipeline system if regular
maintenance in required during plant operation.

A flanged joint is composed of three separate and independent although interrelated components;
the flanges, the gaskets, and the bolting; which are assembled by yet another influence, the fitter.
Special controls are required in the selection and application of all these elements to attain a joint,
which has acceptable leak tightness.

A flange is a forged or cast ring of steel designed to connect sections of pipe or join pipe to
a pressure Vessel, pump or any other integral flanges assembly.The basic types of flanges are;
Slip on, Blind, Weld Neck, Threaded, Socket Weld, Lap Joint and Orifice.

Flanges are designed to the following pressure ratings; 150lb, 300lb, 400lb, 600lb, 900lb, 1500lb
and 2500lb.

However, it is not advisable to used flange connection in underground piping when it supposed
to be buried. The flange is also a most common source of leak and fire in a process plant.
There are variety of flanges available to suit the requirements. Flanged can be classified in
several alternate ways as follows:

1. Based on Types of Connection


2. Based on Flange facing Types
3. Based on Pressure Temperature Ratings
4. Based on Material Types

The most common facings machined on flanges are:


(a) Raised face, 1/16 inch for 150lb and 300lb, ¼ inch for 400lb and heavier.
(b) Flat face, for 150lb and 300lb only, other may be flat face on request.
(c) Ring type joint, may be applied to all pressure ratings.

TYPES & APPLICATIONS

Slip-On / Hubbed Flange

This type of flange, as implied by its name, has a diameter slightly larger than the pipe so that it
can slide over the pipe to fit snugly. Though they are thinner than most other flanges, they are
strong, dependable, and cost-effective.
The flange is slipped over the pipe and then welded both inside and outside to provide sufficient
Strength and prevent leakage. This flange is used in preference to weld necks by many users
because of its lower cost and the fact that less accuracy is required when cutting pipe to length.
Slip-On flange has a hole with matching outside diameter of pipe from which pipe can pass. The
flange is placed on pipe and fillet welded from both inside and outside. Slip-On Flange is
suitable for low pressure and temperature application. This type of flange is available in large
size also to connect big bore piping with storage tank nozzles. Normally, these flanges are of
forged construction and are provided with the hub. Sometimes, these flanges are fabricated
from plates and are not provided with the hub.

Blind Flanges

This flange is used to seal the end of pipes systems and prevent flow, making it easy to conduct
pressure tests. They are easy to work around as they allow convenient access to pipes.

The blind flange is a blank disc with bolt hole. These types of flanges are used with another
type of flange to isolate the piping system or to terminate the piping as an end. Blind flanges
are also used as a manhole cover in the vessel.

This is a flange without a bore and is used to shut off a piping system or vessel opening. It also
permits Easy access to vessels or piping systems for inspection purposes. Blind flange can be
supplied with or without hubs at the manufacturers option.

Weld-Neck flange

Often used for high-pressure applications to reduce the concentration of stress, this type of flange
has a neck that is welded to the base of pipes. One of the most popular options for high-pressure
systems, the tapered hub offers strength and flexibility.

Weld neck flange are most widely used flanged in process piping. It gives the highest level of
joint integrity due to Butt-welded with a pipe. These types of flanges are used in high pressure
and temperature application. Weld neck flanges are Bulky & costly with respect to other types
of flange.
This is designed to be joined to a piping system by buttwelding. It is relatively expensive because
of Its long neck, but is preferred for high stress applications. The neck, or hub transmits stresses
to the the base of the hub to the wall thickness at the butt weld, provide important reinforcement of
the flange. The bore of the flange matches the bore of the pipe, reducing turbulence and erosion.

Threaded Flange

Similar to the slip-on, this flange slides over the pipe but is popular because it can be attached
without welding since it is designed with tapered threads to work with pipes that have external
threads. Also low cost, it’s great for small pipes and highly combustible areas where welding is
dangerous.

This is similar to a slip-on flange in outline, but the bore is threaded, thus enabling assembly
without welding. This obviously limits its application to relatively low pressure piping systems. The
flange may be welded around the joint after assembly, but this is not considered a satisfactory
method of increasing its applications.

Threaded Flanges are also known as screwed flange, and it is having a thread inside the flange
bore which fits on the pipe with matching male thread on the pipe. This type of joint
connection is Speedy and simple but not suitable for high presser and temperature applications.
Threaded Flanges are mostly used in utility services such as air and water.

Socket Weld Flanges

This is similar to a slip-on flange in outline, but the bore is counter-bored to accept pipe. The
diameter of the remaining bore is the same as the inside diameter of the pipe. The flange is
attached to the pipe by a fillet weld around the hub of the flange. An optional interval weld may be
applied in high stress applications. It’s biggest use is in high pressure systems such as hydraulic
and steam lines.

Socket-Weld Flanges has a female socket in which pipe is fitted. Fillet welding is done from
outside on the pipe. Generally, it is used in small bore piping and only suitable for low pressure
and temperature application.
Spectacle Flanges

This is a pressure retaining plate with one solid end and one open end connected with a web or
tie-bar. In normal operation, the open end forms the seal between two flanges and permits normal
flow of fluid through pipe work. If the solid end is swung into position it effectively blanks of the
pipe and halts the flow.

Lap-Joint / Loose Flanges

Lap flange is having two components, a stub end, and a loose backing flange. Stub end is butt
welded to the pipe and Backing flange freely move over the pipe. The backing flange can be of
different material than stub material and normally of the carbon steel to save the cost. Lap
flange is used where frequent dismantling is required, and space is constrained.
Used in conjunction with a universal stub end fittings, this flange is often used to avoid issues that
could arise with the alignment of bolt holes. Stub End fittings are welded to the pipe, and the lap
joint flange is designed to slide over the pipe and rotate around the stub end. They are commonly
used in applications where the juncture does not come in contact with the fluid or gas making them
reusable, and they are also beneficial in applications keeping down expenses when exotic metals
are used.
This is again similar to a slip-on flange, but it has a radius at the intersection of the bore and the
flange face to accommodate a lap stub end. The face on the stub end forms the gasket face on
the flange. This type of flange is used in applications where section of piping systems need to be
dismantle quickly and easily for inspection or replacement.

Orifice Flanges

The function of an orifice flange is to provide access to a line for metering of gases or liquids. An
orifice plate is clamped between a pair of flanges when installed in a line and the whole assembly
is refer to as an orifice flange union. Jack-screws within the assembly facilitate removal of the
orifice plate. The orifice plate, the metering device, consists of a thin plate with a concentric,
square edge, circular hole in the centre. Two pressure tap-holes are drilled in each flange to
measure pressure difference through the orifice.

Groove & Tongue Flanges

The Groove and Tongue faces of these flanges must be matched. One flange face has a raised
ring (Tongue) machined onto the flange face while the mating flange has a matching depression
(Groove) machined into it's face.
Tongue-and-groove facings are standardized in both large and small types. They differ from male-
and-female in that the inside diameters of the tongue-and-groove do not extend into the flange
base, thus retaining the gasket on its inner and outer diameter. These are commonly found on
pump covers and Valve Bonnets.

Tongue-and-groove joints also have an advantage in that they are self-aligning and act as a
reservoir for the adhesive. The scarf joint keeps the axis of loading in line with the joint and does
not require a major machining operation.

General flange faces such as the RTJ, T&G and the F&M shall never be bolted together. The
reason for this is that the contact surfaces do not match and there is no gasket that has one type
on one side and another type on the other side.

Long Neck Flanges

Owing to our rich industrial experience, we are offering a comprehensive range of Long Weld
Neck Flanges. The professionals of our organization source these neck flanges from trusted
vendors. These flanges are unique due to their simple connectivity with other pipes. Moreover, our
products are extensively used in refining industries for linking purposes. Our esteemed patrons
can avail these qualitative range of flanges from us at industry-leading prices.

Flat Face Flanges


The Flat Face (FF) flange has a gasket surface in the same plane as the bolting circle face.
Applications using flat face flanges are frequently those in which the mating flange or flanged
fitting is made from a casting.

Flat face flanges are never to be bolted to a raised face flange. ASME B31.1 says that when
connecting flat face cast iron flanges to carbon steel flanges, the raised face on the carbon steel
flange must be removed, and that a full face gasket is required. This is to keep the thin, bittle cast
iron flange from being sprung into the gap caused by the raised face of the carbon steel flange.

Raised Face Flanges

The Raised Face (RF) type is the most applied flange face, and is easily to identify. It is referred to
as a raised face because the gasket surfaces are raised above the bolting circle face.

Flange Facing Types


Based on Flange facing Types, it can be further classified as

1. Flat Face (FF)


2. Raised Face (RF)
3. Ring Joint (RTJ)
4. Tongue and groove (T&G)
5. And Male and Female type

Flat Face
As name suggest, flat face flange has a flat face. Flat face flanges are used when the counter
flanges are flat face. This condition occurs mainly on connection to Cast Iron equipments, valves
and specialties. Full face gasket is used when flat face flange is used.

Raised Face
Raised face flange has small portion around the bore is raised from the face. The gasket seat on
this raised face. The height of the raised face depends on the flange pressure temperature
rating that is known as a class of the flange. For 150# & 300# height of the raised face is 1/6”
and above 300# it is 1/4”. The inside bore circle type of gasket is used with raised face flange.
RTJ Face
Ring joint type face flange has a specially designed grove in which metal gasket seat. This type
of flange is used in high pressure and temperature services.

he flange face has small grooves as you can see in the image. This machining is known as a
serration. Flange face can be smooth or serrated type. Which type of face to use is depends on
the type of the gasket and service of the fluid.

Smooth finish is used with metallic gasket whereas serrated finish is used with non-metallic
gasket. Soft material of gaskets is set in this serration and prevent liquid or gas from passing
from flange joint.

Serration can be spiral or concentric rings as you can see in the slide. Concentric rings type
finishing is used when fluid is of very low density. If you use spiral type finish with very low
density fluid, it may find leakage path through the spiral cavity.
Serration of flange face is specified in RMS (Root Mean Square) or AARH (Arithmetic Average
Rough Height), the most common value of serrated face is 120-250 AARH. Comparator gauge is
used to check serration of the flange. In the image, you can see the how gauge is used to verify
the value of serration.

Flange Pressure-Temperature Class (Service Rating)

Flange are classified as per their pressure-temperature ratings which are designated as 150#,
300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500# and 2500#. Large diameter flanges that is 24” to 60” are
available up to 900# class. Pressure-temperature ratings are maximum allowable working gage
pressures in the bar & the temperatures in degrees Celsius.

Higher the rating, heavier the flange and can withstand higher pressure and temperature. When
the temperature goes up, the pressure goes down, and vice versa. Please note that different
material has different pressure ratings.

Flange Material

Flanges are manufactured from

 Carbon steel
 Low alloy steel
 Stainless steel
 Or Combination of Exotic materials (Stub) and other backing materials

List of materials used to manufacture flanges is covered in ASME B16.5 & B16.47.

 ASME B16.5 -Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS ½” to 24”


 ASME B16.47 -Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26” to 60”

Commonly used Forged material grads are

 Carbon Steel: - ASTM A105, ASTM A350 LF1/2, ASTM A181


 Alloy Steel: - ASTM A182F1 /F2 /F5 /F7 /F9 /F11 /F12 /F22
 Stainless Steel: - ASTM A182F6 /F304 /F304L /F316 /F316L/ F321/F347/F348
Flange Inspection

Following to be confirmed during inspection of flange

 Outer & Inner Diameter of body


 Bolt Circle & Bolt hole Diameter
 Hub Diameter & thickness of weld end
 Length of the Hub
 Straightness and alignment of the bolt hole

Permissible tolerances are given in B16.5 and B16.47 standard.

Carbon steel
• ASTM A105/A266 Gr.2 (high temperature carbon steel flanges)
• ASTM A350 LF1 to LF3 (low temperature carbon steel flanges)
• ASTM A694 Gr. F42/F52/F56/F60/F65 (high yield carbon steel flanges to match API 5L
linepipes)
Alloy Steel
• ASTM A182 Gr. F1/F2/F5/F9/F11 Cl.2/F12 Cl.2/F22 Cl.3/F91 (alloy steel flanges)
Stainless / Duplex Steel
• ASTM A182 F304/304L, 316/316L, 321, 347, 348 (stainless steel flanges), 904/904L
• ASTM A182 F51 (duplex flanges)/F53-F55 (superduplex flanges)
Nickel Alloys / Superalloys
• ASTM B166 UNS NO6600 (Inconel 600)
• ASTM B564 UNS N06625 (Inconel 625)
• ASTM B425 UNS-NO8800 (Incoloy 800)
• ASTM B564 UNS N08825 (Incoloy 825)
• ASTM B160 UNS N0200 (Nickel 200)
• ASTM B564 UNS N04400 (Monel 400)
• ASTM B564 UNS N10276 (Hastelloy C-276)
Titanium
• ASTM B381 Gr.2 (Titanium)

But there are also flanges in:


Aluminium
Copper
Polypropylene etc.

Specifications covering the manufacture and dimensions of flanges:

ASTM SPECIFICATIONS
ASTM specifications regulate approved raw materials for which flanges can be made and
specifications .

For stainless flanges are:


ASTM A.182 - Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges & Fittings for high temperature service.

ANSI AND MSS SPECIFICATIONS


The standards govern the dimensions and tolerances to which fitting are manufactured:
ANSI B. 16.5 - Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (½ inch to 24 inch nominal
diameter)
MSS SP.6 - Flange Facings
MSS SP.25 - Marking of flanges
MSS SP.39 - Bolts and Nuts for Flanges
MSS SP.44 - Large Diameter Pipeline Flanges. (Over 24 inch dia)
API-605 - Large Diameter Flanges for petroleum Usage. (Over 24 inch dia)

The ASME Code is not a standard as such but section VIII provides the procedure for calculating
dimensions
For all pressurised vessels flanges.
The following are not flange specifications but they influence the manufacture of forged steel
flange
ANSI B. 31.10 - Code for Pressure Piping
ANSI B. 31.3 - Petroleum Refinery Piping
ANSI B. 31.4 - Oil Transportation Piping
ANSI B. 31.5 - Refrigeration Piping Systems
ANSI B. 31.7 - Nuclear Power Piping
ANSI B. 31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping systems
ANSI B. 36.10 - Standard for Wrought Steel pipe
ANSI B. 36.19 - Standard for Stainless Steel Pipe
ANSI B. 16.10 - Valve Dimensions Face & End
ANSI B. 16.11 - Forged Fittings Socket Weld &

http://www.wermac.org/gaskets/gaskets.html

http://www.valvemagazine.com/magazine/sections/features/6311-understanding-and-selecting-valve-
flanges-pt-i-design-and-standards.html

http://weldneckflange.weebly.com/benefits-of-using-weld-neck-flanges.html

https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-a-welded-connection
https://forgedcomponents.com/must-read-guide-flanges-advantages-disadvantages/

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Welding advantages and disadvantages

Flange advantages and disadvantages

FLANGE CLASSES TEMP